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Sample records for brazil genotype distribution

  1. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Brazil

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    Campiotto S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a country of continental dimension with a population of different ethnic backgrounds. Thus, a wide variation in the frequencies of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes is expected to occur. To address this point, 1,688 sequential samples from chronic HCV patients were analyzed. HCV-RNA was amplified by the RT-PCR from blood samples collected from 1995 to 2000 at different laboratories located in different cities from all Brazilian States. Samples were collected in tubes containing a gel separator, centrifuged in the site of collection and sent by express mail in a refrigerated container to Laboratório Bioquímico Jardim Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. HCV- RNA was extracted from serum and submitted to RT and nested PCR using standard procedures. Nested PCR products were submitted to cycle sequencing reactions without prior purification. Sequences were analyzed for genotype determination and the following frequencies were found: 64.9% (1,095 for genotype 1, 4.6% (78 for genotype 2, 30.2% (510 for genotype 3, 0.2% (3 for genotype 4, and 0.1% (2 for genotype 5. The frequencies of HCV genotypes were statistically different among Brazilian regions (P = 0.00017. In all regions, genotype 1 was the most frequent (51.7 to 74.1%, reaching the highest value in the North; genotype 2 was more prevalent in the Center-West region (11.4%, especially in Mato Grosso State (25.8%, while genotype 3 was more common in the South (43.2%. Genotypes 4 and 5 were rarely found and only in the Southeast, in São Paulo State. The present data indicate the need for careful epidemiological surveys throughout Brazil since knowing the frequency and distribution of the genotypes would provide key information for understanding the spread of HCV.

  2. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates.

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    Mello, Francisco C A; Souto, Francisco J D; Nabuco, Leticia C; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane A; Coelho, Henrique Sergio M; Franz, Helena Cristina F; Saraiva, Joao Carlos P; Virgolino, Helaine A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Melo, Mabel M M; Martins, Regina M B; Gomes, Selma A

    2007-11-23

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates have been classified in eight genotypes, A to H, which exhibit distinct geographical distributions. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region. Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns. A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. Genotyping by PCR-RFLP of 303 HBV isolates from HBsAg-positive blood donors showed that at least two of the three genotypes, A, D, and F, co-circulate in each of the five geographic regions of Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent (48.5%), and most of these isolates were classified as subgenotype A1 (138/153; 90.2%). Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South (84.2%) and Central (47.6%) regions. The prevalence of genotype F was low (13%) countrywide. Nucleotide sequencing of the S gene and a phylogenetic analysis of 32 HBV genotype F isolates showed that a great majority (28/32; 87.5%) belonged to subgenotype F2, cluster II. The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 127. The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population. The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 (of African origin) indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F isolates belonged to cluster II, the presence of some

  3. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates

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    Virgolino Helaine A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV isolates have been classified in eight genotypes, A to H, which exhibit distinct geographical distributions. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region. Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns. A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. Results Genotyping by PCR-RFLP of 303 HBV isolates from HBsAg-positive blood donors showed that at least two of the three genotypes, A, D, and F, co-circulate in each of the five geographic regions of Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent (48.5%, and most of these isolates were classified as subgenotype A1 (138/153; 90.2%. Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South (84.2% and Central (47.6% regions. The prevalence of genotype F was low (13% countrywide. Nucleotide sequencing of the S gene and a phylogenetic analysis of 32 HBV genotype F isolates showed that a great majority (28/32; 87.5% belonged to subgenotype F2, cluster II. The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 127. Conclusion The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population. The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 (of African origin indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F

  4. Demographic and anthropometrical analysis and genotype distribution of chronic hepatitis C patients treated in public and private reference centers in Brazil

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    R. Focaccia

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a serious public health problem, since 80% to 85% of HCV carriers develop a persistent infection that can progress into liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Considering that the response of hepatitis C patients to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin depends on HCV characteristics as well as on host features, we made a retrospective analysis of demographic and anthropometrical data and HCV genotype distribution of chronic hepatitis C patients treated in public and private reference centers in Brazil. The medical records of 4,996 patients were reviewed, 81% from public and 19% from private institutions. Patients' median age was 46 years, and there was a higher prevalence of male (62% and white patients (80%. The analysis of HCV-infecting strains showed a predominance of genotype 1 (64% over genotypes 2 and 3. The patients' mean weight was 70.6 kg, and 65% of the patients weighed less than 77kg. Overweight and obesity were observed in 37.8% and 13.6% of the patients, respectively. Since a body weight of 75 kg or less has been considered an independent factor that significantly increases the odds of achieving a sustained virological response, the Brazilian population seems to have a more favorable body weight profile to achieve a sustained response than the American and European populations. The finding that 65% of chronic hepatitis C patients have a body weight of 77 kg or less may have a positive pharmacoeconomic impact on the treatment of genotype 1 HCV patients with weight-based doses of peginterferon.

  5. Biotyping and genotyping (MLVA16 of Brucella abortus isolated from cattle in Brazil, 1977 to 2008.

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    Sílvia Minharro

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008 of B. abortus and (ii to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.

  6. Prevalence, incidence density, and genotype distribution of GB virus C infection in a cohort of recently HIV-1-infected subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Maria Teresa M Giret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29 in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year.

  7. Prevalence, Incidence Density, and Genotype Distribution of GB Virus C Infection in a Cohort of Recently HIV-1-Infected Subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Giret, Maria Teresa M.; Miraglia, João Luiz; Sucupira, Maria Cecília Araripe; Nishiya, Anna; Levi, José Eduardo; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. Methodology/Principal Findings The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29) in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. Conclusion/Significance GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year. PMID:21483671

  8. Spatial distribution and population genetics of Leishmania infantum genotypes in São Paulo State, Brazil, employing multilocus microsatellite typing directly in dog infected tissues.

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    Motoie, Gabriela; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Cupolillo, Elisa; Canavez, Flavio; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Leishmania infantum samples from São Paulo (SP) State, Brazil in order to collaborate with information about the possible origins of the parasites, as well as, the introduction and spread of visceral leishmaniasis in this Brazilian State. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was performed using a set of 17 microsatellite markers. DNA was extracted from 250 samples collected from dogs diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis and 112 (45%) were genotyped: 67 from the northwest region (NWSP), and 29 from the southeast region (SESP) of SP. The results were correlated with other 16 samples from Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS) (which borders NWSP). Although, a small portion of samples was genotyped, it was possible to genotype multiple loci using small amounts of Leishmania DNA extracted directly from dog tissues. Despite the fact that MLMT analysis defined 33 different genotypes, a low polymorphism was detected within the parasites studied with 10 polymorphic loci. There are two main genetic clusters circulating in SP with strong genetic differentiation, one (POP-A) is composed by samples from SESP and NWSP and presented a weak signal of geographical substructure. The other, belongs to the same cluster found in the state of MS (POP-B), which was the main one. The majority (93.75%) of MS parasite genotypes belonged to POP-B, with just one sample (6.25%) grouped in POP-A. POP-B also comprised 10.34% of SESP and 26.87% of NWSP samples. Besides one sample from MS, POP-A is composed by 73.13% of NWSP and 89.66% of SESP samples. The MLMT analysis supported the idea of canine visceral leishmaniasis being introduced in the Northwest region of SP State by the traffic of humans and dogs from MS. In the southeast region of SP occurred an introduction of a new L. infantum genetic cluster. Probably the transmission was spread by traffic of infected dogs from other Brazilian regions, or by introduction of imported dogs from other

  9. An autochthonous case of hepatitis C virus genotype 5a in Brazil: phylogenetic analysis

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    Ribeiro, L.C.; Souto, F.J.D.; do Espirito-Santo, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Genotype 5 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been rarely identified in South America. A female of African descent who never left Brazil was found to be infected by this genotype in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil. The patient denied drug injections and revealed that she had received blood transfus......Genotype 5 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been rarely identified in South America. A female of African descent who never left Brazil was found to be infected by this genotype in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil. The patient denied drug injections and revealed that she had received blood...

  10. Phylogeography and evolutionary history of hepatitis B virus genotype F in Brazil.

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    Mello, Francisco C A; Araujo, Oscar C; Lago, Barbara V; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Moraes, Marcia Terezinha B; Gomes, Selma A; Bello, Gonzalo; Araujo, Natalia M

    2013-07-16

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype F (HBV/F) is considered to be indigenous to the Americas, but its emergence and spread in the continent remain unknown. Previously, only two HBV/F complete genome sequences from Brazil were available, limiting the contribution of Brazilian isolates to the phylogenetic studies of HBV/F. The present study was carried out to assess the proportion and geographic distributions of HBV/F subgenotypes in Brazil, to determine the full-length genomic sequences of HBV/F isolates from different Brazilian geographic regions, and to investigate the detailed evolutionary history and phylogeography of HBV/F in Brazil. Complete HBV/F genomes isolated from 12 Brazilian patients, representing the HBV/F subgenotypes circulating in Brazil, were sequenced and analyzed together with sequences retrieved from GenBank, using the Bayesian coalescent and phylogeographic framework. Phylogenetic analysis using all Brazilian HBV/F S-gene sequences available in GenBank showed that HBV/F2a is found at higher frequencies countrywide and corresponds to all sequences isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. In addition, the evolutionary analysis using complete genome sequences estimated an older median ancestral age for the Brazilian HBV/F2a compared to the Brazilian HBV/F1b and HBV/F4 subgenotypes, suggesting that HBV/F2a represents the original native HBV of Brazil. The phylogeographic patterns suggested a north-to-south flow of HBV/F2a from Venezuela to Brazil, whereas HBV/F1b and HBV/F4 strains appeared to have spread from Argentina to Brazil. This study suggests a plausible route of introduction of HBV/F subgenotypes in Brazil and demonstrates the usefulness of recently developed computational tools for investigating the evolutionary history of HBV.

  11. Identification of Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil

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    Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates thatCryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvumsubtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidiumoocysts.

  12. Hepatitis B virus infection profile in hemodialysis patients in Central Brazil: prevalence, risk factors, and genotypes

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    Renata C Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. A survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of Goiás, Central Brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of HBV infection, to analyse associated risk factors, and also to investigate HBV genotypes distribution. A total of 1095 patients were interviewed in 15 dialysis units. Serum samples were screened for HBV serological markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive samples were tested for HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Global HBV infection prevalence was 29.8% (95% CI: 27.1-32.5. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that male gender, length of time on hemodialysis, and blood transfusion before 1993 were associated with HBV positivity. HBV DNA was detected in 65.4% (17/26 of the HBsAg-positive samples. Thirteen of 17 HBV DNA positive samples were genotyped. Genotype D (61.5% was predominant, followed by A (30.8%, while genotype F was detected in only one (7.7% sample.

  13. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus genotype A from Argentina and Brazil.

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    Mbayed, Viviana Andrea; Piñeiro y Leone, Flavia Guadalupe; Pezzano, Silvana Claudia; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor

    2009-01-01

    To study the diversification of hepatitis B virus genotype A in Latin America, we analyzed seven new Argentinian isolates and published sequences from Argentina and Brazil and other countries from the region. We found that the European subgenotype A2 prevailed in most of the countries except for Brazil, where the African subgenotype A1 predominated. A2 isolates did not differ significantly from the GenBank sequences, whereas some A1 isolates carried, concomitantly, amino acids characteristic of the subgenotypes A3 (R(501) in P protein) and A2 (D(355) in P/T(54) in preS2). This combination is absent in the A1 subgenotype around the world. We discuss the origin, distribution and introduction of those subgenotypes in the Americas.

  14. Genotypic characterization of psittacid herpesvirus isolates from Brazil

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    Luppi, Marcela Miranda; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Coelho, Fabiana Magalhães; Ecco, Roselene; da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães; Resende, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-six isolates of psittacid herpesvirus (PsHV), obtained from 12 different species of psittacids in Brazil, were genotypically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and PCR amplification. RFLP analysis with the PstI enzyme revealed four distinct restriction patterns (A1, X, W and Y), of which only A1 (corresponding to PsHV-1) had previously been described. To study PCR amplification patterns, six pairs of primers were used. Using this method, six variants were identified, of which, variants 10, 8, and 9 (in this order) were most prevalent, followed by variants 1, 4, and 5. It was not possible to correlate the PCR and RFLP patterns. Twenty-nine of the 36 isolates were shown to contain a 419 bp fragment of the UL16 gene, displaying high similarity to the PsHV-1 sequences available in GenBank. Comparison of the results with the literature data suggests that the 36 Brazilian isolates from this study belong to genotype 1 and serotype 1. PMID:26887248

  15. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2017-12-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  16. Distribution of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in mashhad, northeast iran.

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    Sadeghian, Hamid; Varasteh, Naiemeh; Esmaeelzadeh, Abbas; Nomani, Hosein; Alimardani, Maliheh; Davoodnejad, Mahdieh; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Ahadi, Mitra; Sepahi, Samaneh; Rostami, Sina; Meshkat, Zahra

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is dependent on the hepatitis B virus for transmission and propagation. Based on isolated HDV sequences from different parts of the world, at least three major different genotypes with different geographic distributions are suggested. Studies have shown that genotype 1 is the predominant genotype of HDV in different parts of Iran; however, the genotype distribution of this virus has not been identified in Mashhad, northeast Iran. This current study determines the frequency of HDV major genotypes in Mashhad, Iran. Twenty-five participants were enrolled in this study. All samples were positive for HBsAg (determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) and anti-HDV. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis was performed. Then, PCR was performed and HDV genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Of 25 patients, 12 (48%) were positive for HDV RNA. Genotype analysis of HDV RNA revealed that the prevalence of HDV genotypes I and II was 83.3% (n = 10) and 16.7% (n = 2), respectively. This study showed that the most prevalent genotype of HDV in Mashhad was genotype I. It was of interest that in contrast to other provinces of Iran, HDV genotype 2 was observed in Mashhad. Similar studies with larger sample sizes could provide valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution. It may also help control and prevent the spread of hepatitis D virus infections. In addition, the genotyping of HDV may predict the severity of the disease.

  17. Circulation of different lineages of Dengue virus 2, genotype American/Asian in Brazil: dynamics and molecular and phylogenetic characterization.

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    Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Full Text Available The American/Asian genotype of Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 was introduced into the Americas in the 80's. Although there is no data showing when this genotype was first introduced into Brazil, it was first detected in Brazil in 1990. After which the virus spread throughout the country and major epidemics occurred in 1998, 2007/08 and 2010. In this study we sequenced 12 DENV-2 genomes obtained from serum samples of patients with dengue fever residing in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SJRP/SP, Brazil, in 2008. The whole open reading frame or envelope sequences were used to perform phylogenetic, phylogeographic and evolutionary analyses. Isolates from SJRP/SP were grouped within one lineage (BR3 close to isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Isolates from SJRP were probably introduced there at least in 2007, prior to its detection in the 2008 outbreak. DENV-2 circulation in Brazil is characterized by the introduction, displacement and circulation of three well-defined lineages in different times, most probably from the Caribbean. Thirty-seven unique amino acid substitutions were observed among the lineages, including seven amino acid differences in domains I to III of the envelope protein. Moreover, we dated here, for the first time, the introduction of American/Asian genotype into Brazil (lineage BR1 to 1988/89, followed by the introduction of lineages BR2 (1998-2000 and BR3 (2003-05. Our results show a delay between the introduction and detection of DENV-2 lineages in Brazil, reinforcing the importance and need for surveillance programs to detect and trace the evolution of these viruses. Additionally, Brazilian DENV-2 differed in genetic diversity, date of introduction and geographic origin and distribution in Brazil, and these are important factors for the evolution, dynamics and control of dengue.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii isolates: multilocus RFLP-PCR genotyping from human patients in Sao Paulo State, Brazil identified distinct genotypes.

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    Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia Brandão; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Qu, Daofeng; Su, Chunlei; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii samples collected from 62 patients with toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. DNA samples were isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids of 25 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, two patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 12 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, six newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis and 17 pregnant women with acute infection. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was based in clinical, radiological and laboratory features. Genotyping was performed using multilocus PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among the 62 clinical samples, 20 (32%) were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Eighteen samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #65 and the other two samples were identified as ToxoDB Genotypes #6 and #71, respectively (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Patients presenting Genotypes #6 and #71 had severe and atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis, characterized by diffuse encephalitis without extensive brain lesions. These results indicate that T. gondii Genotype #65 may have a high frequency in causing human toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This unusual finding highlights the need to investigate the possible association of parasite genotypes with human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Global distribution of novel rhinovirus genotype

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    Briese, Thomas; Renwick, Neil; Venter, Marietjie

    2008-01-01

    Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years Udgivelsesdato...

  20. Global distribution of novel rhinovirus genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briese, Thomas; Renwick, Neil; Venter, Marietjie

    2008-01-01

    Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years....

  1. Global distribution of novel rhinovirus genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briese, Thomas; Renwick, Neil; Venter, Marietjie

    2008-01-01

    Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years.......Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years....

  2. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava genotypes from the northeast of Brazil

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    Terezinha Feitosa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in eight cassava genotypes from northeastern Brazil is described. The explants used were shoot apexes isolated both from in vitro grown plants and from shoots that sprouted from stem cuttings. Somatic embryogenesis was achieved in high frequencies by the addition in the induction medium of the auxin picloram over a wide range of concentrations. Green cotyledons of primary somatic embryos were used as explants to induce somatic (cyclic secondary embryogenesis in an inducing medium supplemented with picloram at 12 mg/L. The method could be used not only for the mass production of plants of the cassava genotypes, but also to generate explants (green cotyledons of somatic embryos as themselves excellent targets for genetic transformation.Um método para a indução de embriogênese somática em oito genótipos de mandioca cultivados no Nordeste brasileiro foi desenvolvido. A indução de embriogênese somática foi feita utilizando como explantes ápices caulinares isolados de plantas cultivadas in vitro e ápices caulinares isolados a partir de brotações induzidas em casa-de-vegetação em manivas de plantas adultas. Em todos os genótipos a auxina picloram, em uma ampla faixa de concentrações, foi capaz de induzir embriogênese somática em altas freqüências e com um grande número de embriões por explante. Foi mostrado também, que é possível induzir embriogênese somática secundária (cíclica a partir de cotilédones verdes de embriões somáticos maduros, utilizando picloram no meio de indução. O método aqui apresentado poderá ser utilizado para a produção em massa de plantas dos genótipos utilizados. A alta freqüência de embriogênese somática secundária obtida quando cotilédones verdes de embriões somáticos são utilizados como explantes, mostra que tais cotilédones podem se constituir em excelentes alvos para a transformação genética e posterior obtenção de

  3. ROTAVIRUS GENOTYPES CIRCULATING IN BRAZIL, 2007-2012: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VACCINE PROGRAM

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    Adriana LUCHS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Regarding public health in Brazil, a new scenario emerged with the establishment of universal rotavirus (RV vaccination programs. Herein, the data from the five years of surveillance (2007-2012 of G- and P-type RV strains isolated from individuals with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil are reported. A total of 6,196 fecal specimens were investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. RVs were detected in 19.1% (1,181/6,196. The peak of RV incidence moved from June-August to September. RV was detected less frequently (19.5% among children ≤ 5 years than in older children and adolescents (6-18 years (40.6%. Genotype distribution showed a different profile for each year: G2P[4] strains were most prevalent during 2007-2010, G9P[8] in 2011, and G12P[8] in 2012. Mixed infections (G1+G2P[4], G2+G3P[4]+P[8], G2+G12P[8], unusual combinations (G1P[4], G2P[6], and rare strains (G3P[3] were also identified throughout the study period. Widespread vaccination may alter the RV seasonal pattern. The finding of RV disease affecting older children and adolescents after vaccine implementation has been reported worldwide. G2P[4] emergence most likely follows a global trend seemingly unrelated to vaccination, and G12, apparently, is emerging in the Brazilian population. The rapidly changing RV genotype patterns detected during this study illustrate a dynamic population of co-circulating wildtype RVs in Brazil.

  4. Distribution of HCV genotypes in the metropolitan area of Naples

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    Giuseppe Sodano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus is characterized by high genomic variability that leads to the identification of six different genotypes and many subtypes. In this work, we show the prevalence of genotypes in patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples collected in one year, analyzing differences in the distribution depending on sex and age groups.

  5. Genotyping of Campylobacter coli strains isolated in Brazil suggests possible contamination amongst environmental, human, animal and food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina N; Souza, Roberto A; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Duque, Sheila S; Medeiros, Marta I C; Falcão, Juliana P

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are two of the most common causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis in numerous countries worldwide. In Brazil, campylobacteriosis is under diagnosed and under-reported, and few studies have molecularly characterized Campylobacter spp. in this country. The current study genotyped 63 C. coli strains isolated from humans (n512), animals (n521), food (n510) and the environment (n520) between 1995 and 2011 in Brazil. The strains were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing the short variable region (SVR) of the flaA gene ( flaA-SVR) and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus to better understand C. coli genotypic diversity and compare the suitability of these three methods for genotyping this species. Additionally, the discrimination index (DI) of each of these methods was assessed. Some C. coli strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical origins presented ≥80 % genotypic similarity by PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing. HRMA of the CRISPR locus revealed only four different melting profiles. In total, 22 different flaA-SVR alleles were detected. Of these, seven alleles, comprising gt1647–gt1653, were classified as novel. The most frequent genotypes were gt30 and gt1647. This distribution reveals the diversity of selected Brazilian isolates in comparison with the alleles described in the PubMLST database. The DIs for PFGE, flaA–SVR sequencing and CRISPR-HRMA were 0.986, 0.916 and 0.550, respectively. PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing were suitable for subtyping C. coli strains, in contrast to CRISPR-HRMA. The high genomic similarity amongst some C. coli strains confirms the hypothesis that environmental and food sources potentially lead to human and animal contamination in Brazil.

  6. Prevalence and genotypes of GB Virus C/Hepatitis G virus among blood donors in Central Brazil

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    Luciana A Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in a blood donor population of Central Brazil aiming to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV infection and also to analyze the virus genotypes distribution. A total of 241 voluntary blood donors were interviewed at the State Blood Bank in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. Blood samples were collected and serum samples tested for GBV-C/HGV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. Genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Seventeen samples were GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive, resulting in a prevalence of 7.1% (95% CI: 4.2-11.1. A significant trend of GBV-C/HGV RNA positivity in relation to age was observed, with the highest prevalence in donors between 29-39 years old. Ten infected individuals were characterized by reporting parenteral (30%, sexual (18%, both (6% and intrafamiliar (6% transmission. However, 7 (40% GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive donors did not mention any potential transmission route. RFLP analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 2 of GBV-C/HGV; more precisely, 10 (58.9% samples were found belonging to the 2b subtype, 4 (23.5% to the 2a subtype, and 3 (17.6% to genotype 1. The present data indicate an intermediate endemicity of GBV-C/HGV infection among this blood donor population, and a predominant circulation of genotype 2 (subtype 2b in Central Brazil.

  7. Overlapping Toxoplasma gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals and humans in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Letícia A; Andrade, Renata O; Carneiro, Ana Carolina A V; Vitor, Ricardo W A

    2014-01-01

    Although several Toxoplasma gondii genotyping studies have been performed in Brazil, studies of isolates from animals in the state of Minas Gerais are rare. The objective of this study was to conduct a genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from dogs, free-range chickens, and humans in Minas Gerais and to verify whether the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals correspond to the genotypes detected in humans. Genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism at 11 loci (SAG1, 5'+3'SAG2, SAG2 alt, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Twelve different genotypes were identified among the 24 isolates studied, including 8 previously identified genotypes and 4 new genotypes. The genetic relationship of the 24 T. gondii isolates, together with the genotypes previously described from 24 human newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, revealed a high degree of similarity among the genotypes circulating in humans and animals in Minas Gerais. The most common genotypes among these species were BrII, BrIII, ToxoDB #108, and ToxoDB #206. Restricted fragment length polymorphism at the CS3 locus of these 48 isolates showed that the majority of isolates presented alleles I (50%) or II (27%). Isolates harboring allele III at the CS3 locus presented low virulence for mice, whereas those harboring alleles I or II presented higher virulence. These results confirm the utility of marker CS3 for predicting the virulence of Brazilian isolates of T. gondii in mice. No association was found between the allele type and clinical manifestations of human congenital toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotyping that verifies the overlapping genotypes of T. gondii from humans and animals in the same geographic region of Brazil. Our results suggest that there is a common source of infection to the species studied, most likely oocysts contaminating the environment.

  8. Multiattribute Response of Maize Genotypes Tested in Different Coastal Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Varela Nualles, Mario; Araújo, Mirian Fernandes Carvalho; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    This work applies the three mode principal components analysis to analyze simultaneously the multiple attributes; to fit of models with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI models) and the regressions models on sites (SREG models); to evaluate, respectively, the multivariate response of the genotype × environment interaction and the mean response of 36 genotypes of corn tested in 4 locations in Brazil. The results were presented by joint plots to identify the bes...

  9. Multiattribute Response of Maize Genotypes Tested in Different Coastal Regions of Brazil

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    Lúcio Borges de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work applies the three mode principal components analysis to analyze simultaneously the multiple attributes; to fit of models with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI models and the regressions models on sites (SREG models; to evaluate, respectively, the multivariate response of the genotype × environment interaction and the mean response of 36 genotypes of corn tested in 4 locations in Brazil. The results were presented by joint plots to identify the best genotypes for their adaptability and performance in the set of attributes.

  10. Rotavirus genotype distribution in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Kirsti; Latipov, Renat; Utegenova, Elmira; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Juraev, Rivojiddin; Asilova, Mukhayyo; Flem, Elmira

    2013-05-01

    This is the first study to present rotavirus genotype distribution in children admitted to a hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan from January 2007 through December 2009. In total, 858 rotavirus ELISA-positive samples were characterized by RT-PCR, with a considerable geographical and seasonal variation in genotype distribution observed during the study. The globally common genotypes (G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], G12P[8] and G12P[6]) accounted for 81.5-88.2% of the infections in Kyrgyzstan and 72.3-79.3% of the infections in Kazakhstan. The predominant genotypes were G1P[8], G2P[4] and G3P[8]. G1P[8] was the dominating genotype in Kyrgyzstan, detected in 51-64.7% of the samples. A similar predominance was not seen for G1P[8] in Kazakhstan, with a shift to G2P[4] predominance being seen in 2008. G9P[8] was a rare genotype in both countries, whereas G12 was detected in between 2.2% and 7.6% of the samples. The surveillance period was characterized by many co-circulating genotypes, and eight unusual combinations (G1P[4], G2P[8], G2P[6], G3P[4], G9P[4], G12P[4], G9P[9] and G10P[4]) were detected. This study provides important baseline data on rotavirus genotypes in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in the pre-vaccine era, and the results may indicate that the two licensed vaccines can be expected to prevent rotavirus disease in these countries. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  11. The Distribution Of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genotypes In Cattle From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to investigate the types and distribution of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genotypes and to estimate diagnostic test performance of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) was conducted on 807 cattle drawn from 68 farms found in 16 prefectures in Japan from. June 2002 to December 2003. AGID test on serum samples and ...

  12. Genotype distribution of the GB virus C in citizens of São Paulo City, Brazil Distribuição dos genótipos do vírus GB-C (HGV em indivíduos da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Anna S. Nishiya

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been several studies worldwide on phylogenetics and genotype distribution of the GB-virus C / Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV. However, in their great majority, those investigations were based on some epidemiologically linked group, rather than on a representative sampling of the general population. The present is a continuation of the first study in Brazil with such a population; it addresses the GBV-C/HGV phylogenetics and genotype distribution based on samples identified among more than 1,000 individuals of the city of São Paulo. For this purpose, a 728 bp fragment of the 5´non-coding region (5´NCR of the viral genome, from 24 isolates, was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Genotypes 1, 2a and 2b were found at 8.3% (2/24, 50% (12/24 and 41.7% (10/24, respectively. In conclusion São Paulo displays a genotype distribution similar to the published data for other States and Regions of Brazil, endorsing the notion that types 1 and 2 would have entered the country with African and European people, respectively, since its earliest formation.Há na literatura vários estudos filogenéticos e de distribuição de genótipos do chamado "Vírus GB-C" ou da "Hepatite G", mais conhecido pela dupla sigla "GBV-C/HGV". Ocorre que, em sua grande maioria, estas pesquisas foram realizadas com amostras de grupos ligados epidemiologicamente e não com indivíduos representativos da população geral. O presente estudo é uma continuação do primeiro trabalho no Brasil feito com este tipo de amostragem. Trata-se de análise filogenética e distribuição genotípica do GBV-C/HGV a partir de amostras isoladas dentre mais de 1.000 indivíduos da cidade de São Paulo. Para tanto, um fragmento de 728 pares de base da região 5' não-codificadora (5´NCR do genoma viral, de 24 amostras, foi sequenciado e submetido à analise filogenética. Foram identificados os genótipos 1, 2a e 2b nas respectivas freqüências: 8,3% (2/24, 50% (12/24 e 41

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of bio-serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica from various sources in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, Leonardo Alves; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Barbosa, André Victor; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Paixão, Renata; Hofer, Ernesto; Vallim, Deyse Christina; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2014-12-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen widely distributed in nature with high public health relevance, especially in Europe. This study aimed to analyze the pathogenic potential of Y. enterocolitica isolated strains from human, animal, food, and environmental sources and from different regions of Brazil by detecting virulence genes inv, ail, ystA, and virF through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), phenotypic tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for the assessment of phylogenetic diversity. All virulence genes were detected in 11/60 (18%) strains of serotype O:3, biotype 4 isolated from human and animal sources. Ten human strains (4/O:3) presented three chromosomal virulence genes, and nine strains of biotype 1A presented the inv gene. Six (10%) strains were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, seven (12%) to tetracycline, and one (2%) to amikacin, all of which are used to treat yersiniosis. AMP-CEF-SXT was the predominant resistance profile. PFGE analysis revealed 36 unique pulsotypes, grouped into nine clusters (A to I) with similarity ≥ 85%, generating a diversity discriminatory index of 0.957. Cluster A comprised all bio-serotype 4/O:3 strains isolated from animal and humans sources. This study shows the existence of strains with the same genotypic profiles, bearing all virulence genes, from human and animal sources, circulating among several Brazilian states. This supports the hypothesis that swine is likely to serve as a main element in Y. enterocolitica transmission to humans in Brazil, and it could become a potential threat to public health as in Europe.

  14. Genotypic diversity and pathogenic potential of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, M R; Falcão, J P

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil and to compare these strains with other Y. enterocolitica biotypes using ERIC-PCR and PFGE. Forty strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 2 (B2) isolated from humans (5), the environment (34) and animal (1), in Brazil over 19 years were studied. In addition to these isolates, we also analysed 26 Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to the biotypes 1A, 1B, and 3-5. All of the B2 strains contained the genes inv, ail, ystA, hreP, tccC and myfA. The genes fepD and fes were detected in 39 (97·5%) strains, virF was found in three (7·5%) strains, and ystB and fepA were not detected in any strains. The B2 strains showed genotypic similarities of more than 84·8% by ERIC-PCR and of more than 69·0% by PFGE. The pathogenic potential of the B2 strains examined in this study was highlighted by the occurrence of the majority of the virulence markers searched. The results of the ERIC-PCR and PFGE showed that the B2 strains evaluated in this study had a high genotypic similarity, suggesting that these strains differed little over the 19 year study period and that the environment was a possible source of contamination of humans and animals in Brazil. Furthermore, the ERIC-PCR technique grouped the strains belonging to Y. enterocolitica biotypes 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 according to their pathogenicity. This study provided new information about the pathogenic potential and genotypic similarity of Y. enterocolitica B2 isolated from diverse sources in Brazil. Furthermore, ERIC-PCR showed to be a valuable tool for grouping Y. enterocolitica of different biotypes according their pathogenicity. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

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    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  16. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from herds of sheep in southern Brazil reveals the archetypal type II genotype and new non-archetypal genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ramos, Tatiana; de Jesus Pena, Hilda Fátima; Dos Santos Junior, Alceu Gonçalves; de Faria Santos, Laura Maria Jorge; Cademartori, Beatris Gonzales; Oliveira, Solange; Gennari, Solange Maria; da Silva Ramos Rocha, Andréa; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that, in Brazil and South America, strains of Toxoplasma gondii are often genotypically and biologically different from those found in countries on other continents. The objective of this study was to genotypically characterize T. gondii isolates from naturally infected sheep in herds in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by means of the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Five T. gondii isolates obtained from sheep in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were used. Application of multilocus PCR-RFLP multilocus using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'3' SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, c29-2, GRA6, L358, PK1, APICO and CS3) revealed four different genotypes in the five isolates studied: clonal type II (TgOvBrRS4), type BrIV (TgOvBrRS2 and TgOvBrRS3) and two new non-archetypal genotypes, ToxoDB-RFLP#270 and #271 (TgOvBrRS1 and TgOvBrRS5, respectively). The genotype structure found in the T. gondii isolates from naturally infected sheep in the southern region of Brazil was revealed to have high diversity. This study confirms the presence of rare circulation of the clonal type II genotype in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in neonatal conjunctivitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Eszter; Petrovay, Fruzsina; Erdősi, Tímea; Balázs, Andrea; Henczkó, Judit; Urbán, Edit; Donders, Gilbert G G

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and age distribution of different Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genotypes causing ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Hungary. Using CT specific PCR, we tested 76 conjunctival samples from symptomatic infants up to 3 months old in the National Centre for Epidemiology, Budapest between 2008 and 2016. CT tested positive in 30 of 76 conjunctival samples (39.5 %). The sequencing of the positive samples was successful in every case but one, and resulted in 48 % dominance for genotype E (14/29), followed by 24 % for genotype G (7/29), 10 % for J (3/29), 6.9 % for K and F (2/29), and 3.4 % for H (1/29). CT must still be regarded as a common pathogen causing ON in Hungary. Routine screening and treatment of pregnant women can be recommended to prevent these conditions. Chronic ON cases can be reduced by early diagnosis. Further research is needed to explain the dominance of genotypes E and G.

  18. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  19. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia

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    Cielo M León

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  20. Stability and adaptability of popcorn genotypes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Ribeiro, R M; Freitas, S P

    2012-08-31

    This study aimed to obtain estimates of stability and adaptability of phase launched materials and materials recommended in the country, for the northern and northwestern regions of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and made a comparative analysis of different methods to evaluate stability and adaptability of grain yield and popping expansion. To this end, 10 genotypes were evaluated (UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, Beija-Flor, IAC 112, IAC 125, Zélia, Jade, and UFVM2 Barão de Viçosa) in five environments. The Yates and Cochran method revealed that genotypes UFV2M Barão de Viçosa, BRS Angela and UNB2U-C3 were the most stable for grain yield. This method also indicated superiority of genotypes UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, IAC 125, and Zélia for popping expansion. The Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke methods demonstrated that genotypes Zélia and UNB2U-C4 were the most productive and stable. These methods indicated genotypes UNB2U-C3 and BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. The Kang and Phan ranking system uses methods based on analysis of variance and classified population UNB2U-C4 as the genotype with the highest stability of grain production and confirmed cultivar BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. Genotypes IAC 112 and UNB2U-C4 were the most stable and adapted for grain yield, according to the Lin and Binns method. The P(i) statistics also ranked UNB2U-C3 and UNB2U-C4 as the genotypes with the best predictability and capacity for popping expansion.

  1. Changing HCV genotypes distribution in Poland--relation to source and time of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlabicz, Slawomir; Flisiak, Robert; Kowalczuk, Oksana; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Pytel-Krolczuk, Barbara; Prokopowicz, Danuta; Chyczewski, Lech

    2008-06-01

    Understanding the distribution of HCV genotypes has implications for prognosis and therapy of hepatitis C. To describe the distribution of HCV genotypes in Poland in relation to route of transmission and year of infection. Patients with chronic liver disease were evaluated at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Bialystok (Poland). HCV genotype was determined by means of 5'UTR sequencing and comparison with known sequences of particular genotypes. The genotypes mostly frequently detected were genotype 1 (57.5%); genotype 3 (31.3%); and genotype 4 (8.4%). Genotype 1 constituted the majority of HCV infections caused by blood transfusion (68.8%) and only 34.8% of HCV infections in the intravenous drug use (IVDU) group (prelative proportion of genotype 1b in Poland has decreased and that of genotype 3a has increased, especially among IVDU.

  2. Genotypic Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates in Immunocompromised Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Perse da Silva

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic characterization of HSV-1 among HIV-infected patients. A total of 214 serum samples from HIV-positive patients without HSV infection symptoms were enrolled in one of two reference hospitals for HIV infection managing in Rio de Janeiro. The gG and gI genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and full nucleotide sequencing of the US8 (1601 bp, UL44 (1996 bp, and UL23 (1244 bp regions was performed. A total of 38.3% (82/214 and 32.7% (70/214 of the serum samples tested positive for gG and gI genes, respectively. RFLP analysis classified the HSV-1 as belonging to genotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian samples for the US8, UL44, and UL23 regions demonstrated that the nucleotide identity between Brazilian samples was higher than 97% for all genes. No acyclovir mutation was detected in the patients. The shedding of HSV in the serum samples from HIV-positive patients who were asymptomatic for HSV infection was detected in this work. This is the first report of molecular characterization of HSV-1 in Brazilian samples since there is no previous data available in the literature concerning the genotypic classification and stable distribution of Brazilian strains of HSV-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Genotypic Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates in Immunocompromised Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perse da Silva, Amanda; Lopes, Amanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Sion, Fernando Samuel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wagner, Sandra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic characterization of HSV-1 among HIV-infected patients. A total of 214 serum samples from HIV-positive patients without HSV infection symptoms were enrolled in one of two reference hospitals for HIV infection managing in Rio de Janeiro. The gG and gI genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and full nucleotide sequencing of the US8 (1601 bp), UL44 (1996 bp), and UL23 (1244 bp) regions was performed. A total of 38.3% (82/214) and 32.7% (70/214) of the serum samples tested positive for gG and gI genes, respectively. RFLP analysis classified the HSV-1 as belonging to genotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian samples for the US8, UL44, and UL23 regions demonstrated that the nucleotide identity between Brazilian samples was higher than 97% for all genes. No acyclovir mutation was detected in the patients. The shedding of HSV in the serum samples from HIV-positive patients who were asymptomatic for HSV infection was detected in this work. This is the first report of molecular characterization of HSV-1 in Brazilian samples since there is no previous data available in the literature concerning the genotypic classification and stable distribution of Brazilian strains of HSV-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26407292

  4. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  5. High Prevalence and Genotypic Diversity of the Human Papillomavirus in Amazonian Women, Brazil

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    Danielle Albuquerque Pires Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in a women population living within the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and to determine the viral genotypes found. The study included 361 sexually active women over 18 years of age. We performed the Pap test and the molecular diagnosis for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The amplicons obtained were sequenced in automatic sequencer for genotyping. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 29.1% (105 of the women. Only 321 women presented satisfactory slides for cytological diagnosis, 97.9% (314 had normal cytology (negative for cancer, and 2.1% (7 had abnormal cytology (4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, and 2 HSIL. The types more frequently found were HPV 16 (58.1% and HPV 58 (20.0%. Additionally, we found more 13 types of HPV. Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data confirmed a high prevalence and genotypic diversity of HPV in Brazilian women.

  6. Cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roensbo, Mette T; Blaakaer, Jan; Skov, Karin

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women receiving immunosuppressive treatment due to organ transplantation are at increased risk of Human papilloma virus (HPV)-related diseases, including cervical neoplasia. This pilot study aimed to describe the cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed...... in 2014 had three cervical cytologies performed; one before and two after transplantation. The samples were examined for cytological abnormalities and tested for HPV using Cobas(®) HPV Test and CLART(®) HPV2 Test. RESULTS: Of 94 eligible cases we included 60 RTR and BMTR. The overall prevalence of high......-risk HPV was 15.0 (95% CI; 7.1-26.6) and the prevalence was higher among BMTR (29.4, CI; 10.3-56.0) than in RTR (9.3%, CI; 2.6-22.1) although this was not statistically significant (p=0.10). The distribution of high-risk HPV was broad with HPV 45 as the most common genotype (3.3%). The prevalences of high...

  7. Genotyping and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains observed in a tuberculosis high-burden municipality in Northeast, Brazil

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    Roberta dos Santos Silva Luiz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study has used a combination of clinical information, spoligotyping, and georeferencing system to elucidate the genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in a TB-prevalent municipality of Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A total of 115 M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January 2007 to March 2008 in Fortaleza. Drug susceptibility and spoligotyping assays were performed and place of residence of the patients were georeferenced. RESULTS: Of the M. tuberculosis strains studied, 51 (44.3% isolates were resistant to at least one drug (R-TB and 64 (55.7% were sensitive to all the drugs tested (S-TB. A high frequency of resistance was found in previously treated cases (84% and among new cases (16%; p < 0.001. a total of 74 (64% isolates were grouped into 22 spoligotyped lineages, while 41 (36% isolates were identified as new. among the predominant genotypes, 33% were latim american mediterranean (lam, 12% haarlem (h, and 5% u. there was no association of geographic distribution of rt-tb patients as compared to the controls and also the geographic location to the spoligotype patterns. the geospatial analysis revealed that 24 (23% patients (hot spot zones either shared the same residence or lived in a close neighborhood of a case. among these concentration zones, the patients lived in the same residence and shared a common genotype pattern and resistance pattern. DISCUSSION: it was observed that the spoligopatterns family distribution was similar to that reported for south america, prevailing the lam and h lineages. a high rate-case among the resistant TB group occurs as a result of transmitted and acquired resistance. A more effective surveillance program is needed in order to succeed in reducing tuberculosis in Northeast Brazil.

  8. Hepatitis Delta virus genotype 8 infection in Northeast Brazil: inheritance from African slaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L M F; Gomes-Gouvêa, M S; Pinho, J R R; Alvarado-Mora, M V; Dos Santos, A; Mendes-Corrêa, M C J; Caldas, A J M; Sousa, M T; Santos, M D C; Ferreira, A S P

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is endemic worldwide, but its prevalence varies in different geographical areas. While in the Brazilian Amazon, HDV is known to be endemic and to represent a significant public health problem, few studies have assessed its prevalence in other regions in the country. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of HDV among HBsAg chronic carriers from Maranhão state, a region located in the Northeast of Brazil. Among 133 patients, 5 had anti-HD, of whom 3 had HDV RNA. HDV genotypes were characterized by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the HDAg coding region. HDV-3 was identified in one patient who lives in Maranhão, but was born in Amazonas state (Western Amazon basin). Phylogenetic analysis shows that this HDV-3 sequence grouped with other HDV-3 sequences isolated in this state, which suggests that the patient probably contracted HDV infection there. Surprisingly, the other two patients were infected with HDV-8, an African genotype. These patients were born and have always lived in Urbano Santos, a rural county of Maranhão state, moreover they had never been to Africa and denied any contact with people from that continent. This is the first description of the HDV-8 in non-native African populations. This genotype may have been introduced to Brazil through the slaves brought to the country from the West Africa regions during the 16-18th centuries. Our results indicate that the need of clinical and epidemiological studies to investigate the presence of this infection in other areas in Brazil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of DENV-4 genotype I from mosquitoes collected in the city of Manaus, Brazil.

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    Figueiredo, Mario Luis Garcia de; Alfonso, Helda L; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Aquino, Victor Hugo; Costa, Cristóvão Alves da; Luz, Sergio Luiz Bessa

    2013-02-19

    Dengue epidemics have been reported in Brazil since 1981. In Manaus, a large city in the Amazon region, dengue is endemic with all four-virus serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) simultaneously causing human disease. In 2008, during a surveillance of dengue virus in mosquitoes in the district of Tancredo Neves in Manaus, 260 mosquitoes of Aedes genus were captured, identified and grouped into pools of 10 mosquitoes. RNA extracts of mosquito pools were tested by a RT-Hemi-Nested-PCR for detection of flaviviruses. One amplicon of 222 bp, compatible with dengue virus serotype 4, was obtained from a pool of Aedes aegypti. The nucleotide sequence of the amplicon indicated that the mosquitoes were infected with DENV-4 of genotype I. This virus of Asian origin has been described in Manaus in 2008 infecting acute febrile illness patients. This is the first report of dengue virus serotype 4 genotype I infecting Aedes aegypti in the Americas.

  10. HIV-1 genotypic resistance profile of patients failing antiretroviral therapy in Paraná, Brazil

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    Paula Virginia Michelon Toledo

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has reduced morbidity and mortality related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, but in spite of this advance, HIV mutations decrease antiretroviral susceptibility, thus contributing to treatment failure in patients. Genotyping HIV-1 allows the selection of new drugs after initial drug failure. This study evaluated the genotypic profile of HIV-1 isolates from treated (drug-experienced patients in Paraná, Brazil. The prevalence of mutations in reverse transcriptase (RT and protease (PR genes were assessed. We analyzed 467 genotypes of patients with HIV-1 viral loads above 1,000 copies/mL. Mutations at HIV-1 RT and PR genes and previously used ART regimens were recorded. The most prevalent RT mutations were: 184V (68.31%, 215YF (51.6%, 103NS (46%, 41L (39.4%, 67N (38.54%, 210W (23.5%, 190ASE (23.2%, and 181C (17.4%. PR mutations were 90M (33.33%, 82ATFS (29%, 46I (26.8% and 54V (22.2%. The prevalence of mutations was in line with previous national and international reports, except to nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors related mutations, which were more prevalent in this study. Previous exposure to antiretroviral drugs was associated with genotypic resistance to specific drugs, leading to treatment failure in HIV patients.

  11. Distribution study of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in symptomatic patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina: association between genotype E and neonatal conjunctivitis

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    Corominas Ana I

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. There is scarce data available referring to the distribution of C. trachomatis genotypes in Argentina. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of C. trachomatis circulating in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina associated with ophthalmia neonatorum and genital infections. Findings From 2001 to 2006, 199 positive samples for C. trachomatis infection from symptomatic adult patients and neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum from two public hospitals were studied. C. trachomatis genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP of an ompA fragment. Genotype E was the most prevalent regardless of the sample origin (46.3% 57/123 in adults and 72.4% 55/76 in neonates, followed by genotype D (19.5% 24/123 and F (14.6% 18/123 in adults, and G (9.2% 7/76 and D (7.9% 6/76 in neonates. We detected a significantly higher frequency of genotype E (p ophthalmia neonatorum than in genital specimens. Genotype D was associated with genital localization (p Conclusion We found a particularly increased frequency of C. trachomatis genotype E in neonatal conjunctivitis, which may indicate an epidemiological association between this genotype and the newborn population. The present study also contributed to increase the knowledge on genotype distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in symptomatic adult patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in which genotypes E, D and F were the predominant ones.

  12. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

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    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  13. Pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni: a neglected food-borne pathogen in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Miliane Rodrigues; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Duque, Sheila da Silva; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2017-03-01

    Purpose and methodology.Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. However, there are only a few studies available that have molecularly characterized C. jejuni strains isolated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to genotype 111 C. jejuni strains isolated from sick humans (43), monkey faeces (19), chicken faeces (14), chicken meat (33) and sewage (2) between 1996 and 2016 in Brazil using flaA-SVR (short variable region) sequencing and PFGE. Furthermore, the presence of 16 virulence genes was analysed by PCR. Using PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing, the 111 C. jejuni strains studied were grouped into three and two clusters, respectively, and some strains of different origin presented a similarity of ≥80 %. In total, 35 flaA-SVR alleles were detected. Alleles gt45, gt49 and gt57 were the most prevalent, in contrast with those frequently described in the PubMLST database. All 111 C. jejuni strains contained the genes flaA, flhA, cadF, docA, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, iamA, ciaB, sodB, dnaJ, pldA, racR and csrA. The wlaN gene was detected in 11 strains (9.9 %), and the virB11 in just one strain (0.9 %). In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the C. jejuni strains studied was highlighted by the high frequency of the majority of the virulence genes searched. The flaA-SVR sequencing and PFGE results showed that some of the strains studied presented a high genotypic similarity, suggesting potential for transmission between animal sources and humans in this country. Altogether, the results characterize further C. jejuni isolates from Brazil, an important producer and exporter of chicken meat.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii: prevalence and characterization of new genotypes in free-range chickens from south Brazil.

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    Vieira, Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves; Sasse, João Pedro; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Miura, Ana Carolina; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cardim, Sergio Tosi; Martins, Thais Agostinho; de Seixas, Mércia; Yamamura, Milton Issashi; Su, Chunlei; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-01-18

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Recent studies showed that T. gondii strains from South America are genetically diverse. The present work aimed to determine T. gondii prevalence in free-ranging chicken in northwest Parana state in Brazil by two serological tests, to isolate the parasites from seropositive chickens and to genotype the isolates. Antibodies to T. gondii in 386 serum samples from 24 farms were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and modified agglutination test (MAT). Samples having titers ≥ 16 were considered positive for both tests. Among the 386 serum samples, 102 (26.4%) were positive for IFA, 64 (16.6%) were positive for MAT, 47 (12.2%) were positive in both tests, and 119 (30.8%) were positive in at least one of the two tests. Brain and pool of heart, lung, and liver from the 119 seropositive chickens were used for mouse bioassay to isolate the parasites. Thirty eight (31.9%) of these seropositive chickens were considered positives in mouse bioassay and 18 isolates were obtained. The isolates were characterized by 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Results of genotyping were compared with the genotypes in ToxoDB database. It revealed ten genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #6 (n = 2), #19 (n = 1), #21 (n = 2), #111 (n = 2), #152 (n = 1), and #175 (n = 1) and four new types not described before. Our results confirmed a high genetic diversity of this parasite in southern Brazil and also showed that the use of two serological tests in combination can improve the chance of T. gondii isolation. More studies should be taken to determine the zoonotic potential of chickens in the transmission of T. gondii.

  15. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae for better understanding of leprosy transmission in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Amanda N B; Lima, Luana N G C; Mota, Rosa M S; Almeida, Rosa L F; Pontes, Maria A; Gonçalves, Heitor de S; Frota, Cristiane C; Vissa, Varalakshmi D; Brennan, Patrick J; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia R F S; Suffys, Philip N

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010. Among the 1,519 new patients detected during the study period, 998 (65.7%) were MB and we performed DNA extraction and genotyping on 160 skin biopsy samples, resulting in 159 (16%) good multilocus VNTR types. Thirty-eight of these patients also provided VNTR types from M. leprae in nasal swabs. The SNP-Type was obtained for 157 patients and 87% were of type 4. Upon consideration all VNTR markers, 156 different genotypes and three pairs with identical genotypes were observed; no epidemiologic relation could be observed between individuals in these pairs. Considerable variability in differentiating index (DI) was observed between the different markers and the four with highest DI [(AT)15, (TA)18, (AT)17 and (GAA)21] frequently demonstrated differences in copy number when comparing genotypes from both type of samples. Excluding these markers from analysis resulted in 83 genotypes, 20 of which included 96 of the patients (60.3%). These clusters were composed of two (n = 8), three (n = 6), four (n = 1), five (n = 2), six (n = 1), 19 (n = 1) and 23 (n = 23) individuals and suggests that recent transmission is contributing to the maintenance of leprosy in Fortaleza. When comparing epidemiological and clinical variables among patients within clustered or with unique M. leprae genotypes, a positive bacterial index in skin biopsies and knowledge of working with someone with the disease were significantly associated with clustering. A tendency to belong to a cluster was

  16. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii revealed highly diverse genotypes for isolates from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan; Costa, Júlia Gatti Ladeia; Pinheiro, Breno Veloso; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Ferreira, Adriana Melo; Su, Chunlei; Januário, José Nélio; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in Brazil have revealed high genetic diversity. Many of these isolates are virulent to mice. It is speculated that these isolates may also be virulent to humans. However, there is very limited data regarding T. gondii strains from human infection. Therefore, it is not clear whether there is any association between parasite genotypes and disease phenotypes. In this study, a total of 27 T. gondii strains were isolated from humans with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism in 11 loci (SAG1, 5' plus 3' SAG2, alternative [alt.] SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Genetic analysis of 24 strains revealed 14 different genotypes, including 7 previously identified from animals and 7 new types. The widespread genotype BrII accounted for 29% (7/24) of the isolates and was the dominant genotype involved in this study. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii isolates obtained from blood samples from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis. Genotypic characterization of these isolates suggests high genetic diversity of T. gondii in this human population in Brazil. Future studies are needed to determine the source of contamination of this human population.

  17. Hepatitis B virus genotype E detected in Brazil in an African patient who is a frequent traveler

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    R Sitnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotype E of hepatitis B virus (HBV has not been described in Brazil and is found mainly in Africa. Genotype A is the most prevalent in Brazil, and genotypes B, C, D, and F have already been reported. We report here an HBV genotype E-infected patient and some characterization of surface (S protein, DNA polymerase (P and precore/core (preC/C coding regions based on the viral genome. The patient is a 31-year-old black man with chronic hepatitis B who was born and raised in Angola. He has been followed by a hepatologist in São Paulo, Brazil, since November 2003, and he is a frequent traveler to Latin America, Africa, and Europe. In 2003, he was diagnosed with HBV infection and started treatment with lamivudine with the later addition of adefovir dipivoxil. No known risk factor was identified. Serologically, he is HBsAg and anti-HBe positive, but HBeAg and anti-HBs negative. DNA sequence analysis of the S/P region confirmed that this patient is infected with genotype E, subtype ayw4. The preC/C region showed G1896A and G1899A mutations but no mutations in the basal core promoter. Nucleotide substitutions common in genotype E were also observed (C1772, T1858 and A1757. Although this is not an autochthonous case and there is no evidence of further spread, the description of this case in Brazil highlights the current risk of viral genotypes spreading with unprecedented speed due to constant travel around the world.

  18. Genotyping of gastroenteric viruses in hospitalised children: first report of norovirus GII.21 in Brazil

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    Mônica Simões Rocha Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study (April-September 2003 was designed to investigate the roles of the main viruses responsible for cases of acute infantile gastroenteritis in hospitalised children up to two years of age. The viruses were identified in 64.7% (88/136 of the cases and the detection rates of rotavirus A (RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus were 41.9% (57/136, 30.3% (24/79 and 12.7% (7/55, respectively. RVA and NoV were detected in 20 of the 24 reported nosocomial infection cases. This study identified the first circulation of the genotype NoV GII.21 in Brazil and highlights the need to establish differential diagnoses through active laboratorial surveillance.

  19. Distribution of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among healthy blood donors in eastern part of North India

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    Kumar Kailash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We evaluated the distribution HBV genotypes among non-remunerated healthy blood donors in eastern North India. Materials and Methods: During screening of donated blood, 176 consecutive HBsAg positive, samples comprised the study. HBV-DNA was quantitative detected in 150 samples by PCR. HBV genotype was determined by identifying genotype-specific DNA band using nested PCR. Results: Majorities were of age group 31-40 yrs (65.3%. Males (92.7% outnumbered females (7.3% and were HbeAg-negative HBsAg carriers. Over all, genotype-A was the most prevalent (54% followed by D (21.3%. We did not find genotype-G and H. Districts under study, divided into four zones: Zone-I genotype-A was most common (62.3% followed by D (18.8%; Zone-II genotype-C (41.2% was more frequent followed by D (20.6% and A (17.7%. Zone-III in adjoining Bihar state close to Zone-I, A was more prevalent (81.8% followed by B and C (9.1%. In Zone-IV adjoining Zone- II had genotype-A (100% only. Genotype-D had more sporadic distribution. Genotype-E and F were prevalent in Zone I and II (3/150, 2%. Conclusions: Among blood donors HBV genotype-A followed by D was the most prevalent in eastern North India. Genotype-A had pattern of distribution signifying common focus, while D was more sporadic and C had single large pocket (Zone-II probably common focus but restricting to particular area. Evidences are suggestive of association of HBV genotype in liver dysfunction. An effective treatment and preventive strategies based of genotypes will reduce the disease burden and increase the blood safety.

  20. Global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Kouam, Marc K; Kantzoura, Vaia; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    Maximum entropy ecological niche modeling was utilized to describe the global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes and to assess their invasive risk in new areas other than the ones currently known. Also, space-time scan statistic was utilized to identify global spatiotemporal clusters of infection. A database containing 3209 records for 12 species and genotypes identified at the International Trichinella Reference Center (ITRC) as well as climate, elevation, and land cover data extracted from various databases were used. Ecological niche modeling implemented in the Maxent program indicated new potential ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, T. papuae (T10), and T. zimbabwensis (T11). The area under the curve values for the test data of the models ranged from 0.901 to 0.998, indicating that the models were very good to excellent. The most important bioclimatic factor in modeling the ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T6, and T. zimbabwensis (T11) was temperature, for T. pseudospiralis (T4) and T. papuae (T10) was precipitation, and for T. murrelli (T5) was land cover. T. spiralis (T1), T. britovi (T3), and T. pseudospiralis (T4) had the same primary land cover which was "Grass Crops". The primary land covers were "Conifer Boreal Forest" for T. nativa (T2), "Cool Fields and Woods" for T. murrelli (T5), "Upland Tundra" for T6, "Tropical Rainforest" for T. papuae (T10), and "Crops and Town" for T. zimbabwensis (T11). The scan statistic analyses revealed the presence of significant spatiotemporal clusters (p<0.05) for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, and T. nelsoni (T7). No significant clusters were found for T. papuae (T10) and T. zimbabwensis (T11). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii genotypes isolated from pregnant women with follow-up of infected children in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Lourenço T; Garcia, João L; Su, Chunlei; Rossini, Rita C; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii populations that perpetuate in South America's natural ecosystems display broad genetic diversity, but the impact of this diversity on humans is generally unknown. In this short communication, we depict the genotypic traits of four isolates related to congenital parasitism as it emerges in Southern Brazil. Using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3. Three of the four strains (TgCTBral, TgCTBrv, and TgCTBrac) were identified as ToxoDB genotype #166. Three children displayed normal cognitive/psychomotor development, and one child displayed Sabin's tetrad (TgCTBral). Vertical transmission of the two genotypes was observed and contributes to knowledge of T. gondii strains isolated from humans in Brazil.

  2. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

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    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates were determined using the agar diffusion method according to the CLSI. Screening for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes and class 1 integron was performed by PCR amplification. To determine the genomic diversity of CTX-M-producers, isolates were analyzed by macrorestriction profile analysis following PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-one K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL-producing. PCR and sequencing experiments detected 38 CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to groups CTX-M 1, CTX-M 2, CTX-M 8 and CTX-M 9. The association of different types ESBL (CTX-M, SHV and TEM was frequent. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried class 1 integron. PFGE analysis revealed thirty-one clonal types among CTX-M-producing isolates. The data presented herein illustrate the diversity of genotypes of CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae among Brazilians hospitals.

  3. Porphyromonas gingivalis Fim-A genotype distribution among Colombians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sandra; Jaramillo, Adriana; Parra, Beatriz; Botero, Javier Enrique; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-09-30

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontitis and exhibit a wide array of virulence factors, including fimbriae which is encoded by the FimA gene representing six known genotypes. To identify FimA genotypes of P. gingivalis in subjects from Cali-Colombia, including the co-infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Subgingival samples were collected from 151 people exhibiting diverse periodontal condition. The occurrence of P. gingivalis, FimA genotypes and other bacteria was determined by PCR. P. gingivalis was positive in 85 patients. Genotype FimA II was more prevalent without reach significant differences among study groups (54.3%), FimA IV was also prevalent in gingivitis (13.0%). A high correlation (p= 0.000) was found among P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia co-infection. The FimA II genotype correlated with concomitant detection of T. denticola and T. forsythia. Porphyromonas gingivalis was high even in the healthy group at the study population. A trend toward a greater frequency of FimA II genotype in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was determined. The FimA II genotype was also associated with increased pocket depth, greater loss of attachment level, and patients co-infected with T. denticola and T. forsythia.

  4. Porphyromonas gingivalis Fim-A genotype distribution among Colombians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Adriana; Parra, Beatriz; Botero, Javier Enrique; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontitis and exhibit a wide array of virulence factors, including fimbriae which is encoded by the FimA gene representing six known genotypes. Objetive: To identify FimA genotypes of P. gingivalis in subjects from Cali-Colombia, including the co-infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Methods: Subgingival samples were collected from 151 people exhibiting diverse periodontal condition. The occurrence of P. gingivalis, FimA genotypes and other bacteria was determined by PCR. Results: P. gingivalis was positive in 85 patients. Genotype FimA II was more prevalent without reach significant differences among study groups (54.3%), FimA IV was also prevalent in gingivitis (13.0%). A high correlation (p= 0.000) was found among P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia co-infection. The FimA II genotype correlated with concomitant detection of T. denticola and T. forsythia. Conclusions: Porphyromonas gingivalis was high even in the healthy group at the study population. A trend toward a greater frequency of FimA II genotype in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was determined. The FimA II genotype was also associated with increased pocket depth, greater loss of attachment level, and patients co-infected with T. denticola and T. forsythia. PMID:26600627

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprint clusters and its relationship with RD(Rio) genotype in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhas, Solange Alves; Palaci, Moisés; Marques, Hebert Silva; Lobo de Aguiar, Paola Poloni; Ribeiro, Fabíola Karla; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Dietze, Reynaldo; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Suffys, Philip Noel; Golub, Jonathan E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2013-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains designated as RD(Rio) are responsible for a large cluster of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Rio de Janeiro. They were previously shown to be associated with severe manifestations of TB. Here, we used three genotyping methods (IS6110 RFLP, spoligotyping, and multiplex PCR) to characterize RD(Rio) and non-RD(Rio) strains from the metropolitan area of Vitória, State of Espirito Santo in southeast Brazil to determine strain diversity and transmission patterns. Strains with identical IS6110 RFLP patterns were considered to belong to a cluster indicative of recent transmission. Between 2000 and 2010, we identified 5470 new TB patients and genotyped 981 Mtb strains. Of these, 376 (38%) were RD(Rio). By RFLP, 180 (48%) of 376 RD(Rio) strains and 235 (40%) of 593 non-RD(Rio) strains belonged to RFLP cluster pattern groups (p = 0.023). Simpson's diversity index based on RFLP patterns was 0.96 for RD(Rio) and 0.98 for non-RD(Rio) strains. Thus, although RD(Rio) strains appear to be comprised of a fewer number of RFLP genotypes, they represent a heterogeneous group. While TB cases caused by RD(Rio) appear more likely to be due to recent transmission than cases caused by non-RD(Rio) strains, the difference is small. These observations suggest that factors other than inherent biological characteristic of RD(Rio) lineages are more important in determining recent transmission, and that public health measures to interrupt new transmissions need to be emphasized for TB control in Vitória. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of rotavirus and circulating genotypes in Northeast Brazil during 7 years of national rotavirus vaccination.

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    Ricardo Q Gurgel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rotavirus causes severe diarrhoea and Brazil introduced the Rotarix G1P[8] vaccine in 2006. We aimed to describe changes in rotavirus incidence and diarrhoea epidemiology before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: DESIGN: (i hospital-based survey of children with diarrhoea (2006-2012; (ii diarrhea-mortality and hospitalization surveillance (1999-2012. SETTING: (i Aracaju and (ii state and national level. RESULTS: 1841 children were enrolled and 231 (12.5% had rotavirus. Rotavirus was less frequent from January-June than from July-December (9.4% versus 20.9%, p<0.01, but the seasonal variation was less defined after 2009. Very few rotavirus cases (8-3.9% were detected in 2011, with an increase in 2012 (13-18.5%. In 2006, unvaccinated children were more likely to have rotavirus, but thereafter unvaccinated and vaccinated children had equally low incidence. Older children and those with rotavirus were more likely to have severe diarrhea episodes. The most frequent genotype from 2006 to 2010 was G2P[4]; except in 2009, when most cases were G1P[8]. Very few G2P[4] were detected from 2011 and 50% cases in 2012 were G8P[4]. Diarrhoea-hospitalizations decreased nationally from 89,934 (2003 to 53,705 (2012; 40.3% reduction and in the state from 1729 to 748 (56.7% reduction. Diarrhoea-deaths decreased nationally from 4368 in 1999 to 697 in 2012 (84% reduction, p<0.001 and in the state from 132 to 18 (86% reduction. These changes were much larger after vaccine introduction. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine was associated with substantial reductions in rotavirus incidence and diarrhoea-hospitalizations and deaths. The G2P[4] genotype predominance disappeared over time and may be replaced by other heterotypic genotypes.

  7. Detection of the emerging rotavirus G12P[8] genotype at high frequency in brazil in 2014: Successive replacement of predominant strains after vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Gregório, Debora de Souza; de Souza, Karen Aparecida Farias; Vieira, Heloísa Rosa; Fernandes, Adeline de Mira; Carmona, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-04-01

    The continuum characterization of rotavirus (RVA) genotypes is essential to understand how vaccine introduction could impact virus epidemiology. In the present study, an unexpected rapid changing pattern of RVA genotypes distribution in Brazilian population during three followed seasons is described. From January/2012 to December/2014, a total of 3441 fecal specimens were collected from collaborating centers across Southern, Southeastern and Midwest of Brazil. All specimens were screened for RVA using ELISA, and genotyped by RT-PCR. Differences in proportions were tested using Chi-Squares. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RVA was detected in 19.7% (677/3441). Among RVA positive cases (n=677), a total of 652 (96.3%) samples were successfully amplified by RT-PCR. G3P[8] remained prevalent in 2012 (37.6%, 69/185) and 2013 (40.1%, 74/186) (χ(2)=0.107, p=0.743), but declined markedly in 2014 (3.5%, 10/281) (χ(2)=71.770, p=0.000). G12P[8] was second highest strain in 2012 (22.7%, 42/185), decrease rapidly in 2013 (2.7%, 5/186) (χ(2)=26.224, p=0.000) and re-emerged as the predominant genotype in 2014 (86.6%, 243/281) (χ(2)=118.299, p=0.000). From July/2014, G12P[8] was the single genotype detected in all regions studied. The sudden emergence, spread and predominance of G12P[8] strain in Brazil, raised the hypothesis of a possible G12 outbreak being in progress. Nationally, the long term decline in gastroenteritis hospitalization observed in the country after RVA vaccine introduction was confirmed. Nevertheless, the sharp increase in diarrhea hospitalization prevalence from 2013 to 2014 observed in Southern and Southeastern regions is consistent with what appears to be an outbreak of G12P[8]. Continued surveillance is needed to verify the effectiveness of the RotarixTM vaccine in Brazil together with potential emergence of unusual genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN Pinus taeda L. IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST BRAZIL

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    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype x environment interactions of stem volume were investigated by assessing the variation in 46 open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. families from first-generation cloned seed orchard in four genetic trials in the south and south-east Brazil. They were used to obtain least squares and restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimates of variance components. Familie-by- trial interaction effects were evaluated by adjusting the mixed univariate model that contained data of two and four places tested by the likelihood ratio test. Breeding values from local data (univarate procedure and predicted to the others sites (multivariate procedure were obtained from best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The adjusted and average (obtained from local and predicted to other sites breeding values were used to select parents and trees. The interaction effects and the adjusting of the mixed models were statistically significant, respectively, by F test and by likelihood ratio test. The loss of potential gain, sustained by not selecting the best families by site was 3.2%. For parents, the loss in mean productivity by indirect selection was respectively 2.3%. In the individual tree selection for seedling seed orchard, no loss of potential gain was observed when selection was carried by average genetic breeding values. For clonal seed orchard with the selection of ten more greater genetic breeding values trees, the interaction cause a inflation of 2% in the average productivity. In this case, the selection by average breeding values was the best procedure and may prove to be a useful tool, in selection stem volume, when genotype x environment interaction is significant.

  9. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  10. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

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    Meri Bordignon Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast Asia/South Pacific and III were identified. This recent co-circulation of different DENV-3 genotypes in South America may have implications for pathological and epidemiological dynamics.

  11. Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Siripon, Nipaporn; Suya, Chutima; Chulothok, Phrutsada; Chaiear, Kasemporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Kanjana, Sawan; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread.

  12. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in volunteer blood donors from Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tianxiang; Zhao, Xin; Luo, Yijia; Hong, Ying; Li, Shuping; Fu, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant pathogen of global concern. The virus is usually spread through blood contact, such as transfusion, hemodialysis and injection of illegal drugs. HCV genotypes have a geographic distribution in different areas. In this paper, we focus on the distribution of HCV genotypes from volunteer blood donors in Chengdu. The prevalence of genotypes was analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the HCV core and NS5B regions from 313 sequences. HCV sequences were classified into six subtypes, and HCV genotypes were determined with the following results: 1b in 283, 2a in 14, 3b in seven, 3a in three, 6a in five and 6u in one. Subtype 1b was the most common and accounted for approximately 90.41 % (283/313), and a virus of subtype 6u was isolated for the first time from the Chengdu area. Genotypes 4 and 5 were not detected.

  13. Global distribution of measles genotypes and measles molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Brown, Kevin; Mankertz, Annette; Santibanez, Sabine; Shulga, Sergey; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M; Siqueira, Marilda; Beirnes, Jennifer; Ahmed, Hinda; Triki, Henda; Al-Busaidy, Suleiman; Dosseh, Annick; Byabamazima, Charles; Smit, Sheilagh; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bwogi, Josephine; Bukenya, Henry; Wairagkar, Niteen; Ramamurty, Nalini; Incomserb, Patcha; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Jee, Youngmee; Lim, Wilina; Xu, Wenbo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto; Tran, Thomas; Castillo-Solorzano, Carlos; Chenoweth, Paul; Brown, David; Mulders, Mick N; Bellini, William J; Featherstone, David

    2011-07-01

    A critical component of laboratory surveillance for measles is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses. The World Health Organization (WHO) Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet), provides for standardized testing in 183 countries and supports genetic characterization of currently circulating strains of measles viruses. The goal of this report is to describe the lessons learned from nearly 20 years of virologic surveillance for measles, to describe the global databases for measles sequences, and to provide regional updates about measles genotypes detected by recent surveillance activities. Virologic surveillance for measles is now well established in all of the WHO regions, and most countries have conducted at least some baseline surveillance. The WHO Global Genotype Database contains >7000 genotype reports, and the Measles Nucleotide Surveillance (MeaNS) contains >4000 entries. This sequence information has proven to be extremely useful for tracking global transmission patterns and for documenting the interruption of transmission in some countries. The future challenges will be to develop quality control programs for molecular methods and to continue to expand virologic surveillance activities in all regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  14. Distribution of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in city of Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastin, M; Mahmoudi, M; Rezaee, S A; Assarehzadegan, M A; Tabasi, N; Zamani, S; Nosratabadi, R; Haghmorad, D; Sheikh, A; Khazaee, M; Panah, H R

    2014-01-01

    Six major hepatitis C virus genotypes have been characterised, which vary in their geographical distribution. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an area is not constant, and depends on the changes in route of infection, which may change over time. In this study, the distribution of HCV genotypes in Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan province in north-east of Iran was investigated. Mashhad is a holy city of Shiate Moslems, which attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year. Two hundred and seventy-eight HCV infected subjects (227 males and 51 females) were included in this study. HCV genotypes were analysed by type specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genotype 3a was detected in 49.6%, 1a in 36.3%, 1b in 12.6% and 2a in 0.4%. Two HCV genotypes were detected in 1.1% cases; 1a +3a in 1%, 3a + 1b in 0.4%. Genotypes 2b and 3b were not detected in any samples. We demonstrated that despite the previous reports on the frequency of HCV genotypes in Iran, 3a is the predominant genotype in Mashhad.

  15. Hepatitis C virus genotype and subtype distribution in Chinese chronic hepatitis C patients: nationwide spread of HCV genotypes 3 and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wei; Yang, Song; Feng, Shenghu; Wang, Qi; Liu, Shunai; Xing, Huichun; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Liying; Cheng, Jun

    2015-07-25

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and subtype are related to disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. Current HCV genotype and subtype distribution data, especially for genotypes 3 and 6, are limited in China. Our purpose was to investigate the current HCV genotype and subtype distributions in chronic hepatitis C patients in China. Chronic hepatitis C patients (n = 1012) were enrolled, and demographic information and possible transmission risk factors were collected. Serum samples were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the NS5B and core/E1 regions to determine HCV genotypes/subtypes. The geographical distributions of HCV genotypes/subtypes were analyzed. Demographic information and transmission risk factors were compared between different HCV genotypes/subtypes. Four genotypes and seven subtypes of HCV were detected in 970 patients. Subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 6a, 3b, 6n, and 1a were detected at frequencies of 71.96%, 19.90%, 3.20%, 2.16%, 1.96%, 0.41%, and 0.41%, respectively. Genotypes 3 and 6 showed an increasingly wide geographic distribution over time. Patients with subtypes 1b and 2a were older than those with 3a, 3b, 6a, and 6n subtypes (p genotype 1 and 2 patients underwent blood transfusion than those with genotype 3 (all p genotype 3 and 6 patients had a history of intravenous drug use than those with genotypes 1 and 2 (all p genotype 3 and 6 HCV infections have already spread nationwide from southern and western China.

  16. Prevalence and genotype distribution of rotaviruses in children with gastroenteritis in Rize province

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    Selim Dereci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the distribution of rotavirus genotypes is essential for understanding the epidemiology of this virus responsible for nearly half a million of deaths in patients with gastroenteritis worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to genotype the rotavirus strains isolated from diarrheal stool samples in children under 5 years old. A total of 1297 fecal samples were collected, and rotavirus antigen was detected in 73 of these samples. Antigen-positive samples were transferred to the Public Health Agency of Turkey, Molecular Microbiology Research Laboratory, and were tested for determination of genotypes G and P using semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction method performed with consensus- and genotype-specific primers. Twelve specimens were found to be negative for rotavirus in genotyping method. All the positive-strains were in G1-4, G8-9, P(4, P(8, and P(9 genotypes. The most frequent GP genotype combinations were found to be G9P(8 in 21 strains (34.4%, G2P(4 in 14 strains (23.0%, and G1P(8 in 12 strains (19.7%. We found 10 distinct genotypes amongst a total of 61 strains. Among the strains isolated and genotyped in our study, 90.2% (55/61 and 67.2% (41/61 have already been included in the two existing commercial vaccines. In conclusion, these findings implicate the necessity of development of region-specific vaccines after evaluation of the local genotype distribution. Further studies on the large number of rotavirus strains would contribute to this process. 

  17. Geographic distribution of HCV genotypes in Libya and analysis of risk factors involved in their transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnaya A

    2015-08-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes have been shown to be differently distributed between distinct geographical areas. Libya is a large country has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin. Information regarding hepatitis C genotypes and subtypes circulating in Libya are not well known. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of various HCV genotypes cross Libya and the demographic and attributable risk factors associated with HCV transmission among Libyan population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients with recently confirmed HCV infection. A total of 3,227 serum samples enrolled at 19 collection center cross Libya. 1,756 belonged to Tripoli region, 452 to West region 355 to North region, 181 South regions and 483 East region. The samples were tested by type specific genotyping assay and correlated with demographic and potential risk factors within the studied populations. A total of 20 discrete genotypes and subtypes were identified among the Libyan population ranging from 11.5 to 0.3% cross the country. Genotype 1 was the most frequent among all regions (19.7-40.5%), reaching the highest value in Tripoli region, followed by genotype 4 which was more prevalent in the South (49.3%) and West (40.0%) regions. Genotype 3, was higher in Tripoli (21.3%) and East (15.9%) regions while genotype 2, common in North (23.6%) and South (22.5%) regions. However, we found evidence that there is a changing relative prevalence of HCV genotypes in relation to age, gender and the mode of transmission which is reflected in the predominance of certain genotypes among Libyan population. Different HCV genotypes were isolated form Libyan population including newly emerged ones. The prevalence of the genotypes varied by geographic region and influenced by demographic and risk factors. Knowing the frequency and distribution of the genotypes would provide key information on understanding the spread of HCV in Libya and this could be greatly reflected

  18. Estimation of apolipoprotein E genotype-specific relative mortality risks from the distribution of genotypes in centenarians and middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Jeune, B; Ranberg, K A

    2000-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate genotype-specific average relative mortality risk, R, from genotype distributions in cross-sectional studies of people belonging to different age-groups, and applied the method to new data from a study of apolipoprotein E genotypes (apoE) in 177 Danish centenaria...... of this kind, they are more impressive and may propagate the misconception that apoE is a "longevity gene"....

  19. Combined genotype and haplotype distributions of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are, independently and/or in combination, associated with many disorders. However, data on the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the 2 polymorphisms in Chinese population were limited. We recruited 13,473 adult women from 9 Chinese provinces, collected buccal cell samples, and determined genotypes, to estimate the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. In the total sample, the 6 common combined genotypes were CT/AA (29.5%), TT/AA (21.9%), CC/AA (15.4%), CC/AC (14.9%), CT/AC (13.7%), and CC/CC (3.4%); the 3 frequent haplotypes were 677T-1298A (43.6%), 677C-1298A (37.9%), and 677C-1298C (17.6%). Importantly, we observed that there were 51 (0.4%) individuals with the CT/CC genotype, 92 (0.7%) with the TT/AC genotype, 17 (0.1%) with the TT/CC genotype, and that the frequency of the 677T-1298C haplotype was 0.9%. In addition, the prevalence of some combined genotypes and haplotypes varied among populations residing in different areas and even showed apparent geographical gradients. Further linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the D’ and r2 values were 0.883 and 0.143, respectively. In summary, the findings of our study provide further strong evidence that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are usually in trans and occasionally in cis configurations. The frequencies of mutant genotype combinations were relatively higher in Chinese population than other populations, and showed geographical variations. These baseline data would be useful for future related studies and for developing health management programs. PMID:27902594

  20. NUDT15 genotype distributions in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Choi, Rihwa; Won, Hong-Hee; Choe, Yon Ho; Kang, Ben; Lee, Kiwuk; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2017-05-01

    Thiopurines have a narrow therapeutic range because of frequent toxicity (i.e. marrow suppression), which is only partly explained by TPMT genetic polymorphisms, especially within Asian populations. Recent studies have identified NUDT15 variation as another important factor affecting thiopurine metabolism. In this study, a total of four NUDT15 coding variants (p.Arg139Cys, p.Arg139His, p.Val18Ile, and p.Val18_Val19insGlyVal) were genotyped in 920 Korean individuals using direct sequencing of NUDT15 for the first time in a Korean population. The allele frequencies were 86.7% for NUDT15*1, and 4.4, 6.9, 0.4, 1.1, and 0.50% for *2, *3, *4, *5, and *6, respectively. The NUDT15 phenotypes based on diplotypes included normal activity (n=692), intermediate activity (n=209), and low activity (n=19), occurring in 75.2, 22.7, and 2.1% of the population, respectively. This study was the first to report NUDT15 variants other than NUDT15*3 in the Korean population and more individuals who were categorized as having intermediate or low NUDT15 activity in our study than in previously reported studies in the Korean population (24.8 vs. 19.4%, PKorean population.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of the Ceratiomyxales (Myxomycetes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Order Ceratiomyxales, which belongs to subclass Ceratiomyxomycetidae, includes the exospore bearing Myxomycetes, solely comprising family Ceratiomyxaceae and genus Ceratiomyxa, with four species. Based on the literature, on herbarium collections, and on recent surveys carried out by the authors in different states and ecosystems, it was possible to determine the occurrence and distribution of C. fruticulosa (cosmopolitan,C. morchella and C. sphaerosperma (predominantly tropical or subtropical in northeastern Brazil. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as a map of their geographical distribution in eight of the nine states of Northeast Brazil. This order is being recorded for the first time for the state of Sergipe. Ceratiomyxa morchella and C. sphaerosperma are being cited for the first time for the state of Paraíba.A ordem Ceratiomyxales, pertencente à subclasse Ceratiomyxomycetidae, reúne os representantes exosporados dos Myxomycetes, compreendendo apenas a família Ceratiomyxaceae e o gênero Ceratiomyxa, com quatro espécies. Com base na literatura, coleções de herbário e coletas recentes realizadas pelos autores em diferentes estados e ecossistemas, foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência e distribuição na região Nordeste do Brasil de C. fruticulosa, cosmopolita, C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma, predominantemente tropicais ou subtropicais. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações das espécies, bem como mapa de distribuição geográfica em oito dos nove estados situados no Nordeste do país. A ordem está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o estado de Sergipe. C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma constituem primeira referência para o estado da Paraíba.

  2. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Quincó, Patrícia de Lima; Monte, Rossicleia Lins; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Perez-Porcuna, Tomás Maria; Martinez-Espínosa, Flor Ernestina; Saraceni, Valéria; Cordeiro-Santos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  3. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  4. Distinct Distribution Pattern of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C and D in Liver Tissue and Serum of Dual Genotype Infected Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Somenath; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Ghosh, Alip; Dasgupta, Debanjali; Ghosh, Amit; Chakraborty, Bidhan; Roy, Sukanta; Gupta, Subash; Santra, Amal Kumar; Datta, Simanti; Das, Kausik; Dhali, Gopal Krishna; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Banerjee, Soma

    2014-01-01

    Aims The impact of co-infection of several hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes on the clinical outcome remains controversial. This study has for the first time investigated the distribution of HBV genotypes in the serum and in the intrahepatic tissue of liver cirrhotic (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from India. In addition, the genotype-genotype interplay and plausible mechanism of development of HCC has also been explored. Methods The assessment of HBV genotypes was performed by nested PCR using either surface or HBx specific primers from both the circulating virus in the serum and replicative virus that includes covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) of HBV from the intrahepatic tissue. The integrated virus within the host chromosome was genotyped by Alu-PCR method. Each PCR products were cloned and sequences of five randomly selected clones were subsequently analysed. Results HBV/genotype D was detected in the serum of all LC and HCC patients whereas the sequences of the replicative HBV DNA (cccDNA and rcDNA) from the intrahepatic tissue of the same patients revealed the presence of both HBV/genotype C and D. The sequences of the integrated viruses exhibited the solo presence of HBV/genotype C in the majority of LC and HCC tissues while both HBV/genotype C and D clones were found in few patients in which HBV/genotype C was predominated. Moreover, compared to HBV/genotype D, genotype C had higher propensity to generate double strand breaks, ER stress and reactive oxygen species and it had also showed higher cellular homologous-recombination efficiency that engendered more chromosomal rearrangements, which ultimately led to development of HCC. Conclusions Our study highlights the necessity of routine analysis of HBV genotype from the liver tissue of each chronic HBV infected patient in clinical practice to understand the disease prognosis and also to select therapeutic strategy. PMID:25032957

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei Genotype Distribution in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Stephanie N J; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; McRobb, Evan; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is a tropical disease of high mortality caused by the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. We have collected clinical isolates from the highly endemic Northern Territory of Australia routinely since 1989, and animal and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates since 1991. Here we provide a complete record of all B. pseudomallei multilocus sequence types (STs) found in the Northern Territory to date, and distribution maps of the eight most common environmental STs. We observed surprisingly restricted geographic distributions of STs, which is contrary to previous reports suggesting widespread environmental dissemination of this bacterium. Our data suggest that B. pseudomallei from soil and water does not frequently disperse long distances following severe weather events or by migration of infected animals. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we identified 153...... cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio......, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. RESULTS: Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113...

  7. [Characterization of hepatitis C virus in chronic hepatitis patients: genotypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Ruth; Almeida, Carlos Mauríco de; Fraporti, Liziara; Garcia, Nadja; Lima, Tatiane Amábili de; Maia, Laura Patrícia Viana; Torres, Kátia Luz; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Victória, Flamir; Victória, Marilu; Tateno, Adriana; Levi, José Eduardo; Talhari, Sinésio; Malheiro, Adriana

    2011-10-01

    In the State of Amazonas, data regarding the prevalence of different genotypes of hepatitis C virus remains scarce. The genotype of 69 HCV positive patients was determined. An in-house standardized nested-PCR was used to detect HCV RNA. Genotype assignment was based on type-specific motifs on the sequenced amplicons delimited by primers HC11/HC18 from the 5' untranslated region. Of the 69 patients studied, 65.2% were male and 34.8% were female. Genotype 1 showed the greatest prevalence, followed by 3 and 2. These data suggesting that Manaus is the point of arrival of HCV in the State of Amazonas.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genotyping in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessing subtype and drug-resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected individuals failing highly active antiretroviral therapy

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    JC Couto-Fernandez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 drug resistance mutation profiles and evaluate the distribution of the genetic subtypes in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, blood samples from 547 HIV-1 infected patients failing antiretroviral (ARV therapy, were collected during the years 2002 and 2003 to perform the viral resistance genotyping at the Renageno Laboratory from Rio de Janeiro (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Viral resistance genotyping was performed using ViroSeqTM Genotyping System (Celera Diagnostic-Abbott, US. The HIV-1 subtyping based on polymerase (pol gene sequences (protease and reverse transcriptase-RT regions was as follows: subtype B (91.2%, subtype F (4.9%, and B/F viral recombinant forms (3.3%. The subtype C was identified in two patients (0.4% and the recombinant CRF_02/AG virus was found infecting one patient (0.2%. The HIV-1 genotyping profile associated to the reverse transcriptase inhibitors has shown a high frequency of the M184V mutation followed by the timidine-associated mutations. The K103N mutation was the most prevalent to the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor and the resistance associated to protease inhibitor showed the minor mutations L63P, L10F/R, and A71V as the more prevalent. A large proportion of subtype B was observed in HIV-1 treated patients from Rio de Janeiro. In addition, we have identified the circulation of drug-resistant HIV-1 subtype C and are presenting the first report of the occurrence of an African recombinant CRF_02/AG virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A clear association between HIV-1 subtypes and protease resistance mutations was observed in this study. The maintenance of resistance genotyping programs for HIV-1 failing patients is important to the management of ARV therapies and to attempt and monitor the HIV-1 subtype prevalence in Brazil.

  9. [Distribution of genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in Japanese twin children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W; Yamagata, Z; Wu, D; Zhang, B; Zhang, Y

    1999-03-01

    In order to prevent alcohol related deseases, this study investigated the distribution of the genes controlling alcohol metabolism in Japan's twin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique was used to measure the control gene of alcohol metabolized enzymes and the genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which were distributed in Japan's twins. At the same time, according to the difference in genotypes, the sensitive individuals were screened from the study subjects. The distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes were consistent with the Hardy-weinberg equation. The three genotypes of ADH2 gene were ADH2(1)/ADH2(1) (1.1%), ADH2(1)/ADH2(2) (44.6%) and ADH2(2)/ADH2(2) (54.3%). And those of ALDH2 gene were ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1) (41.3%), ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(2) (39.1%) and ALDH2(2)/ALDH2(2) (19.6%). The frequency of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes was 0.255, 0.745 and 0.609, 0.391 respectively. Not only the distribution of genotypes of ADH2 and ALDH2 is known, but also the sensitive individuals are found, which can help prevent alcohol related disease.

  10. Distribution of Lewis (FUT3)genotype and allele: frequencies in a biethnic United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, B; Pankow, J S; Salomaa, V; Couper, D; Morris, T L; Brantley, K R; Hiller, K M; Heiss, G; Weston, B W

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of four major single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (T59G, T1067G, T202C, and C314T) of the Lewis ( FUT3)gene in a biethnic United States population. This population-based cross-sectional study was based on data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which included 761 males and females aged 45-64 years, who had no known/detected clinical atherosclerotic disease (577 Caucasians, 184 African Americans). The main outcome measures were prevalence of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies for four SNPs of the FUT3gene. The most common genotype was the "wild type" at all four nucleotide positions ( WWWW), which was found to be present in 46.9% of ARIC participants. At least one mutant allele was detected in 51.7% of Caucasians, and 56.7% of African Americans ( P=0.59). The frequencies of mutant alleles ranged from 6.3% to 18.4% at the four FUT3gene sites examined. The distribution of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly by ethnicity at sites 59, 202, and 314. The prevalence of the Lewis genotype suggesting a lack of alpha(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase activity was 11.6% in Caucasians and 9.9% in African Americans ( P=0.67). Four specific SNPs of the Lewis genotype are common in the population at large. However, these four SNPs seem to fail to explain the majority of Lewis-negative phenotype in African Americans, given that Lewis-negative genotype prevalence was about one-third of what was expected. Use of rapid DNA sequencing and simultaneous Lewis phenotype determination could avoid the problems associated with haplotype determination and Lewis genotype grouping. Further studies testing SNPs of the Lewisgene are warranted, in particular among African Americans.

  11. Genomic diversity of mumps virus and global distribution of the 12 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Örvell, Claes; Myers, Richard; Rota, Paul A; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Forcic, Dubravko; Hiebert, Joanne; Brown, Kevin E

    2015-03-01

    The WHO recently proposed an updated nomenclature for mumps virus (MuV). WHO currently recognizes 12 genotypes of MuV, assigned letters from A to N (excluding E and M), which are based on the nucleotide sequences of small hydrophobic (SH) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes. A total of 66 MuV genomes are available in GenBank, representing eight of the 12 genotypes. To complete this dataset, whole genomes of seven isolates representing six genotypes (D, H, I, J, K and L) and one unclassified strain were sequenced. SH and HN genes of other representative strains were also sequenced. The degree of genetic divergence, predicted amino acid substitutions in the HN and fusion (F) proteins and geographic distributions of MuV strains were analysed based on the updated dataset. Nucleotide heterogeneity between genotypes reached 20% within the SH gene, with a maximum of 9% within the HN gene. The geographic and chronologic distributions of the 12 genotypes were summarised. This review contributes to our understanding of strain diversity for wild type MuV, and the results support the current WHO nomenclature. © 2014 Crown copyright. Reviews in Medical Virology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Distribution of HBV subgenotypes in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil: a region with history of intense Italian immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachá, Silvana Gama Florencio; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Malta, Fernanda de Mello; Ferreira, Sandro da Costa; Villanova, Márcia Guimarães; Souza, Fernanda Fernandes; Teixeira, Andreza Correa; Passos, Afonso Dinis da Costa; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is distributed worldwide, with geographical variations regarding prevalence of the different genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine the HBV genotypes and subgenotypes circulating in Southeast Brazil and compare the genetic sequences found with HBV sequences previously described in the world. Sequences from 166 chronic HBV carriers were analyzed using the fragment constituted by 1306 base pairs comprising surface and polymerase regions of the HBV genome. The sequences obtained were submitted to phylogenetic analysis. HBV subgenotypes A1, A2, D1-D4, F2a, and F4 were found. HBV genotype D was the most frequent, found in 99 patients (58.4%). Within this group, subgenotype D3 was the most prevalent, in 73 patients (42.9%). HBV genotype A was identified in 58 (36%) patients, subgenotype A1, in 48 (29.8%) subjects. Genotype F was identified in 9 (5.4%). According to the phylogenetic analysis, the sequences found were grouped with sequences from Europe, Asia and Middle East (subgenotypes D1, D2, D3) and sequences from Latin America and Africa (subgenotype A1). HBV D3 grouped in different clusters inside D3 clade, several of them with sequences isolated in Italy. We also identified eight families whose relatives were infected with the same HBV subgenotype, most with high similarity between sequences. In conclusion, the distribution of the HBV sequences obtained interweaved with sequences from other continents, corresponding to regions from where many immigrants came to this region, in accordance to the hypothesis that the HBV detected over there were brought during the colonization times. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of HBV subgenotypes in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil: a region with history of intense Italian immigration

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    Silvana Gama Florencio Chachá

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is distributed worldwide, with geographical variations regarding prevalence of the different genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine the HBV genotypes and subgenotypes circulating in Southeast Brazil and compare the genetic sequences found with HBV sequences previously described in the world. Sequences from 166 chronic HBV carriers were analyzed using the fragment constituted by 1306 base pairs comprising surface and polymerase regions of the HBV genome. The sequences obtained were submitted to phylogenetic analysis. HBV subgenotypes A1, A2, D1-D4, F2a, and F4 were found. HBV genotype D was the most frequent, found in 99 patients (58.4%. Within this group, subgenotype D3 was the most prevalent, in 73 patients (42.9%. HBV genotype A was identified in 58 (36% patients, subgenotype A1, in 48 (29.8% subjects. Genotype F was identified in 9 (5.4%. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the sequences found were grouped with sequences from Europe, Asia and Middle East (subgenotypes D1, D2, D3 and sequences from Latin America and Africa (subgenotype A1. HBV D3 grouped in different clusters inside D3 clade, several of them with sequences isolated in Italy. We also identified eight families whose relatives were infected with the same HBV subgenotype, most with high similarity between sequences. In conclusion, the distribution of the HBV sequences obtained interweaved with sequences from other continents, corresponding to regions from where many immigrants came to this region, in accordance to the hypothesis that the HBV detected over there were brought during the colonization times.

  14. Genotyping of human parvovirus B19 in clinical samples from Brazil and Paraguay using heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing

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    Marcos César Lima de Mendonça

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.

  15. High risk human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among women infected with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monique Figueiredo; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leturiondo, André Luiz; de Oliveira Ferreira, Cynthia; Torres, Kátia Luz; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2018-02-17

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas. We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital. Each woman underwent a gynecological exam, cervical cytology, HR-HPV detection by Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) using the BD Onclarity™ HPV Assay, colposcopy and biopsy, when necessary. We assessed the associations between potential risk factors and HR-HPV infection. Overall, 299 (92.0%) women had a PCR result. The prevalence of HR-HPV- infection was 31.1%. The most prevalent HR-HPV types were: 56/59/66 (32.2%), 35/39/68 (28.0%), 52 (21.5%), 16 (19.4%), and 45 (12.9%). Among the women with HR-HPV infection (n = 93), 43.0% had multiple infections. Women with HPV infection showed higher prevalence of cervical abnormalities than that HPV-negative (LSIL: 22.6% vs. 1.5%; HSIL: 10.8% vs. 0.0%). The prevalence of HR-HPV among women with cytological abnormalities was 87.5% for LSIL and 100.0% for HSIL. Women with CD4 Amazonas. The low CD4 cell count was an important determinant of HPV infection and abnormal cytological findings. HPV quadrivalent vaccination used in Brazil might not offer protection for an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden in women living with HIV. This is partly explained by the high presence of non targeted vaccine HR-HPVs, such as the HPV genotype groups 56/59/66, 35/39/68 and individually HPV-52 and HPV-45, some of which contribute to high-grade lesion.

  16. Distribution of Chironomidae in a semiarid intermittent river of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, R L; Carvalho, L K; Medeiros, E S F

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the intermittency of water flow on habitat structure and substrate composition have been reported to create a patch dynamics for the aquatic fauna, mostly for that associated with the substrate. This study aims to describe the spatial distribution of Chironomidae in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and to associate assemblage composition with environmental variables. Benthic invertebrates were sampled during the wet and dry seasons using a D-shaped net (40 cm wide and 250 μm mesh), and the Chironomidae were identified to genus level. The most abundant genera were Tanytarsus, Polypedilum, and Saetheria with important contributions of the genera Procladius, Aedokritus, and Dicrotendipes. Richness and density were not significantly different between the study sites, and multiple regression showed that the variation in richness and density explained by the environmental variables was significant only for substrate composition. The composition of genera showed significant spatial segregation across the study sites. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed significant correspondence between Chironomidae composition and the environmental variables, with submerged vegetation, elevation, and leaf litter being important predictors of the Chironomidae fauna. This study showed that Chironomidae presented important spatial variation along the river and that this variation was substantially explained by environmental variables associated with the habitat structure and river hierarchy. We suggest that the observed spatial segregation in the fauna results in the high diversity of this group of organisms in intermittent streams.

  17. High incidence of oncogenic HPV genotypes found in women from Southern Brazil

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    Ludmila G Entiauspe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic HPV genotypes are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesion. The purpose was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence and genotypes, and to estimate cervical cancer risk factor associations. Cervical samples were obtained from 251 women seeking gynecological care at the Pelotas School of Medicine Clinic. This is a cross-sectional study. HPV-DNA was amplified by nested-PCR using MY09/11 and GP5/6 primers, and the sequencing was used for genotyping. Sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors were obtained by closed questionnaire, and its relationship to HPV infection prevalence were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0 software, and differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. As results, the prevalence of HPV infection was 29.9%. The most frequent genotype was HPV-16 (41.3%, followed by HPV-18 (17.3%, and HPV-33 (9.3%. Others nine HPV genotypes were also found. On this population, prevalence of oncogenic HPV genotypes was high, but does not seem to confer relationship with the risk factors investigated. Future investigations in larger populations are necessary, for the proposition of more appropriated monitoring strategies and treatment according to the Brazilian health service reality, as well as patients.

  18. High incidence of oncogenic HPV genotypes found in women from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entiauspe, Ludmila G; Silveira, Mariângela; Nunes, Emily M; Basgalupp, Suélen P; Stauffert, Dulce; Dellagostin, Odir A; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana K

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic HPV genotypes are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesion. The purpose was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotypes, and to estimate cervical cancer risk factor associations. Cervical samples were obtained from 251 women seeking gynecological care at the Pelotas School of Medicine Clinic. This is a cross-sectional study. HPV-DNA was amplified by nested-PCR using MY09/11 and GP5/6 primers, and the sequencing was used for genotyping. Sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors were obtained by closed questionnaire, and its relationship to HPV infection prevalence were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0 software, and differences were considered significant at p HPV infection was 29.9%. The most frequent genotype was HPV-16 (41.3%), followed by HPV-18 (17.3%), and HPV-33 (9.3%). Others nine HPV genotypes were also found. On this population, prevalence of oncogenic HPV genotypes was high, but does not seem to confer relationship with the risk factors investigated. Future investigations in larger populations are necessary, for the proposition of more appropriated monitoring strategies and treatment according to the Brazilian health service reality, as well as patients.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis: Multilocus Genotyping Reveals Zoonotic Potential between Clinical and Environmental Sources in a Metropolitan Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durigan, Mauricio; Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitizes humans and several other mammals. Protozoan contamination has been regularly documented at important environmental sites, although most of these studies were performed at the species level. There is a lack of studies that correlate environmental contamination and clinical infections in the same region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic diversity of a set of clinical and environmental samples and to use the obtained data to characterize the genetic profile of the distribution of G. duodenalis and the potential for zoonotic transmission in a metropolitan region of Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings The genetic assemblages and subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates obtained from hospitals, a veterinary clinic, a day-care center and important environmental sites were determined via multilocus sequence-based genotyping using three unlinked gene loci. Cysts of Giardia were detected at all of the environmental sites. Mixed assemblages were detected in 25% of the total samples, and an elevated number of haplotypes was identified. The main haplotypes were shared among the groups, and new subtypes were identified at all loci. Ten multilocus genotypes were identified: 7 for assemblage A and 3 for assemblage B. Conclusions/Significance There is persistent G. duodenalis contamination at important environmental sites in the city. The identified mixed assemblages likely represent mixed infections, suggesting high endemicity of Giardia in these hosts. Most Giardia isolates obtained in this study displayed zoonotic potential. The high degree of genetic diversity in the isolates obtained from both clinical and environmental samples suggests that multiple sources of infection are likely responsible for the detected contamination events. The finding that many multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and haplotypes are shared by different groups suggests that these sources of infection may be related and

  20. Update on the global distribution of genotypes of wild type measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J

    2003-05-15

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is an important component of measles surveillance because these studies enhance our ability to identify the source and transmission pathways of the virus. Molecular surveillance is most beneficial when it is possible to observe the change in virus genotypes over time in a particular region. Such information can help to document the interruption of transmission of measles virus and thus provide an important method for assessing the effectiveness of vaccination programs. It is recommended that virus surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control and be expanded to give an accurate description of the global distribution of measles genotypes. This review provides updated information on the circulation patterns of measles genotypes and examples of the utility of virologic surveillance.

  1. Distribution of composite CYP1A1 genotypes in Africans, African-Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garte, S J; Trachman, J; Crofts, F; Toniolo, P; Buxbaum, J; Bayo, S; Taioli, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the genotype distribution of the CYP1A1 gene in a sample of over 300 subjects of various ethnic origins. Genotypes are presented as composites of eight possible alleles, taking into account the three major polymorphisms, including a recently described African-American-specific MspI RFLP. A new nomenclature system is presented for clarifying the various haplotypes. Interesting interracial differences in allelic frequencies and admixture rates were observed for the three polymorphisms. Because of the importance of the CYP1A1 gene (which encodes the aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase) as a biomarker of genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, these data may provide a useful reference for future studies of relationships between CYP1A1 genotype and disease susceptibility.

  2. Genotyping of hepatitis B virus in a cohort of patients evaluated in a hospital of Porto Alegre, south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Becker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In recent years the hepatitis B virus (HBV genotyping has been considered a relevant factor in the natural history of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine hepatitis B virus genotypes and its epidemiological and clinical implications, in a cohort of patients in a hospital in Porto Alegre, South of Brazil. Methods - Sixty seven patients with HBV chronic infection markers who were being treated at ''Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa'', in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological data were collected from these group of patients by following a standard protocol and ALT and HBeAg were determined. The genotypes and subtypes were determined by in-house PCR and, finally, the samples were sequenced. The level of significance used was 5%. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis for HBV-DNA by PCR was positive in 79.1% of the samples (53/67. The genotype was determined in all positive VHB-DNA samples and the genotypes A (34%, D (60.4% and F (5.4% as well as the subtypes adw, ayw and adw4 were found. No significant correlation was found between the hepatitis B virus genotypes and demographic variables considered as risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection. There was also no correlation between the genotypes and the serological and laboratory variables related to liver disease. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the most prevalent genotype found was D. However, further studies are needed to allow us to evaluate the implications of genetic variability in the clinical evolution of HBV carriers.CONTEXTO: Nos últimos anos a genotipagem do vírus da hepatite B (VHB tem sido considerado fator relevante para a história natural da doença. OBJETIVOS: Determinar os genótipos do VHB e suas implicações clínicas e epidemiológicas, em uma coorte de pacientes em um hospital de Porto Alegre, RS, sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes com marcadores de infecção crônica pelo VHB que estavam sendo tratados no Complexo

  3. Prevalence and Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus in Peshawar KPK, Pakistan

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    Tanweer Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study was planned to obtain an up-to-date picture of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and its genotypes distribution in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as of the relationship between HCV genotypes and demographic and clinical parameters, and the risk factors in patients with an HCV subtype. Samples (blood from 1978 individuals were collected and were tested using a strip-based method called the immunochromatographic test (ICT for the existence of antibodies against HCV. It was observed that 158 of the 1978 individuals (7.9% harbored antibodies in their blood against HCV, among which the female percentage (53.2% was higher than that of the male (46.8%. Among the different age groups, the highest number of incidences of HCV antibodies was found in the age group of 31–40 years (26.6%. ICT positive samples were further screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA, and it was found that 6.21% (123 of the total population (1978 tested, was positive, among which the female rate (56.91% was observed to be higher than that of the male (43.09%. The highest incidence recorded was in the age group of 41–50 years (33.3%. HCV RNA positive individuals were genotyped: genotype 3a (45.5% was dominant among the other detected genotypes, followed by 1a (11.4%, 3b (4.9%, and 2a (4.1%. It was concluded that the highest prevalence of HCV was found in females, and that the dominant genotype of the screened individuals was 3a genotype.

  4. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in Madrid and correlation with cytological data

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    Martín Paloma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. This study analysed the distribution of type-specific HPV infection among women with normal and abnormal cytology, to assess the potential benefit of prophylaxis with anti-HPV vaccines. Methods Cervical samples of 2,461 women (median age 34 years; range 15-75 from the centre of Spain were tested for HPV DNA. These included 1,656 samples with normal cytology (NC, 336 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 387 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs, and 82 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by PCR using 5'-biotinylated MY09/11 consensus primers, and reverse dot blot hybridisation. Results HPV infection was detected in 1,062 women (43.2%. Out of these, 334 (31% samples had normal cytology and 728 (69% showed some cytological abnormality: 284 (27% ASCUS, 365 (34% LSILs, and 79 (8% HSILs. The most common genotype found was HPV 16 (28% with the following distribution: 21% in NC samples, 31% in ASCUS, 26% in LSILs, and 51% in HSILs. HPV 53 was the second most frequent (16%: 16% in NC, 16% in ASCUS, 19% in LSILs, and 5% in HSILs. The third genotype was HPV 31 (12%: 10% in NC, 11% in ASCUS, 14% in LSILs, and 11% in HSILs. Co-infections were found in 366 samples (34%. In 25%, 36%, 45% and 20% of samples with NC, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, respectively, more than one genotype was found. Conclusions HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype in our area, followed by HPV 53 and 31, with a low prevalence of HPV 18 even in HSILs. The frequency of genotypes 16, 52 and 58 increased significantly from ASCUS to HSILs. Although a vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 could theoretically prevent approximately 50% of HSILs, genotypes not covered by the vaccine are frequent in

  5. High prevalence of unusual genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pork meat samples from Erechim, Southern Brazil

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    RN Belfort

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of infectious uveitis in Brazil, with a higher frequency in the South of the country. We have collected samples from porcine tongue and diaphragm obtained in both large and small abattoirs and used molecular biological technique to determine the prevalence of infection and RFLP analysis to type the parasites. Seventeen out of 50 (34% samples from the diaphragm and 33 out of 50 (66% samples from the tongue demonstrated a positive PCR reaction for T. gondii and restriction analysis of four of the positive samples revealed that all had a type I genotype at SAG2. However, when other unlinked loci were analyzed, these strains had a type III genotype at markers BTUB, SAG3, and GRA6. One of the strains (8T had a type II allele at SAG3, indicating it has a combination of alleles normally seen in the clonal lineages. Our sampling indicates a high prevalence of infection and suggests that unusual genotypes of T. gondii are found in Brazil even among domesticated pigs.Toxoplasmose é a causa mais comum de uveíte infecciosa no Brasil, com maior freqüência no sul do país. Coletamos amostras de diafragma e língua de porcos em pequenos e grandes abatedouros e utilizamos biologia molecular para determinar a taxa de infecção e ''DNA genotyping'' para tipar os parasitas. Dezessete das 50 amostras de diafragma (34% e 33 das 50 amostras de língua (66% foram positivas na reação de PCR para T. gondii. A análise restritiva e o sequenciamento do DNA em quatro amostras revelaram que todas apresentam genótipo tipo I no SAG2. No entanto, quando outros loci não ligados foram analisados, estas mesmas amostras se mostraram como tipo III nos marcadores BTUB, SAG3 e GRA6. Uma das amostras (8T mostrava-se como tipo II no SAG3, indicando um perfil misto. Estas amostras demonstraram não só uma alta taxa de infecção, mas também genótipos incomuns que não foram observados com freqüência em estudos prévios. Nosso trabalho

  6. Melting curve analysis for the screening of hepatitis B virus genotypes A, D and F in patients from a general hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carlos Eduardo; Kretzmann, Nelson Alexandre; Mattos, Angelo Alves de; Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini da

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is one of the most common causes of acute and chronic liver failure. The genetic variants of HBV can be decisive for the evolution of these diseases as well as for the election of therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate and standardize an in house methodology based on the analysis of the melting curve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of real-time (qPCR) to screen for genotypes A, D and F of HBV in patients from a hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We evaluated 104 patients presumably with HBV chronic infection. Viral DNA was extracted from plasma and viral genotypes and different mutations were determined using PCR-based protocols. A PCR-based methodology was standardized for the analysis of genotypes A, D and F of HBV. The technique was based in a nested PCR with the final step consisting of a multiplex real-time PCR, using the melting curve as a tool for the differentiation of fragments. A higher frequency of genotype D (44.4%), followed by genotype A (22.2%) and genotype F (3.7%) was observed. The standardized assay, a nested PCR-multiplex qPCR using specific primers, provides a rapid and accurate method for the differentiation of HBV genotypes that are more frequent in Southern Brazil - A, D and F. This method can be applied in the clinical practice.

  7. Frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Greece (2007-2008).

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    Koukou, Dimitra; Grivea, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Tsioni, Heleni; Trimis, Georgios; Galanakis, Emmanuel; Farmaki, Evagelia; Iosifidis, Elias; Michos, Athanassios; Siamopoulou-Mavridou, Antigoni; Kalmanti, Maria; Papadopoulou, Heleni; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria; Syrogiannopoulos, George A; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. A prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five Pediatric Hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in Greece. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of group A rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. Rotavirus strains were subjected to G and P genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. A total of 393 children (216 boys) of median age 23 months, participated in the study. Rotavirus was the cause of acute gastroenteritis in 166 children, 42.3% (CI 95%, 37.4-47.1%) of non-hospitalized and 47.8% (CI 95%, 41.7-53.9%) of hospitalized patients. Rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred between December and April in 78.6% of the cases. Most children with RVG (77.8%) were between 3 months and 3 years old. The mean value of Clark severity score was 12.9 ± 5.1 for RVG and 10.5 ± 4.9 for non-RVG (P Genotypes were determined in 117 strains and their distribution was as following: G1P[8], 49%; G2P[4], 31%; G4P[8], 10%; G9P[8], 9%; and G8P[14], 1%. In conclusion, rotavirus is a frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in Greece. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other European countries. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Genotyping of Leptospira directly in urine samples of cattle demonstrates a diversity of species and strains in Brazil.

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    Hamond, C; Pestana, C P; Medeiros, M A; Lilenbaum, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Leptospira in urine samples of cattle by direct sequencing of the secY gene. The validity of this approach was assessed using ten Leptospira strains obtained from cattle in Brazil and 77 DNA samples previously extracted from cattle urine, that were positive by PCR for the genus-specific lipL32 gene of Leptospira. Direct sequencing identified 24 (31·1%) interpretable secY sequences and these were identical to those obtained from direct DNA sequencing of the urine samples from which they were recovered. Phylogenetic analyses identified four species: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchii, and L. santarosai with the most prevalent genotypes being associated with L. borgpetersenii. While direct sequencing cannot, as yet, replace culturing of leptospires, it is a valid additional tool for epidemiological studies. An unexpected finding from this study was the genetic diversity of Leptospira infecting Brazilian cattle.

  9. Review of the temporal and geographical distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Michaela A; Rota, Jennifer S; Rota, Paul A

    2005-11-22

    Molecular epidemiological investigation of measles outbreaks can document the interruption of endemic measles transmission and is useful for establishing and clarifying epidemiological links between cases in geographically distinct clusters. To determine the distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras, a literature search of biomedical databases, measles surveillance websites and other electronic sources was conducted for English language reports of measles outbreaks or genetic characterization of measles virus isolates. Genotype assignments based on classification systems other than the currently accepted WHO nomenclature were reassigned using the current criteria. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the distribution of MV genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras and describes the geographically diverse distribution of some measles virus genotypes and the localized distributions of other genotypes.

  10. Review of the temporal and geographical distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras

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    Riddell Michaela A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular epidemiological investigation of measles outbreaks can document the interruption of endemic measles transmission and is useful for establishing and clarifying epidemiological links between cases in geographically distinct clusters. To determine the distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras, a literature search of biomedical databases, measles surveillance websites and other electronic sources was conducted for English language reports of measles outbreaks or genetic characterization of measles virus isolates. Genotype assignments based on classification systems other than the currently accepted WHO nomenclature were reassigned using the current criteria. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the distribution of MV genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras and describes the geographically diverse distribution of some measles virus genotypes and the localized distributions of other genotypes.

  11. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil

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    Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients from Ceará (n = 23, Pernambuco (n = 41, Rio de Janeiro (n = 22 and Rondônia (RO (n = 78. All skin biopsies yielded SNP-based genotypes, while 48 of the samples (94.1% yielded complete VNTR genotypes. We evaluated two procedures for extracting M. leprae DNA from Z-N-stained slides: the first including Chelex and the other combining proteinase and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of the 76 samples processed using the first procedure, 30.2% were positive for 16 or 15 VNTRs, whereas of the 39 samples processed using the second procedure, 28.2% yielded genotypes defined by at least 10 VNTRs. Combined VNTR and SNP analysis revealed large variability in genotypes, but a high prevalence of SNP genotype 4 in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Our observation of two samples from RO with an identical genotype and seven groups with similar genotypes, including four derived from residents of the same state or region, suggest a tendency to form groups according to the origin of the isolates. This study demonstrates the existence of geographically related M. leprae genotypes and that Z-N-stained slides are an alternative source for M. leprae genotyping.

  12. Prevailing genotype distribution and characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus in northeastern China.

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    Zheng, Yuxuan; Liu, Li; Wang, Shaohua; Li, Zhaolong; Hou, Min; Li, Jingliang; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Wenyan; Hua, Shucheng

    2017-02-01

    Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viruses inducing respiratory tract infections in young children and the elderly, the genotype distribution and characteristics of RSV in northeastern China have not been investigated. Here, we identified 25 RSV-A and 8 RSV-B strains from 80 samples of patients with respiratory infections between February 2015 and May 2015. All 25 RSV-A viruses were classified as the ON1 genotype, which rapidly spread and became the dominant genotype in the world since being identified in Ontario (Canada) in December 2010. All eight RSV-B viruses belonged to the BA genotype with a 60-nucleotide duplication, seven of which formed two new genotypes, BA-CCA and BA-CCB. The remaining RSV-B virus clustered with one of the Hangzhou strains belonging to genotype BA11. Construction of a phylogenetic tree and amino acid substitution analysis showed that Changchun ON1 viruses exclusively constituted Lineages 3, 5 and 6, and contained several unique and newly identified amino acid substitutions, including E224G, R244K, L289I, Y297H, and L298P. Selective pressure was also evaluated, and various N and O-glycosylation sites were predicted. This study provides the first genetic analysis of RSV in northeastern China and may facilitate a better understanding of the evolution of this virus locally and globally. J. Med. Virol. 89:222-233, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Spatial-temporal distribution of genotyped tuberculosis cases in a county with active transmission.

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    Agarwal, Saroochi; Nguyen, Duc T; Teeter, Larry D; Graviss, Edward A

    2017-05-31

    Harris County, Texas is the third most populous county in the United States and consistently has tuberculosis rates above the national average. Understanding jurisdictional epidemiologic characteristics for the most common Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyped clusters is needed for tuberculosis prevention programs. Our objective is to describe the demographic, laboratory, clinical, temporal and geospatial characteristics for the most common Mycobacterium tuberculosis GENType clusters in Harris County from 2009 to 2015. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Tuberculosis Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS). Chi-square analyses were used to determine associations between selected clusters and specific characteristics of interest. Geographical Information System (GIS) point density and hot spot maps were generated and analyzed with ArcGIS 10.4. In Harris County from 2009 to 2015, 1655 of 1705 (97.1%) culture positive tuberculosis cases were genotyped and assigned a GENType, and 1058 different GENTypes were identified. The analyzed genotype clusters represent 14.1% (233/1655) of all genotyped cases: G00010 (n = 118), G00014 (n = 38), G00769 (n = 33), G01521 (n = 26), and G08964 (n = 18). Male gender (p = 0.002), ethnicity (p tuberculosis GENType clusters seen from 2009 to 2015. The common genotypes were observed primarily in U.S.-born populations despite the large foreign-born population residing in Harris County. GENType was significant distributed spatially and temporally in Harris County in the analyzed time period indicating that there may be outbreaks caused by transmission.

  14. Spatial distribution of Legionella pneumophila MLVA-genotypes in a drinking water system.

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    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sarah; Sharaby, Yehonatan; Pecellín, Marina; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Halpern, Malka

    2015-06-15

    Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections, resulting in severe pneumonia. To improve our knowledge about Legionella spp. ecology, its prevalence and its relationships with environmental factors were studied. Seasonal samples were taken from both water and biofilm at seven sampling points of a small drinking water distribution system in Israel. Representative isolates were obtained from each sample and identified to the species level. Legionella pneumophila was further determined to the serotype and genotype level. High resolution genotyping of L. pneumophila isolates was achieved by Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA). Within the studied water system, Legionella plate counts were higher in summer and highly variable even between adjacent sampling points. Legionella was present in six out of the seven selected sampling points, with counts ranging from 1.0 × 10(1) to 5.8 × 10(3) cfu/l. Water counts were significantly higher in points where Legionella was present in biofilms. The main fraction of the isolated Legionella was L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Serogroup 3 and Legionella sainthelensis were also isolated. Legionella counts were positively correlated with heterotrophic plate counts at 37 °C and negatively correlated with chlorine. Five MLVA-genotypes of L. pneumophila were identified at different buildings of the sampled area. The presence of a specific genotype, "MLVA-genotype 4", consistently co-occurred with high Legionella counts and seemed to "trigger" high Legionella counts in cold water. Our hypothesis is that both the presence of L. pneumophila in biofilm and the presence of specific genotypes, may indicate and/or even lead to high Legionella concentration in water. This observation deserves further studies in a broad range of drinking water systems to assess its potential for general use in drinking water monitoring and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF Toxoplasma gondii IN SERONEGATIVE URBAN RATS AND PRESENCE OF ANTIBODIES IN COMMUNICATING DOGS IN BRAZIL.

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    Ruffolo, Bruno Bergamo; Toledo, Roberta dos Santos; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Bugni, Felipe Monteiro; Costa, Letícia da; Marana, Elizabete Regina Marangoni; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Su, Chunlei; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2016-01-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. One hundred and eighty-one Rattus rattus and one Mus musculus were caught in 37 places. Blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the bioassay. Serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. Sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. Antibodies were found in nine (4.9%) rats. Tissues of nine rats bioassayed were positive and four isolates were obtained. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed using 12 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG2-alt, C22-8, C29-2, L358, PK1, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, Apico, CS3). Genotyping revealed that the four strains isolated from this study have been isolated before in cats and chickens from Brazil. None of the isolates was identified like clonal archetypal T-types I, II, and III. The rats presented lower serologic Toxoplasma gondii prevalence (8.8%) compared to contacting dogs (70.5%).

  16. Local and global genetic diversity of protozoan parasites: Spatial distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-R, Juan C; French, Nigel; Pita, Anthony; Velathanthiri, Niluka; Shrestha, Rima; Hayman, David

    2017-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe. Four species of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus and C. erinacei) and one species of Giardia (G. intestinalis) were identified. These species have been reported worldwide and there are not unique Cryptosporidium gp60 subtype families and Giardia gdh assemblages in New Zealand, most likely due to high gene flow of historical and current human activity (travel and trade) and persistence of large host population sizes. The global analysis revealed that genetic variants of these pathogens are widely distributed. However, genetic variation is underestimated by data biases (e.g. neglected submission of sequences to genetic databases) and low sampling. New genotypes are likely to be discovered as sampling efforts increase according to accumulation prediction analyses, especially for C. parvum. Our study highlights the need for greater sampling and archiving of genotypes globally to allow comparative analyses that help understand the population dynamics of these protozoan parasites. Overall our study represents a comprehensive overview for exploring local and global protozoan genotype diversity and advances our understanding of the importance for surveillance and potential risk associated with these infectious diseases.

  17. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in Northern Brazil after introduction of a rotavirus vaccine: high prevalence of G3P[6] genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Soares, Luana; de Fátima Dos Santos Guerra, Sylvia; do Socorro Lima de Oliveira, Alessilva; da Silva Dos Santos, Fabiola; de Fátima Costa de Menezes, Euzeni Maria; Mascarenhas, Joana d'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre C

    2014-06-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is the most common cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, causing 453,000 deaths annually. In Brazil, the most frequent genotype identified was G1 during almost three decades in the pre-vaccination period; however, after anti-rotavirus vaccine introduction, there was a predominance of G2 genotype. The aim of this study was to determine the G and P genotypes of rotaviruses isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in the Northern region of Brazil, and discuss the emergence of G3P[6] genotype. A total of 783 stool specimens were obtained between January 2011 and March 2012. RVA antigen was detected in 33% (272/783) of samples using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and type-specificity was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The most common binary combination was G2P[4], representing 41% of cases, followed by G3P[6] (15%), G1P[8] (8%), G3P[8] (4%), G9P[8] (3%), and G12P[6] (2%). G3P[6] strains were analyzed further and phylogenetic analysis of VP7 gene showed that G3 strains clustered into lineage I and showed a high degree of amino acid identity with vaccine strain RV3 (95.1-95.6%). For VP4 sequences, G3P[6] clustered into lineage Ia. It was demonstrated by the first time the emergence of unusual genotype G3P[6] in the Amazon region of Brazil. This genotype shares neither VP7 nor VP4 specificity with the used vaccine and may represent a challenge to vaccination strategies. A continuous monitoring of circulating strains is therefore needed during the post-vaccine era in Brazil. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genotype diversity and molecular evolution of noroviruses: A 30-year (1982-2011 comprehensive study with children from Northern Brazil.

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    Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira

    Full Text Available A chronologically comprehensive 30-year study was conducted that involved children living in Belém, in the Amazon region of Northern Brazil, who participated in eight different studies from October 1982 to April 2011. The children were followed either in the community or in health units and hospitals in order to identify the norovirus genotypes involved in infections during this time. A total of 2,520 fecal specimens were obtained and subjected to RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing for regions A, B, C, D and P2 of the viral genome. An overall positivity of 16.9% (n = 426 was observed, and 49% of the positive samples were genotyped (208/426, evidencing the presence of several genotypes as follows: Polymerase gene (GI.P4, GII.Pa, GII.Pc, GII.Pe, GII.Pg, GII.Pj, GII.P3, GII.P4, GII.P6, GII.P7, GII.P8, GII.P12, GII.P13, GII.P14, GII.P21, GII.P22, and VP1 gene (GI.3, GI.7, GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.10, GII.12, GII.14, GII.17, GII.23. The GII.P4/GII.4 genotype determined by both open reading frames (ORFs (partial polymerase and VP1 genes was found for 83 samples, and analyses of the subdomain P2 region showed 10 different variants: CHDC (1970s, Tokyo (1980s, Bristol_1993, US_95/96, Kaiso_2003, Asia_2003, Hunter_2004, Yerseke_2006a, Den Haag_2006b (subcluster "O" and New Orleans_2009. Recombination events were confirmed in 47.6% (n = 20 of the 42 samples with divergent genotyping by ORF1 and ORF2 and with probable different breakpoints within the viral genome. The evolutionary analyses estimated a rate of evolution of 1.02 x 10-2 and 9.05 x 10-3 subs./site/year using regions C and D from the VP1 gene, respectively. The present research shows the broad genetic diversity of the norovirus that infected children for 30 years in Belém. These findings contribute to our understanding of noroviruses molecular epidemiology and viral evolution and provide a baseline for vaccine design.

  19. Hepatitis C genotype distribution in patient and blood donor samples in South Africa for the period 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabdial-Sing, N; Chirwa, T; Thaver, J; Smuts, H; Vermeulen, M; Suchard, M; Puren, A J

    2016-11-01

    There are limited molecular epidemiological studies of hepatitis C at a national level in South Africa. The introduction of newer treatment modalities for hepatitis C requires knowledge of the genotypes as these may have different prognostic and therapeutic implications. This retrospective study describes genotype distributions of patients attending specialist clinics and a blood donor group studied during the period 2008-2012 in South Africa. Residual samples from diagnostic viral load testing from specialist clinics in South Africa (n=941) and from the South African National Blood Service (n=294) were analysed quantitatively by real-time PCR and genotyped using the Versant line probe assay or sequencing. Genotype 1 was predominant in blood donors (34%), whilst genotype 5a was prevalent in patients (36%). In the blood donor group, genotype 4 was detected for the first time. Genotype 2 was rare in the patient group and not detected in blood donors. Genotype 1 was the predominant genotype in the younger age groups (less than 30 years), whereas genotype 5a was found at higher proportions in the older age groups for both the patient and blood donor groups, comprising more than 60% of genotypes in those older than 50 years. Genotypes 1 and 5 were at highest proportions across all provinces compared to other genotypes. In blood donors, genotype 1 was predominant among Caucasians (43%) and genotype 5a among Blacks (54%). Such information is required for planning the impact on the health sector with regard to newly emerging therapies for hepatitis C and burden of disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Imbalanced distribution of Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1 genotypes related to sickle-cell trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumi, F; Rogier, C; Dieye, A; Trape, J F; Millet, P; Mercereau-Puijalon, O

    1997-09-01

    The sickle-cell trait protects against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and reduces susceptibility to mild malaria but does not prevent infection. The exact mechanism of this protection remains unclear. We have hypothesized that AS individuals are protected by virtue of being less susceptible to a subset of parasite strains; thus we compared some genetic characteristics of parasites infecting AS and AA subjects. Blood was collected from asymptomatic individuals living in two different regions of Africa. The polymorphic MSP-1 and MSP-2 loci were genotyped using a PCR-based methodology. Individual alleles were identified by size polymorphism, amplification using family-specific primers, and hybridization using family-specific probes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze allele distribution. In Senegalese carriers, age and hemoglobin type influenced differently the distribution of the three MSP-1 families and had an impact on distinct individual alleles, whereas the distribution of MSP-2 alleles was marginally affected. There was no influence of other genetic traits, including the HLA Bw53 genotype, or factors such as place of residence within the village. In a cohort of Gabonese schoolchildren in which the influence of age was abrogated, a similar imbalance in the MSP-1 allelic distribution but not of MSP-2 allelic distribution by hemoglobin type was observed. The influence of the host's hemoglobin type on P. falciparum genotypes suggests that parasite fitness for a specific host is strain-dependent, which is consistent with our hypothesis that innate resistance might result from reduced fitness of some parasite strains for individuals with sickle-cell traits.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the RDRio genotype is the predominant cause of tuberculosis and associated with multidrug resistance in Porto Alegre City, South Brazil.

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    Dalla Costa, Elis Regina; Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio Oliveira; Perizzolo, Paulo Fernado; Díaz, Chyntia Acosta; Spies, Fernanda S; Costa, Lucas Laux; Ribeiro, Andrezza W; Barroco, Caroline; Schuh, Sandra Jungblut; da Silva Pereira, Marcia Aparecida; Dias, Claudia F; Gomes, Harrison M; Unis, Gisela; Zaha, Arnaldo; Almeida da Silva, Pedro E; Suffys, Philip N; Rossetti, Maria L R

    2013-04-01

    Spoligotyping has shown Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to be composed of different lineages, and some of them are not just geographically restricted but also affect specific ethnic populations and are associated with outbreaks and drug resistance. We recently described a particular subtype within the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family, called RD(Rio), widespread in Brazil. Moreover, recent data also indicate that RD(Rio) is present in many countries on all continents and is associated with cavitary disease and multidrug resistance (MDR). To further explore the relationship between RD(Rio) and MDR, we conducted a study in a tuberculosis (TB) reference center responsible for the care of MDR patients in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost Brazilian state. From a collection of 237 clinical isolates, RD(Rio) alone was responsible for one-half of all MDR cases, including one large group composed of strains with identical IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and having the LAM5 signature. We additionally had complete data records for 96 patients and could make comparisons between the presence and absence of RD(Rio). No difference in clinical, radiological or laboratory features was observed, but a significantly greater number of cases with MDR were described in patients infected with an RD(Rio) strain (P = 0.0015). Altogether, RD(Rio) was responsible for 38% of all TB cases. These data support and confirmed previous findings that RD(Rio) is the main agent responsible for TB in Brazil and is associated with drug resistance. Considering that RD(Rio) is a globally distributed genotype, such findings raise concern about the increase in MDR in certain human populations.

  2. Distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer in multi- ethnic Malaysia.

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    Hamzi Abdul Raub, Sayyidi; Isa, Nurismah Md; Zailani, Hatta Ahmad; Omar, Baharudin; Abdullah, Mohamad Farouk; Mohd Amin, Wan Anna; Noor, Rushdan Md; Ayub, Mukarramah Che; Abidin, Zainal; Kassim, Fauziah; Vicknesh, Visvalingam; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Tan, Geok Chin; Syed Husain, Sharifah Noor Akmal

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third commonest type of cancer among women in Malaysia. Our aim was to determine the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer in our multi-ethnic population. This was a multicentre study with a total of 280 cases of cervical cancer from 4 referral centres in Malaysia, studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of 12 high risk-HPV genotypes. Overall HPV was detected in 92.5% of cases, in 95.9% of squamous cell carcinomas and 84.3%of adenocarcinomas. The five most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (68.2%), 18 (40%), 58 (10.7%), 33 (10.4%) and 52 (10.4%). Multiple HPV infections were more prevalent (55.7%) than single HPV infections (36.8%). The percentage of HPV positive cases in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 95.5%, 91.9% and 80.0%, respectively. HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were the commonest in all ethnic groups. We found that the percentage of HPV 16 infection was significantly higher in Chinese (75.9%) compared to Malays (63.7%) and Indians (52.0%) (phigher in Malays (52.6%) compared to Chinese (25.0%) and Indians (28%) (pMalaysia is similar to other Asian countries. Importantly, we found that different ethnic groups in Malaysia have different HPV genotype infection rates, which is a point to consider during the implementation of HPV vaccination.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Spain during the 2000-2015 period (the GEHEP 005 study).

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    Aguilera, A; Navarro, D; Rodríguez-Frias, F; Viciana, I; Martínez-Sapiña, A M; Rodríguez, M J; Martró, E; Lozano, M C; Coletta, E; Cardeñoso, L; Suárez, A; Trigo, M; Rodríguez-Granjer, J; Montiel, N; de la Iglesia, A; Alados, J C; Vegas, C; Bernal, S; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pena, M J; Reina, G; García-Bujalance, S; Echevarria, M J; Benítez, L; Pérez-Castro, S; Ocete, D; García-Arata, I; Guerrero, C; Rodríguez-Iglesias, M; Casas, P; García, F

    2017-09-01

    We report the largest study on the prevalence and distribution of HCV genotypes in Spain (2000-2015), and we relate them with clinical, epidemiological and virological factors. Patients from 29 hospitals in 10 autonomous communities (Andalusia, Aragon, Castilla-Leon, Catalonia, Galicia, Canary Islands, Madrid Community, Valencian Community, Murcia Region and Basque Country) have been studied. Annual distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes, as well as gender, age, transmission route, HIV and/or HBV coinfection, and treatment details were recorded. We included 48595 chronically HCV-infected patients with the following characteristics: median age 51 years (IQR, 44-58), 67.9% male, 19.1% HIV-coinfected, 23.5% HBV-coinfected. Parenteral transmission route was the most frequent (58.7%). Genotype distribution was 66.9% GT1 (24.9% subtype 1a and 37.9% subtype 1b), 2.8% GT2, 17.3% GT3, 11.4% GT4 and 0.1% GT5 and 0.02% GT6. LiPA was the most widely HCV genotyping test used (52.4%). HCV subtype 1a and genotypes 3 and 4 were closely associated with male gender, parenteral route of infection and HIV and HBV coinfection; in contrast, subtype 1b and genotype 2 were associated with female gender, nonparenteral route and mono-infection. Age was related to genotype distribution, and different patterns of distribution and biodiversity index were observed between different geographical areas. Finally, we describe how treatment and changes in transmission routes may have affected HCV genotype prevalence and distribution patterns. We present the most recent data on molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Spain. This study confirms that genotype distributions vary with age, sex, HIV and HBV coinfection and within geographical areas and epidemiological groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rotavirus genotypes as etiological agents of diarrhoea in general populations of two geographic regions of Brazil

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    Marcel Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rotavirus is the main global cause of severe childhood diarrhoea among children. In 2006, Rotarix® (G1P[8] was introduced into Brazil’s National Immunization Program. The vaccine coverage rate was 84.4% in 2009. Evidences of increasing G2P[4] after 2006 opened up the discussion about the vaccine effectiveness to non-G1 strains. The aim of this study was to identify the circulating rotavirus genotypes in two Brazilian regions during 2009. A total of 223 positive samples by immunochromatography and latex agglutination assay from the Northeast (Bahia/Pernambuco States and Southeast (São Paulo/Rio de Janeiro States regions were included in the study. The samples were submitted to genotyping by nested-PCR according to VP7(G and VP4(P and 175 samples (78.5% were able to be characterized. Considering the characterization of VP7, the G-types detected were G1, G2, and G4 in the Northeast, and G2, G3, G5, and G9 in the Southeast. Considering the characterization of VP4, the P-types detected were P[4], P[8], and P[6]/P[9] in the Northeast and the Southeast. The most frequent mixed types found were G2P[4]/G2P[NT](81.4%, G2P[6](5.2%, G1P[6](5.2% in the Northeast, and G2P[4]/G2P[NT](78.8%, G2P[6](8.2%, G9P[8](4.7% in the Southeast. Among immunized individuals whose age ranged from 0-4 years, the G2P[4]/G2P[NT] genotype was identified in 91,0% of cases, and among non-immunized individuals of the same age, the G2P[4]/G2P[NT] genotype was identified in 85.7% of the cases. In accordance with the high level of vaccine coverage, the data suggest that the circulation of G2P[4] in these regions had a considerable increase after the introduction of Rotarix®.

  5. A Comparative Study About Brazilian and Foreign Comics' Production, Distributed in Brazil Between 1934 and 1970

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    Ricardo Bruscagin Morelatto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To carry out the initial proposal, it was established a comparative board containing the quantitative indices of Brazilian comics, considering the distribution of foreign production in publishing market. One considered the statistic analysis and research of comics editions distributed in Brazil from 1934 to 1970. For this, library resources were consulted, taking the study and catalogation of the comics distributed in Brazil (made by Mario Tabarin, Enrique Lipstick and Álvaro Moya as primary document, when occurred the Exposição Internacional de Histórias em Quadrinhos (Internacional Exposition of Comics, at Masp (São Paulo Museum of Art, in 1970.

  6. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

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    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p13 The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena, Reticularia and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  7. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from northeastern Brazil with upper gastrointestinal diseases

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    Meyssa Quezado de Figueiredo Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastric inflammation and significantly increases the risk of duodenal and gastric ulcer disease and distal gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from a Brazilian region where there is a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate vacA mosaicism and cagA status in the gastric mucosa of 134 H. pylori-positive patients, including 76 with gastritis: 28 with peptic ulcer disease and 30 with gastric cancer. The s1m1 variant was the predominant vacA genotype observed, whereas the s1 allele was more frequently observed in patients with more severe diseases associated with H. pylori infection [p = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 5.72, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15-38.60]. Furthermore, all of the s1 alleles were s1b. Mixed vacA m1/m2 strains were found more frequently in patients with gastric cancer and a cagA-positive status was significantly associated with gastric cancer (p = 0.016, OR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.35-217.31. Patients with gastric cancer (21/21, 100%, p = 0.006 or peptic ulcers (20/21, 95%, p = 0.02 were more frequently colonised by more virulent H. pylori strains compared to gastritis patients (41/61, 67.2%. In conclusion, in the northeastern of Brazil, which is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of gastric cancer in the country, infection with the most virulent H. pylori strains, carrying the cagA gene and s1m1 vacA alleles, predominates and is correlated with more severe H. pylori-associated diseases.

  8. Prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis delta virus among chronic hepatitis B carriers in Central Vietnam.

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    Hung Minh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis D virus (HDV infection plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the molecular epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in chronic hepatitis B (CHB remain uncertain in Vietnam. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HDV among HBsAg-positive patients in Central Vietnam. 250 CHB patients were tested for HDV using newly established HDV-specific RT-PCR techniques. HDV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. Of the 250 patients 25 (10% had detectable copies of HDV viral RNA. HDV-2 was predominant (20/25; 80% followed by HDV-1 (5/25; 20%. Proven HDV genotypes share the Asian nomenclature. Chronic hepatitis B patients with concomitant HDV-1 showed higher HBV loads as compared to HDV-2 infected patients [median log10 (HBV-DNA copies/ml: 8.5 vs. 4.4, P = 0.036]. Our findings indicate that HDV infection is highly prevalent and HDV-2 is predominant in Central Vietnam. The data will add new information to the management of HBsAg-positive patients in a highly HBV endemic region to in- or exclude HDV infection in terms of diagnostic and treatment options.

  9. Human papillomavirus prevalence and genotypes distribution among female outpatients in Qingdao, East China.

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    Bi, Qingqing; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Ziyun; Mu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Meilian; Wang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Persistent infection with human papillomavirus, especially high risk ones, is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of HPV genotypes in female outpatients from Qingdao, East China. A total of 4,534 cervical swabs from women visiting this medical institution for gynecologic care were included. HPV genotypes were examined by a PCR-based hybridization gene chip assay and liquid-based cytology analysis was used to evaluate cervical cytology. The overall HPV prevalence in this study was 32.2% (1,459/4,534). A total of 23 HPV genotypes were identified and the five most prevalent ones were HPV16 (16.1%), HPV52 (8.9%), HPV58 (7.9%), HPV6 (7.0%), and HPV53 (6.5%). Age-specific prevalence of HPV exhibited one peak at the youngest age group and the HPV positive rate decreased gradually with age growth. But high risk HPV infections were more prevalent among aged women. Besides, association between cervical cytology and HPV infection was also determined, 27.2% (1124/4,126) of women with normal cytology were HPV positive while 82.1% (335/408) of women with abnormal cytology were HPV positive. These findings give new epidemiological data and may provide guidance for the vaccination program in this area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Frequency distribution of apolipoprotein e genotypes in elderly han chinese population and relationship with senile dementia.

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    Huang, W; Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P; Yao, G; Zhou, H

    2014-12-23

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between Apo Eε4 genotype and senile dementia (SD) by analyzing the Apo E allelic frequency distributions among the elderly Han Chinese population. For this purpose, a total of 316 Chongqing residents, aged ≥60yrs, were classified as SD or control groups following the criteria of National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke--Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood lymphocytes and exon 4 of the ApoE gene with polymorphism sites was amplified by PCR and genotypes determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We found that the most prevalent genotype was Apo Eε3/3, followed in order by Apo Eε3/4 and Apo Eε2/2. The estimated ApoE allelic frequencies in individuals with SD were 0.095, 0.560, and 0.345 for ε2, ε3, and ε4, respectively. In controls, the corresponding Apo E allelic frequencies were 0.146, 0.699, and 0.155. The percentage of ε4 allele carriers in SD group was significantly higher than that in control group (Psenile dementia.

  11. [Genotype distribution of human enteroviruses isolated from swage in Shanghai during year 2013-2014].

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    Li, Y Y; Lu, J; Wang, X Z; Yang, Y Y; Fei, J; Zhang, L P; Li, Z; Li, C S; Zuo, Y

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To explore the time and genotype distribution of human enterovirus (HEV) isolated from sewage in Shanghai in 2013-2014. Methods: One sewage sample each was collected from two local sewage plants located in Minhang District and Jiading District on the same day at the day 24-28 of every month from 2013 to 2014. Each sample weighed 1 L. The specimens were concentrated by anionic membrane absorption, eluted with beef extract solution, and then used to inoculate RD, HEp-2, and L20B cell lines. A total of 249 enterovirus strains were isolated from sewage samples during the study period, including 185 non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 64 poliovirus (PV) strains, which were identified as vaccine strains. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify HEV genotypes. Homologous analysis of VP1 sequences was conducted using BioEdit (version 7.0.0). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method based on the alignment of VP1 gene sequences using MEGA (version 4.0.2). Results: Among 185 NPEV strains, 178 strains were successfully sequenced and classified into 15 genotypes, including coxsackievirus group B (CVB) 2, 3, and 5; enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) virus 1, 3, 6, 7, 11, 13, 19, 20, 24, 25, and 30; and coxsackievirus group A 4. CVB5 and ECHO6 genotypes accounted for 33.5% (56 strains) and 24.9% (43 strains) of NPEV isolates, respectively. During the study period, HEV isolates were mainly isolated in summer and autumn in Minhang District. ECHO6 strains were frequently isolated from June 2013 to July 2014. Thereafter, the number of ECHO6 strains gradually reduced in the second half of 2014. CVB5 strains demonstrated scattered distribution from 2013 to the first half of 2014 and gradually increased in the second half of 2014. The distribution of ECHO6 and CVB5 strains in Jiading District was similar to that in Minhang District. In 2013-2014, CVB5 strains comprised C6 and C8 subgenotypes, which belong to two transmission chains

  12. Molecular characterization, distribution, and dynamics of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors in Colombia.

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    Mora, Mónica Viviana Alvarado; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a frequent cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and a leading cause for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified in six major genotypes and more than 70 subtypes. In Colombian blood banks, serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using a third-generation ELISA. The aim of this study was to characterize the viral sequences in plasma of 184 volunteer blood donors who attended the "Banco Nacional de Sangre de la Cruz Roja Colombiana," Bogotá, Colombia. Three different HCV genomic regions were amplified by nested PCR. The first of these was a segment of 180 bp of the 5'UTR region to confirm the previous diagnosis by ELISA. From those that were positive to the 5'UTR region, two further segments were amplified for genotyping and subtyping by phylogenetic analysis: a segment of 380 bp from the NS5B region; and a segment of 391 bp from the E1 region. The distribution of HCV subtypes was: 1b (82.8%), 1a (5.7%), 2a (5.7%), 2b (2.8%), and 3a (2.8%). By applying Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, it was estimated that HCV-1b was introduced into Bogotá around 1950. Also, this subtype spread at an exponential rate between about 1970 to about 1990, after which transmission of HCV was reduced by anti-HCV testing of this population. Among Colombian blood donors, HCV genotype 1b is the most frequent genotype, especially in large urban conglomerates such as Bogotá, as is the case in other South American countries. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of hepatitis B infection among HIV-infected patients in the State of MS, Central Brazil

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    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    Full Text Available Objectives: A cross-sectional study on prevalence of HBV and HDV infection, risk factors and genotype distribution of HBV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. Methods: Serum samples of 848 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc and hepatitis surface antibody (anti-HBs. HBsAg positive samples were tested for anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HCV, and total anti-HDV. HBsAg and anti-HBc positive were subjected to DNA extraction. Viral DNA was amplified by semi-nested PCR for the regions pre-S/S and then purified and genotyped/subgenotyped by direct sequencing. Student's t-test, chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare variables and to evaluate association between HBV positivity (defined as anti-HBc and/or HBsAg positivity and risk factors. Results: Among the 848 HIV infected patients investigated 222 had serological markers of HBV infection. The prevalence rate of HIV-HBV coinfection was 2.5% (21/848; 95% CI: 1.4–3.5%; 484 (57.1% patients were susceptible for HBV infection. There were no cases of anti-HDV positive and only one (0.1% anti-HCV-positive case among the HIV-HBV coinfected patients. Male gender, increasing age, family history of hepatitis, use of illicit drug, and homosexual activity were independent factors associated with HBV exposure. The phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene region revealed the presence of genotypes D (76.9%, F (15.4% and A (7.7% in the study sample. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the low prevalence of HIV-HBV infection and also highlights the need for early vaccination against HBV as well as testing for HBV, HCV and HDV in all HIV-infected individuals.

  14. In vitro culture of a novel genotype of Ehrlichia sp. from Brazil.

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    Zweygarth, E; Schöl, H; Lis, K; Cabezas Cruz, A; Thiel, C; Silaghi, C; Ribeiro, M F B; Passos, L M F

    2013-11-01

    Ehrlichiae are obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. Ehrlichioses are considered emerging diseases in both humans and animals. Several members of the genus Ehrlichia have been isolated and propagated in vitro. This study describes the continuous propagation of a Brazilian Ehrlichia sp. isolate in IDE8 tick cells, canine DH82 cells and bovine aorta cells. Initially, the organisms were isolated from the haemolymph of a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick into IDE8 cells. Infected IDE8 cells were brought from Brazil to Germany, where the organisms were continuously propagated in IDE8, DH82 and bovine aorta cells. Bovine aorta cells were infected and propagated for 3 months, corresponding to six subcultures, whereas the other two infected cell lines were kept for more than 1 year. During the cultivation period, 36 and 14 subcultures were carried out in IDE8 and DH82 cell cultures, respectively. Reinfection of IDE8 cells with organisms grown in DH82 cells was achieved. Sequence analysis made with a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene showed that this Ehrlicha sp. is closely related to Ehrlichia canis. However, the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree shows that it falls in a separate phylogenetic clade from E. canis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Genotyping of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from exotic and wild animals kept in captivity in Brazil.

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    Soares, Rodrigo Martins; de Souza, Sílvio Luís Pereira; Silveira, Luciane Holsback; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Gennari, Solange M

    2011-08-25

    We have studied the variability of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA coding genes of Giardia species in fecal samples isolated from wild and exotic animals in Brazil, and compared with homologous sequences of isolates from human and domestic animals characterized in previous studies. Cysts of Giardia duodenalis were obtained from feces of naturally infected monkeys (Alouatta fusca) (n=20), chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) (n=3), ostriches (Struthio camelus) (n=2) and jaguar (Panthera onca) (n=1). Assemblage AI was assigned to the unique isolate of jaguar. All the samples from monkeys, chinchillas, and ostriches were assigned to Assemblage B. There was little evolutionary divergence between the referred isolates and isolates described elsewhere. The Assemblage B isolates identified in this study were closely related to Assemblage BIV isolated from humans. The molecular identification of Assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis isolates from exotic and wild animals demonstrates that such hosts may be a potential reservoir for zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution and genotype-phenotype correlation of GDAP1 mutations in Spain.

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    Sivera, Rafael; Frasquet, Marina; Lupo, Vincenzo; García-Sobrino, Tania; Blanco-Arias, Patricia; Pardo, Julio; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; de Munain, Adolfo López; Márquez-Infante, Celedonio; Villarreal, Liliana; Carbonell, Pilar; Rojas-García, Ricard; Segovia, Sonia; Illa, Isabel; Frongia, Anna Lia; Nascimento, Andrés; Ortez, Carlos; García-Romero, María Del Mar; Pascual, Samuel Ignacio; Pelayo-Negro, Ana Lara; Berciano, José; Guerrero, Antonio; Casasnovas, Carlos; Camacho, Ana; Esteban, Jesús; Chumillas, María José; Barreiro, Marisa; Díaz, Carmen; Palau, Francesc; Vílchez, Juan Jesús; Espinós, Carmen; Sevilla, Teresa

    2017-07-27

    Mutations in the GDAP1 gene can cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. These mutations are quite rare in most Western countries but not so in certain regions of Spain or other Mediterranean countries. This cross-sectional retrospective multicenter study analyzed the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with GDAP1 mutations across Spain. 99 patients were identified, which were distributed across most of Spain, but especially in the Northwest and Mediterranean regions. The most common genotypes were p.R120W (in 81% of patients with autosomal dominant inheritance) and p.Q163X (in 73% of autosomal recessive patients). Patients with recessively inherited mutations had a more severe phenotype, and certain clinical features, like dysphonia or respiratory dysfunction, were exclusively detected in this group. Dominantly inherited mutations had prominent clinical variability regarding severity, including 29% of patients who were asymptomatic. There were minor clinical differences between patients harboring specific mutations but not when grouped according to localization or type of mutation. This is the largest clinical series to date of patients with GDAP1 mutations, and it contributes to define the genetic distribution and genotype-phenotype correlation in this rare form of CMT.

  17. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

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    Katiboina Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A ( XPA G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 ( ERCC2 /Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G ( XPG His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis.

  18. Morphological, genotypic, and physiological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from keratitis patients and the domestic environment in Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

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    Duarte, Juliana L; Furst, Cinthia; Klisiowicz, Débora R; Klassen, Giseli; Costa, Adriana O

    2013-09-01

    Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are free-living protozoa that can cause granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis in humans. In this study, four clinical and three household dust isolates obtained in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil were characterized by their morphological, genotypic, and physiological properties. All isolates belonged to group II according to Pussard and Pons' cyst morphology. Analysis of their 18S rDNA sequence identified one isolate from household dust as genotype T11 and the others six samples as genotype T4. Five T4 isolates presented a highly variable region (DF3) in 18S rDNA identical to those previously described. Physiological assays carried out with trophozoites in co-culture with bacteria or in axenic conditions showed all samples tolerated temperatures up to 37°C, regardless of culture method. One keratitis isolate grew at 42°C in co-culture with bacteria. Most isolates in co-culture survived at 1.0M, except a T11 isolate, which tolerated up to 0.5M. The isolates did not grow at 42°C and did not tolerate 0.5M and 1.0M under axenic condition. This is the first report of 18S rRNA gene genotyping applied to Acanthamoeba isolated from keratitis patients in Brazil. The results also indicated that osmo-tolerance is dependent on the culture system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a population-based split-sample study of well-screened women using CLART HPV2 human papillomavirus genotype microarray system.

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    Bonde, Jesper; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Preisler, Sarah; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten

    2014-07-26

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are becoming increasingly attractive for use in mass screening, as they offer a possibility to integrate HPV screening with HPV vaccine monitoring, thereby generating a synergy between the two main modes of cervical cancer prevention. The Genomica CLART HPV2 assay is a semi-automated PCR-based microarray assay detecting 35 high-risk and low-risk HPV genotypes. However, few reports have described this assay in cervical screening. An aim of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in Copenhagen, Denmark, an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for organized screening. Material from 5,068 SurePath samples of women participating in routine screening and clinical follow-up of cervical abnormalities was tested using liquid based cytology, CLART HPV2 and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). At least one of the 35 defined genotypes was detected by CLART in 1,896 (37%) samples. The most frequent high-risk genotypes were HPV 16 (7%), HPV 52 (5%), and HPV 31 (4%). The most frequent low-risk genotypes were HPV 53 (5%), HPV 61 (4%), and HPV 66 (3%). Among 4,793 women targeted by the screening program (23-65 years), 1,166 (24%) tested positive for one or more of the 13 high-risk genotypes. This proportion decreased from 40% at age 23-29 years to 10% at age 60-65 years. On HC2, 1,035 (20%) samples were positive for any high-risk and thus CLART showed a higher analytical sensitivity for 13 high-risk HPV genotypes than HC2, and this was found in all age-groups and in women normal cytology. CLART performed well with a positive reproducibility for high-risk genotypes of 86%, and a negative reproducibility of 97%. This report furthermore updates the genotype distribution in Denmark prior to the inclusion of the HPV-vaccinated cohorts into the screening program, and as such represents a valuable baseline for future vaccine impact assessment.

  20. Distribution and abundance of Pleuronectiformes larvae off Southeastern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garbini, Camilla Nunes; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Ohkawara, Márcio Hidekazu; Katsuragawa, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was the description of the composition, abundance and density in horizontal and vertical distribution of Pleuronectiformes larvae on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf...

  1. Distribution of nuclear medicine service in Brazil; Distribuicao do servico de medicina nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Carolina Costa da; Duarte, Alessandro; Santos, Bianca Maciel dos [Faculdade Metodo de Sao Paulo (FAMESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The Brazil does not posses a good distribution of nuclear medicine service por all his territory. This paper shows the difference among country regions as far the number of clinics of nuclear medicine as is concerning, and also doctors licensed in the area and radioprotection supervisors, both licensed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

  2. Designing sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply chains in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dondè, Giulia; Trienekens, Jacques; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Due to the intensive use of natural resources in food production in Brazil and the consequent air and water pollution, sustainable production is high on the agenda of businesses and policy makers. This paper designs sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply

  3. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registered in a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographical distribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  4. [Genotype distribution of enterovirus group B isolated in Shandong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yan; Liu, Kun; Tao, Ze-xin; Li, Yan; Liu, Gui-fang; Liu, Yao; Feng, Lei; Fan, Qing-ying; Yang, He; Song, Li-zhi; Xu, Ai-qiang

    2010-09-01

    In order to explore the genotype distribution of human enterovirus group B (HEV-B) in Shandong Province and to study the correlation between HEV-B serotypes and disease outbreaks, we sequenced and analyzed the entire VP1 coding region of HEV-B isolated from acute flaccid parolysis (AFP) system and disease outbreaks in Shandong province during 1998-2008. All together twenty nine HEV-B serotypes were identified, including twenty Echovirus (ECHO) serotypes, five Coxsackievirus B (CVB1-5) serotypes, one Coxsackievirus A9(CVA9) serotype, and newer enteroviruses EV73, EV75, and EV97. E11, CVB3, E6, E14 and E25 were the five frequently isolated serotypes from AFP surveillance system. CVB3, CVB5 and ECHO30 were the major causative agent of aseptic meningitis in Shandong province. Comparison of nucleotide sequence homology showed 75.4%-99.6% inter-typic identities within Shandong strains, and 73.8%-85.2% identities with prototype strains. Amino acid sequence comparison showed the differentiation was not much. Our research showed different serotypes possessed distinct time-cycling pattern, and different sub-genotypes could be further classified according to the inter-typic genetic distance. Thereby the route and range of transmission of HEV could be determined.

  5. Distribution of genotypes and alleles of the aldosterone-synthase gene in patients with abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Brovin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed 140 patients with abdominal obesity (AO (IDF, 2005, the residents of St. Petersburg (44.6 ± 0.6 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS (IDF, 2005 was diagnosed in 49.2% of patients with AO. The most frequent component of MS in patients with AO was arterial hypertension (AH. The distribution of genotypes and -alleles of the aldosterone-synthase gene in patients with AO and in the comparison group (56 subjects without AO, 41.0 ± 1.1 years didn't differ (p> 0.05. Levels of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP were higher in carriers of -344T allele of aldosterone-synthase gene. Plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and glucose levels, anthropometric parameters, serum blood lipids and carbohydrate metabolism indices in obese patients with different genotypes of aldosterone-synthase gene didn't differ. -344T allele of aldosterone-synthase gene in patients with AO is associated with the increased risk of AH.

  6. Spatial distribution of scientific activities: An exploratory analysis of Brazil, 2000–10

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Chiarini; Vanessa Parreiras de Oliveira; Fabio Chaves do Couto e Silva Neto

    2014-01-01

    The literature analyzing the spatial distribution of scientific and technological production in Brazil identifies differences in the regional distribution of scientific and technological resources. In this paper, we contribute to this discussion, by analyzing the dynamics of the production of new scientific knowledge in the states that contributed the most to national scientific production in the period 2000–10: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, also known as the ...

  7. Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in the South Marmara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Agca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important caustive agent of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma both in our country and the world. Prognosis and response to treatment is related with the genotype of HCV which has six genotypes and over a hundred quasispecies. Knowing the HCV genotype is also important for epidemiological data. In this study we aimed to investigate the HCV genotypes of samples sent to Uludag University Hospital Microbiology Laboratory which is the reference centre in the South Marmara Region. Material and Method: This study was done retrospectively to analyse the HCV patients%u2019 sera sent to our laboratory between July 2010and December 2012 for HCV genotyping. Artus HCV QS-RGQ PCR kit (Qiagene,Hilden, Germany was used in Rotor-Gene Q (Qiagene, Hilden Germany for detection of HCV RNA. HCV RNA positive samples of patients%u2019 sera were were used for genotyping by the Linear Array HCV genotyping test (Roche, NJ, USA.Results: 214 (92.6 % of total 231 patients included in the study were genotype 1, one (0.4 % was genotype 2, nine (3.9 % were genotype 3 and, seven (3.4 % were found genotype 4. Three of genotype 3 patients were of foreign nationality, two were born abroad and one of the genotype 4 patients were born abroad. Discussion: Concordant with our country data the most frequent genotype was 1, genotype 2 was seen in patients especially related with foreign countries and genotype 4 was seen rare. The importance of genotype 1, which is seen more frequent in our country and region is; resistance to antiviral treatment and prolonged treatment duration in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  8. Data on genotypic distribution and linkage disequilibrium of several ANRIL polymorphisms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arbiol-Roca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A long non-coding RNA called ANRIL located on chromosome 9p21.3 has been identified as a novel genetic factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Investigation of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of Noncoding Antisense RNA in the INK4 Locus (ANRIL gene are of particular interest. This article reports data related to the research article entitled: “Association of ANRIL gene polymorphisms with major adverse cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients” (Arbiol-Roca et al. [1]. Data presented show the genotypic distribution of four selected ANRIL SNPs: rs10757278, rs4977574, rs10757274 and rs6475606 in a cohort constituted by 284 hemodialysis patients. This article analyzes the Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium of each studied SNP, and the linkage disequilibrium between them.

  9. Prevalence of Cervical Infection and Genotype Distribution of Human Papilloma Virus Among Females in Da Nang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Song Nguyen; Khac, Minh Nguyen; Dimberg, Jan; Matussek, Andreas; Henningsson, Anna J

    2017-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes in women from two districts in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. All participants were randomly selected, 200 from the Hai Chau district and 200 from the Son Tra district. The detection and genotyping of HPV were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Out of a total of 400 women, we found that 38 (9.5%) were infected with a high-risk HPV genotype, the most prevalent genotypes being 16, 18, 58 and 59. By assessment of the HPV findings in relation to sociodemographic characteristics, we found significant differences between the two study districts and between the age groups, as well as differences associated with occupation and the use of contraceptives. The proportion of high-risk genotypes other than 16 and 18 was relatively high, and since the HPV genotype distribution is known to vary greatly across populations, the information from this study can be used for planning of screening and vaccination programs in Da Nang. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Detection and Distribution of V1016Ikdr Mutation in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Gene in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations From Sergipe State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolabella, S S; Santos, R L C; Silva, M C N; Steffler, L M; Ribolla, P E M; Cavalcanti, S C H; Jain, S; Martins, A J

    2016-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) resistance to pyrethroids was recorded in Brazil few years after its introduction as the adulticide in the National Dengue Control Program campaigns. Altered susceptibility to pyrethroids had been reported in the state of Sergipe, northeast Brazil, through biological assays, even before its use against Ae. aegypti in the state. Metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms were also revealed in samples from Aracaju, the capital of Sergipe. Herein, we investigated the presence and distribution of the kdr mutation V1016Ikdr in Ae. aegypti populations from different municipalities of the state. Aedes aegypti eggs were collected from seven municipalities located in areas showing different climatic types and infestation levels. Approximately 20 Ae. aegypti females from each municipality (total of 135 subjects) were individually submitted to allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) for the 1016 site of the voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV). The V1016Ikdr mutation was found in subjects from all the municipalities under study with a high frequency of heterozygotes in several locations. Homozygous recessive subjects (resistant kdr genotype) were found only in one municipality. The results suggest a wide distribution of the V1016Ikdr mutation in the northeast Brazil, which indicates urgent need for monitoring the effectiveness of the pyrethroids currently used for vector control. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Determining hepatitis C virus genotype distribution among high-risk groups in Iran using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Namayandeh, Mandana; Asaei, Sadaf; Aliabadi, Nasrin; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-05-21

    To assess hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype patterns among high-risk Iranian groups, using real-time RT-PCR. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of different HCV genotypes among injection drug users and other high-risk groups over a 4-year period (from 2009 to 2012) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera from 888 HCV-infected patients residing in southern and southwest Iran were genotyped using real-time PCR with common primers and specific probes. These patients were grouped into distinct exposure categories. Illicit drug users constituted the primary group and were further evaluated for HCV genotype distribution and parameters such as age range. Of the examined HCV-infected patients, 62% were substance abusers, although the route of transmission could not be determined in approximately 30% of these patients. HCV genotyping revealed that Gt1 was the most prevalent genotype among the drug users as well as among patients with thalassemia, hemophilia, solid organ recipients and those on hemodialysis. Mixed infections were only seen in addict groups, where Gt2 genotype was also found. The highest frequencies in HCV-positive addict patients were observed in the 31-40 age group. Our research also showed that the addiction age has increased, whereas the addiction rate has dropped in this region. Most illicit drug users had more than one risk factor such as tattoo and/or a history of imprisonment. This study revealed that the most common HCV-infection route and HCV-genotype in southern and southwest Iran was illicit drug abuse and Gt1, respectively.

  12. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  13. Distribution of Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Association to Cervical Lesions among Women in Fez (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souho, Tiatou; El Fatemi, Hinde; Karim, Safae; El Rhazi, Karima; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    To determine the distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes and their association to cellular abnormalities in women from Fez and its neighborhood. Women attending the Hassan II University Hospital for cervical pap smears were recruited after an informed consent. Interviews and two cervical samples were performed for each woman. Cervical samples were used for cytological analysis and HPV DNA detection. HPV was typed using a method based on multiplex PCR with fluorescently labeled specific primers followed by capillary electrophoresis. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez. The HPV prevalence in the studied population was 43.1% and the most prevalent types were HPV 53 (23 cases); HPV 16 (20 cases); HPV 35 (18 cases); HPV 51 (10 cases) and HPV 56 (7 cases). From the 619 confirmed pap smears, 20% were abnormal. The cytological abnormalities were significantly associated to HPV infection, women age, number of pregnancies and parity (p < 0.05). More attention should be given to HPV in Morocco because it represents an important public health concern. The distribution of carcinogenic HPV types in the studied population is different from the data in other regions but epidemiological studies in other Moroccan regions are required.

  14. Tracing Jomon and Yayoi ancestries in Japan using ALDH2 and JC virus genotype distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamori, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Noboru; Idota, Nozomi; Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; McLean, Stuart; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    According to the dual structure model, the modern Japanese ethnic population consists of a mixture of the Jomon people, who have existed in Japan since at least the New Stone Age, and the Yayoi people, who migrated to western Japan from China around the year 300 bc Some reports show that the Yayoi are linked to a mutation of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2). Recent viral studies indicate two major groups found in the Japanese population: a group with the CY genotype JC virus (JCV) and a group with the MY genotype JCV. It is unclear whether either genotype of the JC virus is related to the Jomon or Yayoi. In this study, we attempted to detect JCV genotypes and ALDH2 mutations from the DNA of 247 Japanese urine samples to clarify the relationship between the dual structure model and the JCV genotype through ALDH2 mutation analysis and JCV genotyping. The ALDH2 polymorphism among 66 JC virus-positive samples was analyzed, and it was found that the ALDH2 variant is significantly higher in the population with CY genotype JCV (51.5 %) than in the population with the MY genotype (24.2 %) (p Yayoi, is related to CY genotype JCV. When the Yayoi migrated to the Japanese archipelago, they brought the ALDH2 mutation as well as the CY genotype JCV.

  15. Genotypic distribution of Candida albicans in dental biofilm of Chinese children associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao Qiong; Zhang, Qiong; Lu, Li Ying; Yang, Ran; Liu, Yuan; Zou, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Candida albicans causes a wide range of infections in the oral mucosa, especially candidiasis. A strong association has been found between C. albicans and dental caries. In this study, we investigated the presence and genotypic distribution of C. albicans in the dental biofilm of Chinese children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Dental biofilm samples were collected from 41 Chinese children (21 children with S-ECC and 20 children without caries) aged 3-6 years. Samples collected were cultured in CHROMagar Candida (CA) medium. Cellular DNA of typical C. albicans isolates in the CA medium was isolated, and PCR using primers reported to span a transposable intron region in the 25S rRNA gene was performed to determine genotypic subgroups. C. albicans was detected in 57.1% of individuals with S-ECC. Additionally, three genotypic subgroups of C. albicans (genotypes A, B, and C) were found in children with S-ECC, and genotype A was dominant. C. albicans is an important component of dental biofilm associated with S-ECC, and C. albicans genotypic subgroup A is the dominant strain in the dental biofilm of children with S-ECC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human cytomegalovirus UL55, UL144, and US28 genotype distribution in infants infected congenitally or postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, Edyta; Studzińska, Mirosława; Suski, Patrycja; Kasztelewicz, Beata; Wiśniewska-Ligier, Małgorzata; Zawilińska, Barbara; Gaj, Zuzanna; Nowakowska, Dorota

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection. This pathogen exhibits extensive genetic variability in the genes that encode structural envelope glycoproteins, regulatory proteins, and proteins that contribute to immune evasion. However, the role of specific viral strains in the outcome of congenital CMV infection is unclear. Variation in the UL55 gene encoding glycoprotein B (gB), the UL144 gene encoding TNF α-like receptor, and the US28 gene encoding β-chemokine receptor was determined in 60 newborn infants with congenital CMV infection and 90 infants with postnatal or undefined CMV infection. CMV polymorphisms were studied in relation to disease outcome and viral load. Genotyping was performed by a sequencing analysis of PCR-amplified fragments, and the viral load was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that (1) the UL55 and US28 genotype distributions were similar among the group of congenital and postnatal CMV infection; (2) the UL144 B1 genotype was more prevalent in congenital than in postnatal infection and was detected in 70% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital infection; and (3) none of the examined genotype was significantly linked with symptomatic CMV infection. No relationship was observed between genotype and viral load. The results revealed that UL55, UL144, and US28 polymorphisms are not associated with the outcome of CMV infection in infants, but the presence of UL144 B1 genotype might be virological marker of asymptomatic infection at birth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Private health expenditures and income distribution in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsztajn, Samuel; Camara, Marcelo Bozzini Da; Carmo, Manuela Santos Nunes Do

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the share of the family private health expenditures in the Brazilian GDP and in personal income; and the distribution of the family private health expenditures among social groups. The research utilized the 1998 Brazilian Home Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios) with the division of the population into four social groups according to the family income per capita; and the distribution of the family private health expenditures among health insurance, physicians, other health professionals, medical tests, drugs, orthopedic and other medical durables, vision products, dental services, hospital care, nursing home care and other health spending. In 1998, only 7.2% of the population with family income per capita up to 1 minimum wage had health insurance and the health expenditures of this group, that represented 52.5% of the population, was US$ 4.62 per capita. For the people with 9 and more minimum wages per capita the health insurance coverage was 83.2% and the health expenditures was US$ 114.66 per capita. The implementation of the Brazilian public universal health care system in 1988 denominated "Sistema Unico de Saude" was followed by an expressive expansion of private insurance coverage in the 1990's. Even if all public health expenditures had been exclusively directed to the population without any private insurance, these people's health expenditures would only reach 43% of the health expenditures of those with private insurance.

  18. Hepatitis B virus prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution in HIV infected patients from West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fibriani, A.; Wisaksana, R.; Alisjahbana, B.; Indrati, A.; Schutten, M.; Crevel, R. van; Ven, A. van der; Boucher, C.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indonesia currently faces both an increasing HIV incidence and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypic distribution of HBV infection among HIV infected patients in West Java, Indonesia. STUDY

  19. Variation and correlation of protein molecular weight distribution and semolina quality parameters for durum genotypes grown in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research assessed the associations between protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and quality characteristics for durum semolina samples that were obtained from thirteen durum genotypes grown at seven locations for two years in North Dakota. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractable and un...

  20. Human papillomavirus genotypes 68 and 58 are the most prevalent genotypes in women from quilombo communities in the state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Batista

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: A distinct profile of high-risk HPV genotypes was detected, with predominance of types 68 and 58. It is possible that the results of the present study are due to specific characteristics of the population, which is geographically isolated and maintains conservative sexual habits.

  1. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing trade in three locations: Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Puerto Quijarro (Bolivia, and Corumbá (Brazil. The purpose is to identify the route and the nuances regarding the second-hand clothing distribution network from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Corumbá, on the Bolivia-Brazil border.

  2. Genomic distribution of SINEs in Entamoeba histolytica strains: implication for genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The major clinical manifestations of Entamoeba histolytica infection include amebic colitis and liver abscess. However the majority of infections remain asymptomatic. Earlier reports have shown that some E. histolytica isolates are more virulent than others, suggesting that virulence may be linked to genotype. Here we have looked at the genomic distribution of the retrotransposable short interspersed nuclear elements EhSINE1 and EhSINE2. Due to their mobile nature, some EhSINE copies may occupy different genomic locations among isolates of E. histolytica possibly affecting adjacent gene expression; this variability in location can be exploited to differentiate strains. Results We have looked for EhSINE1- and EhSINE2-occupied loci in the genome sequence of Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS and searched for homologous loci in other strains to determine the insertion status of these elements. A total of 393 EhSINE1 and 119 EhSINE2 loci were analyzed in the available sequenced strains (Rahman, DS4-868, HM1:CA, KU48, KU50, KU27 and MS96-3382. Seventeen loci (13 EhSINE1 and 4 EhSINE2) were identified where a EhSINE1/EhSINE2 sequence was missing from the corresponding locus of other strains. Most of these loci were unoccupied in more than one strain. Some of the loci were analyzed experimentally for SINE occupancy using DNA from strain Rahman. These data helped to correctly assemble the nucleotide sequence at three loci in Rahman. SINE occupancy was also checked at these three loci in 7 other axenically cultivated E. histolytica strains and 16 clinical isolates. Each locus gave a single, specific amplicon with the primer sets used, making this a suitable method for strain typing. Based on presence/absence of SINE and amplification with locus-specific primers, the 23 strains could be divided into eleven genotypes. The results obtained by our method correlated with the data from other typing methods. We also report a bioinformatic analysis of EhSINE2 copies

  3. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine among Men Attending STD Clinics in Guangdong Province, China, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yaohua; Zheng, Heping; Tang, Weiming; Mai, Zhida; Huang, Jinmei; Huang, Shujie; Qin, Xiaolin; Chen, Lei; Zheng, Lei

    2017-12-26

    Studies rarely assessed the genotype distribution of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in urine among men attending STD clinics (MSCs) in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from ten HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong province. CT DNA in men urine samples were extracted and detected by using the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG. The ompA genes were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The leukocyte esterase test was performed by routine urine analysis at local clinics. Of the 1903 samples, 163(8.6%, 95%CI3.8- 16.3%) were found to be positive for CT. The highest prevalence (10.5%) of CT infection was observed among participants aged 21-30. One hundred and thirty CT positive specimens (79.8%, 130/163) were successfully genotyped by nested PCR, resulting in eight genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes were D, E, F, and J, with proportions of 20.8%, 20.0%, 17.7%, and 16.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in geographic area, leukocyte esterase test and genotype distribution. Promotion of detection and molecular epidemiology research is needed for effective and comprehensive prevention and control programs.

  4. Spatial distribution of river dolphins, Inia geoffrensis (Iniidae), in the Araguaia River (central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    ARAÚJO, CLARYANA COSTA; Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the distribution of botos, Inia geoffrensis, along a 530 km stretch in the middle reaches of the Araguaia River (central Brazil). Data collection was conducted in May (lowering water season) and September (dry season) of 2009. The location and group size of botos were recorded, and the relative density was calculated. The river was divided into nine areas according to geomorphological features; these areas were later grouped into two (low and high) levels of s...

  5. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  6. Genotypic distribution of common variants of endosomal toll like receptors in healthy Spanish women. A comparative study with other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Robles, Elena; Yebra-Bango, Miguel; Mellor-Pita, Susana; Tutor-Ureta, Pablo; Vargas, Juan A; Citores, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variants of endosomal toll like receptors (TLR) have been associated with many infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but few studies have been reported in the Spanish population. The aim of this study was to describe the allelic and genotypic distributions of some common nucleotide substitutions of endosomal TLRs in healthy Spanish women and to compare them with those already published in other population groups. Nine substitutions were analysed in 150 DNA samples from 150 Spanish, non-related healthy females: TLR3 rs3775291 and rs5743305; TLR7 rs179008 and rs5743781; TLR8 rs3764880 and TLR9 rs187084, rs5743836, rs352139 and rs352140. Genotyping was carried out by real time PCR and melting curve analysis in a LightCycler 480. A systematic review was performed in order to compare the genotypic distributions in our cohort with those previously published in other population groups. The comparative study was performed with the two tailed Fisher's test or the Yates continuity correction for the Chi-square test when appropriate. No homozygotes for rs5743781 in TLR7 were found, and rs352139 and rs352140 of TLR9 were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Genotype distributions in endosomal TLR are similar to other Spanish series previously reported. As expected, most differences were found when comparing our distributions with Asiatics, but differences were also found with other Caucasian populations. Since there are significant variations in genotypic distributions of TLRs in both interracial groups and within the same ethnic group, to carry out studies of disease susceptibility in more restricted groups is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and abundance of Pleuronectiformes larvae off Southeastern Brazil

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    Camilla Nunes Garbini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the description of the composition, abundance and density in horizontal and vertical distribution of Pleuronectiformes larvae on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf. The samples were collected with bongo nets and a Multi Plankton Sampler (MPS, both in summer and winter 2002. A total of 352 flatfishes larvae were collected in summer and 343 in winter, representing three families and a total of 13 taxa: Paralichthyidae (Citharichthys cornutus, C. spilopterus, Citharichthys sp., Cyclopsetta chittendeni, Syacium spp., Etropus spp. and Paralichthys spp., Bothidae (Bothus ocellatus and Monolene antillarum and Cynoglossidae (Symphurus trewavasae, S. jenynsi, S. plagusia and S. ginsburgi. The most abundant taxa were Etropus spp., Syacium spp. and Bothus ocellatus. Etropus spp. occurred mainly as far out as the 200 m isobath and Syacium spp. from 100 m. B. ocellatus was present mainly in the oceanic zone between Ubatuba and Rio de Janeiro as from the 200 m isobath. The greatest average densities of these species occurred in the strata from 0 to 20 m depth in summer and between 20 and 40 m in winter.

  8. Antigenic and genotypic characterization of rabies virus isolated from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Paiz, Laís Moraes; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio

    2017-05-01

    Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). These bats were diagnosed as RABV positive by direct fluorescent antibody and mouse inoculation tests. Antigenic characterization using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies revealed that 7 of 19 RABV isolates from these bats belonged to variant 3, for which the hematophagous bat species Desmodus rotundus is the main reservoir, and 1 of 19 RABV isolates from an insectivorous bat belonged to variant 4, which is characteristic of these bats. The remaining 11 RABV samples were divided into six non-compatible profiles. The isolates were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the N gene and partially sequenced. Genetic characterization of these isolates was performed by grouping the sequences obtained with known RABV lineages. The sequences were grouped in clusters by the phylogenetic inference neighbor-joining method, together with another 89 homologous sequences obtained from GenBank. This analysis grouped the isolates into four known lineages: Nyctinomops Brazil, Myotis Brazil, Eptesicus Brazil and D. rotundus Brazil, as well as another cluster that may define a RABV lineage not yet characterized, here named Myotis Brazil II, for which bats of the genus Myotis apparently act as reservoirs. This assumption of a new lineage is also based on the observation of amino acid substitutions, with an average intraspecific identity of 99.8%, varying from 99.6 to 100.0% for nucleotides and 100

  9. Temporal evolution of the distribution of hepatitis E virus genotypes in Southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Abravanel, Florence; Dubois, Martine; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Sandres-Saune, Karine; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2015-10-01

    Southwest France is a highly endemic region for hepatitis E virus (HEV). This study examined the circulation of HEV strains between 2003 and 2014 in the Midi-Pyrénées, and compared these data with those from the rest of France. The polyproline region (PPR) of the ORF1 region of the HEV genome was also analyzed. HEV genotype was determined by sequencing a 348-nt fragment within the ORF2 gene for 333 strains in the Midi-Pyrénées and for 571 strains from the rest of France. PPR region was characterized for 56 strains. The frequency of subgenotype 3f decreased over time, whereas subgenotype 3c increased in the Midi-Pyrénées. Repartition of strains did not differ in the Midi-Pyrénées compared to the rest of France. HEV3i and HEV4 have been recently detected throughout France. PPR lengths showed that two major groups of HEV3f exist. Our study shows that HEV3 distribution in the Midi-Pyrénées was similar to the whole of France. Local dietary habits could explain the higher seroprevalence in the Midi-Pyrénées rather the circulation of a particular variant in this region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping and Distribution of Coxiella burnetii Strains from Field Samples in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Renaville, Bénédicte; Martinelle, Ludovic; Renaville, Robert; Thys, Christine; Smeets, François; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Grégoire, Fabien; Delooz, Laurent; Czaplicki, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The genotypic characterization of Coxiella burnetii provides useful information about the strains circulating at the farm, region, or country level and may be used to identify the source of infection for animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the strains of C. burnetii circulating in caprine and bovine Belgian farms using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technique. Direct genotyping was applied to different samples (bulk tank milk, individual milk, vaginal swab, fetal product, and air sample). Besides the well-known SNP genotypes, unreported ones were found in bovine and caprine samples, increasing the variability of the strains found in the two species in Belgium. Moreover, multiple genotypes were detected contemporarily in caprine farms at different years of sampling and by using different samples. Interestingly, certain SNP genotypes were detected in both bovine and caprine samples, raising the question of interspecies transmission of the pathogen. PMID:26475104

  11. Geographic distribution model for Mabuya agmosticha (Squamata: Scincidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Raul F.D. Sales

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical lizard Mabuya agmosticha Rodrigues, 2000 is a habitat-specialist of thorny bromeliads in rocky outcrops of northeastern Brazil. Its distribution in the Caatinga Domain is most likely relictual. In recent years, new surveys conducted in northeastern Brazil have revealed new records of the species in the Caatinga and also in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we add four new records for M. agmosticha, extending its known geographic range in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba. In addition, we investigated the potential geographical distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling (ENM, which combines the available occurrence records with environmental variables. Our model revealed a continuous range of areas with suitable climatic conditions for the species, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to the northeast portion of the state of Bahia, plus some relictual distribution spots, mainly in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Ceará and western Rio Grande do Norte. Based on the model, we suggest that the distribution of M. agmosticha is continuous on a large geographic scale. On a smaller spatial scale, however, it is clear that its distribution is clumped, reflecting its specialist habits associated with rupicolous bromeliads.

  12. New record of Kinosternon scorpioides in Brazil increases its geo distribution - Case report

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    Diego Carvalho Viana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Viana D.C., Santos A.C. & Antunes R.L.S. New record of Kinosternon scorpioides in Brazil increases its geo distribution - Case report. [Novo registro de Kinosternon scorpioides no Brasil aumenta sua geodistribuição - Relato de caso.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:386-388, 2015. Department of Anatomy of Domestic and Wild Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Av. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, São Paulo SP, 05508-270. Brazil. E-mail: diego_carvalho_@hotmail.com/ diegoviana@usp.br Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides is the only sub-species of K. scorpioides with a distribution in South America. The register shows another new site for K. s. scorpioides, in the municipality of Imperatriz MA Brazil and the first report in the meso-region of Western Maranhão, River Tocantins. The municipality lies in the south-western region of the state and is known as the gate to the Amazon region, corroborating the importance of K. s. scorpioides inventories.

  13. Distribution of human rotavirus G and P genotypes in a hospital setting from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Anita; Chauhan, Mayank Singh; Sharma, Anju; Verma, Vikas

    2010-09-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. Rotavirus G and P genotyping is essential for epidemiological surveillance and for better formulation of candidate rotavirus vaccines. Out of 862 diarrheal stool samples collected from hospitalized children aged rotavirus by ELISA. G and P genotyping was performed on 100 randomly selected positive samples using a seminested multiplex RT-PCR assay. The result of G genotyping indicates G1 (60%) was the most predominant VP7 type, followed by G2 (16%), G9 (8%) and G3 (3%). Two cases of G12 genotype were also observed. P genotypes identified were P[8] (40%) followed by P[4] (26%) and P[6] (17%). The most common G-P combinations were G1P[8] (26%), followed by G1P[4] and G1P[6]. Mixed infection involved 28% of strains. In this study the G1 and P[8] genotypes were the leading G and P types. Two cases with G12 genotype were also observed during the study.

  14. Looking beyond human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 16 and 18: Defining HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancers in Australia prior to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Phillips, Samuel; Pyman, Jan; Cornall, Alyssa M; Lambie, Neil; Anderson, Lyndal; Cummings, Margaret; Payton, Diane; Scurry, James P; Newman, Marsali; Sharma, Raghwa; Saville, Marion; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-10-15

    Australia has implemented a high-coverage HPV vaccination program but has not, to date, established the distribution of HPV types that occur in cervical cancers in Australia. This information is important for determining the potential for cervical cancer prevention with both current and broader spectrum HPV vaccines. We analysed 847 cervical cancers diagnosed 2005 to 2015 in tertiary centres in the three most populous Australian states with resolution of specimens containing multiple HPV types using laser-capture microdissection. Archived FFPE tissue was reviewed by specialist pathologists, sandwich sectioned, and initially whole-tissue sections genotyped for HPV. Samples were first genotyped using SPF10-LiPA25 (version 1). Negative samples were screened with DNA ELISA kit HPV SPF10, followed by genotyping with SPF+ LiPA if ELISA positive. If still negative, samples were tested on a qPCR assay targeting the E6 region of HPV16, 18, 45 and 33. Of the 847 cancers (65.1% squamous, 28.7% adenocarcinoma, 4.3% adenosquamous, 2.0% other), 92.9% had HPV detected. Of the HPV-positive cancers, 607 of 787 (77.1%) contained HPV16 or 18, 125 of 787 (15.9%) contained HPV31/33/45/52 or 58, and 55 (7.0%) another HPV type. There was a strong correlation between HPV type and age, with younger women most likely to have HPV16/18 detected and least likely HPV negative. Our findings indicate that cervical cancers diagnosed in Australia more frequently contain HPV16/18 than in international series. This could be due to cervical screening in Australia increasing the proportion of adenocarcinomas, in which types 18 and 16 more strongly predominate, due to prevention of squamous cancers. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Prevalence and fimbrial genotype distribution of poultry Salmonella isolates in China (2006 to 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiansen; Zhang, Jinqiu; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Chunhong; Yu, Yan; Liu, Xuexian; Kelly, Patrick; Xu, Bu; Wang, Chengming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a total of 323 Salmonella enterica strains were isolated from 3,566 rectal swab samples of 51 poultry farms in seven regions of 12 provinces of China between 2006 and 2012. The prevalences of Salmonella sp. carriage were 12.4% in geese (66 positive/533 samples), 10.4% in turkeys (32/309), 9.8% in chickens (167/1,706), 6.8% in ducks (41/601), and 4.1% in pigeons (17/417), respectively. These isolates belonged to 20 serovars, in which the most frequent serovars were S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (herein, S. Pullorum) (55 isolates, 17.0%), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (50 isolates, 15.5%), and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (39 isolates, 12.1%). Overall, S. Typhimurium was the most commonly detected serovar; among the individual species, S. Pullorum was most commonly isolated from chickens, S. Enteritidis was most common in ducks, S. Typhimurium was most common in geese and pigeons, and S. enterica serovar Saintpaul was most common in turkeys. PCR determination of 20 fimbrial genes demonstrated the presence of bcfD, csgA, fimA, stdB, and sthE genes and the absence of staA and stgA genes in these isolates, and other loci were variably distributed, with frequency values ranging from 11.8 to 99.1%. These 323 Salmonella isolates were subdivided into 41 different fimbrial genotypes, and of these isolate, 285 strains (88.2%) had 12 to 14 fimbrial genes. Our findings indicated that the Salmonella isolates from different poultry species were phenotypically and genetically diverse and that some fimbrial genes are more frequently associated with serovars or serogroups.

  16. Distribution of Human SNPs and Its Effect on High-Throughput Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboldt, Daniel C.; Miller, Raymond D.; Kwok, Pui-Yan

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing the results of extensive single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies in humans, stimulated by the International HapMap Project, we present evidence that SNPs are not randomly spaced across the genome, but are somewhat clustered. This observation has important consequences for assay design, since hidden variants in primer sites can affect the accuracy of data. Indeed, using data from the calibration exercises of the HapMap Project, we found instances in which primer site mutations caused allele dropout and other genotyping failures. Given the dynamic nature of SNP discovery, it was inevitable that SNPs would be identified in the primer sites of many assays used for HapMap genotyping. We found that assays with such primer site mutations were correlated with elevated rates of genotype failure and allele dropout. This suggests that taking nearby SNPs into account is important for optimal genotyping assay design. PMID:16425292

  17. [Prevalence and genotype distribution changes in hepatitis C virus co-infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Celia; Mancebo-Hernández, María; Pérez-Navarro, Elisabet; Recio, Eva; Monje-Agudo, Patricia; Valiente, Adoración; Pineda, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of hepatitisC is decreasing among new diagnoses of HIV/HCV coinfection in Spain. The increasing use of the HCV treatment could have changed the HCV genotype distribution. The aim of this study is to analyze changes in the prevalence of HCV coinfection and in HCV genotype distribution among HIV-infected patients. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted that included all HIV-infected patients who attended the Outpatient Clinic of a hospital in Andalusia, between September 2008 and February 2009 (first period), and between January 2013 and June 2013 (second period). A total of 520 and 651 patients were included in the first and second period, respectively. The risk factors of HCV infection in the first vs. second period were: IDU, 319 (61%) vs. 348 (53%); heterosexual contact, 111 (21%) vs. 135 (21%); homosexual men, 76 (15%) vs. 114 (22%) (P=.006). The prevalence of HCV antibody per period was: 358 (69%) vs. 380 (58%) (P=<.001), and for the HCV-RNA was 255 (49%) vs. 240 (37%) (P=<.001). In both periods, the HCV genotype distribution was: 1, 137 (60%) vs. 138 (59%); 3, 45 (20%) vs. 42 (18%); 4, 42 (18%) vs. 47 (20%) (P=.881). The prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients has decreased in our area, including overall exposure to HCV virus and active infection during the last 5 years. However, the HCV genotype distribution has not changed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of serotype-specific genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitns in Brazilian patients with Down syndrome with different periodontal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson [UNESP; SUMIDA, Doris Hissako; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of highly or minimally leukotoxic strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) from patients with Down syndrome and the distribution of the different serotype-specific genotypes of this microorganism. Sixty-seven patients with Down syndrome were subjected to dental, periodontal and radiographic evaluations. Samples of subgingival biofilm were collected and plated onto TSBV agar and characteristic colonies of A. actinomycetemcomitans were identified...

  19. First report of typical Brazilian Toxoplasma gondii genotypes from isolates of free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) circulating in the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; de Almeida-Neto, João Leite; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Alves, Bruna Farias; Nakashima, Fabiana; Gennari, Solange Maria; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; de Jesus Pena, Hilda Fátima

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated, for the first time, the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Tissue samples from 33 chickens from properties in five municipalities of Paraíba (Esperança, Olho d'Água, Malta, Monteiro, and Patos) were bioassayed in mice. The brains of mice infected with T. gondii cysts were used for DNA extraction and genotyping. Genotyping was performed using 11 PCR-RFLP markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. Complete genotyping results were obtained for 29 isolates, with nine genotypes detected by RFLP and 15 genotypes identified by MS. Three genotypes (#273, #274, and #277) have only been recently identified from pigs in the region. Brazilian clonal types BrII and BrIII were identified from one isolate each. Clonal types I, II, and III were not detected by RFLP. Genotype #13 (Caribbean 1), detected in 48.3% (14/29) of isolates from four of the five municipalities investigated, was the most prevalent genotype in the state of Paraíba. However, the MS analysis showed that of these 14 isolates, only four were unique genotypes, and considering the distance between the municipalities from where they were collected, it is possible that only seven are independent isolates while the others are clones. The other genotypes were restricted to different microregions. The results indicate that the Caribbean 1 lineage of T. gondii is circulating widely in Northeast Brazil. The genotypic diversity of T. gondii in the state of Paraíba is high, and microsatellite analysis revealed this diversity with higher resolution than PCR-RFLP.

  20. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution and E6/E7 oncogene expression in Turkish women with cervical cytological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Seda; Ozgur, Didem; Ulger, Mahmut; Aslan, Gonul; Gurses, Iclal; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Giray, Burcu Gurer; Dilek, Saffet; Emekdas, Gurol

    2014-01-01

    Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the most important risk factor related with cervical cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection, the distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV E6/E7 oncogene mRNA expression in Turkish women with different cervical cytological findings in Mersin province, Southern Turkey. A total of 476 cytological samples belonging to women with normal and abnormal cervical Pap smears were enrolled in the study. For the detection and genotyping assay, a PCR/direct cycle sequencing approach was used. E6/E7 mRNA expression of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 was determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ(®)HPV v1.1). Of the 476 samples, 106 (22.3%) were found to be positive for HPV DNA by PCR. The presence of HPV was significantly more common (p16 (20.8%), 6 (14.2%), 31 (11.3%), 53 (5.7%), and 83 (4.7%). HPV E6/E7 oncogene mRNA positivity (12/476, 2.5%) was lower than DNA positivity (38/476, 7.9%). Our data present a wide distribution of HPV genotypes in the analyzed population. HPV genotypes 66, 16, 6, 31, 53 and 83 were the predominant types and most of them were potential carcinogenic types. Because of the differences between HPV E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further studies are required to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with abnormal cervical cytology or follow up of HPV DNA positive and cytology negative. These epidemiological data will be important to determine the future impact of vaccination on HPV infected women in our region.

  1. Detection of hepatitis C virus in patients with terminal renal disease undergoing dialysis in southern Brazil: prevalence, risk factors, genotypes, and viral load dynamics in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidales-Braz, Beatris Maria; da Silva, Naylê Maria Oliveira; Lobato, Rubens; Germano, Fabiana Nunes; da Mota, Luiza Dias; Barros, Elvino J G; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral

    2015-02-03

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is a serious public health issue, and it is estimated that 3% of the world's population is infected. Patients in hemodialysis units have an increased risk for contracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of HCV in patients with terminal chronic renal disease (tCRD) who have been submitted to hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in southern Brazil to characterize the most prevalent genotypes, the viral load, and possible risk factors and to assess the validity between the ELISA and RT-PCR detection methods. Of 320 patients from three dialysis units, 318 participated in this study. According to the medical records, 55 patients were reactive to HCV, as determined via ELISA. All 318 samples were submitted to RT-PCR and genotyped using an Abbott Realtime m2000 system. Data obtained through a questionnaire and chemical variables were associated with the HCV. The prevalence of HCV was 18.24% (58), and the concordance between the HCV serology and the RT-PCR was 94%. Three patients were diagnosed to be negative for HCV using the ELISA assay but positive when using RT-PCR. Genotype 1 was the most prevalent (46.7%) genotype, within which subtype 1a was the most frequent (74.1%). One of the risk factors associated with HCV infection was the length of time that the patient had been undergoing hemodialysis treatments (p hemodialysis (p hemodialysis indicates a possible destruction or gripping of viral particles to the dialyzer membrane.

  2. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

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    Lars Wolf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation.

  3. Sentinel phenotype for rubella embryopathy: time-space distribution in Brazil

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    Iêda Maria Orioli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The dyad comprising eye anomalies and congenital heart defects in the same newborn has been proposed as the best sentinel phenotype for the early detection of rubella embryopathy. Time-space birth prevalence distributions of the eye-heart dyad were described in 36 Brazilian hospitals from the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies - ECLAMC network, for the period 1994-2008. Seventy dyad cases observed among 554,531 births showed seasonal variation (Χ2 = 5.84; p < 0.05, suggesting an environmental etiology, with an increase in cases in October-March and acrophase in December. The secular distribution of dyad prevalence rates was consistent with the distribution of rubella cases in Brazil, showing a decrease from 1994 to 2004, followed by an increase until 2008. Two geographic clusters were identified, one with high and the other with low dyad prevalence. In the high prevalence cluster, a secular increase was observed, starting in 1999, matching the rubella epidemic waves observed in Brazil in 1998-2000 and 2006.

  4. Sub-daily extreme events distribution and changes in Northeastern Brazil in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Basso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regional analysis of extreme hydrological events is connected with the availability of a dense network of rainfall data that is absent or inaccessible in Brazil, especially for sub-daily information. In engineering, extreme events rainfall information is represented by intensity–duration–frequency (IDF relationships which are the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering for planning and design. Even if the sub-daily information that is included in the relationships is not available, the extreme rainfall information rest in the fundamentals of the IDF. This paper analyzes spatial distribution and track changes in sub-daily precipitation over Northeastern (NE Brazil. Precipitation was estimated from IDF relationships information in Brazil based in rainfall measured from 1920's to 1950's (but still used in engineering projects and information from the last half of the 20th century obtained from several IDFs gathered from municipalities' manuals, local symposia and books in many cases not easily obtainable. Results showed an intensification of extreme events in recent years, especially in shorter duration rainfall (less than 12 h. Hourly rainfall is bigger in almost all the Brazilian region, but especially in littoral and Northern portion, however, 12 and 24 h rainfall exhibit increases in the North, but, lower values in the Southern half of the region in concordance with flood changes reported by Milly et al. (2005. Analyzing the ratio between 1 and 24 h rainfall is possible to confirm its increase in all the region, with up to 35% in some areas. These results were able to show insight of sub-daily extreme events changes during 20th century in NE Brazil were previous reports were not found. The results also alerts for the necessity of engineering projects review, as outdated information is still being used for design purposes.

  5. Differences in Mn uptake and subcellular distribution in different barley genotypes as a response to Cd toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing; Cai, Yue; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2007-10-15

    A hydroponics experiment was carried out in greenhouse to study the genotypic differences in Mn uptake and subcellular distribution in response to Cd toxicity. Increased Cd level in medium caused a significant reduction in plant height and fresh weight, and ZAU3 and Wumaoliuling being the least and the most affected genotypes, respectively. There was a marked difference in proportion of Mn accumulation in different fractions relative to the total Mn amount in tissues among the 4 fractions, with the soluble fraction FIV showing the largest proportion in shoots, followed by organelle containing fraction (FIII), while cell wall (FI) and chloroplasts FII being the smallest. Meanwhile, Cd significantly increased FIII Mn accumulation proportion, but decreased FIV proportion, with significant genotypic difference of Wumaoliuling being the least increase in FIII and the greatest decrease in FIV among the 4 genotypes. In roots, the major pool of Mn content was FI, FIV, and FIII, and Cd induced no significant changes. Furthermore, Cd caused a significant reduction in subcellular Mn concentration of FI and FIV fractions in shoots and the 4 fractions in roots, with more pronounced in Cd-sensitive cultivar Wumaoliuling in root FII, FIII and FIV, and shoot FI, FII, and FIII, while little difference in both Mn concentrations of root FI, and shoot FIV.

  6. Distribution of norovirus genotypes and subtypes in river water by ultra-deep sequencing-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchan, M; Motomura, K; Inoue, K; Ode, H; Chu, P Y; Lin, M; Iwatani, Y; Ruchusatsawat, K; Guntapong, R; Tacharoenmuang, R; Chantaroj, S; Tatsumi, M; Takeda, N; Sangkitporn, S

    2017-07-01

    To determine the distribution of Norovirus (NoV) genotypes in natural river water in Thailand, we conducted a genome analysis using a next-generation sequencer. Twenty-five river water samples were collected at five different sites of the Khlong Klon River in the suburbs of Bangkok between August 2013 and December 2014. The partial genome of NoV was detected in 15 of the 25 samples (60·0%). Seven of these 15 samples (46·7%) contained multiple NoV GII genotypes: GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17. Our data showed that GII.17 had already emerged in August 2013 as a minor population, and it became a major genotype in December 2014. Our findings indicate that the virus was likely to have been circulating in the community before it appeared in the river water. Our study was to investigate the frequencies of multiple genogroups and genotypes of norovirus in the river water near Bangkok, Thailand, by ultra-deep sequencing-based analysis. This study revealed that the epidemic strain was likely to have been circulating in the community before it appeared in the river water. Monitoring of the Norovirus (NoV) genomes in the natural environment may contribute to an understanding of the emergence of new epidemic NoV strains in human populations. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Genotypic Distribution of Rotavirus in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: An Association of G9 with More Severe Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapong, Sasikorn; Sakpaisal, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Sethabutr, Orntipa; Vansith, Ket; Meng, Chhour Y; Swierczewski, Brett E; Mason, Carl J

    2017-04-01

    AbstractRotavirus causes significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Stool samples from a previous hospital-based surveillance study to detect diarrhea etiology at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by Meng and others in 2011 were tested for rotavirus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting vp6 gene and characterized for G- and P-genotypes of positive samples based on vp7 and vp4 genes, respectively. Rotavirus was detected in 159/531 (30%) of children with diarrhea and none was detected in 287 nondiarrhea controls. All but three of the rotavirus-positive cases were children under the age of 2. The most common genotypes characterized by PCR and sequencing were G1P[8] (69%), G9P[8] (11%), and G2P[4] (11%). Genotype G9 was detected at a relatively high percentage that is consistent with the global trend and found to be associated with hospitalization. Data on disease burden and genotypic distribution are required information for the planning of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Cambodia.

  8. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution Among 18,815 Women in 13 Korean Cities and Relationship With Cervical Cytology Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Eun Hee; Cho, Seon; Kim, Suyoung; Cho, Han Ik

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection vary depending on geographical region and the immunity provided by vaccines. This study aimed to clarify the recent prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV according to age and cervical cytology findings in Korea. This study included 18,815 health examinees that underwent cervical cytology and HPV genotyping tests at 16 centers of Korean Association of Health Promotion in 13 cities in Korea, between January 2014 and October 2015. HPV was genotyped by using multiplex PCR (Anyplex II HPV 28, Seegene, Korea), which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR-HPV) and nine low-risk HPVs (LR-HPV). Overall HPV prevalence was 27.8%, with 22.2% HR-HPV and 11.4% LR-HPV. The five most common carcinogens were HPV 52 (3.2%), 58 (2.7%), 16 (2.0%), 56 (1.9%), and 51 (1.8%). The five most common HR-HPVs in normal cytology samples were HPV 53, 68, 70, 52, and 58, while HPV 16, 52, 58, 33, and 31 were prevalent in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). In atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), the prevalence of HR-HPV varied with age; it was highest in those aged <30 yr, declining to a minimum at age 50-59 yr, and then increasing in older women (P<0.05). The prevalence and distribution of HR-HPV varied with age and cervical cytology findings. This information would be helpful in the development of cervical cancer prevention policies.

  9. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus and genotype distribution in immigrants crossing to Europe from North and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    The association between the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immigration is rarely studied, particularly for the immigrants crossing to the resettlement countries. Most of the published data are confined to those immigrants who were resident in European countries and rarely immigrated before they reach the final destination. Libya is a large country in North Africa with the longest coast of the Mediterranean Sea facing the European Union. It has been considered as the main transient station for African immigrants to Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the prevalence of HCV in African immigrants gathered in Libya from different African countries on their way to Europe and (2) HCV genotype distribution in these immigrants and its correlation with different demographic factors. A total of 14 205 serum samples were collected in a 3-year period (2013-2015) from different immigrants from North and sub-Saharan Africa who resided in the African immigrant campus, Tripoli, Libya. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. Each serum sample was tested for anti-HCV antibody using ELISA. The genotypes were determined and assigned using a specific genotyping assay and correlated with demographic and potential risk factors of the recruited individuals. Of the immigrants studied, 1078 (7.6%) were positive for HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection ranged from 1.4% to 18.7%; it was higher among individuals arriving from Nile river (3.6-18.7%) of North Africa, followed by those who arrived from the West African region (2.1-14.1%), Horn of Africa (HOA, 6.8-9.9%), and Maghreb countries (1.4-2.7%). The relative risk factor attributable to gender variation was not significant (95% Cl: 0.8513-1.2381). Five genotypes were detected in 911 African immigrants. Genotypic analysis showed that the predominant HCV genotypes in this group were genotypes 4, 1, and 2 that

  10. Genotype distribution characteristics of multiple human papillomavirus in women from the Taihu River Basin, on the coast of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing-Fen; Shen, Guo-Rong; Li, Qiong; Chen, Xu; Ma, Chun-Fang; Zhu, Tong-Hua

    2017-03-23

    There is limited data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the Taihu River Basin, home to 1.29 million people on the coast of eastern China. This study evaluated the prevalence and genotypes among different female age groups in this region. Twenty-six HPV strains (low-risk HPV 6, 11, 40, 42, 44, 61, 73 and high-risk HPV 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 82, and 83) were detected using Tellgenplex™ HPV technology in samples obtained from three clinical hospitals located in different regions of the Taihu Lake Basin. The results showed that 1855 samples (20.97% of all samples) were found to be HPV-positive. Of these, 1375 samples (15.55% of all samples) were found to have a single HPV infection. Age-specific prevalence showed two peaks, one that corresponded to the group of 21-30 year-old women and the other peak that corresponded to the group of women over 51 years old. The three most prevalent genotypes were HPV52 (19.95%, 370/1855), HPV16 (13.48%, 150/1855), and HPV58 (11.32%, 210/1855). Mixed strains HPV58 + HPV33 and HPV58 + HPV52 were most commonly found in females infected with multiple HPV types. This investigation reveals that HPV infection in the Taihu River Basin varied significantly among different age groups. The most prevalent genotypes are included in the nonavalent vaccine, V503, however this vaccine is not licensed for use in mainland China. The most frequently occurring genotypes should be considered in the development of next-generation HPV vaccines for optimal protection of public health.

  11. Cord blood apolipoprotein-E genotype distribution and plasma lipid indices in newborns of different ethnicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Mulder, H; Ramsewak, S; Muskiet, FAJ; Ramdath, DD

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that apolipoprotein-E (apo-E) genotypes would be associated with plasma lipid indices in newborns of South Asian (SA) ancestry but not in newborns of African (Afr) ancestry. Cord blood was obtained by consecutive sampling at maternity hospitals in the Caribbean Islands of Trinidad

  12. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes and bacterial vaginosis presence in cervical samples from Paraguayan indigenous

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    Pamela Mongelos

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: A large variety of HPV genotypes was detected and showed a slightly different pattern from previous studies on urban women in Paraguay, with the predominance of HR-HPV. Furthermore, the information of co-infections involved in BV could be useful for the improvement of national prevention programs, as well as for laboratory surveillance of these genital infections.

  13. Distribution of prion protein genotypes in breeds of sheep in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M A; Manley, T R; Glass, B C; Anderson, R M; Wilson, S J; O'keefe, J S; Tisdall, D J; McEwan, J C; Phua, S H; Tate, M L

    2007-10-01

    To use an established high through-put genotyping procedure to gain an estimate of the frequency of alleles of the prion protein (PrP) gene in some common sheep breeds in New Zealand. Using a genotyping procedure based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), DNA samples from 3,024 sheep from New Zealand, including breeds such as Romney, Texel, Coopworth, Merino and mixed breed, were isolated, genotyped and the results analysed. The 15 scrapie genotypes commonly reported, and derived from the five commonly reported allelic variants (ARR, ARQ, AHQ, ARH and VRQ), were all observed in the samples analysed. The estimates were indicative of the frequencies in the population of alleles present in breeds of sheep in New Zealand. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of alleles between breeds, but the ARQ, followed by the ARR allele, were, except in Carwell sheep, the most common alleles present. This study gave an indication of the percentages of PrP gene alleles in sheep in New Zealand, including data previously unreported from breeds in this country. It is of interest because of the relatively large size of the sheep population in New Zealand compared with many countries, and it provides some useful information on the genetic susceptibility or resistance of the sheep population in New Zealand to scrapie. The frequencies of the alleles can be different for an individual breed compared between countries.

  14. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S.; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Methods Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007–2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Results Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. Conclusions During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. PMID:23688547

  15. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®) was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007-2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda: Onchocercidae infection in vectors from Amazonian Brazil following mass Mectizan™ distribution

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    Verônica Marchon-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium populations is of primary importance in the assessment of the effectiveness of onchocerciasis control programs. In Brazil, the main focus of onchocerciasis is in the Amazon region, in a Yanomami reserve. The main onchocerciasis control strategy in Brazil is the semi-annually mass distribution of the microfilaricide ivermectin. In accordance with the control strategy for the disease, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was applied in pools of simuliids from the area to detect the helminth infection in the vectors, as recommended by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas and the World Health Organization. Systematic sampling was performed monthly from September 1998 to October 1999, and a total of 4942 blackflies were collected from two sites (2576 from Balawaú and 2366 from Toototobi. The molecular methodology was found to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of infected and/or infective blackflies in pools of 50 blackflies. The results from the material collected under field conditions showed that after the sixth cycle of distribution of ivermectin, the prevalence of infected blackflies with O. volvulus had decreased from 8.6 to 0.3% in Balawaú and from 4 to 0.1% in Toototobi.

  17. [Prevalence and distribution of hepatitis B virus genotype D in Galicia (northwest of Spain): influence of age, sex and origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J J; Rodríguez, J; Alba, J; Rivadulla, I; Pérez-Del-Molino, M L; Aguilera, A

    2016-10-01

    Phylogenetically, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into genotypes and subgenotypes used for epidemiological studies. The aim of this study is to know the distribution of HBV subgenotypes D in our environment. From 401 patients HBV surface antigen positive, HBV DNA-positive, partial HBV-DNA S gene was amplified, sequenced and analysed using geno2pheno (hbv) (Max-Planck Institute) on line application. We found 259 (64.6%) patients with HBV genotype D: 53 not subgenotypable, 9 (4%) D1, 61 (30%) D2, 15 (7%) D3 and 121 (59%) D4. Patients with D1 subgenotype were, on average, 23 years younger (p = 0.0001), with a higher proportion of women (p < 0.05). HBV subgenotype D4 was the most prevalent in our area. Patients with D1 subgenotype came from abroad were younger than the other subgenotypes and mostly women. These results show the interest of conducting studies at HBV subgenotype level.

  18. Spatial distribution of epibenthic molluscs on a sandstone reef in the Northeast of Brazil

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    AS. Martinez

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the distribution and abundance of epibenthic molluscs and their feeding habits associated to substrate features (coverage and rugosity in a sandstone reef system in the Northeast of Brazil. Rugosity, low coral cover and high coverage of zoanthids and fleshy alga were the variables that influenced a low richness and high abundance of a few molluscan species in the reef habitat. The most abundant species were generalist carnivores, probably associated to a lesser offer and variability of resources in this type of reef system, when compared to the coral reefs. The results found in this study could reflect a normal characteristic of the molluscan community distribution in sandstone reefs, with low coral cover, or could indicate a degradation state of this habitat if it is compared to coral reefs, once that the significantly high coverage of fleshy alga has been recognized as a negative indicator of reef ecosystems health.

  19. Metal Distribution in Sediments from the Ribeira Bay, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

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    Cardoso André G. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of metal distribution in preserved areas is highly relevant due to the present-day lack of reliable databases against which to assess contamination. 23 samples of surface sediments from the Ribeira Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were analyzed by ICP/AES for Ti, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Sr, La, V, Y, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn. Hg concentrations were determined by CVAAS. With respect to Al, metals were classified as strongly correlated, correlated, inversely correlated and non-correlated. Cluster analysis of the concentration data confirmed this, except for Hg. Cluster analysis of the sampling sites produced three groups, on the basis of grainsize, continental input, and marine input. Climatic and hydrodynamic factors, as well as soil characteristics, are important controls of the metal distribution in this region. The Ribeira Bay has a natural background metal content, when compared with average shales and with other impacted and non-impacted regions.

  20. Genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic stability for girth growth and rubber yield of Hevea clones in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The best-yielding, best vigour and most stable Hevea clones are identified by growing clones in different environments. However, research on the stability in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Adr. ex Juss. Muell.-Arg. is scarce. The objectives of this work were to assess genotype-environment interaction and determine stable genotypes. Stability analysis were performed on results for girth growth and rubber yield of seven clones from five comparative trials conducted over 10 years (girth growth and four years (rubber yield in São Paulo State, Brazil. Stability was estimated using the Eberhart and Russell (1966 method. Year by location and location variability were the dominant sources of interactions. The stability analysis identified GT 1 and IAN 873 as the most stable clones for girth growth and rubber yield respectively since their regression coefficients were almost the unity (b = 1 and they had one of the lowest deviations from regressions (S2di. Their coefficient of determination (R² was as high as 89.5% and 89.8% confirming their stability. In contrast, clones such as PB 235, PR 261, and RRIM 701 for girth growth and clones such as GT 1 for rubber yield with regression coefficients greater than one were regarded as sensitive to environment changes.

  1. Correlation between genotypes of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates and the geographical distribution of host rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Meng; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Cheng, Xunjia; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several polymorphic markers, including serine-rich protein genes, have been used for the genotyping of isolates from the morphologically indistinguishable protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba nuttalli. Genotypes of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic, but the correlation with geographical distribution is unknown. We have recently isolated 15 E. nuttalli strains from wild rhesus macaques in four locations in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The sequences of the serine-rich protein genes of the E. nuttalli strains differed among the four locations. In this study, we analyzed tRNA-linked STRs in six loci of the 15 strains. Two genotypes were found in loci N-K2, R-R, and S(TGA)-D, three in locus S-Q, and five in locus D-A. In locus A-L, one major genotype and ten minor genotypes were found, resulting in mixtures of two to six genotypes in eight strains. By combination of the main genotypes in the six loci, the 15 strains were divided into nine genotypes. The genotypes observed in E. nuttalli strains were quite different from those in E. histolytica and E. dispar. A phylogenetic tree constructed from tRNA-linked STRs in the six loci reflected the different places of isolation. These results suggest that sequence diversity of tRNA-linked STRs in E. nuttalli occurs with relatively high frequency and might be a marker of geographical distribution of host rhesus macaques, even in limited areas.

  2. Chronic Hepatitis C treatment for genotype 2 or 3 in Brazil: cost effectiveness analysis of peginterferon plus ribavirin as first choice treatment

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    Carine Raquel Blatt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Guidelines to HCV treatment (2007 recommended that the first choice treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC and genotype 2 or 3 is interferon alpha (IFN plus ribavirin (RBV for 24 weeks. The aim of this study is compare the cost and effectiveness to Hepatitis C treatment in patients with genotype 2 or 3 of peginterferon alpha (PEG as the first choice of treatment within PEG for those that do not respond to IFN. The target population is CHC patients with genotype 2 or 3 in Brazil. The interventions are: PEG-SEC (first IFN plus RBV for 24 weeks, after, for non-responders and relapsers subsequently PEG plus RBV for 48 weeks; PEG-FIRST24 (PEG+RBV for 24 weeks. The type of the study is cost-effectiveness analysis. The data sources are: Effectiveness data from meta-analysis conducted on the Brazilian population. Treatment cost from Brazilian micro costing study is converted into USD (2010. The perspective is the Public Health System. The outcome measurements are Sustained Viral Response (SVR and costs. PEG-FIRST24 (SVR: 87.8%, costs: USD 8,338.27 was more effective and more costly than PEG-SEC (SVR: 79.2%, costs: USD 5,852.99. The sensitivity analyses are: When SVR rates with IFN was less than 30% PEG-FIRST is dominant. On the other hand, when SVR with IFN was more then 75% PEG-SEC is dominant (SVR=88.2% and costs USD $ 3,753.00. PEG-SEC is also dominant when SVR to PEG24 weeks was less than 54%. In the Brazilian context, PEG-FIRST is more effective and more expensive than PEG-SEC. PEG-SEC could be dominant when rates of IFN therapy are higher than 75% or rates of PEG24 therapy are lower than 54%.

  3. One year environmental surveillance of rotavirus specie A (RVA) genotypes in circulation after the introduction of the Rotarix® vaccine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumian, Tulio Machado; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Rose, Tatiana Lundgreen; Prado, Tatiana; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Rotavirus specie A (RVA) infection is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea among young children worldwide. To reduce this major RVA health impact, the Rotarix® vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) was introduced in the Brazilian Expanded Immunization Program in March 2006 and became available to the entire birth cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spread of RVA in the environment after the introduction of Rotarix® in Brazil. For this purpose, a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Rio de Janeiro was monitored for one year to detect, characterize and discriminate RVA genotypes and identify possible circulation of vaccine strains. Using TaqMan® quantitative PCR (qPCR), RVA was detected in 100% (mean viral loads from 2.40×10(5) to 1.16×10(7) genome copies (GC)/L) of sewage influent samples and 71% (mean viral loads from 1.35×10(3) to 1.64×10(5)GC/L) of sewage effluent samples. The most prevalent RVA genotypes were P[4], P[6] and G2, based on VP4 and VP7 classification. Direct nucleotide sequencing (NSP4 fragment) and restriction enzyme digestion (NSP3) analysis did not detect RVA vaccine-like strains from the sewage samples. These data on RVA detection, quantification and molecular characterization highlight the importance of environmental monitoring as a tool to study RVA epidemiology in the surrounding human population and may be useful on ongoing vaccine monitoring programs, since sewage may be a good screening option for a rapid and economical overview of the circulating genotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in CYP1B1-Associated Primary Congenital Glaucoma Patients Representing Two Large Cohorts from India and Brazil.

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    Mônica Barbosa de Melo

    Full Text Available Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, occurs due to the developmental defects in the trabecular meshwork and anterior chamber angle in children. PCG exhibits genetic heterogeneity and the CYP1B1 gene has been widely implicated worldwide. Despite the diverse mutation spectra, the clinical implications of these mutations are yet unclear. The present study attempted to delineate the clinical profile of PCG in the background of CYP1B1 mutations from a large cohort of 901 subjects from India (n=601 and Brazil (n=300.Genotype-phenotype correlations was undertaken on clinically well characterized PCG cases from India (n=301 and Brazil (n=150 to assess the contributions of CYP1B1 mutation on a set of demographic and clinical parameters. The demographic (gender, and history of consanguinity and quantitative clinical (presenting intraocular pressure [IOP] and corneal diameter [CD] parameters were considered as binary and continuous variables, respectively, for PCG patients in the background of the overall mutation spectra and also with respect to the prevalent mutations in India (R368H and Brazil (4340delG. All these variables were fitted in a multivariate logistic regression model using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR using the R software (version 2.14.1.The overall mutation spectrum were similar across the Indian and Brazilian PCG cases, despite significantly higher number of homozygous mutations in the former (p=0.024 and compound heterozygous mutations in the later (p=0.012. A wide allelic heterogeneity was observed and only 6 mutations were infrequently shared between these two populations. The adjusted ORs for the binary (demographic and continuous (clinical variables did not indicate any susceptibility to the observed mutations (p>0.05.The present study demonstrated a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation of the demographic and clinical traits to CYP1B1 mutations in PCG at presentation. However, the

  5. [Genotyping by CRISPR and regional distribution of Yersinia pestis in Qinghai-plateau from 1954 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Q; Xin, Y Q; Li, X; Zhang, Q W; Yang, X Y; Jin, Y; Zhao, H H; Jin, X; Qi, Z Z

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To investigate the CRISPR genotypes (clusters) and regional distribution of Yersinia pestis in Qinghai-plateau. Methods: One hundred and two isolates of Y. pestis isolated from human plague patients, host animal and insect vectors from Qinghai-plateau were selected. The DNAs were extracted using the traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate decomposition and phenol-chloroform method. Three CRISPR loci YPa, YPb and YPc of 102 isolates of Y. pesits were amplified and sequenced, and then the CRISPR sequence analysis was carried out by comparing the latest published CRISPR spacer dictionary and the NCBI database to identify the spacer and spacer array. CRISPR genotyping of isolates of Y. pesits were finally conducted according to the polymorphism of the spacer arrays and the regional distribution pattern of isolates of Y. pesits in Qinghai-plateau was described. Results: Forty spacers including 22 of YPa, 13 of YPb and 5 of YPc were observed among 102 isolates of Y. pestis in Qinghai-plateau, of which 5 spacers (a1', a103, a104, b4'' and b4''') were firstly identified. Meanwhile, 16, 10, and 5 different spacer arrays were obtained in YPa, YPb and YPc respectively, including 11 new spacer arrays detected in this study. One hundred and two isolates were divided into 24 CRISPR genotypes and classified into 9 CRISPR clusters (Cb4, Cb4', Cb2, Ca37, Ca7, Ca7', CaΔ5', Ca35' and Cc3'). Each dominant cluster presented significant aggregation geographically: Ca7 were found in Yushu, Nangqian, Chenduo, Zaduo, Zhiduo and Qumalai countries. Ca7' were found in Xunhua, Tongren, Zeku, Tongde, Maqin and Guinan countries. CaΔ5' were restricted to Qilian, Gangcha, Menyuan and Datong countries. CaΔ35' were found in Huangyuan, Haiyan, Gangcha, Tianjun, Delingha, Wulan, Doulan, Gonghe, Xinghai, Guide and Tongde countries. Conclusion: CRISPR-based genotyping analyses showed complicated population of Y. pestis in Qinghai-plateau. Four clusters, Ca7, Ca7', CaΔ5' and Ca35' were the most

  6. HPV Genotypes distribution in Indian women with and without cervical carcinoma: Implication for HPV vaccination program in Odisha, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Rashmirani; Nayak, Bhagyalaxmi; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi

    2017-01-05

    Considering the limited cross protection offered by the current HPV vaccines, understanding the HPV genotype distribution among the different population is essential in predicting the efficacy of current vaccine and devising new vaccine strategy. The present work aimed at investigating the HPV genotypes distribution among women with and without cervical carcinoma in Odisha, Eastern India. A total of 607 participants have been enrolled between January 2014 and June 2016. L1-PCR, sequencing, and E6/E7 nested multiplex type- specific PCR were performed for HPV detection and genotyping. Cytological distribution of 440 cases includes invasive cervical carcinoma or ICC (n = 210), inflammatory smear (n = 162), normal cytology (n = 68). Statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS version 20.0 software and MediCal version 14.10.2(7). A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was (359/595) 60.33%. Prevalence of HPV infection was 93.80% (197/210) in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, 54.32% (88/162) in inflammatory smear and 19.11% (13/68) in normal cervical cytology. The most prevalent genotype was HPV16 (87.28%) followed by HPV18 (24.56%) and HPV 51(3.46%). The overall prevalence of single type was 76.58% and highest (78.9%) among ICC cases. The most frequent genotype combination after HPV16 + 18(9.4%) was HPV16 + 66 + 68(2.7%) which was frequently observed in inflammatory cytology. Age > 45years, parity ≥3, low socio-economic condition, rural residential area and post menopause state were significantly associated with HPV infection. Multiple infections did not have a significant association with any of the clinicopathological variables (stage, LN metastasis, cell type) except tumor size ≥ 2cm in ICC cases. The impact of 2v, 4v, and 9v vaccines in preventing cervical cancer in Odisha were 89.99, 91.65, and 92.16% respectively. This data would help planning an

  7. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Campinas, Brazil: evidence of intercontinental distribution of strains

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    Ana Lucia Roscani Calusni

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major concern in developing countries. In Brazil, few genotyping studies have been conducted to verify the number of IS6110 copies present in local prevalent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the distribution and clustering of strains. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting was performed on a sample of M. tuberculosis isolates from patients with AFB smear-positive pulmonary TB, at a hospital in Brazil. The IS6110 profiles were analyzed and compared to a M. tuberculosis database of the Houston Tuberculosis Initiative, Houston, US. Seventy-six fingerprints were obtained from 98 patients. All M. tuberculosis strains had an IS6110 copy number between 5-21 allowing for differentiation of the isolates. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was confirmed in nearly half the patients of whom data was available. Fifty-eight strains had unique patterns, while 17 strains were grouped in 7 clusters (2 to 6 strains. When compared to the HTI database, 6 strains matched isolates from El Paso, Ciudad de Juarez, Houston, and New York. Recently acquired infections were documented in 19% of cases. The community transmission of infection is intense, since some clustered strains were recovered during the four-year study period. The intercontinental dissemination of M. tuberculosis strains is suspected by demonstration of identical fingerprints in a distant country.

  8. Geographical distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors: an international collaborative survey.

    OpenAIRE

    McOmish, F; Yap, P L; Dow, B C; Follett, E A; Seed, C; Keller, A J; Cobain, T J; Krusius, T; Kolho, E; Naukkarinen, R; Lin, C.; Lai, C; Leong, S.; Medgyesi, G A; Hejjas, M

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of infection with the six classified major genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in 447 infected volunteer blood donors from the following nine countries: Scotland, Finland, The Netherlands, Hungary, Australia, Egypt, Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Viral sequences in plasma from blood donors infected with HCV were amplified in the 5'-noncoding region and were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Electrophoresis of DNA fragments produced by c...

  9. Genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with cervical lesions in Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

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    Carro-Campos Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HVP vaccine is a useful tool for preventing cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine the most frequent HPV genotypes in Equatorial Guinea in order to develop future vaccination strategies to apply in this country. Methods A campaign against cervical cancer was carried out in the area on a total of 1,680 women. 26 of the women, following cytological screening, were treated surgically with a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP. Cases were studied histologically and were genotyped from paraffin blocks by applying a commercial kit that recognized 35 HPV types. Results Cytological diagnoses included 17 HSIL, 1 LSIL, 5 ASC-H and 3 AGUS. Histological diagnosis resulted in 3 cases of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma stage IA of FIGO, 9 CIN-3, 8 CIN-2, 2 CIN-1, 3 flat condylomas and mild dysplasia of the endocervical epithelium. Fifteen of twenty-five cases genotyped were positive for HPV (60%. HPV 16 and 33 were identified in four cases each, HPV 58 in two other cases, and HPV 18, 31, 52, and 82 in one case, with one HPV 16 and 58 coinfection. Conclusion The frequency of HPV types in the African area varies in comparison to other regions, particularly in Europe and USA. Vaccination against the five most common HPV types (16, 33, 58, 18, and 31 should be considered in the geographic region of West Africa and specifically in Equatorial Guinea.

  10. Hepatitis A Virus Genotype Distribution during a Decade of Universal Vaccination of Preadolescents

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    Lucía D’Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A universal vaccination program among preadolescents was implemented in Catalonia, Spain, during the period of 1999–2013 and its effectiveness has been clearly demonstrated by an overall significant attack rate reduction. However, reductions were not constant over time, and increases were again observed in 2002–2009 due to the occurrence of huge outbreaks. In the following years, in the absence of large outbreaks, the attack rate decreased again to very low levels. However, an increase of symptomatic cases in the <5 age group has recently been observed. This is an unexpected observation since children younger than 6 are mostly asymptomatic. Such a long vaccination campaign offers the opportunity to analyze not only the effectiveness of vaccination, but also the influence of the circulating genotypes on the incidence of hepatitis A among the different age groups. This study has revealed the emergence of genotype IC during a foodborne outbreak, the short-lived circulation of vaccine-escape variants isolated during an outbreak among the men-having-sex-with-men group, and the association of genotype IIIA with the increase of symptomatic cases among the very young. From a public health perspective, two conclusions may be drawn: vaccination is better at an early age, and the vaccination schedule must be complete and include all recommended vaccine doses.

  11. Genotyping system of GBV-C/HGV type 1 to type 4 by the polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers and geographical distribution of viral genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, H; Abe, K

    2001-01-01

    Based on variation in nucleotide sequence of 5'-untranslated region, GB virus type C (GBV-C) and hepatitis G virus (HGV) can be classified into three major genotypes. In addition to this classification, a novel genotype of GBV-C/HGV was identified and designated type 4. However, genotyping of GBV-C/HGV has been hampered by the lack of suitable assays. In this study, a simple and precise genotyping system based on PCR using the type-specific primers was developed for the determination of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 of GBV-C/HGV. A total of 235 serum samples obtained from 11 different countries were tested by our PCR genotyping system of GBV-C/HGV. The results revealed that type 1 was prevalent mainly in Ghana, type 2 was prevalent in the USA, Spain, Egypt, Nepal and Myanmar, type 3 was prevalent in Japan and Bolivia, and type 4 was prevalent in Vietnam and Myanmar among the countries investigated in the present study. To confirm the specificity of the results of genotyping by PCR, phylogenetic analysis in the 5'-untranslated region of GBV-C/HGV was undertaken in 99 serum samples. By this analysis, the specificity of the genotyping system by PCR was confirmed. This assay system may be useful for rapid typing of GBV-C/HGV RNA when either epidemiological or transmission studies of this agent are carried out.

  12. Spatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis-A retrospective study in Brazil from 2010 through 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; Campos, Rafael Ferraço de; Soares, Luiz Filippe Simão; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2017-09-15

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is frequently used in the control of animal diseases. In Brazil, the most impacting economical loss in the beef supply chain is bovine cysticercosis. This study focused on assessing the prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in 19 Brazilian states. To this, we gathered data from 146,346,244 bovines slaughtered between the years of 2010 and 2015. The observed prevalence was 0.62% (C.I. 0.62-0.63). In total, 30.86% cysticerci were viable, while 69.14% were unviable. Bovine cysticercosis cases had a significant decrease (p<0.05) during this period. The states of Paraná (2.01%; C.I. 2.00-2.02), Santa Catarina (1.96%; C.I. 1.93-2.00), São Paulo (1.77%; C.I. 1.76-1.77), Rio Grande do Sul (1.63%; C.I. 1.60-1.63) and Mato Grosso do Sul (0.80%; C.I. 0.80-0.80) had the highest prevalence values. In some states a significant (p<0.05) decreasing trend was detected in the prevalence. In conclusion, Taenia-saginata-cysticercosis remains endemic in Brazil and interventions are necessary to maintain Brazilian beef competitive in the international food market and improve food safety to population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thecamoebians: occurrence and distribution in Iguape Bay/BTS – Bahia, Brazil

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    Cláudia Ferreira da Cruz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iguape Bay (12º00’ – 13º00’S and 38º30’ – 39º30’ is an estuary located at the mouth of the Paraguaçu River, inside Todos os Santos Bay (BTS, in Bahia, Brazil. It is 30km downstream from the Pedra do Cavalo Dam, which is the second largest dam in Brazil. The water in Iguape Bay is influenced by ocean tides originating from the BTS and the discharge of the Paraguaçu River. The effects of the currents as well as the variation in the outflow from the Pedra do Cavalo Dam have intensified the natural stress of this paralic environment. The main goal of this study was to investigate the distribution of Thecamoeba species present in the bottom sediments of Iguape Bay, in order to produce data that can be used to interpret the processes operating in this ecologically complex environment. The density of the living and dead species of Thecamoeba was determined by the volume of sediment collected, and the diversity index, constancy, evenness and richness of Thecamoeba were calculated. Sedimentological analyses were also performed in order to classify sediment types in the selected profiles.

  14. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae in an Estuary in Southern Brazil

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    Felipe Freitas-Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas.

  15. Spatial distribution of vehicle emission inventories in the Federal District, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réquia, Weeberb João; Koutrakis, Petros; Roig, Henrique Llacer

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution poses an important public health risk, especially in large urban areas. Information about the spatial distribution of air pollutants can be used as a tool for developing public policies to reduce source emissions. Air pollution monitoring networks provide information about pollutant concentrations; however, they are not available in every urban area. Among the 5570 cities in Brazil, for example, only 1.7% of them have air pollution monitoring networks. In this study we assess vehicle emissions for main traffic routes of the Federal District (state of Brazil) and characterize their spatial patterns. Toward this end, we used a bottom-up method to predict emissions and to characterize their spatial patterns using Global Moran's (Spatial autocorrelation analysis) and Getis-Ord General G (High/Low cluster analysis). Our findings suggested that light duty vehicles are primarily responsible for the vehicular emissions of CO (68.9%), CH4 (93.6%), and CO2 (57.9%), whereas heavy duty vehicles are primarily responsible for the vehicular emissions of NMHC (92.9%), NOx (90.7%), and PM (97.4%). Furthermore, CO2 is the pollutant with the highest emissions, over 30 million tons/year. In the spatial autocorrelation analysis was identified cluster (p vehicles and for all pollutants. However, we identified high cluster only for the light vehicles.

  16. A new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from northeastern Brazil with comments on the potential distribution of the genus in Central and South Americas (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-11-21

    A new species of the genus Charinus Simon, 1892 is described from caves in the Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the first record of the genus for the state. This paper presents a map of the Charinus species distribution in Brazil with new records and a map of potential distribution of the genus in South and Central Americas. An updated key for Charinus species from Brazil is also presented.

  17. REPEATABILITY OF FRUITS AND SEEDS PRODUCTION AND SELECTION OF BRAZIL NUT GENOTYPES IN NATIVE POPULATIONS IN RORAIMA1

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    Cássia Ângela Pedrozo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study estimates the repeatability coefficients of two production traits in two native populations of Brazil nut trees. It determines the number of years of suitable evaluations for an efficient selection process, determines the permanent phenotypic correlation between production traits and also the selection of promising trees in these populations. Populations, located in the Itã region (ITA and in the in the Cujubim region (CUJ, are both belonging to the municipality of Caracaraí, state of Roraima - Brazil, and consist of 85 and 51 adult trees, respectively. Each tree was evaluated regarding the number of fruits per plant (NFP and fresh seed weight per plant (SWP, for eight (ITA and five consecutive years (CUJ. Statistical analyses were performed according to the mixed model methodology, using Software Selegen-REML/BLUP (RESENDE, 2007. The repeatability coefficients were low for NFP (0.3145 and 0.3269 for ITA and CUJ, respectively and also for SWP (0.2957 and 0.3436 for ITA and CUJ, respectively. It on average takes nine evaluation years to reach coefficients of determination higher than 80%. Permanent phenotypic correlation values higher than 0.95 were obtained for NFP and SWP in both populations. Although trees with a high number of fruits and seed weight were identified, more evaluation years are needed to perform the selection process more efficiently.

  18. Insulin effect on lipogenesis and fat distribution in three genotypes of ducks during overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontier, Karine; André, Jean-Marc; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Ricaud, Karine; Davail, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    In waterfowl, the response to overfeeding differs from one genotype to the other. Pekin ducks generally store lipids in the peripheral tissues while Muscovy and mule ducks promote hepatic lipid storage. A possible reason for these various susceptibilities to hepatic steatosis could be a difference in insulin sensitivity. We suggest a resistance to insulin in Pekin ducks. In the present work we investigate the action of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolisms for the three overfed genotypes. Regardless of the kind of genotype, all ducks appear to be sensitive to insulin: their glycemia is lower when the animals are treated with insulin. Insulin-treated Muscovy and Pekin ducks present a lower increase in total body weight (-16.5% for Muscovy; -8.3% for Pekin); and a significantly lower liver weight than the controls (-9.6% and -18.3%). The percentage of total lipids in the liver is higher in the controls than in the insulin-treated Pekin and mule ducks (respectively -40.4% and -34.7%), which means a decreased hepatic lipogenesis. Pekin ducks present a higher pectoral muscle weight when the individuals are insulin-treated (+9.7%). Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity appears to be significantly higher in insulin-treated Pekin and Muscovy ducks (1.39 and 3.38 times greater than controls). Insulin-treated mule ducks present a decrease of muscle and abdominal lipid storage compared to controls (-11.6% and -13.8%). In this experiment, exogenous insulin has induced an increase of lipid oxidation and has led to a less favorable use and storage of dietary glucose. The hypothesis of insulin-resistance of Pekin ducks is not verified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing Jomon and Yayoi ancestries in Japan using ALDH2 and JC virus genotype distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamori, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Noboru; Idota, Nozomi; Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; McLean, Stuart; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the dual structure model, the modern Japanese ethnic population consists of a mixture of the Jomon people, who have existed in Japan since at least the New Stone Age, and the Yayoi people, who migrated to western Japan from China around the year 300?bc Some reports show that the Yayoi are linked to a mutation of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2). Recent viral studies indicate two major groups found in the Japanese population: a group with the CY genotype JC vir...

  20. Geographic differences in the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena M; Bacchi, Lívia M; Pincerato, Kátia M; Van de Rijn, Matt; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2014-08-29

    To compare the distribution of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer based on immunohistochemical profile in the five major geographic regions of Brazil, a country of continental dimension, with a wide racial variation of people. The study was retrospective observational. We classified 5,687 invasive breast cancers by molecular subtype based on immunohistochemical expression of estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 proliferation index. Cases were classified as luminal A (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 negative, Ki-67  14%), triple-positive (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 positive), HER2-enriched (ER and PR negative, and HER2- positive), and triple-negative (TN) (ER negative, PR negative, and HER2- negative). Comparisons of the ages of patients and molecular subtypes between different geographic regions were performed. South and Southeast regions with a higher percentage of European ancestry and higher socioeconomic status presented with the highest proportion of luminal tumors. The North region presented with more aggressive subtypes (HER2-enriched and triple-negative), while the Central-West region predominated triple-positive carcinomas. The Northeast--a region with a high African influence--presented intermediate frequency of the different molecular subtypes. The differences persisted in subgroups of patients under and over 50 years. The geographic regions differ according to the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer. However, other differences, beside those related to African ancestry, such as socioeconomic, climatic, nutritional, and geographic, have to be considered to explain our results. The knowledge of the differences in breast cancer characteristics among the geographic regions may help to organize healthcare programs in large countries like Brazil with diverse economic and race composition among different geographic regions.

  1. Hepatitis A Virus Genotype Distribution during a Decade of Universal Vaccination of Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Andrea, Lucía; Pérez-Rodríguez, Francisco J.; de Castellarnau, Montserrat; Manzanares, Sandra; Lite, Josep; Guix, Susana; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    A universal vaccination program among preadolescents was implemented in Catalonia, Spain, during the period of 1999–2013 and its effectiveness has been clearly demonstrated by an overall significant attack rate reduction. However, reductions were not constant over time, and increases were again observed in 2002–2009 due to the occurrence of huge outbreaks. In the following years, in the absence of large outbreaks, the attack rate decreased again to very low levels. However, an increase of symptomatic cases in the hepatitis A among the different age groups. This study has revealed the emergence of genotype IC during a foodborne outbreak, the short-lived circulation of vaccine-escape variants isolated during an outbreak among the men-having-sex-with-men group, and the association of genotype IIIA with the increase of symptomatic cases among the very young. From a public health perspective, two conclusions may be drawn: vaccination is better at an early age, and the vaccination schedule must be complete and include all recommended vaccine doses. PMID:25815599

  2. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and bacterial vaginosis presence in cervical samples from Paraguayan indigenous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelos, Pamela; Mendoza, Laura Patricia; Rodriguez-Riveros, Isabel; Castro, Amalia; Gimenez, Graciela; Araujo, Patricia; Paez, Malvina; Castro, Wilberto; Basiletti, Jorge; González, Joaquín; Echagüe, Gloria; Diaz, Valentina; Laspina, Florentina; Ever, Santiago; Marecos, Ramón; Deluca, Gerardo; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    To determine the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and to assess bacterial vaginosis (BV) possible associations with cervical infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. HPV typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with primers PGMY 09/11 followed by reverse line hybridization. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent criteria using the results from a Gram stain smear. Sixteen percent of women were positive for at least one high risk HPV type (HR-HPV). The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (4.4%), followed by HPV 58 (3.3%), HPV 45 (3.3%), HPV 53 (2.8%) and HPV 11 (2.8%). A significant association between HR-HPV and BV was observed (p=0.01). In addition, women with BV had a higher frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis (p=0.0007), Trichomonas vaginalis (p=0.00009), Mycoplasma hominis (p=0.001). A large variety of HPV genotypes was detected and showed a slightly different pattern from previous studies on urban women in Paraguay, with the predominance of HR-HPV. Furthermore, the information of co-infections involved in BV could be useful for the improvement of national prevention programs, as well as for laboratory surveillance of these genital infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling distribution of Phoneutria bahiensis (Araneae: Ctenidae: an endemic and threatened spider from Brazil

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    Marcelo A Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.

  4. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Vitreorana uranoscopa (Muller, 1924: Distribution extension in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

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    Machado, I. F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The glass frog Vitreorana uranoscopa (Müller, 1924 has been considered a vulnerable species for the state ofRio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This note recorded the presence of the species for São Marcos municipality, extendingthe species distribution towards eastern region of the state.

  6. Molecular genotyping and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from inmates of correctional institutions of Campinas, Southeast Brazil

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    M.S. Moreira-Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possible transmission of tuberculosis among 39 inmates with positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis smears in four correctional institutions located in Campinas City, SP, Brazil over a 19-month period. Fifty-one M. tuberculosis isolates from these inmates were characterized according to the number of IS6110 insertion elements present in their genomic DNA. The number of insertion elements in M. tuberculosis isolates varied from two to twelve. The dendrogram of similarity resulted in the grouping the isolates in six main clusters. These results, associated to epidemiological data, suggested the transmission of tuberculosis among inmates of the same and different institutions inmates. Univariate analysis of epidemiological data (total delay for beginning of treatment, previous treatment, and HIV status and clustering occurrence showed that only "previous treatment" (OR = 7.65, p = 0.032 was associated with the possible transmission of tuberculosis in the studied prisons.

  7. Diversidade genotípica de rotavírus suínos no Estado de São Paulo Diversity of porcine rotavirus genotypes in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Fábio Gregori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotavírus é uma das causas mais comuns de diarréia tanto em humanos quanto em diferentes espécies animais. Foi conduzido um estudo transversal a partir de 144 amostras fecais diarréicas colhidas de leitões, provenientes de 16 criações comerciais distribuídas por 10 municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de se detectar a ocorrência de rotavírus e realizar sua caracterização molecular quanto seus genotipos G e P. Um total de 43 amostras (29,86% foram positivas para rotavírus por Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida (PAGE e ELISA, num esquema de triagem em paralelo. A caracterização mediante reações do tipo nested-multiplex RT-PCR demonstrou que, isoladamente, o genotipo P[6] foi o mais frequente, detectado em 25,58% das amostras, seguido pelo P[1] (11,63% e P[7] (9,3%. Infecções concomitantes de genotipos P[6]+P[7] (9,3%, P[1]+P[6] (4,65%, P[1]+P[6]+P[7] (2,33% foram também observadas. Analogamente, o genotipo G[5] foi detectado em 30,23% das amostras, seguido pelo G[10] (20,93% e G[6] (4,65% e G[5]+G[10] (18,6%. O genotipo G[5]P[6] foi o mais frequente (11,63%, porém outras combinações e amostras não tipificáveis também foram observadas. Considerando-se a diversidade de rotavírus suínos encontrada na população estudada, medidas profiláticas específicas devem levar em conta, para sua efetividade, o grau de proteção cruzada entre os genotipos presentes nas formulações vacinais e aqueles que realmente são circulantes numa região.Rotavirus is one the most common causes of diarrhea both in humans and different animal species. It was carried out a transversal study with 144 diarrheic fecal samples of piglets, from 16 commercial swine-producing units distributed among 10 municipalities of São Paulo State, Brazil, aiming at the detection of rotavirus occurrence and its molecular characterization according to G and P genotypes. A total of 43 samples (29.86% were positive for rotavirus by

  8. Frequency and genotypic distribution of GB virus C (GBV-C) among Colombian population with Hepatitis B (HBV) or Hepatitis C (HCV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica V; Botelho, Livia; Nishiya, Anna; Neto, Raymundo A; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele S; Gutierrez, Maria F; Carrilho, Flair J; Pinho, João Rr

    2011-07-11

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is an enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Studies on the genetic variability of the GBV-C reveals the existence of six genotypes: genotype 1 predominates in West Africa, genotype 2 in Europe and America, genotype 3 in Asia, genotype 4 in Southwest Asia, genotype 5 in South Africa and genotype 6 in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and genotypic distribution of GBV-C in the Colombian population. Two groups were analyzed: i) 408 Colombian blood donors infected with HCV (n = 250) and HBV (n = 158) from Bogotá and ii) 99 indigenous people with HBV infection from Leticia, Amazonas. A fragment of 344 bp from the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) was amplified by nested RT PCR. Viral sequences were genotyped by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences from each genotype obtained from GenBank (n = 160). Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to obtain the MCC tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Among blood donors, from 158 HBsAg positive samples, eight 5.06% (n = 8) were positive for GBV-C and from 250 anti-HCV positive samples, 3.2%(n = 8) were positive for GBV-C. Also, 7.7% (n = 7) GBV-C positive samples were found among indigenous people from Leticia. A phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of the following GBV-C genotypes among blood donors: 2a (41.6%), 1 (33.3%), 3 (16.6%) and 2b (8.3%). All genotype 1 sequences were found in co-infection with HBV and 4/5 sequences genotype 2a were found in co-infection with HCV. All sequences from indigenous people from Leticia were classified as genotype 3. The presence of GBV-C infection was not correlated with the sex (p = 0.43), age (p = 0.38) or origin (p = 0.17). It was found a high frequency of GBV-C genotype 1 and 2 in blood donors. The presence of genotype 3 in indigenous population was previously reported from Santa Marta region in Colombia and in native people from Venezuela and

  9. Frequency and genotypic distribution of GB virus C (GBV-C among Colombian population with Hepatitis B (HBV or Hepatitis C (HCV infection

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    Carrilho Flair J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GB virus C (GBV-C is an enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Studies on the genetic variability of the GBV-C reveals the existence of six genotypes: genotype 1 predominates in West Africa, genotype 2 in Europe and America, genotype 3 in Asia, genotype 4 in Southwest Asia, genotype 5 in South Africa and genotype 6 in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and genotypic distribution of GBV-C in the Colombian population. Methods Two groups were analyzed: i 408 Colombian blood donors infected with HCV (n = 250 and HBV (n = 158 from Bogotá and ii 99 indigenous people with HBV infection from Leticia, Amazonas. A fragment of 344 bp from the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR was amplified by nested RT PCR. Viral sequences were genotyped by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences from each genotype obtained from GenBank (n = 160. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach to obtain the MCC tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Results Among blood donors, from 158 HBsAg positive samples, eight 5.06% (n = 8 were positive for GBV-C and from 250 anti-HCV positive samples, 3.2%(n = 8 were positive for GBV-C. Also, 7.7% (n = 7 GBV-C positive samples were found among indigenous people from Leticia. A phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of the following GBV-C genotypes among blood donors: 2a (41.6%, 1 (33.3%, 3 (16.6% and 2b (8.3%. All genotype 1 sequences were found in co-infection with HBV and 4/5 sequences genotype 2a were found in co-infection with HCV. All sequences from indigenous people from Leticia were classified as genotype 3. The presence of GBV-C infection was not correlated with the sex (p = 0.43, age (p = 0.38 or origin (p = 0.17. Conclusions It was found a high frequency of GBV-C genotype 1 and 2 in blood donors. The presence of genotype 3 in indigenous population was previously reported from Santa Marta region in

  10. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  11. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

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    Luis Carlos Pinto de Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  12. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

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    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus infections and genotype distribution in head and neck cancers.

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    Zeyi Deng

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence, genotypes, and prognostic values of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV infections in Japanese patients with different types of head and neck cancer (HNC.HPV and EBV DNA, EBV genotypes and LMP-1 variants, and HPV mRNA expression were detected by PCR from fresh-frozen HNC samples. HPV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing, and EBV encoded RNA (EBER was examined by in situ hybridization.Of the 209 HNC patients, 63 (30.1% had HPV infection, and HPV-16 was the most common subtype (86.9%. HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was found in 23 of 60 (38.3% HPV DNA-positive cases detected. The site of highest prevalence of HPV was the oropharynx (45.9%. Among 146 (69.9% HNCs in which EBV DNA was identified, 107 (73.3% and 27 (18.5% contained types A and B, respectively, and 124 (84.9% showed the existence of del-LMP-1. However, only 13 (6.2% HNCs were positive for EBER, 12 (92.3% of which derived from the nasopharynx. Co-infection of HPV and EBER was found in only 1.0% of HNCs and 10.0% of NPCs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly better disease-specific and overall survival in the HPV DNA+/mRNA+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC patients than in the other OPC patients (P = 0.027 and 0.017, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that stage T1-3 (P = 0.002 and HPV mRNA-positive status (P = 0.061 independently predicted better disease-specific survival. No significant difference in disease-specific survival was found between the EBER-positive and -negative NPC patients (P = 0.155.Our findings indicate that co-infection with HPV and EBV is rare in HNC. Oropharyngeal SCC with active HPV infection was related to a highly favorable outcome, while EBV status was not prognostic in the NPC cohort.

  14. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlik, İmran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; İnan, Dilara; Öğünç, Dilara; Can Sarinoğlu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU

  15. H. pylori clinical isolates have diverse babAB genotype distributions over different topographic sites of stomach with correlation to clinical disease outcomes

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    Sheu Shew-Meei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intragenomic recombination between babA and babB mediates antigenic variations and may help H. pylori colonization. This study determined whether variable genotypes of babA and babB correlate to different clinical disease outcomes, and can distribute over the different gastric niches. Results This study enrolled 92 clinical strains (45 from peptic ulcer, 27 from gastritis, and 20 from gastric cancer to detect whether the babA and babB are at locus A or B by PCR reactions using the primers designed from the upstream and variable region of the babA and babB genes. Four genotypes of babA and babB (A B, AB B, A AB, AB AB were found. The distribution of the 4 genotypes in 92 clinical strains was significantly different among patients with different gastric diseases (p vs. 9.7%, p p p > 0.05. Besides, the study enrolled 19 patients to verify whether variable genotypes of babAB existed in the different gastric niches. Among the patients infected with more than one babAB genotypes over antrum and corpus, there were higher rate of genotypes as A B or AB AB in isolates from antrum than in those from corpus (75.0 % vs. 16.7%, p  Conclusions The H. pylori isolate with the AB AB genotype correlates with an increased gastric cancer risk, and colonize in an antrum predominant manner.

  16. Spatial distribution and socioeconomic context of tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of risk for tuberculosis and its socioeconomic determinants in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.METHODS An ecological study on the association between the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis from 2004 to 2006 and socioeconomic indicators of the Censo Demográfico (Demographic Census of 2000. The unit of analysis was the home district registered in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Notifiable Diseases Information System of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The rates were standardized by sex and age group, and smoothed by the empirical Bayes method. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by Moran’s I. Multiple linear regression models were studied and the appropriateness of incorporating the spatial component in modeling was evaluated.RESULTS We observed a higher risk of the disease in some neighborhoods of the port and north regions, as well as a high incidence in the slums of Rocinha and Vidigal, in the south region, and Cidade de Deus, in the west. The final model identified a positive association for the variables: percentage of permanent private households in which the head of the house earns three to five minimum wages; percentage of individual residents in the neighborhood; and percentage of people living in homes with more than two people per bedroom.CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis identified areas of risk of tuberculosis incidence in the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro and also found spatial dependence for the incidence of tuberculosis and some socioeconomic variables. However, the inclusion of the space component in the final model was not required during the modeling process.

  17. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil.

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    Cesar A Marchioro

    Full Text Available The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%, tangerine (51%, guava (38%, lemon (30%, orange (29%, mango (24% and avocado (20%. This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.

  18. Distribution of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genotypes circulating in Tunisia from 2009 to 2014: Emergence of the genotype G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Amal; Ben Hadj Fredj, Mouna; Fodha, Imene; BenHamida-Rebaï, Meriam; Kacem, Saoussen; Argoubi, Aida; Bennour, Haifa; Boujaafar, Noureddine; Trabelsi, Abdelhalim

    2016-09-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) represents the most important aetiological agent of diarrhoea in children worldwide. From January 2009 to December 2014, a multi-centre study realized through 11 Tunisian cities was undertaken among children aged G/P-genotyping by semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR. Globally, 270 specimens (24 %) were RVA-positive, with peaks observed annually between November and March. Nine different electropherotypes could be visualized by PAGE, six with a long profile (173 cases) and two with a short one (seven cases). Mixed profiles were detected in two cases. Among the 267 VP7 genotyped strains, the predominant G- genotype was G1 (39.6 %) followed by G3 (22.2 %), G4 (13 %), G9 (11.5 %), G2 (5.2 %) and G12 (5.2 %). Among the 260 VP4 genotyped strains, P[8] genotype was the predominant (74.5 %) followed by P[6] (10.4 %) and P[4] (5.5 %). A total of 257 strains (95.2 %) could be successfully G- and P-genotyped. G1P[8] was the most prevalent combination (34.4 %), followed by G3P[8] (16.3 %), G9P[8] (10.3 %), G4P[8] (8.9 %), G2P[4] (4 %), G12P[6] (2.6 %) and G12P[8] (1.9 %). Uncommon G/Pgenotype combinations, mixed infections and untypeable strains were also detected. This is the first report, in Tunisia, of multiple detection of an emerging human RVA strain, G12 genotype. This study highlighted the need for maintaining active surveillance of emerging strains in Northern Africa.

  19. Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

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    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga, our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible.

  20. The effects of non-agricultural activities on income distribution in rural Brazil

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    Henrique D. Neder

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of non-agricultural activity since the 1980s has reconfigured the economic and social dynamic in Brazil’s rural areas. Our paper intends to describe the impact of this growth on income distribution in rural Brazil. We made use of a method of decomposition of two indicators of income distribution applied to1992 and 1999 Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD data: the variation coefficient and the Gini index. It was observed that non-agricultural activities have increased the concentration of rural income and that this phenomenon is more prominent in Region I (states of Brazil’s Northeast and the state of Tocantins and Region IV (states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul and the Distrito Federal. It was found that the income concentrating effect of each non-agricultural activity branch (commerce, transformation industry, administration, service differed by region. In Region I, income from the "Social/Public Administration and Other Activities branch " (a PNAD designation presents a coefficient of relative concentration greater than a unit, which indicates that income from this activities branch acts to increase the concentration of non-agricultural income in this region. In Region IV, income from industrial activities and from Social/ Public Administration and Other Activities both present coefficients of relative concentration greater than a unit; therefore, both branches act to increase the concentration of income from non-agricultural activities in this region.

  1. Spatial distribution of annelids in the intertidal zone in Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

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    Alexandra E. Rizzo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial distribution of annelids in the intertidal zone of two beaches (Engenho d´Água and São Francisco in São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil, from August 1995 through July 1996. This region is commonly affected by oil spills and sewage waste. The substratum of the two beaches is composed of a mixture of sand and rock fragments. We established three levels (100 m2 in the intertidal zone of each study site: lower, intermediate, and upper. In general, species richness increased from upper towards lower levels. The distribution of species at Engenho d´Água was more homogeneous than at São Francisco. Only some individual spatial patterns were recognised at São Francisco. The most abundant polychaete species at Engenho d´Água (Nematonereis hebes, Timarete filigera, and Scyphoproctus djiboutiensis occurred in the intermediate and lower levels. The upper level of São Francisco was characterised by a peak of opportunists, with a large number of individuals but few dominant species (Capitella sp., Scolelepis squamata, Laeonereis acuta, and the oligochaete Tubifex sp.

  2. Spatial distribution of fiddler crabs (Genus Uca in a tropical mangrove of northeast Brazil

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    Luis Ernesto Arruda Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abiotic factors on the spatial distribution of the fiddler crabs Uca leptodactyla, U. maracoani, U. rapax and U. thayeri was studied in a tropical mangrove of northeast Brazil. Eight transects were delimited in a mangrove area of the Pacoti River. On each transect, three 0.25 m2 squares were sampled during spring low tide periods from September 2003 to August 2004. The sediment of the squares at each transect was analysed for grain size, organic matter and humidity. Morphology of the second maxilliped was studied considering the number of spoon-tipped setae to help explain the ecological distribution of the species. U. leptodactyla and U. rapax were found living in medium sand, U. thayeri was collected in fine and very fine sand, while U. maracoani was found living in very fine sand. U. leptodactyla showed a negative correlation with organic matter and humidity while U. thayeri showed a positive correlations for both factors. U. maracoani and U. rapax were not correlated with organic matter or humidity. The analysis of the second maxilliped revealed that U. leptodactyla and U. rapax show a high quantity of spoon-tipped setae while U. maracoani and U. thayeri show a greater quantity of plumose setae.

  3. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  4. Identification of novel recombinants of hepatitis B virus genotypes F and G in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients from Argentina and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Natalia M; Araujo, Oscar C; Silva, Edinete M; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane A; Nabuco, Letícia C; Parana, Raymundo; Bessone, Fernando; Gomes, Selma A; Trepo, Christian; Kay, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) infection is almost always detected along with a co-infecting HBV strain that can supply HBeAg, typically HBV/A2. In this study we describe, in two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from Argentina and Brazil, the first report of HBV/G infection in Argentina and co-circulation of HBV/G, HBV/F and G/F recombinants in the American continent. HBV isolates carrying the 36 bp insertion of HBV/G were the most prevalent in both patients, with >99 % of colonies hybridizing to a probe specific for this insertion. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length genomes and precore/core fragments revealed that F4 and F1b were the co-infecting subgenotypes in the Brazilian and Argentinian patients, respectively. Bootscanning analysis provided evidence of recombination in several clones from both patients, with recombination breakpoints located mainly at the precore/core region. These data should encourage further investigations on the clinical implications of HBV/G recombinants in HBV/HIV co-infected patients.

  5. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de genótipos de girassol no Brasil Central Adaptability and stability of sunflower genotypes in Central Brazil

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    Anna Karolina Grunvald

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de genótipos de girassol, no Brasil Central, quanto ao rendimento de grãos e de óleo. Os dados foram obtidos de ensaios de genótipos de girassol coordenados pela Embrapa Soja, de 2004 a 2007. Foram usados os métodos de Eberhart & Russell, Porto et al., Rocha et al. e Annicchiarico. Foi realizada a decomposição do índice de recomendação de Annicchiarico nos ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Este método e o de Porto et al. foram similares e mais adequados para avaliar a adaptabilidade dos genótipos. Em relação ao rendimento de grãos, as variedades BRSGira 02 e Nutrissol apresentaram adaptação ampla. Os híbridos Agrobel 959, MG50 e V03005 e as variedades Catissol e Multissol apresentaram adaptação aos ambientes favoráveis, e os híbridos BRHS 02 e BRHS 04 apresentaram adaptação aos ambientes desfavoráveis. Quanto ao rendimento de óleo, os híbridos Agrobel 959, V03005, MG50, VDH 487, EXP 1441, EXP 1447 e EXP 1446 e as variedades BRSGira 01, BRSGira 02 e Nutrissol apresentaram adaptação ampla. O híbrido MG52 e as variedades Catissol e Multissol mostraram adaptação aos ambientes favoráveis, e BRHS 04 e BRHS 02 mostraram adaptação aos ambientes desfavoráveis. Os genótipos selecionados mostraram-se estáveis, mas em níveis diferenciados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability and stability of sunflower genotype grain and oil yield, in Central Brazil. The analyzed data were obtained from sunflower genotype trials coordinated by Embrapa Soja, from 2004 to 2007. Genotype adaptability and stability were evaluated using the methods of Eberhart & Russell, Porto et al., Rocha et al., and Annicchiarico. The Annicchiarico method divides sites into favorable and unfavorable environments. This method and the one of Porto et al. were similar and more adequate to evaluate genotypic adaptability. For grain yield, the varieties BRSGira

  6. Wilson's disease in Southern Brazil: genotype-phenotype correlation and description of two novel mutations in ATP7B gene

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    Ricardo Schmitt de Bem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Wilson's disease (WD is an inborn error of metabolism caused by abnormalities of the copper-transporting protein encoding gene ATP7B. In this study, we examined ATP7B for mutations in a group of patients living in southern Brazil. METHODS: 36 WD subjects were studied and classified according to their clinical and epidemiological data. In 23 subjects the ATP7B gene was analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen distinct mutations were detected in at least one of the alleles. The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14 was the most common mutation (allelic frequency=37.1% followed by the c.3402delC at exon 15 (allelic frequency=11.4%. The mutations c.2018-2030del13 at exon 7 and c.4093InsT at exon 20 are being reported for the first time. CONCLUSION: The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14, was the most common mutation, with an allelic frequency of 37.1%. This mutation is the most common mutation described in Europe.

  7. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the genes associated with body composition and locomotion traits in Myanmar native horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yu; Moe, Hla Hla; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Shimizu, Yuki; Nishioka, Kenji; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kanemaki, Misao; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2017-08-01

    Myanmar native horses are small horses used mainly for drafting carts or carriages in rural areas and packing loads in mountainy areas. In the present study, we investigated genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the LCORL/NCAPG, MSTN and DMRT3 genes, which are associated with body composition and locomotion traits of horses, in seven local populations of Myanmar native horses. The genotyping result of LCORL/NCAPG showed that allele frequencies of C allele associated with higher withers height ranged from 0.08 to 0.27, and 0.13 in average. For MSTN, allele frequencies of C allele associated with higher proportion of Type 2B muscular fiber ranged from 0.05 to 0.23, and 0.09 in average. For DMRT3, allele frequencies of A allele associated with ambling gait ranged from 0 to 0.04, and 0.01 in average. The presences of the minor alleles of these genes at low frequencies suggest a possibility that these horse populations have not been under strong selection pressure for particular locomotion traits and body composition. Our findings of the presence of these minor alleles in Southeast Asian native horses are also informative for considering the origins of these minor alleles associated with body composition and locomotion traits in horse populations. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Hepatitis B virus prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution in HIV infected patients from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibriani, Azzania; Wisaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes; Schutten, Martin; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre; Boucher, Charles A B

    2014-04-01

    Indonesia currently faces both an increasing HIV incidence and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden. The objective of our study is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypic distribution of HBV infection among HIV infected patients in West Java, Indonesia. A cross sectional study was conducted among a cohort of HIV infected patients in 2008. Demographic and disease related variables were compared between HBV negative and positive patients. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for HBV co-infection. HBV and HIV genotyping was performed in co-infected patients. Of 636 HIV-infected patients, the rate of HBV co-infection was 7%. The proportion of males was higher in HBV/HIV co-infected patients than in HIV mono-infected patients (93% vs. 72%, P=0.001). A history of injecting drug use (IDU), but not tattooing, was associated with HBV co-infection [P=0.035 OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.06-5.47)]. In the HIV and HBV treatment naive patients, CD4 cells counts Java. However, an increased prevalence was observed in men with a history of IDU, underlining the need for routine HBV screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

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    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  10. Combined genotype and haplotype distributions of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 13,473 Chinese adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-11-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are, independently and/or in combination, associated with many disorders. However, data on the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the 2 polymorphisms in Chinese population were limited.We recruited 13,473 adult women from 9 Chinese provinces, collected buccal cell samples, and determined genotypes, to estimate the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms.In the total sample, the 6 common combined genotypes were CT/AA (29.5%), TT/AA (21.9%), CC/AA (15.4%), CC/AC (14.9%), CT/AC (13.7%), and CC/CC (3.4%); the 3 frequent haplotypes were 677T-1298A (43.6%), 677C-1298A (37.9%), and 677C-1298C (17.6%). Importantly, we observed that there were 51 (0.4%) individuals with the CT/CC genotype, 92 (0.7%) with the TT/AC genotype, 17 (0.1%) with the TT/CC genotype, and that the frequency of the 677T-1298C haplotype was 0.9%. In addition, the prevalence of some combined genotypes and haplotypes varied among populations residing in different areas and even showed apparent geographical gradients. Further linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the D' and r values were 0.883 and 0.143, respectively.In summary, the findings of our study provide further strong evidence that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are usually in trans and occasionally in cis configurations. The frequencies of mutant genotype combinations were relatively higher in Chinese population than other populations, and showed geographical variations. These baseline data would be useful for future related studies and for developing health management programs.

  11. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Xiong, Lu; Wang, Fuli; Xu, Xiaozhen; Wang, Jiao; Lin, Feng; Li, Chunhua; Lu, Ling; Zhou, Yuanping

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the "Li" aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35), 1b (n=31), 3b (n=16), 2a (n=8), 3a (n=6), and 1a (n=4). By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis

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    Tao Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the “Li” aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Methods: Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Results: Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35, 1b (n=31, 3b (n=16, 2a (n=8, 3a (n=6, and 1a (n=4. By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Conclusions: Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention.

  13. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  14. Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Hubei, Central China.

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    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Central China.A total of 570 patients from Hubei Province in central China were enrolled. These patients were tested positive for HCV antibody prior to blood transfusion. Among them, 177 were characterized by partial NS5B and/or Core-E1 sequences and classified into five subtypes: 1b, 83.0% (147/177; 2a, 13.0% (23/177; 3b, 2.3% (4/177; 6a, 1.1% (2/177; 3a, 0.6% (1/177. Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users. Phylogeographic analyses based on the coalescent datasets demonstrated that 1b, 2a, 3b, and 6a were locally epidemic in Hubei Province. Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes. Implementation of mandatory HCV screening before donation has significantly decreased the incidence of transfusion-associated HCV infection since 1997. More attention should be paid to intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual contact, which may have become new risk factors for HCV infection in Hubei Province.

  15. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  16. Age-related changes in pre- and post-conization HPV genotype distribution among women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannella, Luca; Fodero, Cristina; Boselli, Fausto; Rubino, Teresa; Mfuta, Kabala; Prandi, Sonia

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of age on pre- and post-conization HPV genotype distribution. The present retrospective observational study included consecutive women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who underwent conization at the Cervical Cancer Screening Centre of Reggio Emilia, Italy, and University Hospital of Modena, Italy, between February 1, 2012, and October 31, 2014. Pre-conization and 6-month post-conization HPV genotyping results were compared between four age groups (related changes in the HPV genotypes present were evaluated. There were 162 patients included. The lowest occurrence of pre-conization high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes was observed among patients aged at least 50 years when compared with younger patients (P=0.017). Conversely, women aged at least 50 years exhibited the highest level of post-conization high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes (P=0.043). Additionally, an increasing incidence of recording identical pre- and post-conization HPV genotypes was associated with increasing age (P=0.024), as was increasing post-treatment recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (P=0.030). The presence of high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes was lowest among older patients before conization and was highest among these patients post-conization; post-treatment HPV clearance decreased with age and increasing age could be a risk factor for post-conization recurrence. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. The clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infants less than six months of age hospitalized with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefeng; Xiong, Likuan; Huang, Yan; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Fen; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen. As no routine screening is performed during pregnancy, neonates and infants are at high risk for C. trachomatis infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the morbidity, clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of C. trachomatis pneumonia in infants less than six months of age. Clinical manifestations and laboratory results were recorded. Respiratory sputum specimens were tested using RT-PCR targeting C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid. Simultaneously, respiratory virus antigens were detected by direct immunofluorescence and bacterial pathogens were examined by culture in all sputum samples. Positive C. trachomatis samples were further genotyped using a multiplex PCR reverse line blot assay. The relationship between genotype and pneumonia severity was explored. Of 1408 infants, 101 (7.2%) were infected with C. trachomatis. Sixteen of 101 (15.8%) were assessed as severe pneumonia. These severe cases had a higher proportion of viral co-infection (37.5%) compared to mild pneumonia cases (9.4%, Ppneumonia (Ppneumonia might be associated with having certain mixed genotypes of C. trachomatis. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population of young hospitalized infants with pneumonia in Shenzhen was very high. The relationship between genotype distribution and severity of pneumonia was not clear based on this study due to small sample size. Further in-depth investigation correlating genotype and disease severity based on a larger population is needed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Age and gender distribution of Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotypes of individuals of physical examination in WuHan, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, ZhiLi; Zhang, PingAn; Tong, YongQing

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). There are no published population based studies about the prevalence of HCV genotypes and the associations of genotype and Infection frequency with gender and age in WuHan. We aimed to investigate the distribution of HCV prevalence and genotypes among different gender and age patients with chronic HCV infection in WuHan from 2011 to 2015. A total of 2685 anti-HCV positive serum samples from individuals of physical examinationwere recruited from the Renmin Hospital of WuHan University, Hubei Province in China from January 2011 to December 2015. From these 2685 anti-HCV positive serum samples, 496 samples were with a positive PCR for HCV RNA. The number of HCV infection showed an increase with year, but the annual infection rate has remained similar (χ(2) = 2.94, P = 0.568). 2685 cases were infected with HCV from 2011 to 2015 in WuHan city of China. Blood transfusion (18.14 %) was the main routs of transmission, followed by Surgery (8.94 %). The highest prevalence of HCV infection was at the age group 50-59 (25.85 % of 2685) and the lowest prevalence was 0-9 (0.93 % of 2685). HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent (73.39 %), followed by genotypes 2 (17.14 %), 3 (5.25 %) and 6 (3.22 %). Genotype 4 and 5 was not detected in these patients. The most prevalent subtype was subtype 1b (71.98 %), followed by genotypes 2a (17.14 %). Five patients had mixed infection across the HCV subtypes. Among all genotypes, genotype 1 was highest in both male (73.27 %) and female (73.47 %) patients, followed by genotype 2. Genotype 1 (male: 29.84 % of 496, vs female: 43.55 % of 496, χ(2) = 20.07, P < 0.0001), genotype 2 (male: 6.25 % of 496, vs female: 10.89 % of 496, χ(2) = 6.81, P = 0.009), and 6 (male: 1.41 % of 496, vs female: 1.81 % of 496, χ(2) = 0.626, P = 0.401) were more common in female patients than males, while no significant gender differences were

  19. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

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    Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months, 40 heifers aged 16.6±2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0±0.2 ticks/animal, with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9±0.3 flies/animal and D. hominis (1.5±0.2 larvae/animal on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals.

  20. Phlebotominae distribution in Janaúba, an area of transmission for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Érika Monteiro Michalsky

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL is caused by Leishmania chagasi parasites that are transmitted to man through the bites of infected females of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. In order to evaluate transmission risk and to clarify the epidemiology of this tropical disease, studies focused on the vector and favorable environmental conditions are of fundamental importance. In this work, we surveyed the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Janaúba, a Brazilian municipality that is endemic for VL. During a two-year period, entomological captures were performed monthly in 15 districts with high, moderate and low profiles of VL transmission. A total of 14,591 phlebotomine sand flies were captured (92% L. longipalpis, with a predominance of males. Most specimens were captured in the peri-domicile setting, although the number of specimens captured in the intra-domicile setting emphasises the anthropophilic behaviour of this insect. The population density of L. longipalpis was modulated by climate variations, particularly with clear increases immediately after the rainy season. However, the pattern of distribution did not coincide with the occurrence of human or canine cases of VL. This suggests that the eco-epidemiology of VL is particular to each area of transmission and must be taken into account during the design of public health control actions.

  1. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  2. Natural radionuclides distribution in the shelf and upper slope of southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Luisa M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: luisa.cordero@usp.b, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Quimica Inorganica Marinha; Mahiques, Michel M., E-mail: mahiques@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Analise de Materia Organica; Tessler, Moyses G., E-mail: mgtessle@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Espectrometria Gama

    2009-07-01

    In recent decades, Oceanography has been using a variety of radionuclides as tracers to understand the ocean dynamic processes, handling and disposal of sediments of seabed. In this context, the determination of natural radionuclides distributions ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) has been carried out with sediments samples from the shelf and upper slope off Southeast Brazil using a gamma spectrometry technique. The samples were sliced into strata of 2 cm, dried, ground and properly packed to be analysed. The concentration of activities was performed in a hyperpure Ge detector with a resolution of 1,9 keV for the peak of 1332,3 keV of {sup 60}Co, model GEM50P by EGG and ORTEC. The study area is located between latitudes 28 deg 40'S and 23 deg 00'S and extends from Cabo Frio (RJ) to Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (SC). The activity concentrations varied from 0,6 to 52,8 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, from 1,6 to 50,9BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 65,4 to 873,3 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. From these results it is possible to establish a correlation between the depositional area dynamics and the samples size parameters. (author)

  3. Floristic composition and spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes in the restingas of Maracanã, Brazil

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    Adriano Costa Quaresma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes constitute a life form that is important to maintaining the biological diversity of forest ecosystems, because they provide food resources and specialized microenvironments for fauna in the forest canopy. This study aimed to describe the floristic composition and ecological aspects of vascular epiphytes occurring in the restingas (coastal woodlands within the Algodoal-Maiandeua Environmentally Protected Area, located in the municipality of Maracanã, in the state of Pará, Brazil. We sampled five 50 × 50 m plots (three in dry restinga forest and two in floodplain restinga forest, the sampled area therefore totaling 1.25 ha. In the plots sampled, vascular epiphytes were identified and described according to their frequency, abundance, importance value (IV, functional group and vertical distribution (trunk, lower crown or upper crown of the host. For both forest types, we identified 477 individuals belonging to five families, nine genera and 11 species. The most species-rich families were Araceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest density, frequency and IV were the secondary hemiepiphytes Philodendron acutatum, Anthurium pentaphyllum and Philodendron muricatum, collectively accounting for 92.1% of all sampled individuals. The true epiphytes predominated. Epiphytic species richness and abundance was greater on the host trunk than in the lower or upper crown. The seasonal climate and structure of the forest favored greater abundance of secondary hemiepiphytes and a higher frequency of epiphytes on the trunks of their hosts.

  4. Distribution of dengue vectors in neighborhoods with different urbanization types of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Codeço, Cláudia T; Honório, Nildimar A; Sabroza, Paulo S; Moresco, Mônica; Cunha, Ivana C L; Levino, Antônio; Toledo, Luciano M; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2007-08-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector infestation in Manaus, by measuring the infestation level in four neighborhoods with different urbanization patterns, during the rainy (April), dry (August), and transitional (November) seasons. Ae. aegypti predominated throughout the study areas and sampling periods, representing 86% of all specimens collected in oviposition traps. High frequencies of houses positive for both species were observed in all studied sites, with Ae. aegypti present in more than 84% of the houses in all seasons. Ae. albopictus, on the other hand, showed more spatial and temporal variation in abundance. We found no association between infestation level and house traits. This study highlights the homogeneity of dengue vector distribution in Manaus.

  5. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  6. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  7. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

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    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  8. Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009.

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    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mondini, Lenise; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-02-01

    To describe the regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), were analyzed. The amounts of foods, recorded during seven consecutive days in the 55,970 sample households, were converted into calories and nutrients. Food quality indicators were constructed and analyzed according to the regional and socioeconomic strata of the Brazilian population. The amount of energy from protein was adequate in all regional and socioeconomic strata. On the other hand, an excess of free sugars and fats was observed in all regions of the country, especially in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The proportion of saturated fats was high in urban areas and consistent with the greater contribution of animal-derived products. Limited availability of fruits and vegetables was found in all regions. An increase in the fat content and reduction in carbohydrate content of the diet were observed with the increase in income. The negative characteristics of the Brazilian diet observed at the end of the first decade of the 21st century indicate the need to prioritize public policies for the promotion of healthy eating.

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish larvae in marginal lagoons of Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Karina Keyla Tondato

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of the abundance and composition of fish larvae assemblies, aiming to ascertain correlations with biotic and abiotic factors in marginal lagoons of the Cuiabá River floodplain in Brazil's Pantanal wetlands. Samples were collected bimonthly in the pelagic region of the marginal lagoons (fourteen lagoons close to the littoral zone covered by aquatic macrophytes from December 2006 to April 2007. The captured individuals consisted of 2,739 larvae, represented predominantly by Triportheus spp. (Characidae, Parodontidae, Anostomidae, Characidae and Serrasalmidae. Larval density varied among the sample lagoons in December, but the biotic (zooplankton density and abiotic (water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, water transparency and lagoon depth factors did not significantly affect larval composition and abundance. Larvae were captured throughout the sample period, with the highest densities occurring in December and early January. Temporally, lagoon depth, water transparency and fluviometric level showed a negative correlation with larval density. Both the zooplankton and the larval density vary positively, responding likewise to the environmental conditions imposed by flooding. The highest larval density was also found to coincide with the first rains (early December, when the rainfall has not yet reached its peak.

  10. Spatial distribution and diet of Cephalopholis fulva (Ephinephelidae at Trindade Island, Brazil

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    Flavio do Nascimento Coelho

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites around the Island, up to 50 m deep. Diet was based on 77 individuals collected with speargun. Mean population density and biomass were estimated at 29 individuals/100 m² and 13 kg/100 m², respectively. This species is regularly distributed along the costal environments of the Trindade Island, with no significant differences in densities and biomass detected among the different collection habitats (reef crest, reef slope, and reef plateau. However, significantly higher densities were observed micro-habitats with greater structural complexity, which may offer more shelter and food to C. fulva. Four food item groups were identified from the gut contents of C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei, and Testudinata. It is the first record of predation of the green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings by the coney. Trindade Island seems to present the densest concentration of C. fulva in all Brazilian and Caribbean ecosystems inhabited by this species. Scarcity of competitors, predators, and fishing pressure may explain the high densities observed in the Island.

  11. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV and co-infections in cervical cytologic specimens from two outpatient gynecological clinics in a region of southeast Spain

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    Egea-Cortines Marcos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical cytologic specimens from Murcia Region, (southeast Spain, to obtain information regarding the possible effect of the ongoing vaccination campaign against HPV16 and HPV18. Methods A total of 458 cytologic specimens were obtained from two outpatient gynecological clinics. These included 288 normal benign (N/B specimens, 56 atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US, 75 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 39 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results The most frequent genotype found was HPV16 (14.9% in N/B; 17.9% in ASC-US; 29.3% in LSIL and 33.3% HSIL. Distribution of other genotypes was heavily dependent on the cytologic diagnoses. Co-infections were found in 15.3% of N/B, 10.7% of ASC-US, 48% of LSIL and 25.6% of HSIL cases (significantly different at p Conclusion HPV vaccination might prevent 34.6% and 35.8% of LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Co-infection rate is dependent on both cytologic diagnosis and HPV genotype. Moreover, genotypes belonging to A5, A7 and A9 species are more often found as co-infections than genotype pertaining to A6 species. This suggests that phylogenetically related genotypes might have in common similar grades of dependency for cervical epithelium colonization.

  12. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

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    Helen Aline Melo

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA. The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high. A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2 and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676, but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (p< 0.05. In the construction and analysis of the cluster maps, areas with a high-high positive association were found in the Ivaí-Pirapó, Tibagi, Cinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  13. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae in southern Brazil

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    JF Oliveira-Neto

    Full Text Available The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2. The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species.

  14. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis cases in the rural areas of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Verônica Santos Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and intensity of geohelminth infections and schistosomiasis remain high in the rural areas of Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (ZMP, Brazil, where these parasites still represent a significant public health problem. The present study aimed to spatially assess the occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP. METHODS: The ZMP has a population of 1,132,544 inhabitants, formed by 43 municipalities. An ecological study was conducted, using secondary data relating to positive human cases and parasite loads of schistosomiasis and positive human cases of geohelminthiasis that were worked up in Excel 2007. We used the coordinates of the municipal headquarters to represent the cities which served as the unit of analysis of this study. The Kernel estimator was used to spatially analyze the data and identify distribution patterns and case densities, with analysis done in ArcGIS software. RESULTS: Spatial analysis from the Kernel intensity estimator made it possible to construct density maps showing that the northern ZMP was the region with the greatest number of children infected with parasites and the populations most intensely infected by Schistosoma mansoni. In relation to geohelminths, there was higher spatial distribution of cases of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the southern ZMP, and greater occurrence of hookworms in the northern/central ZMP. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several surveys and studies showing occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP, no preventive measures that are known to have been effective in decreasing these health hazards have yet been implemented in the endemic area.

  15. Spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone of sheltered beaches in southeastern of Brazil

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    Eliane P. de Arruda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone was examined monthly from August 1995 through July 1997, in Enseada, Barra Velha and Araçá beaches in southeastern of Brazil. One study sector was selected in Enseada and Barra Velha, and two sectors in Araçá (Araçá I and Araçá II. The sectors were 10 m wide and equivalent in length to the width of the intertidal zone. Each sector was divided into three horizontal levels: lower, middle and upper, where the samples were taken with a cylinder corer with a base area of 0.16 m². In order to characterize the intertidal environment in these areas, some environmental variables were analyzed. In general, the mollusks were distributed in the sectors as follows: Enseada - Olivella minuta (Link, 1807 in the lower level and Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 in the upper level; Araçá I - O. minuta in the lower level, Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791 in the middle levels; Araçá II - Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 in the lower level, O. minuta in the lower and middle levels, and A. brasiliana and Corbula caribaea Orbigny, 1842 in the middle level; Barra Velha - Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794, Lucina pectinata (Gmelin, 1791 and Tellina versicolor De Kay, 1843 in the lower level, and A. brasiliana and Macoma constricta (Brugüìere, 1792 in the upper level. The intertidal zone of the study sectors could be divided into two biological zones: the upper zone, where T. plebeius, A. brasiliana and M. constricta were more abundant; and the lower zone, where O. minuta, C. atratum, T. lineata, T. versicolor, C. caribaea, T. divisus and L. pectinata were abundant.

  16. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Tatiana N Docile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the Onchocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 % in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 % in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 % in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII differed in rela&tion to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatumand S. pertinaxwere significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted

  17. [Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes and serotypes in people who had a physical examination in Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wen-yu; Ding, Zheng-rong; Shen, Li-ping; Zhao, Zhi-xian; Tian, Bing-jun; Li, Hui; Li, Yong; Zhang, Shuang; Bi, Sheng-li

    2011-04-01

    To know genotypes and serotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) detected from hepatitis B infected people in Yunnan Province. Serum samples were collected from HBsAg carriers detected from people who had a physical examination at Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The S genes of HBV were amplified by nested PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. The viral genotype was identified by phylogenetic analysis. 27 reference sequences corresponding to HBV genotype A to I were obtained from GenBank. According to the amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of S gene, the dominant serotype of HBV detected from these people were confirmed. 39 HBsAg positive serum samples were detected from 2216 people who had a physical examination. The results shows that 76.9% were C genotype; 15.4% were B genotype; 5.1% were D genotype; 2.5% were I genotype. Three serotypes were found. The rates of adw2, adrq+ and ayr serotypes are 71.8%, 17.9% and 10.3% respectively. All of adw2 subtype specimens are C genotype. Among the serum specimens in which both HBsAg and HBeAg are positive, 75% were C genotype and adw2 subtype. It is determined that the main genotype and subtype of HBV prevailed in Yunnan province is C genotype and adw2 subtype.

  18. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Distribution and Genotype-Specific BCP/preCore Substitutions in Acute and Chronic Infections in Argentina

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    González López Ledesma, María Mora; Mojsiejczuk, Laura Noelia; Rodrigo, Belén; Sevic, Ina; Mammana, Lilia; Galdame, Omar; Gadano, Adrian; Fainboim, Hugo; Campos, Rodolfo; Flichman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Aim In order to assess Hepatitis B Virus genotype (g) and subgenotype (sg) implications in the course of infection, 234 HBsAg positive patients in different infection stages were characterized (66 acute infections, 63 HBeAg positive chronic infections and 105 anti-HBe positive chronic infections). Results Overall, sgA2 (17.9%), gD (20.9%), sgF1b (34.2%) and sgF4 (19.7%) were the most prevalent. Subgenotype F1b was overrepresented in acute and chronic HBeAg infections (56.1%), whereas gD was the most frequent (40.0%) in anti-HBe positive chronic infections. Among chronic infections, HBeAg positivity rates were 50.0, 12.5, 62.8 and 35.3% for sgA2, gD, sgF1b and sgF4, respectively (p <0.05). A bias toward BCP/preCore mutations was observed among genotypes. In anti-HBe positive chronic infections, sgF1b was more prone to have A1762T/G1764A mutation than sgA2, sgF4 and gD (75.0, 40.0, 33.3 and 31.8%, p<0.005), whereas in the pC region, gD and sgF4 were more likely to have G1896A than sgA2 and sgF1b (81.0, 72.7, 0.0 and 31.3%, p <0.001). The unexpected low frequency of the G1896A mutation in the sgF1b (despite carrying 1858T) prompted us to perform a further analysis in order to identify genotype-specific features that could justify the pattern mutations observed. A region encompassing nucleotides 1720 to 1920 showed the higher dissimilarity between sgF1b and sgF4. Genotypes and subgenotypes carrying the 1727G, 1740C and 1773T polymorphisms were prevented to mutate position 1896. Discussion HBeAg seroconversion is a critical event in the natural history of HBV infection. Differences in the HBeAg positivity rate might be relevant since different studies have observed that delayed HBeAg seroconversion is associated with a more severe clinical course of infection, highlighting the critical role that genotypes/subgenotypes might play in the progression of HBV infection. Polymorphisms in the regions 1720 to 1920 could be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying

  19. Hepatitis B virus genotype distribution and genotype-specific BCP/preCore substitutions in acute and chronic infections in Argentina.

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    María Mora González López Ledesma

    Full Text Available In order to assess Hepatitis B Virus genotype (g and subgenotype (sg implications in the course of infection, 234 HBsAg positive patients in different infection stages were characterized (66 acute infections, 63 HBeAg positive chronic infections and 105 anti-HBe positive chronic infections.Overall, sgA2 (17.9%, gD (20.9%, sgF1b (34.2% and sgF4 (19.7% were the most prevalent. Subgenotype F1b was overrepresented in acute and chronic HBeAg infections (56.1%, whereas gD was the most frequent (40.0% in anti-HBe positive chronic infections. Among chronic infections, HBeAg positivity rates were 50.0, 12.5, 62.8 and 35.3% for sgA2, gD, sgF1b and sgF4, respectively (p <0.05. A bias toward BCP/preCore mutations was observed among genotypes. In anti-HBe positive chronic infections, sgF1b was more prone to have A1762T/G1764A mutation than sgA2, sgF4 and gD (75.0, 40.0, 33.3 and 31.8%, p<0.005, whereas in the pC region, gD and sgF4 were more likely to have G1896A than sgA2 and sgF1b (81.0, 72.7, 0.0 and 31.3%, p <0.001. The unexpected low frequency of the G1896A mutation in the sgF1b (despite carrying 1858T prompted us to perform a further analysis in order to identify genotype-specific features that could justify the pattern mutations observed. A region encompassing nucleotides 1720 to 1920 showed the higher dissimilarity between sgF1b and sgF4. Genotypes and subgenotypes carrying the 1727G, 1740C and 1773T polymorphisms were prevented to mutate position 1896.HBeAg seroconversion is a critical event in the natural history of HBV infection. Differences in the HBeAg positivity rate might be relevant since different studies have observed that delayed HBeAg seroconversion is associated with a more severe clinical course of infection, highlighting the critical role that genotypes/subgenotypes might play in the progression of HBV infection. Polymorphisms in the regions 1720 to 1920 could be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying seroconversion of each

  20. High-risk human papillomavirus genotype distribution and attribution to cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in a rural Chinese population.

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    Zhao, Xue Lian; Hu, Shang Ying; Zhang, Qian; Dong, Li; Feng, Rui Mei; Han, Ross; Zhao, Fang Hui

    2017-07-01

    To explore the genotype distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and its attribution to different grades of cervical lesions in rural China, which will contribute to type-specific HPV screening tests and the development of new polyvalent HPV vaccines among the Chinese population. One thousand two hundred ninety-two subjects were followed based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study I (SPOCCS-I), and screened by HPV DNA testing (hybrid capture® 2 [HC2]), liquid-based cytology (LBC), and if necessary, directed or random colposcopy-guided quadrant biopsies. HPV genotyping with linear inverse probe hybridization (SPF10-PCR-LiPA) was performed in HC2 positive specimens. Attribution of specific HR-HPV type to different grades of cervical lesions was estimated using a fractional contribution approach. After excluding incomplete data, 1,274 women were included in the final statistical analysis. Fifteen point two percent (194/1,274) of women were HR-HPV positive for any of 13 HR-HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and the most common HR-HPV types were HPV16 (19.1%) and HPV52 (16.5%). The genotypes most frequently detected in HR-HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1) were HPV52 (24.1%), HPV31 (20.7%), HPV16 (13.8%), HPV33 (13.8%), HPV39 (10.3%), and HPV56 (10.3%); in HR-HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+): HPV16 (53.1%), HPV58 (15.6%), HPV33 (12.5%), HPV51 (9.4%), and HPV52 (6.3%). HPV52, 31, 16, 33, 39, and 56 together contributed to 89.7% of HR-HPV-positive CIN1, and HPV16, 33, 58, 51, and 52 together contributed to 87.5% of CIN2+. In summary, we found substantial differences in prevalence and attribution of CINs between different oncogenic HPV types in a rural Chinese population, especially for HPV16, 31, 33, 52, and 58. These differences may be relevant for both clinical management and the design of preventive strategies.

  1. Correlation between the BACTEC MGIT 960 culture system with Genotype MTBDRplus and TB-SPRINT in multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Brazil.

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    Dantas, Nayanne Gama Teixeira; Suffys, Phillip Noel; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Almeida, Isabela Neves de; Figueiredo, Lida Jouca de Assis; Gonçalves, Alan Douglas; Gomgnimbou, Michel Kireopori; Refregier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe; Miranda, Silvana Spíndola de

    2017-11-01

    The accurate detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is critical for the application of appropriate patient treatment and prevention of transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between phenotypic and molecular techniques for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnostics. Molecular techniques used were the line probe assay genotype MTBDRplus and the recently described tuberculosis-spoligo-rifampin-isoniazid typing (TB-SPRINT) bead-based assay. Conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) was done on a BACTECTM MGIT 960 TB. We studied 80 M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) clinical isolates from Minas Gerais state, of which conventional DST had classified 60 isolates as MDR and 20 as drug susceptible. Among the 60 MDR-TB isolates with MGIT as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for rifampicin (RIF) resistance using TB-SPRINT and MTBDRplus, were 96.7% versus 93.3%, 100.0% versus 100.0%, 97.5% versus 95.0% and 0.94 versus 0.88, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for isoniazid (INH) resistance were 85.0% and 83.3%, 100.0% and 100.0%, 88.8% and 87.5% and 0.74 and 0.71 for both tests, respectively. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for MDR-TB were 85.0% and 83.3%, 100.0% and 100.0%, 88.8% and 87.5% and 0.74 and 0.71 for both tests, respectively. Both methods exhibited a good correlation with the conventional DST. We suggest estimating the cost-effectiveness of MTBDRplus and TB-SPRINT in Brazil.

  2. Prevalence and Distribution of High-Risk Genotypes of HPV in Women with Severe Cervical Lesions in Madrid, Spain: Importance of Detecting Genotype 16 and Other High-Risk Genotypes.

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    Mateos Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Sánchez Calvo, Juan Manuel; Chacón de Antonio, Jesús; Sanz, Itziar; Diaz, Esperanza; Rubio, Maria Dolores; de la Morena, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been demonstrated to be the necessary causal factor for developing cervical cancer. To know the most prevalent HR-HPV in different geographical areas is important to design diagnostic tests and implementation of vaccines. Objectives. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in a total of 1001 patients, 198 with normal cytology results, 498 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 205 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who attended our gynaecology department for opportunistic screening of HPV infection. Study design. Cervical samples were taken in a PreservCyt vial (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, MA). Hybrid capture assay was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions (Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD). All samples were further studied with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Results. Genotype 16 was the most prevalent HR-HPV in the three groups, 17.8% in the patients with normal cytology results, 22.3% in the LSIL group, and 60% in the HSIL group. Genotype 18 had a very low prevalence in all groups. Other HR-HPV genotypes such as genotype 31, genotype 58 and genotype 52 were found in significant numbers in HSIL patients. Discussion. Our data show that genotypes 16, 31, 58, and 52 are the most prevalent HR-HPV in cervical samples with severe intraepithelial lesion in Spain. There may be some geographical variation in prevalence of carcinogenic types, and it must be considered for designing diagnostic tests and vaccine.

  3. Prevalence and Distribution of High-Risk Genotypes of HPV in Women with Severe Cervical Lesions in Madrid, Spain: Importance of Detecting Genotype 16 and Other High-Risk Genotypes

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    Maria Luisa Mateos Lindemann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV has been demonstrated to be the necessary causal factor for developing cervical cancer. To know the most prevalent HR-HPV in different geographical areas is important to design diagnostic tests and implementation of vaccines. Objectives. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in a total of 1001 patients, 198 with normal cytology results, 498 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 205 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL who attended our gynaecology department for opportunistic screening of HPV infection. Study design. Cervical samples were taken in a PreservCyt vial (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, MA. Hybrid capture assay was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions (Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. All samples were further studied with polymerase chain reaction (PCR (Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany. Results. Genotype 16 was the most prevalent HR-HPV in the three groups, 17.8% in the patients with normal cytology results, 22.3% in the LSIL group, and 60% in the HSIL group. Genotype 18 had a very low prevalence in all groups. Other HR-HPV genotypes such as genotype 31, genotype 58 and genotype 52 were found in significant numbers in HSIL patients. Discussion. Our data show that genotypes 16, 31, 58, and 52 are the most prevalent HR-HPV in cervical samples with severe intraepithelial lesion in Spain. There may be some geographical variation in prevalence of carcinogenic types, and it must be considered for designing diagnostic tests and vaccine.

  4. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

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    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  5. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

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    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  6. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

  7. Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue fever in southeast Brazil, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors have been associated with circulation of the dengue fever virus and vector, although the dynamics of transmission are not yet fully understood. The aim of this work is to estimate the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue fever in an area of continuous dengue occurrence. Methods This is a spatial population-based case-control study that analyzed 538 cases and 727 controls in one district of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2006-2007, considering socio-demographic, ecological, case severity, and household infestation variables. Information was collected by in-home interviews and inspection of living conditions in and around the homes studied. Cases were classified as mild or severe according to clinical data, and they were compared with controls through a multinomial logistic model. A generalized additive model was used in order to include space in a non-parametric fashion with cubic smoothing splines. Results Variables associated with increased incidence of all dengue cases in the multiple binomial regression model were: higher larval density (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3 (95%CI: 2.0-2.7)), reports of mosquito bites during the day (OR = 1.8 (95%CI: 1.4-2.4)), the practice of water storage at home (OR = 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4, 4.3)), low frequency of garbage collection (OR = 2.6 (95%CI: 1.6-4.5)) and lack of basic sanitation (OR = 2.9 (95%CI: 1.8-4.9)). Staying at home during the day was protective against the disease (OR = 0.5 (95%CI: 0.3-0.6)). When cases were analyzed by categories (mild and severe) in the multinomial model, age and number of breeding sites more than 10 were significant only for the occurrence of severe cases (OR = 0.97, (95%CI: 0.96-0.99) and OR = 2.1 (95%CI: 1.2-3.5), respectively. Spatial distribution of risks of mild and severe dengue fever differed from each other in the 2006/2007 epidemic, in the study area. Conclusions Age and presence of more than 10 breeding sites were significant only for severe

  8. Spatial distribution of tuberculosis from 2002 to 2012 in a midsize city in Brazil

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    Mirna de Abreu e Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a major public health problem in many developing countries. Exploratory spatial analysis is a powerful instrument in spatial health research by virtue of its capacity to map disease distribution and associated risk factors at the population level. The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and spatial distribution of new cases of TB reported during the period 2002–2012 in Divinopolis, a midsized city located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data relating to the study cases were retrieved from the national Brazilian database and geocoded according to residential address. Choropleth and kernel density maps were constructed and a spatial-temporal analysis was performed. Tracts defined by the 2010 national census were classified as sectors with higher or lower densities of new TB cases based on the kernel density map. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to compare the two types of sectors according to income, level of literacy and population density. Results A total of 326 new cases of TB were reported during the study period. Residential addresses relating to 309 (94.8 % of these were available in the SINAN database and the locations were geocoded and mapped. The average incidence of TB during the study period was 14.5/100,000 inhabitants. Pulmonary TB was the most predominant form (73.6 % and 74.5 % of patients had been cured. The percentage of cases was highest in males (67.8 % and individuals aged 25–44 years (41.1 %, and lowest in children aged less than 15 years (4.6 %. The disease was spatially distributed throughout the urban district. The incidence rate among urban census tracts ranged from 0.06 to 1.1 %, and the disease occurred predominantly in the downtown area (99.3 %. Higher population density was associated significantly with increased odds of living in a sector with a

  9. Soil organic carbon distribution in an agricultural catchment in Southern Brazil: from hillslope to catchment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Chartin, Caroline; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution a few decades after conversion to cropland and plantations in a hilly catchment in southern Brazil is challenging due to scale-dependent controlling factors. Firstly, SOC, bulk density (BD) and texture were measured by depth intervals along 18 soil profiles located in three topographical positions (sloping plateau, central back slope and concave foot slope) in cropland and forest with contrasting slopes. SOC stocks in concave footslope position were not significantly different between fields on steep (11.1 kg C m-2) and gentle slopes (12.8 kg C m-2). However, in eroding profiles, SOC stocks are twice as high in fields on gentle slopes (17.6/12.6 kg C m-2) compared to steep slopes (8.3/7.1 kg C m-2). SOC stocks on steep slope on cropland (8.8 kg C m-2) are three times lower than SOC stocks on steep slope under undisturbed forest (23.7 kg C m-2). On gentle slopes, the effect of deforestation on SOC stocks was not so drastic (14.3 and 14.4 kg C m-2). Therefore, contrasting topography generates different patterns of SOC redistribution in the catchment. The effect of conversion to cropland is probably due to soil redistribution by water and tillage erosion aggravated by the steep terrain. Secondly, in order to assess the heterogeneity of SOC distribution at catchment scale, samples were collected at 10-20; 40-50 and 75-85 cm in 167 soil profiles sampled with an auger. SOC concentrations (gC kg-1 ) in numerous bulk soil samples (n = 378) were predicted by VIS-NIR spectroscopy and partial least-square regression models. SOC stocks were assessed by a mass preserving spline tool by interpolating SOC mass at the three non-contiguous depth intervals. Samples of calibration-validation dataset (n = 95) were used for physical SOC fractionation allowing the measurement of carbon associated with regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the influence of several covariates on SOC stocks, SOC

  10. Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue fever in southeast Brazil, 2006-2007

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    Nucci Luciana B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors have been associated with circulation of the dengue fever virus and vector, although the dynamics of transmission are not yet fully understood. The aim of this work is to estimate the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue fever in an area of continuous dengue occurrence. Methods This is a spatial population-based case-control study that analyzed 538 cases and 727 controls in one district of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2006-2007, considering socio-demographic, ecological, case severity, and household infestation variables. Information was collected by in-home interviews and inspection of living conditions in and around the homes studied. Cases were classified as mild or severe according to clinical data, and they were compared with controls through a multinomial logistic model. A generalized additive model was used in order to include space in a non-parametric fashion with cubic smoothing splines. Results Variables associated with increased incidence of all dengue cases in the multiple binomial regression model were: higher larval density (odds ratio (OR = 2.3 (95%CI: 2.0-2.7, reports of mosquito bites during the day (OR = 1.8 (95%CI: 1.4-2.4, the practice of water storage at home (OR = 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4, 4.3, low frequency of garbage collection (OR = 2.6 (95%CI: 1.6-4.5 and lack of basic sanitation (OR = 2.9 (95%CI: 1.8-4.9. Staying at home during the day was protective against the disease (OR = 0.5 (95%CI: 0.3-0.6. When cases were analyzed by categories (mild and severe in the multinomial model, age and number of breeding sites more than 10 were significant only for the occurrence of severe cases (OR = 0.97, (95%CI: 0.96-0.99 and OR = 2.1 (95%CI: 1.2-3.5, respectively. Spatial distribution of risks of mild and severe dengue fever differed from each other in the 2006/2007 epidemic, in the study area. Conclusions Age and presence of more than 10 breeding sites were significant only

  11. Spatial distribution of tuberculosis from 2002 to 2012 in a midsize city in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu E Silva, Mirna; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Cláudia; Teixeira Neto, Rafael Gonçalves; Camargos, Paulo Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in many developing countries. Exploratory spatial analysis is a powerful instrument in spatial health research by virtue of its capacity to map disease distribution and associated risk factors at the population level. The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and spatial distribution of new cases of TB reported during the period 2002-2012 in Divinopolis, a midsized city located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Sociodemographic and clinical data relating to the study cases were retrieved from the national Brazilian database and geocoded according to residential address. Choropleth and kernel density maps were constructed and a spatial-temporal analysis was performed. Tracts defined by the 2010 national census were classified as sectors with higher or lower densities of new TB cases based on the kernel density map. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to compare the two types of sectors according to income, level of literacy and population density. A total of 326 new cases of TB were reported during the study period. Residential addresses relating to 309 (94.8 %) of these were available in the SINAN database and the locations were geocoded and mapped. The average incidence of TB during the study period was 14.5/100,000 inhabitants. Pulmonary TB was the most predominant form (73.6 %) and 74.5 % of patients had been cured. The percentage of cases was highest in males (67.8 %) and individuals aged 25-44 years (41.1 %), and lowest in children aged less than 15 years (4.6 %). The disease was spatially distributed throughout the urban district. The incidence rate among urban census tracts ranged from 0.06 to 1.1 %, and the disease occurred predominantly in the downtown area (99.3 %). Higher population density was associated significantly with increased odds of living in a sector with a "higher density of cases", even after adjusting for income and

  12. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in women with cervical alterations from north Argentina

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    G D Deluca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in northern Argentina, showing the highest mortality rate in the country (approximately 22 cases/100000 women. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in women with pre-neoplastic lesions before the massive introduction of HPV vaccination in the country. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cervical cells were collected to screen for HPV using the widely known MY09/11 PCR, followed by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP technique from a total of 714 women with previously diagnosed atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL. Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 48.2% in ASCUS (24 different HPV types detected, 66.5% in LG-SIL (37 HPV types detected and 82.6% in HG-SIL (16 HPV types detected. HPV-16 was the most prevalent type among all cases. With respect to multiple HPV infections, 9.6% were observed in ASCUS, 14.3% in LG-SIL and 11.4% in HG-SIL. Conclusion: The major strength of our study is the assessment of a large series of women with cytological alterations in this region. The information attained will be useful as a regional baseline for future epidemiological vigilance, in the context of the national HPV vaccination program.

  13. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Rockstroh, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variables influencing serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels and genotype distribution in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well known, nor are factors determining spontaneous clearance after exposure to HCV in this population. METHODS: All HCV...

  14. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Karine de Souza O. Santana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil -currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation- is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3% with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%. Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  15. HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a population-based split-sample study of well-screened women using CLART HPV2 human papillomavirus genotype microarray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are becoming increasingly attractive for use in mass screening, as they offer a possibility to integrate HPV screening with HPV vaccine monitoring, thereby generating a synergy between the two main modes of cervical cancer prevention......, Denmark, an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for organized screening. METHODS: Material from 5,068 SurePath samples of women participating in routine screening and clinical follow-up of cervical abnormalities was tested using liquid based...

  16. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology

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    Umar Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HCV are frequently propagating blood borne pathogens in global community. Viral hepatitis is primarily associated with severe health complications, such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. A literature review was conducted on hepatitis B virus (HBV, HBV genome, genotypic distribution and global epidemiology of HBV, HCV, HCV genome, HCV and host immune responses, HCV genotypic distribution and global epidemiology. The valued information was subjected for review. HBV has strict tissue tropism to liver. The virus infecting hepatocytes produces large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen particles which lack the DNA. It has capability to integrate into host genome. It has been found that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases (cirrhosis. The approximate prevalence rate of genotype C is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations. Approximately 8% of population is chronic carrier of HBV in developing countries. The chronic carrier rate of HBV is 2%-7% in Middle East, Eastern and Southern Europe, South America and Japan. Among HCV infected individuals, 15% usually have natural tendency to overcome acute viral infection, where as 85% of individuals were unable to control HCV infection. The internal ribosomal entry site contains highly conserved structures important for binding and appropriate positioning of viral genome inside the host cell. HCV infects only in 1%-10% of hepatocytes, but production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (from CD8+ cells and interferon-gamma cause destruction of both infected cells and non-infected surrounding cells. Almost 11 genotypes and above 100 subtypes of HCV exists worldwide with different geographical distribution. Many efforts are still needed to minimize global burden of these infections. For the complete eradication of HBV (just like small pox and polio via vaccination strategies

  17. National Intelligence Systems as Networks: Power Distribution and Organizational Risk in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa

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    Marco Cepik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the intelligence systems of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. Three questions drive the research: How are the national intelligence systems organized? How is power distributed among organizations in each country? What are the organizational risks? By employing Network Analysis to publicly-available data on intelligence agencies, collegiate bodies, and supervising organizations, authority relations and information flows were mapped. Regarding organizational configuration, similarities were found between India and Russia, as well as between China and South Africa. Brazil differs from the four countries. As for the power distribution, in Russia, Brazil, and India intelligence is subordinated to the government, and shows more centrality in the cases of China and South Africa. Finally, Russia runs the highest risk of having an intelligence system less able to adapt to strategic circumstances, at the same time being the most resilient among the five countries. Likewise, China has the highest risk of a single actor being able to retain information, acting as a gatekeeper. Network Analysis has proved to be a useful approach to promote a comparative research program in the Intelligence Studies field.

  18. Statistical distribution models for migratory fish in Jacuí basin, South Brazil

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    Thaís P. Alves

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution patterns of migratory fishes in the Jacuí river basin (Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil, proposing a statistical model of presumed distribution based on geomorphologic environmental data. Through maps of occurrence probability, we hope to contribute to decisions regarding basin environmental management. The analyzed species were: Salminus brasiliensis (dourado, Leporinus obtusidens (piava, Prochilodus lineatus (grumatã and Pimelodus pintado (pintado. Samples were made through interviews with fishermen and local inhabitants, covering the main channel and tributaries of the rivers Jacuí, Taquari-Antas, Vacacaí, Vacacaí-Mirim, Pardo, Pardinho, Sinos, and Caí. The sampling program resulted in 204 interviews, being 187 considered as valid in 155 different sampling points. The probability of migratory fish occurrence was adjusted through the LOGIT routine of the Idrisi Andes Software: P = e(b0 + b1 . altitude + b2 . basin area . (1 + e(b0 + b1 . altitude + b2 . basin area-1, where P is the occurrence probability of the species (0-1 and b0, b1 and b2 are the equation parameters. Model accuracy, for estimating presence, ranged from 82% to 93%. Pimelodus pintado was cited to occur in 121 points among the 155 sampled (78.06%, Prochilodus lineatus in 72 (46.45%, L. obtusidens in 62 (40.00% and S. brasiliensis in 58 (37.42%. Equation parameters were estimated (± standard error as follow: S. brasiliensis: b0 = -2.8762 ± 0.2597; b1 = 1.3028 ± 0.0332; b2 = 1.1487 ± 0.0301; L. obtusidens: b0 = -0.8364 ± 0.2213; b1 = -1.5564 ± 0.0462; b2 = 0.9947 ± 0.0206; Prochilodus lineatus: b0= 0; b1= -1.3067 ± 0.0544; b2= 0.8128 ± 0.0177; Pimelodus pintado: b0= -0.9487 ± 0.3688; b1= -0.8269 ± 0.0496; b2= 0.9255 ± 0.0304.

  19. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, J; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C.; Husby, S.

    2016-01-01

    mass index or waist circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android fat deposition, independent of puberty. Girls appeared more susceptible than boys. Furthermore, the association depended on maternal and child PON1 Q192R...... affected by child PON1 Q192R genotype. We aimed to study whether prenatal pesticide exposure was still associated with body fat content and distribution in the children at puberty and the potential impact of both maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype. In this prospective cohort study of 247 children born...

  20. Presence and distribution of the endosymbiont Wolbachia among Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Brazil and its evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cíntia; Souza, Rodrigo Fernando; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-03-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that commonly infect arthropods. Its prevalence among ants of the genus Solenopsis is high. In the present study, the presence and distribution of these endosymbionts was examined among populations of Solenopsis spp. from Brazil. A phylogenetic analysis based on the wsp gene was conducted to infer the evolutionary history of Wolbachia infections within the populations surveyed. A high frequency of Wolbachia bacteria was observed among the genus Solenopsis, 51% of the colonies examined were infected. Incidence was higher in populations from southern Brazil. However, little genetic variability was found among different Wolbachia strains within supergroups A and B. Our findings also suggest that horizontal transmission events can occur through the social parasite S. daguerrei. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-risk human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical carcinoma of Serbian women: Distribution and association with pathohistological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Miodrag; Knežević, Aleksandra; Knežević, Ivana; Kuzmanović, Igor; Karalić, Danijela; Milenković, Sanja; Jovanović, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    A significant role of high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in the development of cervical carcinoma is well known. HR HPV 16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of all cases of cervical cancer worldwide. The incidence of cervical cancer in Serbia, is one of the highest in Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of HR HPV types in cervical carcinoma of Serbian women, as well as association between the HPV types and pathohistological findings. The study included 80 archival cervical cancer tissues from the same number of patients. The presence of HPV DNA was determined using MY09/MY11 primers for L1 gene and GP1/GP2 primers for E1 gene. HPV was detected in 78.75% tissues. HR HPV genotypes found in the decreasing order of frequency were: HPV16 (80.39%), HPV33 (7.84%), HPV58 (5.88%), HPV18 (1.96%), HPV45 (1.96%) and HPV53 (1.96%). The examined tissues were 91.25% squamous cell carcinomas and 8.75% adenocarcinoma. The high frequency of HPV 16 was observed in both types of carcinoma (80.8% and 75%, respectively) while the prevalence of HPV18 was low. These results may contribute to the implementation of cervical carcinoma prevention program in Serbia, including the selection of the most appropriate vaccine and immunization program. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of human Cytomegalovirus gB genotypes in samples from pediatric patients in Parma during the period 1995-2003

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    Maria Cristina Arcangeletti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is a leading cause of developmental disability and late neurological sequelae in children. Several literature data indicate that HCMV pericapsidic glycoprotein B (gB is highly immunogenic and is involved in virus-cell interaction.The gB gene has hypervariable regions producing four genotypes (gB1, gB2, gB3, gB4; however, the correlation between gB genotypes and HCMV infection outcome remains unclear. Objectives. The main goal of this study was that of evaluating the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes in samples from pediatric population in Parma with congenital, perinatal or post-natal infections, in order to find a correlation between viral gB genotypes and the clinical outcome of the infection. Study design. Forty eight urine samples, selected between 1999 and 2003 and stored at -80°C, underwent DNA extraction, nested PCR amplification of a gB gene region and restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP. Results. The gB genotypes distribution in the considered pediatric population was as follows: gB1 was the most diffused (45.83% followed by gB2 (22.92%, gB3 (16.67% and gB4 (14.58%. Conclusions. In the considered population, gB1 was the most represented genotype and was often found in congenital and perinatal symptomatic infections, as well as in post-natal, asymptomatic infections.

  3. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

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    Rafaelle C. G. Fares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4 and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  4. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: I. distribution and abundance

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    Liang Tsui Hua

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of chaetognath species off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Brazil, was studied during a program of multidisciplinary research. Ten species belonging to the genera Sagitta, Krohnita and Pterosagitta were identified. S. enflata was the dominant species followed by S.friderici and S. hispida. The species S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata and JC pacifica were found in the Shelf water whereas S. serratodentata, S. minima, S. hexaptera and P. draco in the Tropical water. Only S. friderici was found associated to Coastal water. Hydrological conditions affected population structure, size of individuals and abundance.A ocorrência, distribuição, freqüência dos estágios de maturidade e comprimento total do corpo das espécies do filo Chaetognatha foram estudados. As amostras foram obtidas com o auxílio de rede Bongo, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987, durante o Projeto "Utilização Racional do Ecossistema Costeiro da Região Tropical Brasileira, Estado de São Paulo". Dez espécies foram identificadas, sendo Sagitta enflata, S. friderici e S. hispida as espécies mais abundantes. S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata e Krohnita pacifica estão associadas à água de Plataforma enquanto que S. serratodentata, S. hexaptera, S. minima e Pterosagitta draco à água Tropical. Apenas S. friderici mostrou preferência por água Costeira. Diferenças sazonais na estrutura da população, tamanho dos indivíduos, abundância e distribuição estão associados à hidrodinâmica local. Nos verões, os quetognatos apresentaram maior número de estágios maduros nas amostras examinadas, comprimentos maiores e baixa abundância como conseqüência da intrusão da água Central do Atlântico Sul que provocou uma estratificação térmica característica. Em contraposição, nestas amostras, nos invernos, a população é formada por indivíduos de estágios jovens, de comprimentos menores e grande

  5. Tests for establishing compatibility of an observed genotype distribution with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the case of a biallelic locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellek, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    The classical chi(2)-procedure for the assessment of genetic equilibrium is tailored for establishing lack rather than goodness of fit of an observed genotype distribution to a model satisfying the Hardy-Weinberg law, and the same is true for the exact competitors to the large-sample procedure, which have been proposed in the biostatistical literature since the late 1930s. In this contribution, the methodology of statistical equivalence testing is adopted for the construction of tests for problems in which the assumption of approximate compatibility of the genotype distribution actually sampled with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) plays the role of the alternative hypothesis one aims to establish. The result of such a construction highly depends on the choice of a measure of distance to be used for defining an indifference zone containing those genotype distributions whose degree of disequilibrium shall be considered irrelevant. The first such measure proposed here is the Euclidean distance of the true parameter vector from that of a genotype distribution with identical allele frequencies being in strict HWE. The second measure is based on the (scalar) parameter of the distribution first introduced into the present context by Stevens (1938, Annals of Eugenics 8, 377-383). The first approach leads to a nonconditional test (which nevertheless can be carried out in a numerically exact way), the second to an exact conditional test shown to be uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) for the associated pair of hypotheses. Both tests are compared in terms of the exact power attained against the class of those specific alternatives under which HWE is strictly satisfied.

  6. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  7. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  8. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

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    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  9. PAH biodegradative genotypes in Lake Erie sediments: evidence for broad geographical distribution of pyrene-degrading mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyn, Jennifer M; Mead, Thomas J; Wilhelm, Steven W; Sayler, Gary S

    2009-05-15

    Despite a long history of anthropogenic contamination of Lake Erie sediments, little work has been done to understand the potential for PAH biodegradation by indigenous microbial communities. Pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium are prevalent in many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated freshwater sediments, and are of interest for their ability to degrade environmentally recalcitrant high molecular weight PAHs. This work tested the hypothesis that pyrene-degrading mycobacteria are prevalent in Lake Erie; an additional aim was to gain a baseline picture of the sediment microbial communities through sequencing a 16S rDNA clone library. Biodegradation potential of Lake Erie Mycobacterium populations was assessed through quantification of pyrene dioxygenase genes (nidA) and mycobacteria 16S rDNA genes using quantitative real time PCR. nidA was detected at all seven sampling sites across Lake Erie, with abundances ranging from 2.09 to 70.4 x 10(6) copies per gram sediment, with highest abundances at the most PAH-contaminated site (Cleveland Harbor). This is in contrastto naphthalene dioxygenase genes commonly used as biomarkers of PAH degradation: nahAc (from gamma-proteobacteria) was not detected anywhere, and nagAc (from beta-proteobacteria) was detected only in Cleveland Harbor, despite dominance by proteobacteria in Lake Erie sediment 16S rDNA clone libraries (>50% of clones). The prevalence of Mycobacterium nidA genotypes corroborated previous studies indicating that PAH-degrading mycobacteria have a cosmopolitan distribution and suggests they play an important but overlooked role in natural attenuation and cycling of PAHs in Lake Erie.

  10. An EM algorithm based on an internal list for estimating haplotype distributions of rare variants from pooled genotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Anthony Y C; Li, Xiang; Xu, Jinfeng

    2013-09-13

    Pooling is a cost effective way to collect data for genetic association studies, particularly for rare genetic variants. It is of interest to estimate the haplotype frequencies, which contain more information than single locus statistics. By viewing the pooled genotype data as incomplete data, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is the natural algorithm to use, but it is computationally intensive. A recent proposal to reduce the computational burden is to make use of database information to form a list of frequently occurring haplotypes, and to restrict the haplotypes to come from this list only in implementing the EM algorithm. There is, however, the danger of using an incorrect list, and there may not be enough database information to form a list externally in some applications. We investigate the possibility of creating an internal list from the data at hand. One way to form such a list is to collapse the observed total minor allele frequencies to "zero" or "at least one", which is shown to have the desirable effect of amplifying the haplotype frequencies. To improve coverage, we propose ways to add and remove haplotypes from the list, and a benchmarking method to determine the frequency threshold for removing haplotypes. Simulation results show that the EM estimates based on a suitably augmented and trimmed collapsed data list (ATCDL) perform satisfactorily. In two scenarios involving 25 and 32 loci respectively, the EM-ATCDL estimates outperform the EM estimates based on other lists as well as the collapsed data maximum likelihood estimates. The proposed augmented and trimmed CD list is a useful list for the EM algorithm to base upon in estimating the haplotype distributions of rare variants. It can handle more markers and larger pool size than existing methods, and the resulting EM-ATCDL estimates are more efficient than the EM estimates based on other lists.

  11. Seasonal chaetognath abundance and distribution in a tropical estuary (Southeastern, Brazil

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    Luiz Loureiro Fernandes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the seasonal variation of the chaetognath species in the Vitória Bay/Passage Channel estuarine system, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in terms of their abundance and distribution. Specimens of chaetognaths were collected between July 1997 and April 1998 at 10 sampling stations, with a cylindrical-conical plankton net of 200 µm mesh and 30 cm mouth, fitted with a mechanical flowmeter. Five chaetognath species were identified: Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens, Sagitta hispida, Sagitta friderici and Sagitta minima. Most of them were distributed in areas of high salinity (e.g. at the stations closest to the outer estuary. The dominant species, S. enflata and S. friderici, were more frequent in the outer estuary where salinities varied from 32 (wet season - summer to 28 (dry season - winter. S. friderici was the only species found right in the middle of the Passage Channel, at a station close to the main freshwater input into the estuary. Results showed that chaetognaths only enter the estuary due to the tidal effect, and that they are not typical residents of this system. This is to be expected because the group normally inhabits only truly marine regions.Este estudo abordou a abundância e distribuição sazonal das espécies de quetognatos, no sistema estuarino baía de Vitória/Canal da Passagem, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Os organismos foram coletados entre julho de 1997 e abril de 1998 em 10 estações amostrais, utilizando uma rede de plâncton cilíndrico-cônica de 200µm de malha e 30 cm de abertura de boca, dotada de um fluxômetro mecânico. Cinco espécies de quetognatos foram identificadas: Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens, Sagitta hispida, Sagitta friderici e Sagitta minima. A maioria destas espécies esteve distribuída em áreas com alta salinidade (e.g. estações próximas a saída do estuário. As espécies dominantes S. enflata e S. friderici foram mais freqüentes na parte externa do estuário onde as

  12. Rubella Epidemics and Genotypic Distribution of the Rubella Virus in Shandong Province, China, in 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Xu, Aiqiang; Fang, Xueqiang; Song, Lizhi; Li, Weixiu; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Background The rubella vaccine was introduced into the immunization program in 1995 in the Shandong province, China. A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented at different stages of measles control in Shandong province. Methodology/Principal Findings The average reported incidence rate of rubella cases remained at a low level in Shandong province after 1999. However, rubella epidemics occurred repeatedly in 2001/2002, 2006, and 2008/2009. The age of the onset of rubella cases gradually increased during 1999–2010, which showed that most cases were found among the 10 years old in 1999 and among the 17 years old in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All rubella viruses isolated in Shandong province were divided into 4 genotypes: 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B. Genotype 1E viruses accounted for the majority (79%) of all these viruses. The similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among genotype 1E viruses was 98.2–100% and 99.1–100%, respectively. All Shandong genotype 1E strains, differed from international genotype 1E strains, belonged to cluster 1 and interdigitated with the viruses from other provinces in mainland China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2001 to 2009. Conclusions/Significance The gradual shift of disease burden to an older age group occurred after a rubella-containing vaccine was introduced into the childhood immunization schedule in 1995 in Shandong province. Four genotypes, including 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B, were found in Shandong province during 2000–2009. Genotype 1E, rather than genotype 1F, became the predominant genotype circulating in Shandong province from 2001. All Shandong genotype 1E viruses belong to the genotype 1E/cluster 1; they have constantly circulated, and co-evolved and co-circulated, with those from

  13. Genotypic distribution and phylogenetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in diarrheic chickens and pigs in multiple cities, China: potential zoonotic transmission.

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    Wei Li

    Full Text Available This study investigated diarrheic broiler and layer chickens (60 days; n=64 for E. bieneusi genotypes in northeast China and evaluated the potential roles of chickens and pigs in zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. Two 45-day-old layer chickens in city Jixi, Heilongjiang province and one 23-day-old broiler chicken in city Songyuan, Jilin province were identified to harbor a human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotype Henan-IV and a new genotype named CC-1, respectively, by nested PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS. Eleven of 64 (17.2% duodenal mucosal specimens from pigs in city Tianjin, city Tongliao of Inner Mongolia, cities Jilin and Songyuan of Jilin province, and cities Daqing, Harbin, and Suihua of Heilongjiang province, were positive for E. bieneusi, with the infection rates of weaned pigs (35%, 7/20 significantly higher than preweaned ones (3.6%, 1/28; P<0.05. Nucleotide sequences of the ITS were obtained from 6 pig specimens, belonging to 3 known genotypes CHN7, EbpC, and Henan-IV. That the previous reports have described the occurrence of genotypes EbpC and Henan-IV in humans and EbpC in wastewater in central China and the clustering of genotypes CC-1 and CHN7 into a major phylogenetic group of E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential indicated that chickens and pigs could be potential sources of human micorsporidiosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in diarrheic chickens.

  14. Fuel distribution logistics in Brazil: technical and economic aspects; Aspectos tecnico-economicos da logistica da distribuicao de combustiveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Heloisa Borges B.; Bicalho, Lucia N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, there are around 250 companies operating in the automotive fuel distribution segment, responsible for the automotive fuels wholesale commercialization activity. Those companies supply not only gas stations, but also final consumers and TRR's. Their clients are distributed regionally, which requires flexibility and the ability to supply clients efficiently at the smaller possible cost, transforming variables such as the transportation alternatives adopted, the location of the storage facilities and its correct dimension on key decisions. This paper analyses the general scenario of the fuels distribution logistics in Brazil from a economic perspective, and its impacts on the companies competitive strategies. (author)

  15. Human cytomegalovirus prevalence and distribution of glycoprotein B, O genotypes among hospitalized children with respiratory infections in West China, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Yi; Zheng, Tian-Li; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Meng-Jiao; Xu, Xin; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2016-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen causing morbidity and mortality in children. HCMV prevalence in children with respiratory infections has not been investigated in West China. Previous studies have suggested that glycoproteins genotypes may be associated with different clinical presentations, but the associations were controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCMV infection in children with respiratory infections, the distributions of gB, gO genotypes among these isolates and their potential predictive roles for the development of symptoms in children. A total of 1709 respiratory specimens were obtained from hospitalised children with respiratory symptoms from 2009 to 2014 for the confirmation of HCMV infection. Glycoprotein B,O genotyping was carried out by multiplex nested PCR and sequencing. The overall infection rate was 10.8%, and dominant genotypes were gB1 (74.2%) and gO1 (37.1%). Clinical characteristics differed between infants and children >1 year of age. Infants infected with HCMV had a higher frequency of fever (P < 0.001), cough (P < 0.001), rhinorrhea (P < 0.001), expectoration (P = 0.001) and diarrhoea (P = 0.005). Children <1 year age infected with gB1 had a higher rate of cough (P = 0.0192). Infants infected with HCMV had a severe clinical outcome. gB1 may negatively associate with clinical presentations and quality of life in these children. The prevalence of HCMV infection and genotype distribution emphasises the importance of HCMV screening, vaccination and control for transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hepatitis B virus infection in children, adolescents, and their relatives: genotype distribution and precore and core gene mutations

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    Adriana Parise Compri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:The objectives of this study were evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers in children and adolescents followed up at the Child Institute of the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo; identify chronic HBV carriers and susceptible individuals in the intrafamilial environment; characterize HBV genotypes; and identify mutations in the patients and household contacts. METHODS: Ninety-five hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children aged <19 years and 118 household contacts were enrolled in this study. Commercial kits were used for the detection of serological markers, and PCR was used for genotyping. RESULTS: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg was detected in 66.3% (63/95 of cases. Three of the 30 HBeAg-negative and anti-HBeAg-positive patients presented with precore mutations and 11 presented with mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP. Genotype A was identified in 39 (43.8% patients, genotype D in 45 (50.6%, and genotype C in 5 (5.6%. Of the 118 relatives, 40 were chronic HBV carriers, 52 presented with the anti-HBc marker, 19 were vaccinated, and 7 were susceptible. Among the relatives, genotypes A, D, and C were the most frequent. One parent presented with a precore mutation and 4 presented with BCP mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Genotypes A and D were the most frequent among children, adolescents, and their relatives. The high prevalence of HBV in the families showed the possibility of its intrafamilial transmission.

  17. Distribution and Abundance of Necrophagous Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Roberto Pereira; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at surveying the local calliphorid and sarcophagid species in Maranhão State (Brazil) to determine their distribution and abundance, as well as the distribution of exotic Chrysomya species. In total, 18,128 calliphorid specimens were collected, distributed in 7 genera and 14 species. The species Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 1969) were new state records. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) and Cochliomyia macellaria (F., 1775) were the most abundant species, and the exotic species of Chrysomya together contributed more than 50% of total blow fly abundance. The abundance distribution of the calliphorid community conformed to a log series model, characterized by a steep curve that reflects an assemblage with a high degree of dominance. For the Sarcophagidae, a total of 14,810 specimens were collected and distributed in 15 genera, 11 subgenera, and 52 species. Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (F., 1794) and Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) were the most abundant species. The abundance distribution of the species followed a log normal model, with a gentler slope, consistent with a more uniform community. The cumulative species curve for the sarcophagids did not reach the asymptote. Forty-three sarcophagid species were new state records and 22 were new records for the Brazilian northeast, which emphasizes the need for a continued survey in this region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Spatial-temporal distribution of fire-protected savanna physiognomies in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo H.O. Pinheiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the influence of edaphic finer textures, as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest formations in the absence of fire, was possible thanks to rare characteristics found in a savanna fragment located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The total suppression of fire for over four decades, and the occurrence of two savanna physiognomies, cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão, allowed the conduction of this study based on the hypothesis that cerradão, a physiognomy of forest aspect consisting of fire-sensitive tree and shrubs species, is favored by fire absence and higher soil hydric retention capacity. Edaphic samples were collected from a regular grid of 200 m² for the production of isopletic maps of the distribution of clay, fine sand, coarse sand and silt edaphic textures by the geostatistic method of ordinary kriging. Changes in the areas occupied by both savanna physiognomies, defined on the basis of aerial photographs taken over a period of 43 years, were assessed through mean variation rates. Besides corroborating the hypothesis of edaphic hydric retention as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest physiognomies in savanna areas, we were able to infer the positive influence of higher precipitation on the increase in cerradão expansion rates.A influência de texturas edáficas finas, como fator de facilitação para a expansão de formações florestais sobre áreas savânicas, através da maior retenção hídrica edáfica, na ausência de incêndios, foi possível ser estudada graças às características encontradas em um fragmento savânico com 38,8 ha, situado em Corumbataí (SP. A supressão total do fogo por quatro décadas, e a ocorrência de duas fisionomias, cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão, permitiram a condução deste estudo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em uma grade regular de 200 m², abrangendo toda a área do fragmento. Foram produzidos mapas iso-pléticos, com a distribuição das

  19. Spatial distribution and diet of Cephalopholis fulva (Ephinephelidae at Trindade Island, Brazil

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    Flavio do Nascimento Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites around the Island, up to 50 m deep. Diet was based on 77 individuals collected with speargun. Mean population density and biomass were estimated at 29 individuals/100 m² and 13 kg/100 m², respectively. This species is regularly distributed along the costal environments of the Trindade Island, with no significant differences in densities and biomass detected among the different collection habitats (reef crest, reef slope, and reef plateau. However, significantly higher densities were observed micro-habitats with greater structural complexity, which may offer more shelter and food to C. fulva. Four food item groups were identified from the gut contents of C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei, and Testudinata. It is the first record of predation of the green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings by the coney. Trindade Island seems to present the densest concentration of C. fulva in all Brazilian and Caribbean ecosystems inhabited by this species. Scarcity of competitors, predators, and fishing pressure may explain the high densities observed in the Island.Foram analisadas a estrutura populacional e a dieta do catuá Cephalopholis fulva na Ilha da Trindade, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos através de censos visuais com mergulho autônomo em 11 locais no entorno da ilha, em profundidades de até 50 m. A dieta e a proporção sexual foram baseadas na análise de 77 indivíduos coletados com arpão. A densidade populacional e biomassa foram estimados em 29 indivíduos/m² e 13 kg/100 m², respectivamente. A espécie apresentou distribuição uniforme nos ambientes costeiros da ilha, não tendo sido registradas diferenças significativa em sua densidade e biomassa entre os diferentes habitats estudados (crista, talude e platô recifal. Entretanto, foi observado prefer

  20. Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987 (Squamata, Tropiduridae. New record and geographic distribution map in northeastern Brazil

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    Barbosa, Luirick F. S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987. Brazil, state of Pernambuco, municipality of Floresta (08°36'04" S; 38°34'07" W; 316 m. Collectors: Members of the Wildlife Rescue Team from the Project of Integration of São Francisco river (PISF with the basins of septentrional northeastern. From July 2009 to February 2010, 55 specimens were collected in areas of Caatinga characterized by shrub vegetation with sandy soil, and deposited in the Scientific Collection of the Centro de Conservação e Manejo de Fauna da Caatinga – CEMAFAUNA-CAATINGA/UNIVASF, Petrolina, Brazil. Axis East Transposition of the São Franscisco river – Petrolândia (Leste Petrolândia: LPE (LPE 998.

  1. Distribution of rotavirus G and P genotypes approximately two years following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jung Ok; Thai Than, Van; Ryoo, Eell; Lim, Inseok; Yoon, Yoosik; Kim, Kijeong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Wonyong

    2013-07-01

    Genotyping of human rotaviruses was performed on 299 (40.1%) rotavirus-positive samples obtained from 745 children with acute diarrhea in three provinces in South Korea between March 2008 and February 2010, approximately 2 years following the introduction of the RotaTeq (September 2007) and Rotarix (July 2008). The most prevalent G genotypes were G1 (51.5%), followed by G3 (24.0%), G4 (15.4%), G9 (6.4%), and G2 (4.7%). The predominant types of P genotypes were P[8] (72.6%), followed by P[6] (19.1%) and P[4] (6.0%). The phylogenetic analyses of the VP7 genes of G9 strains revealed they were highly identical and belonged in lineage III. This study highlights the consistency of the predominant G1 genotype and slightly higher predominance of the identical G9 strains over the G2 genotype. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bloodstream Infections Due to Trichosporon spp.: Species Distribution, Trichosporon asahii Genotypes Determined on the Basis of Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Spacer 1 Sequencing, and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Neto, Thomas C.; Chaves, Guilherme M.; Melo, Analy S. A.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The reevaluation of the genus Trichosporon has led to the replacement of the old taxon Trichosporon beigelii by six new species. Sequencing of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) is currently mandatory for accurate Trichosporon identification, but it is not usually performed in routine laboratories. Here we describe Trichosporon species distribution and prevalence of Trichosporon asahii genotypes based on rDNA IGS1 sequencing as well as antifungal susceptibility profiles of 22 isolates recovered from blood cultures. The clinical isolates were identified as follows: 15 T. asahii isolates, five Trichosporon asteroides isolates, one Trichosporon coremiiforme isolate, and one Trichosporon dermatis isolate. We found a great diversity of different species causing trichosporonemia, including a high frequency of isolation of T. asteroides from blood cultures that is lower than that of T. asahii only. Regarding T. asahii genotyping, we found that the majority of our isolates belonged to genotype 1 (86.7%). We report the first T. asahii isolate belonging to genotype 4 in South America. Almost 50% of all T. asahii isolates exhibited amphotericin B MICs of ≥2 μg/ml. Caspofungin MICs obtained for all the Trichosporon sp. isolates tested were consistently high (MICs ≥ 2 μg/ml). Most isolates (87%) had high MICs for 5-flucytosine, but all of them were susceptible to triazoles, markedly to voriconazole (all MICs ≤ 0.06 μg/ml). PMID:19225102

  3. Distribution of genotypes C825T polymorphism G-protein β3-subunit gene in patients with hypertension depending on body mass index

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    Prystupa L.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of genotypes of C825T polymorphism G-protein β3-subunit gene (GNB3 in patients with arterial hypertension (AH, depending on body mass index (BMI. The study involved 155 patients with verified diagnosis of AH (study group and 50 healthy individuals (control group. The patients of the main group were divided into 3 groups according to BMI: I - 35 patients with normal body weight, II - 38 patients with overweight, III - 82 patients with obesity. We used general clinical, anthropometric, instrumental, molecular-genetic and statistical methods. Probability of differences in the frequency of alleles and genotypes was determined using χ² criteria. Pairwise comparison of groups was made using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The difference was considered statistically significant at p <0,05. Investigation of the distribution of genotypes C825T polymorphism GNB3 in patients with AH according to BMI showed statistically significant increase in the frequency of genotypes C / T and T / T and T allele in patients with overweight and obesity as compared with patients with normal body weight (χ² = 26 8; p <0.001. The risk of weight increase in AH patients with T allele carriers is 2,2 times higher than in C allele carriers. Association of C825T polymorphism of GNB3 with a tendency to obesity and overweight in patients with AH was proved.

  4. Population structure and circulating genotypes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Conceição; Saraiva Giampaglia, Carmen M.; Oliveira, Rosângela S.; Simonsen, Vera; Latrilha, Fábio Oliveira; Moniz, Letícia Lisboa; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine

    2013-01-01

    São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state and reports the largest number of tuberculosis cases in the country annually (over 18,500). This study included 193 isolates obtained during the 2nd Nationwide Survey on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance that was conducted in São Paulo state and 547 isolates from a laboratory based study of drug resistance that were analyzed by the Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory at the Institute Adolfo Lutz. Both studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and sought to determine the genetic diversity and pattern of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates (MTC) circulating in São Paulo. The patterns obtained from the spoligotyping analysis demonstrated that 51/740 (6.9%) of the isolates corresponded to orphan patterns and that 689 (93.1%) of the isolates distributed into 144 shared types, including 119 that matched a preexisting shared type in the SITVIT2 database and 25 that were new isolates. A total of 77/144 patterns corresponded to unique isolates, while the remaining 67 corresponded to clustered patterns (n = 612 isolates clustered into groups of 2–84 isolates each). The evolutionarily ancient PGG1 lineages (Beijing, CAS1-DEL, EAI3-IND, and PINI2) were rarely detected in São Paulo and comprised only 13/740, or 1.76%, of the total isolates; all of the remaining 727/740, or 98.24%, of the MTC isolates from São Paulo state were from the recent PGG2/3 evolutionary isolates belonging to the LAM, T, S, X, and Haarlem lineages, i.e., the Euro-American group. This study provides the first overview of circulating genotypes of M. tuberculosis in São Paulo state and demonstrates that the clustered shared types containing seven or more M. tuberculosis isolates that are spread in São Paulo state included both resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:23201043

  5. Tracking the distribution of Puccinia psidii genotypes that cause rust disease on diverse myrtaceous trees and shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Rodrigo N. Graca; Acelino C. Alfenas; Tobin L. Peever; Jack W. Hanna; Janice Y. Uchida; Rob D. Hauff; Chris Y. Kadooka; Mee-Sook Kim; Phil G. Cannon; Shigetou Namba; Nami Minato; Sofia Simeto; Carlos A. Perez; Min B. Rayamajhi; Mauricio Moran; D. Jean Lodge; Marcela Arguedas; Rosario Medel-Ortiz; M. Armando Lopez-Ramirez; Paula Tennant; Morag Glen; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Puccinia psidii Winter (Basidiomycota, Uredinales) is a biotrophic rust fungus that was first reported in Brazil from guava in 1884 (Psidium guajava; Winter 1884) and later from eucalypt in 1912 (Joffily 1944). Considered to be of neotropical origin, the rust has also been reported to infect diverse myrtaceous hosts elsewhere in South America, Central America, the...

  6. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  7. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rosana Moreira da

    1995-01-01

    The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro) were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area) and larger ones (160-220 cm²) located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this ord...

  8. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeryun Kim

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH. Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH, but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%; locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%, no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001 and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001 were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002. En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the

  9. Monitoring of children with acute gastroenteritis in Madrid, Spain, during 2010-2011: rotavirus genotype distribution after the vaccines introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fauquier, Alicia; González-Galán, Verónica; Arroyo, Sandra; Cabornero, Ana; Ruiz-Burruecos, Ana; Wilhelmi-De Cal, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A structured surveillance study was conducted on children with diarrhea who were hospitalized in Madrid (Spain) during 2010-2011, in order to describe temporal, geographic, and age-related trends in rotavirus (RV) strains after the introduction of the RV vaccines in our country. A total of 370 children were enrolled, with RV being detected in 117 (31.6%) cases. Coinfections were detected mainly with rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. The most prevalent rotavirus G type was G1 (60.7%) followed by G2 (16.09%), G9 (5.9%), and G12 (5.1%). The G12 genotype appeared for the first time in 2008 in Spain, and it has increased to 5.1% of the cases in this report. Some uncommon P genotypes, such as P[14] and P[6], both with a low percentage, were found. The samples with G1 G2, G9 and G12 genotypes appeared in all ages, but were significantly higher in children under 2 years old. A long-term structured surveillance is required in the Spanish post vaccine era, in order to determine the prevalence and variability of RV genotypes. This will especially be needed to distinguish between changes occurring as a result of natural fluctuation in genotype or those (changes) that could be mediated by population immunity to the vaccines. In addition, it will be necessary to study the impact of the current vaccines on the circulating rotavirus strains and on the overall reduction in the prevalence of rotavirus disease among children in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. High-risk human papillomavirus genotypes distribution in a cohort of HIV-positive women living in Europe: epidemiological implication for vaccination against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, Deborah; Manigart, Yannick; Gilles, Christine; Barlow, Patricia; De Marchin, Jérome; Feoli, Francesco; Delforge, Marc; Clumeck, Nathan; De Wit, Stéphane

    2016-01-28

    Worldwide, human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 represents 70% of high-risk (HR) HPV found in cervical cancer. However HIV-positive women are more frequently infected by HRHPV other than HPV 16 or 18 (OHR). We aimed to analyse the HRHPV genotype distribution in a cohort of HIV-positive women and to estimate the potential protection offered by the different HPV vaccines. HRHPV genotypes by PCR and cytology were assessed in cervical samples from 508 HIV-positive women prospectively followed in Brussels. Women characteristics were as follows: African origin (84%), median age 42 years, median CD4 T 555/μl, 89% under combined antiretroviral therapy and 73% with HIVRNA less than 20 copies/ml. HRHPV prevalence was 23% (116/508): 38% had abnormal cytology, 76% carried OHR without HPV 16 or 18 and 11% had concomitant infection by OHR and HPV 16 or 18. The most frequent HRHPV were HPV52 (19.8%), HPV18 (14.6%), HPV31/35/51/58 (12.1% each), HPV56 (9.9%) and HPV16 (9.5%). Less than 30% of women had their HRHPV genotypes included in the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines against HRHPV 16 and 18; however, 79% had their HRHPV covered by the ninevalent vaccine against HRHPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58. The HRHPV genotypes distribution found in these women living in Europe with a successfully treated HIV is similar to the one found in Central Africa with HRHPV other than HPV16 or 18 retrieved in 87%. In this population, the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines could offer protection in only 30% of women; however this protection could be extended up to 80% with the ninevalent vaccine.

  11. Modelling the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in bovines using decision tree, logistic regression and GIS query approaches for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, S C; Molento, M B; Scholte, R G; Carvalho, O S; Pritsch, I

    2017-11-01

    Fascioliasis is a condition caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. In this paper, the spatial distribution of F. hepatica in bovines in Brazil was modelled using a decision tree approach and a logistic regression, combined with a geographic information system (GIS) query. In the decision tree and the logistic model, isothermality had the strongest influence on disease prevalence. Also, the 50-year average precipitation in the warmest quarter of the year was included as a risk factor, having a negative influence on the parasite prevalence. The risk maps developed using both techniques, showed a predicted higher prevalence mainly in the South of Brazil. The prediction performance seemed to be high, but both techniques failed to reach a high accuracy in predicting the medium and high prevalence classes to the entire country. The GIS query map, based on the range of isothermality, minimum temperature of coldest month, precipitation of warmest quarter of the year, altitude and the average dailyland surface temperature, showed a possibility of presence of F. hepatica in a very large area. The risk maps produced using these methods can be used to focus activities of animal and public health programmes, even on non-evaluated F. hepatica areas.

  12. Human papillomavirus type distribution and HPV16 intratype diversity in southern Brazil in women with and without cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele R de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV intratype variants (specific lineages and sublineages are associated with pathogenesis and progression from HPV infection to persistence and the development of cervical cancer. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to verify the prevalence of HPV infection and distribution of HPV types and HPV16 variants in southern Brazil in women with normal cytology or intraepithelial lesions. METHODS HPV typing was determined by L1 gene sequencing. To identify HPV16 variants, the LCR and E6 regions were sequenced, and characteristic single nucleotide variants were identified. FINDINGS A total of 445 samples were studied, with 355 from cervical scrapes and 90 from cervical biopsies. HPV was detected in 24% and 91% of these samples, respectively. The most prevalent HPV types observed were 16 (cervical, 24%; biopsies, 57% and 58 (cervical, 12%; biopsies, 12%. Seventy-five percent of the HPV16-positive samples were classified into lineages, with 88% defined as lineage A, 10% as lineage D, and 2% as lineage B. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study identified a high frequency of European and North American HPV16 lineages, consistent with the genetic background of the human population in southern Brazil.

  13. Age and geographic variability of human papillomavirus high-risk genotype distribution in a large unvaccinated population and of vaccination impact on HPV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Girlando, Salvatore; Baboci, Lorena; Trevisan, Morena; Burroni, Elena; Grasso, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) specific genotypes differs by age and areas. Knowledge of these differences will help predicting how prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening program could best be integrated. To investigate variations in the HPV distribution between areas and ages in Italy and the impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence. 37,367 women aged 25-60 years who attended cervical screening in eight different areas in Northern and Central Italy were tested for HPV infection with the high-risk hybrid capture (hr-HC2) assay. hr-HC2 positive samples were genotyped by an intensive integrated strategy. hr-HPV types were detected in 79.1% of HC2 positive women. HPV16 was the most frequent type, followed by HPV31, HPV18 and HPV56. A statistically significant variability in HPV type distribution between centres (overall χ84df(2)=195.86pHPV type distribution was observed in the age groups 25-34, 35-44 and 45-60 years. Considering cross-protection, overall 57.6% (95%CI 56.0-59.3) of all infections by hr-HPV types was preventable by vaccination with the bivalent vaccine and 49% (95%CI 46.9-51.1) with the quadrivalent vaccine. The variability between centres was statistically significant with both bivalent (χ7df(2)=43.8, pvaccine (χ7df(2)=32.9, pHPV genotype distribution according to centres but not to age. Results suggest that the higher proportion of HPV16/18 related high grade CIN in younger women could be the result of faster progression and not of earlier infection by these types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Simulation of Distributed Generation with Photovoltaic Microgrids—Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Azevedo Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevated prices and lack of proper legislation and government incentives have been the main barriers in the development of the photovoltaic market in Brazil. In an attempt to overcome those barriers, a microgrid model was proposed and simulated. In the proposed microgrids, residential consumers are connected to each other to maximize the investment return by trading the surplus of generated energy among them. Different topologies and scenarios were studied from electrical energy and economic standpoints. Stochastic data of solar radiation were simulated for the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, for the period of one year, considering the statistical behavior of a series over 20 years. The system output power and energy balance were calculated considering a model for photovoltaic generators and the radiation simulated data. By determining the generated energy and electrical needs of the microgrid members, the cash flow and economic feasibility were calculated. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying economic parameters to determine situations where investment becomes feasible. This paper shows that microgrid contributes to improve the economics and the initial investments. The number of participants in a microgrid, the electricity and the equipment costs are important parameters to speed up the economic and technical feasibility process.

  15. Country-wide distribution of the nitrile female condom (FC2) in Brazil and South Africa: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, David W; Sweat, Michael D; Holtgrave, David R

    2006-10-24

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and potential impact of expanded female condom distribution. Cost-effectiveness analysis assessing HIV infections averted annually and incremental cost per HIV infection averted for country-wide distribution of the nitrile female condom (FC2) among sexually active individuals, 15-49 years, with access to publicly distributed condoms in Brazil and South Africa. In Brazil, expansion of FC2 distribution to 10% of current male condom use would avert an estimated 604 (5-95th percentiles, 412-831) HIV infections at 20,683 US dollars (5-95th percentiles, 13,497-29,521) per infection averted. In South Africa, 9577 (5-95th percentiles, 6539-13,270) infections could be averted, at 985 US dollars (5-95th percentiles, 633-1412) per infection averted. The estimated cost of treating one HIV-infected individual is 21,970 US dollars (5-95th percentiles, 18,369-25,719) in Brazil and 1503 US dollars (5-95th percentiles, 1245-1769) in South Africa, indicating potential cost savings. The incremental cost of expanded distribution would be reduced to 8930 US dollars (5-95th percentiles, 5864-13,163) per infection averted in Brazil and 374 US dollars (5-95th percentiles, 237-553) in South Africa by acquiring FC2s through a global purchasing mechanism and increasing distribution threefold. Sensitivity analyses show model estimates to be most sensitive to the estimated prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, total sexual activity, and fraction of FC2s properly used. Expanded distribution of FC2 in Brazil and South Africa could avert substantial numbers of HIV infections at little or no net cost to donor or government agencies. FC2 may be a useful and cost-effective supplement to the male condom for preventing HIV.

  16. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-08-05

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability.

  17. Nutrient composition of banked human milk in Brazil and influence of processing on zinc distribution in milk fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Heloísa C A; Torres, Alexandre G; Donangelo, Carmen M; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2002-01-01

    We measured the contents of fat, protein, lactose, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, and vitamin A in processed mature milk samples (individual, n = 60, and pooled, n = 10) from a reference human milk bank in Brazil and assessed the effect of pasteurization followed by freezing on the nutrient composition and the pattern of zinc distribution in fractions (fat, whey, and casein) of milk samples (n = 15). Mean nutrient concentrations were within expected ranges in mature milk from healthy women, except fat, which was lower. Interindividual variability of nutrient concentrations was high (coefficient of variation, 21-62%) but reduced overall in pooled samples. Processing of milk samples did not affect the nutrient contents but did cause a significant shift (P milk banks may reduce zinc bioavailability to the infant.

  18. Monitoring and spatial distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach Márcia T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of heterothrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms was monitored at four sampling stations located near the shore of the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected, monthly from October 1994 through September 1998. The highest heterothrophic count (6.5x10 7 CFU/100mL was recorded at stations 2 and 4 during August 1998 and the lowest (10 ³ CFU/100 mL at station 3 during February 1995. With respect to fecal coliforms, the highest and lowest counts were 1.6x10 5 coliforms/100mL at station 3 during March 1997 and <1 coliform/100mL at all the stations during February 1995 and September 1997 as well as station 3 during February 1998. The data indicated a percentage increase of the microorganisms surveyed over time at all the sampling stations studied.

  19. Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nappi Correa

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the food vendor distribution profile of the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and investigate its association with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of different municipal regions. This descriptive, cross-sectional study obtained the location of food vendors from secondary data from different institutional sources. The density of different types of food vendors per 1,000 inhabitants in each municipal weighted area was calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the mean density of food vendors and the weighted income areas. The lowest-income regions had the lowest density of butchers, snack bars, supermarkets, bakeries/pastry shops, natural product stores, juice bars, and convenience stores. The identification of these areas may encourage the creation of public policies that facilitate healthy food startups and/or maintenance of healthy food vendors, especially in the lowest-income regions.

  20. Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Elizabeth Nappi; Padez, Cristina Maria Proença; Abreu, Ângelo Horta de; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to identify the food vendor distribution profile of the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and investigate its association with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of different municipal regions. This descriptive, cross-sectional study obtained the location of food vendors from secondary data from different institutional sources. The density of different types of food vendors per 1,000 inhabitants in each municipal weighted area was calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the mean density of food vendors and the weighted income areas. The lowest-income regions had the lowest density of butchers, snack bars, supermarkets, bakeries/pastry shops, natural product stores, juice bars, and convenience stores. The identification of these areas may encourage the creation of public policies that facilitate healthy food startups and/or maintenance of healthy food vendors, especially in the lowest-income regions.

  1. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum Myers and Donnelly, 1997: First record from Brazil and geographic distribution map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current note reports the presence of Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum at municipality of Cotriguaçu, stateof Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. This is the first occurrence of this species in Brazil.

  2. Human G3P[9] rotavirus strains possessing an identical genotype constellation to AU-1 isolated at high prevalence in Brazil, 1997–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) A is a very common cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Most human strains are classified into two major Wa-like and DS-1-like genotype constellations, whilst a minor third strain, AU-1, was described in 1989 among human RV isolates from Japan. AU-1 demonstrates a high degree of homology to a feline RV, FRV-1, which suggests interspecies transmission of feline RV. However, there has been no subsequent report of RVs possessing the AU-1 genotype throughout all 11 genes of the genome. Between March 1997 and December 1999, 157 RV-positive stool samples were collected from Brazilian children, and 16 of the RVs (10.2 %) were P[9] genotype. We analysed eight strains by almost full-genome sequencing. These eight strains were divided into two groups: five AU-1-like and three Wa-like strains. Four of the five AU-1-like strains had the AU-1-like genotype constellation throughout the 11 genes. The remaining AU-1-like strain was considered to be a reassortant strain comprosed of nine, two and one genes from the AU-1-like, Wa-like and G9 strains, respectively. The three Wa-like strains were considered to be reassortants comprising seven to eight genes and three to four genes from Wa-like and non-Wa-like strains, respectively. This report of human G3P[9] RV strains possessing the AU-1 genotype constellation throughout all genes demonstrates the stability and infectivity of the AU-1-like strain with its original genotype over distance and time. PMID:25467218

  3. Anti-HCV reactive volunteer blood donors distribution character and genotypes switch in Xi'an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao-hong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HCV is prevailed in the world as well as in China. Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of this pathogen. Although data of HCV infection character were reported during the past years, anti-HCV reactive profile of China donors was not fully clear yet. Furthermore, infection progress was found related to the HCV genotype. Different genotype led to different efficacy when interferon was introduced into HCV therapy. Here we provided character data of HCV infection in China blood donors from the year of 2000 to 2009. The infection rate in local donors was lower than general population and descended from 0.80% to 0.40% or so in recent years. About 83% HCV strains were categorized into genotypes 1b and 2a. But 1b subtype cases climbed and 2a subtype cases decreased. The current study threw more light on HCV infection of blood donors in China, at least in the Northern region.

  4. Distribution patterns and feeding success of anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae off southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cunha Vasconcellos

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding success and changes in horizontal patchiness relative to size were studied for anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae caught with a Bongo net off southern Brazil. Results show higher feeding success rates during winter, when the combined effect of enrichment, stability and retention mechanisms seems to create optimal conditions for larval feeding. Under optimal feeding conditions larvae of more than 10 mm have higher feeding success rates than smaller size classes. With a simple body structure and low swimming capabilities, larvae of up to 10 mm show a low level of patchiness, low evasion rate of the sampling gear and feeding on small food particles only. Results corroborate the hypothesis of a critical period between two important ontogenic phases: the beginning of exogenous feeding and the onset of active swimming, gas gland buoyancy and school forming behavior.

  5. Exchange Rate Misalignment, Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution: Theory and Evidence from the Case of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Oreiro; Eliane Araujo

    2013-01-01

      This article analyzes the relationship between economic growth, income distribution and real exchange rate within the neo-Kaleckian literature, through the construction of a nonlinear macrodynamic...

  6. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pablo Juan Szabó

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spotted-fever caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain. Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerys hydrochaeris and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii caused spotted fever. Unfortunately this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus at the city-forest interface dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A Rickettsia parkeri-like strain was found in Amblyomma ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest, and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research.

  7. Analysis of the XLPE Insulation of Distribution Covered Conductors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, A. M.; Martinez, M. L. B.; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar

    2014-03-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has been the most common insulation applied to medium voltage covered conductors (MVCCs) in Brazil. The results of accelerated aging tests carried out at high voltage laboratory of UNIFEI (LAT-EFEI), combining the stresses of heat and voltage to ground aiming at enhancing surface corona activity assays, have identified the early failures in XLPE insulations of the Brazilian MVCCs. The observed failures indicate that complementary studies should be performed to better understand the degradation mechanisms of the MVCCs insulations manufactured in Brazil. In this paper, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle analysis (CA), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on samples of five Brazilian national/regional MVCCs are reported. XPS, CA, and PAS analysis indicated that a large variety of oxygen-containing groups associated to the oxidation of the XLPE insulations appear to be related to the manufacturing conditions. AFM analysis indicated that the average surface roughness and topography of the XLPE insulation changed significantly and depend on the selected manufacturer. XRD analysis indicates a strong heterogeneity of crystals nucleation that results into different degrees of crystallinity of the Brazilian MVCCs cables. The results of this work indicate strong evidences of manufacturing defects in the XLPE insulation of Brazilian's MVCCs. The origin of these defects seems to be inherent to the technology used by manufacturers to the production of the MVCCs. The production-related defects are not detectable by the standard tests as partial discharges or even the standard routine—acceptance power frequency assays routinely used in dielectric compatibility tests at high voltage laboratories.

  8. Life on the edge: O2 binding in Atlantic cod red blood cells near their southern distribution limit is not sensitive to temperature or haemoglobin genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Samantha L; Metcalfe, Julian; Righton, David A; Berenbrink, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Atlantic cod are a commercially important species believed to be threatened by warming seas near their southern, equatorward upper thermal edge of distribution. Limitations to circulatory O2 transport, in particular cardiac output, and the geographic distribution of functionally different haemoglobin (Hb) genotypes have separately been suggested to play a role in setting thermal tolerance in this species. The present study assessed the thermal sensitivity of O2 binding in Atlantic cod red blood cells with different Hb genotypes near their upper thermal distribution limit and modelled its consequences for the arterio-venous O2 saturation difference, Sa-vO2 , another major determinant of circulatory O2 supply rate. The results showed statistically indistinguishable red blood cell O2 binding between the three HbI genotypes in wild-caught Atlantic cod from the Irish Sea (53° N). Red blood cells had an unusually low O2 affinity, with reduced or even reversed thermal sensitivity between pH 7.4 and 7.9, and 5.0 and 20.0°C. This was paired with strongly pH-dependent affinity and cooperativity of red blood cell O2 binding (Bohr and Root effects). Modelling of Sa-vO2  at physiological pH, temperature and O2 partial pressures revealed a substantial capacity for increases in Sa-vO2  to meet rising tissue O2 demands at 5.0 and 12.5°C, but not at 20°C. Furthermore, there was no evidence for an increase of maximal Sa-vO2  with temperature. It is suggested that Atlantic cod at such high temperatures may solely depend on increases in cardiac output and blood O2 capacity, or thermal acclimatisation of metabolic rate, for matching circulatory O2 supply to tissue demand. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Natural gas distribution in Brazil - opportunities of improvement; Distribuicao de gas natural no pais - oportunidades de melhoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Silvia R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintella, Odair M.; Farias Filho, Jose R. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Great are the challenges established by the Brazilian Government related to goals to be achieved for the increment of the Natural Gas participation in brazilian energetic matrix, from current 5% to 12%, up to 2010. The enlargement of the distribution infrastructure of the gas (gas-pipelines 'mesh') in Brazil is considered one of the greatest challenges for the growth of the Brazilian market of Natural Gas, accomplishment that involves elevated investments. This paper presents a model of Management System for the good organizational performance of the small Natural Gas Supplying Brazilian Companies focused on criteria of Leadership, Strategies and Plans and Results, established by the Premio TOP Empresarial and by the 'Rumo a Excelencia', held by the 'Progama Qualidade Rio' and 'Fundacao para o Premio Nacional da Qualidade', respectively. The management practices of these companies were reviewed, considering the context of the energetic Brazilian scenario, subjected to the political and operational definitions and uncertainties, the available financial resources, limited or not prioritized, and actual barriers to be surpassed by the Gas Supplying Companies in order to achieve the pre-established government goals for this segment. The implementation of the proposed simplified Model, seen as improvement opportunities for the segment of Natural Gas distribution, will lead the Gas Distribution Companies to a intermediary stage envisioning the real steps towards the excellence of the performance. (author)

  10. Vertical and time distribution of Diplopoda (Arthropoda: Myriapoda in a monodominant forest in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Leandro D. Battirola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind., intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.

  11. The relationship between genotype, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in adult patients with sickle cell disease in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Érika Bergamini Mastandréa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL may be worsened in sickle cell patients due to the presence of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to describe the psychiatric symptoms in Brazilian sickle cell patients and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms to the genotype of the disease and the subject's HRQoL. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the hematology outpatient clinic, Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: Adult patients with sickle cell disease completed the Medical Outcome Study - Short Form 36 and the Patients' Health Questionnaire. Clinical data were gathered from their medical files. Linear regression models were developed to study the dependency of HRQoL domains on the genotype controlling for psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: In the study period, 110 patients were evaluated. The most frequent psychiatric symptom was depression (30%, followed by anxiety (12.7% and alcohol abuse (9.1%. Patients with the more severe genotype (SS and Sβthal0 showed lower scores for the "general health" and "role-physical" HRQoL domains, without interference from psychiatric symptoms. In the "role-physical" domain, the more severe genotype operated as a protective factor for HRQoL (β = 0.255; P = 0.007. CONCLUSION: The more severe genotypes worsened HRQoL in two domains of physical health (general health and role-physical, but they did not have any influence on mental health, thus suggesting that physicians should be more attentive to aspects of HRQoL relating to the functionality of sickle cell disease patients, so as to be aware of the limitations that these patient live with.

  12. Estabilidade fenotípica de genótipos de algodoeiro no Estado do Mato Grosso Phenotypic stability in cotton genotypes in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Eulália Soler Sobreira Hoogerheide

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados oito genótipos de algodoeiro herbáceo, sendo três linhagens e cinco cultivares, com o objetivo de estimar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica para o caráter produtividade de algodão em caroço, pelo método Eberhart e Russell. Foram conduzidos 12 experimentos em 11 locais no Estado do Mato Grosso, sob um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com oito repetições, no ano agrícola 2000/2001. Praticamente todos os genótipos apresentaram coeficiente de determinação acima de 85%, exceto Delta Opal. As estimativas de adaptabilidade indicam que todos os genótipos apresentaram adaptação ampla (b i = 1. Quanto à estabilidade, os genótipos CNPA ITA 90, BRS Antares, CNPA 96-124, CNPA 96-283 e BRS Aroeira revelaram-se estáveis (S²d i= 0. Os melhores genótipos, caracterizados pela maior produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade ampla foram CNPA ITA 90, BRS Aroeira e CNPA 96-124.Eight cotton genotypes, three lines and five cultivars, were evaluated for estimation of phenotypic adaptability and stability parameters relative to cotton yield using the method proposed by Eberhart and Russell. Twelve yield trials, in randomized complete blocks, comprising eight replications, were carried out in 11 locations of the Mato Grosso State, during the 2000/2001 crop season. All the genotypes showed determination coefficient above of 85%, except Delta Opal. For the estimates of adaptability, all the genotypes presented broad adaptation (b i = 1. The genotypes CNPA ITA 90, BRS Antares, CNPA 96-124, CNPA 96-283 and BRS Aroeira showing hight stability (S²d i= 0. The best genotypes, characterized by higher yield, stability and broad adaptability, were CNPA ITA 90, BRS Aroeira and CNPA 96-124.

  13. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

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    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  14. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  15. Chaetognatha of the Brazil-Malvinas (Falkland confluence: distribution and associations

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    Alina M. Crelier

    Full Text Available The planktonic chaetognaths from the Brazil-Malvinas (Falkland confluence, extending between 36º 30' - 50º 5' S and 60º 33' - 41º 7' W, were studied. Ten species were found: Eukrohnia hamata (Möbius, 1875 (Eukrohniidae, Pterosagitta draco (Krohn, 1853 (Pterosagittidae, Sagitta enflata Grassi, 1881, Sagitta gazellae Ritter-Zahony, 1909, Sagitta hexaptera d´Orbigny, 1834, Sagitta lyra Krohn, 1853, Sagitta minima Grassi, 1881, Sagitta planctonis Steinhaus, 1896, Sagitta serratodentata Krohn, 1853, and Sagitta tasmanica Thomson, 1947 (Sagittidae. Sagitta gazellae was the most abundant species followed by E. hamata, S. tasmanica and S. serratodentata. The association analysis among the different species, salinity and temperature revealed two groups of species, one related to higher salinities and warmer waters (P. draco, S. hexaptera and S. serratodentata and the other to lower salinities and colder waters (E. hamata, S. gazellae and S. tasmanica. The fact that P. draco and S. hexaptera, formerly defined as warm-water species, appeared further south than previously reported might be related to the existence of warm core eddies up to 46º S in September and October 1988.

  16. Distribution of hemoglobin phenotypes in four different districts of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Casseb, A; Krauze, A; Lafontaine, R M; Tada, M S; Silva, W A; Simões, A L; Engracia, V

    2008-10-01

    Hemoglobin profile studies have been carried out in four samples from different districts of Porto Velho (Rondônia State) in the western Amazonian region of Brazil: Candelária, Bate Estaca, Hemeron (at the State Blood Bank), and São Carlos. Samples from 337 unrelated individuals were collected during medical and paramedical team visits by professionals from the Instituto de Pesquisa em Patologia Tropical and the Centro de Pesquisa em Patologias Tropicais (both research institutes in tropical diseases). The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of alleles in the hemoglobin system, mainly alleles HB*A, *S, and *E. The overall phenotype frequencies were HB A,S = 0.025, HB A,E = 0.006, and HB A,A = 0.969. Samples from the blood bank subjects and samples from the homogeneous areas of São Carlos and Candelária plus Bate Estaca have a chi-square of heterogeneity of 6.383 (p = 0.041) and 8.406 (p = 0.015), respectively. The allele frequencies (HB*A = 0.984, HB*S = 0.012, and HB*E = 0.003) do not significantly differ from frequencies found in other Brazilian regions.

  17. Intertidal to subtidal distribution of benthic macrofauna in an estuarine beach of Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil

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    Paulo Roberto Pagliosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the spatial variation of a macrofaunal community along the intertidalsubtidal gradient of an estuarine beach located at the mouth of Babitonga Bay, in Southern Brazil. The fauna and sediment were sampled at 0, 5, 10, and 20 m depths in three transects. Differences in benthic assemblages among the depths were found to be significant and related to the major local processes of sediment changes. The analysis of taxa composition showed an impoverished community subject to wave action and erosionaccretion dynamics at landward stations (0 and 5 m depths. Seaward macrofauna (10 and 20 m depths inhabiting sediments with higher organic content and poorly-sorted sands were more diverse and numerically dominated by ophiuroids and by cirratulid (Tharyx sp. and maldanid (Clymenella brasiliensis polychaetes. A breakdown in the zonation patterns of environment and community was detected where sediments produced by a creek outlet enabled increasing stability and higher densities of the soft bottom anthozoa Edwardsia sp. and the polychaete Lumbrineris atlantica. Additionally, the sediments with an excessive amount of fine particles were densely colonized (mean of 22,400 individuals.m-2 by C. brasiliensis. The local sediment characteristics were related to maldanid sediment-reworking. The macrofaunal species compositions along the sandy beaches at the mouths of the southern Brazilian estuarine systems were compared.

  18. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  19. A New Method to Predict the Epidemiology of Fungal Keratitis by Monitoring the Sales Distribution of Antifungal Eye Drops in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marlon Moraes; de Angelis, Rafael; Lima, Acacio Souza; Viana de Carvalho, Glauco Dreyer; Ibrahim, Fuad Moraes; Malki, Leonardo Tannus; de Paula Bichuete, Marina; de Paula Martins, Wellington; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungi are a major cause of keratitis, although few medications are licensed for their treatment. The aim of this study is to observe the variation in commercialisation of antifungal eye drops, and to predict the seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil. Methods Data from a retrospective study of antifungal eye drops sales from the only pharmaceutical ophthalmologic laboratory, authorized to dispense them in Brazil (Opthalmos) were gathered. These data were correlated with geographic and seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil between July 2002 and June 2008. Results A total of 26,087 antifungal eye drop units were sold, with a mean of 2.3 per patient. There was significant variation in antifungal sales during the year (p<0.01). A linear regression model displayed a significant association between reduced relative humidity and antifungal drug sales (R2 = 0.17,p<0.01). Conclusions Antifungal eye drops sales suggest that there is a seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis. A possible interpretation is that the third quarter of the year (a period when the climate is drier), when agricultural activity is more intense in Brazil, suggests a correlation with a higher incidence of fungal keratitis. A similar model could be applied to other diseases, that are managed with unique, or few, and monitorable medications to predict epidemiological aspects. PMID:22457787

  20. Size and spatial distribution of stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Borba, Mauro Riegert; Guarnieri, Maria Cristina de Lourdes; Prist, Ricardo; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Stevenson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to describe the size and spatial distribution of the stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil from November 2010 to November 2011. The campus is located within the urban area of São Paulo, the largest city of Brazil, with a population over 11 million. The 4.2 km(2) that comprise the university grounds are walled, with 10 access gates, allowing stray dogs to move in and out freely. Over 100,000 people and 50,000 vehicles circulate in the campus daily. Five observations were made during the study period, using a mark-resight method. The same route was performed in all observations, being traveled twice on each observation day. Observed animals were photographed and the sight coordinates were obtained using a GPS device. The estimated size of the stray dog population varied from 32 (CI 95% 23-56) to 56 (CI 95% 45-77) individuals. Differences between in- and outward dog movements influenced dog population estimates. Overlapping home ranges of docile dogs were observed in areas where most people circulate. An elusive group was observed close to a protected rain forest area and the estimated home range for this group did not overlap with the home ranges for other dogs within the campus. A kernel density map showed that higher densities of stray dog sighting is associated with large organic matter generators, such as university restaurants. We conclude that the preferred source of food of the stray dogs on the University of São Paulo campus was leftover food deliberately offered by restaurant users. The population was stable during the study period and the constant source of food was the main reason to retain this population within the campus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

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    Roseane Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  2. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

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    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  3. Longitudinal use of feeding resources and distribution of fish trophic guilds in a coastal Atlantic stream, southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the use of food resources and the distribution of fish trophic guilds along the longitudinal gradient of a coastal Atlantic stream, southern Brazil. Allochthonous resources (terrestrial insects predominated in the headwaters, whereas autochthonous food items (algae, fish and detritus predominated in the mouth section. Detritivorous, aquaticinvertivorous, and terrestrial- and aquatic-insectivorous species occurred throughout the gradient, while omnivorous and piscivorous in the headwaters and middle stretches, respectively, and herbivorous in the middle and mouth. Detritivores and aquatic-insectivores were significantly more specialized than the other guilds, however, there was no evidence of a longitudinal increase in trophic specialization. Density and biomass of aquatic-invertivores and aquatic-insectivores decreased, whereas that of detritivores increased longitudinally. The distribution of trophic guilds was significantly associated with the stream section, where aquatic and terrestrial insectivorous were more frequent in rocky and flowed stretches from the headwater and detritivores in deeper environments with finer particles of substrate from the mouth. This suggests that fish assemblages in coastal streams with a steep longitudinal gradient may follow patterns in the use of food resources according with the food availability along the river, as predicted by the River Continuum Concept.

  4. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta Gomes; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Braga, Ima Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI) for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District). In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world. PMID:25317707

  5. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda: Penaeidae: an exploited species in southeast Brazil

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    E. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the coastal region of Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Monthly samples were obtained from March 2008 to February 2010 in six stations located in Inner (5, 10 and 15m depth and Outer (25, 35 and 45m depth areas. It was used a commercial fishery boat equipped with an otter-trawl net (3.5 m mouth width, mesh size 20mm and 15mm in the cod end. Water samples were taken for determination of temperature and salinity, and sediment samples for determination of texture and organic matter content. A total of 7146 shrimps were sampled. About 95% of all shrimps were caught in the shallow area, i.e., depths <20m. Greatest abundances were recorded in winter and spring. No significant correlation was observed between sediment (phi and abundance. The distribution of X. kroyeri in the studied area was closely related to seasonal cold waterfront of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and temperature was the main factor affecting the species abundance.

  6. Taxonomic key for the genera of Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea occurring in Goiás State, Brazil, including new records and distributional notes

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    Felipe F. Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic key for the genera of Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea occurring in Goiás State, Brazil, including new records and distributional notes. Despite their great diversity and high abundance in Neotropical aquatic environments, the fauna of Elmidae remains practically unknown in some areas and even entire biomes in this region. In this work we bring, for the first time, faunistic data for the Elmidae of central Brazil. The aim of this work was to inventory the Elmidae fauna in central, southwestern and southeastern Goiás State, Brazil and to produce a taxonomic key, at genus level, for adults from the studied region. The taxonomic key presented herein offers means for the identification of all the 13 genera known to occur in Goiás, 11 of them being new records for the State. Moreover, the number of named species registered for Goiás increased from one to nine.

  7. Geographical distribution of vampire bat-related cattle rabies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Ogawa, Ai; Sato, Go; Sato, Tetsuo; Itou, Takuya; Samara, Samir I; Carvalho, Adolorata A B; Nociti, Darci P; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-seven rabies virus (RV) isolates originating from Brazilian cattle were genetically characterized. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences of these isolates were phylogenetically and geographically analyzed. Cattle isolates, which clustered with the vampire bat-related RV group, were further subdivided into nine genetic subgroups. These subgroups were distributed widely in lowland regions, with some subgroups separated from each other by mountain ranges. In addition, separation of the groups in mountainous regions was correlated with altitude. These results indicate that cattle rabies is derived from several regionally-defined variants, which suggests that its geographical distribution is related to that of the vampire bat population.

  8. Multiparameter probability distributions for heavy rainfall modeling in extreme southern Brazil

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    Samuel Beskow

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The Anderson–Darling and Filliben tests were the most restrictive in this study. Based on the Anderson–Darling test, it was found that the Kappa distribution presented the best performance, followed by the GEV. This finding provides evidence that these multiparameter distributions result, for the region of study, in greater accuracy for the generation of intensity–duration–frequency curves and the prediction of peak streamflows and design hydrographs. As a result, this finding can support the design of hydraulic structures and flood management in river basins.

  9. Mercury distribution and reactivity in waters of a subtropical coastal lagoon, Sepetiba Bay, SE Brazil

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    Lacerda Luiz D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the reactive and total Hg concentrations in surface waters and of the quantity of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, were performed along a transect from the major rivers mouths and mangrove dominated areas to the open bay waters of Sepetiba Bay, SE Brazil. The objective of the survey was to evaluate changes in Hg reactivity during the transport along the estuarine gradient. Reactive Hg concentrations were lowest in open bay waters, (0.09 ± 0.06 ng L-1, followed by river influenced waters (0.19 ± 0.06 ng L-1, and mangrove (0.29 ± 0.02 ng L-1. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in open bay (0.38 ± 0.20 ng L-1, followed by mangrove waters (0.56 ± 0.01 ng L-1, and river influenced waters (0.99 ± 0.29 ng L-1. The percentages of reactive Hg relative to the total Hg concentrations were lowest in river influenced waters, (20.7%, followed by open bay waters (31.2%, and mangrove waters (53.2%. The percent of reactive Hg to the total Hg concentrations showed a significant negative correlation with the total Hg concentrations following a potential equation. No relationship between reactive Hg concentrations and POC, salinity or pH were found, however, reactive Hg correlates significantly with DOC, suggesting that organo-complexes, rather than chloro-complexes, are the major controllers of Hg reactivity, and eventually bioavailability in Sepetiba Bay.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Pemphigus Occurrence over Five Decades in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celere, Beatriz Smidt; Vernal, Sebastian; La Serra, Leonardo; Franco Brochado, Maria José; Moschini, Luiz Eduardo; Roselino, Ana Maria; Segura-Muñoz, Susana Inés

    2017-12-01

    Well-defined locations of pemphigus cases support the hypothesis of environmental factors' involvement in its etiopathogenesis; however, these foci have never been described using specialized geographical tools. This is the first report to geo-reference pemphigus cases in a high-prevalence Brazilian region using geographic information systems. We aimed to report the spatio-temporal behavior of pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and vulgaris (PV) in southeastern Brazil, over the last five decades to describe geographical clusters, as well as to characterize the land use in the city with the highest number of cases. Patients were identified from 1965 to 2014. Maps were developed using ArcGIS software and organized into decades from 1965 to 2014. Ribeirão Preto was identified as the city with the greatest number of cases. Land use was analyzed within a 2 km-buffer surrounding the residence of each patient. A total of 426 cases of pemphigus were identified. PF was the predominant form (285 cases); notwithstanding, the number of new cases of PV rose, overtaking the number of new cases of PF in the last decade studied. Agricultural area (42%) and exposed soil (33.2%) are the most predominant land uses in Ribeirão Preto surrounding patients' residences. This study shows high-confidence geographical foci of PF and PV, as well as provides evidence of an increase of both clinical forms over the last five decades. All cases of PV and PF are in proximity to rivers and agricultural areas which reinforce the hypothesis that environmental factors play a role in pemphigus etiopathogenesis.

  11. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de genótipos de girassol para a região subtropical do Brasil Adaptability and stability of sunflower genotypes for the sub-tropical region of Brazil

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    Willyam Stern Porto

    2009-12-01

    áveis.The success of sunflower crop in Brazil is associated to the choice of adapted cultivars to different environments. When there are different genotypes answers in different environments, the release of new cultivars can be facilitated by carrying out studies of adaptability and stability of these genotypes to reduce the effects of genotypes x environments interaction. In Brazil, this information become more important, therefore the main cultivars had been developed in others countries, with different soil traits and climate. The objective of this study was to select sunflower genotypes for the sub-tropical region of Brazil. Experimental data from 1999/2000 to 2003/2004 were obtained by the National Sunflower Trials, coordinated by Embrapa Soja. The evaluated traits were grain and oil yields (kg ha-1. It was carried out a study of adaptability and stability of genotypes according to the methods proposed by PORTO et al. (2007, EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966 and ROCHA et al. (2005. Differently from the method of EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966, PORTO et al. (2007 selected genotypes, that despite of its lower overall average in relation to reference standard had good performance in specific environments. This method was more rigorous to select genotypes, when compared with ROCHA et al. (2005. For grain yield, genotype ACA 884 was indicated for general environments, EM 677008, Agrobel 930 and GV 26048 were indicated for favorable environments and ACA 885 for the unfavorable environments. In the same way, for oil yield, ACA 884 had general indication, GV 26048, CF 17, Agrobel 972 and Helio 358 are indicated for favorable environments and HT 01 and ACA 885 for the unfavorable ones.

  12. Virus Genotype Distribution and Virus Burden in Children and Adults Hospitalized for Norovirus Gastroenteritis, 2012–2014, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C.W.; Leung, Ting F.; Chung, Tracy W.S.; Kwok, Angela K.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Paul K.S.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year hospital-based study on norovirus gastroenteritis among children and adults between August 2012 and September 2014. A total of 1,146 norovirus cases were identified. Young children (aged ≤ 5 years) accounted for a majority (53.3%) of cases. Hospitalization incidence exhibited a U-shaped pattern with the highest rate in young children (1,475 per 100,000 person-years), followed by the elderly aged > 84 years (581 per 100,000 person-years). A subset (n = 395, 34.5%) of cases were selected for norovirus genotyping and noroviral load measurement. Non-GII.4 infections were more commonly observed in young children than in older adults (aged > 65 years) (20.5% versus 9.2%; p norovirus vaccination strategy. PMID:26082165

  13. In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype......M-OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.67-3.82). This study provides further understanding of the rotavirus ecology before vaccine introduction, which will help interpret epidemiological changes in countries introducing or expanding rotavirus vaccination programmes.......The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype...

  14. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rosana Moreira da Rocha

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area and larger ones (160-220 cm² located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this order of abundance, or simple ones such as Polychaeta and Bivalvia, also in this order of abundance. All groups, except by serpulids (Polychaeta, had higher percent cover in the low intertidal region and under large boulders. Diversity was higher at Ponta do Baleeiro, and in the low intertidal region and on large boulders for both shores.Em São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram monitorados mensalmente dois ambientes de matacões em costões rochosos. Praia Grande e Ponta do Baleeiro, ao longo de 1990 e 1991. As condições ambientais avaliadas foram: temperatura e salinidade da água, hidrodinâmica, capacidade de abrasão da areia acumulada, heterogeneidade ambiental e porosidade das pedras. Foi estudada a comunidade incrustante na superfície inferior de pedras pequenas (20-30 cm² de área na face inferior e maiores (160-220 cm² dispostas nos estratos médio e inferior da zona entremarés. Esta comunidade era constituída principalmente por organismos sésseis coloniais (Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera e Cnidaria, nesta ordem de abundância ou solitários (Polychaeta e Bivalvia, nesta ordem de abundância. Todos os grupos, com exceção dos ser pulid cos (Polychaeta, apresentaram maior porcentagem de cobertura nos estratos inferiores e nas pedras grandes. A composição específica foi similar nos dois costões estudados, mas várias espécies ocorreram exclusivamente em um determinado nível de maré, ou tamanho de pedra

  15. Spatial distribution and diversity of bird community in an urban area of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Manhães

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the campus of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has different landscapes, it turns up to be a useful ecological model to evaluate the influence of habitat heterogeneity on bird communities. Our research goals were to know the local avifauna and compare its composition and bird diversity within the different landscapes. Species were identified in point counts without distance estimation, in four habitats: secondary woodlot, lake and surroundings, scrub/abandoned grazing areas and urban areas. One hundred and twenty-one species were identified, but no difference in diversity among the habitats was found. However, analyses indicated the existence of greater similarities among the sampling points belonging to the same kind of habitat. Results suggests that small and isolated forest fragments in urban areas fail to sustain a greater diversity than the adjacent areas, even though the environment's heterogeneous aspect favours local bird richness.O Campus da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora possui diferentes paisagens e pode representar um modelo ecológico útil para avaliar a influência da heterogeneidade de hábitats sobre a diversidade de aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a avifauna local e comparar a composição e diversidade de aves nas distintas paisagens existentes. As espécies foram identificadas em pontos de contagem, em quatro hábitats: mata secundária, lago e arredores, capoeira/pastagem abandonada e urbanizada/jardinada. Foram identificadas 121 espécies, mas não houve diferença de diversidade entre os hábitats. Entretanto, as análises indicaram a existência de maiores similaridades entre os pontos amostrais pertencentes ao mesmo tipo de hábitat. Os resultados sugerem que pequenos fragmentos de mata fortemente isolados em áreas urbanas não sustentam uma diversidade maior do que as áreas adjacentes mas o aspecto heterogêneo do ambiente pode favorecer a riqueza de aves

  16. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland [Miami Univ., RSMAS/NAC, Miami, FL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 {sup m}u{sup g}. L{sup -1}, characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution determined by the cyclic-catcher melting temperature analysis in Korean medical checkup population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Jee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-10-01

    Although cytology screening has reduced the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer significantly, its usefulness is limited to samples from the site of the lesion, resulting in its low sensitivity and unsuitability for use in medical checkups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection using genotype distribution and to analyze the correlation of the HPV DNA test results with cytological results. We also evaluated the benefits of quantitative information obtained from cyclic-catcher melting temperature analysis (CMTA) in screening for cervical cancer. We performed cyclic-CMTA using Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection in combination with cervical cytology for 2,181 subjects. The following HPV positivity types were detected using cyclic-CMTA and HPV positivity was found to increase together with the severity of the cytology results: (1) For 419 HPV positive specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 18.1% of normal specimens, 78.3% of ASCUS, and all of LSIL and HSIL; (2) high-risk HPV DNAs were detected in 63.3% of normal (N=547), 65.9% of ASCUS (N=41), 76.9% of LSIL (N=13), and 88.9% of HSIL (N=9) among total detected HPV DNA regardless multiple detection; (3) multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 4.8% of normal specimens (N=2,146), 52.2% of ASCUS (N=23), 57.1% of LSIL (N=7), and 40.0% of HSIL (N=5). In addition, a high level of viral DNA was observed using cyclic-CMTA in all specimens beyond the LSIL stage according to cytology, while only 6% of specimens with normal cytology showed a correlation with viral quantitation by cyclic-CMTA. The combination of HPV genotyping with a quantitative assay and cytology will allow for a more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer.

  18. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution by cervical cytologic status among women attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Pointe-Noire, Southwest Congo (Brazzaville).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumba, Luc Magloire Anicet; Qmichou, Zineb; Mouallif, Mustapha; Attaleb, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Hilali, Lahoucine; Donatien, Moukassa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2015-10-01

    HPV infection is associated with cervical cancer, one of the major public health problems in developing countries. In the Republic of Congo, despite of the high age-standardized incidence rate estimated at 25.2 per 100,000 women, molecular epidemiology data on HPV infections are very limited. We investigated HPV genotypes distribution in cervical smears among patients attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Southwest Congo. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on 321 women. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected for cytological diagnosis and HPV detection. Nested-PCR was performed using MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers with genotyping by direct sequencing. Type-specific PCR for HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and -33 was also used to assess multiple infections. Out of 321 women examined, 189 (58.8%) had normal cytology, 16 (5.0%) had ASCUS and 116 (36.1%) had cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was detected in 22 (11.6%), 6 (37.5%), and 104 (89.6%) normal cytology, ASCUS and cytological abnormalities respectively. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype regardless of cytological status followed by HPV70 in women without lesions and HPV33 among those with lesions. HR-HPV prevalence varied significantly according to the cervical cytology (P = 0.000). Among women without lesions, two peaks of HPV infections were observed in age group less than 30 years (60.0%) and in age group 50-59 years (7.1%). Age, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and pregnancies were the risk factors for HPV infection in women without lesions. Our findings could be used as evidence data base for future epidemiological monitoring in this region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Distribution of the type III DNA methyltransferases modA, modB and modD among Neisseria meningitidis genotypes: implications for gene regulation and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimee; Hill, Dorothea M C; Harrison, Odile B; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Jennings, Michael P; Maiden, Martin C J; Seib, Kate L

    2016-02-12

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific bacterium that varies in invasive potential. All meningococci are carried in the nasopharynx, and most genotypes are very infrequently associated with invasive meningococcal disease; however, those belonging to the 'hyperinvasive lineages' are more frequently associated with sepsis or meningitis. Genome content is highly conserved between carriage and disease isolates, and differential gene expression has been proposed as a major determinant of the hyperinvasive phenotype. Three phase variable DNA methyltransferases (ModA, ModB and ModD), which mediate epigenetic regulation of distinct phase variable regulons (phasevarions), have been identified in N. meningitidis. Each mod gene has distinct alleles, defined by their Mod DNA recognition domain, and these target and methylate different DNA sequences, thereby regulating distinct gene sets. Here 211 meningococcal carriage and >1,400 disease isolates were surveyed for the distribution of meningococcal mod alleles. While modA11-12 and modB1-2 were found in most isolates, rarer alleles (e.g., modA15, modB4, modD1-6) were specific to particular genotypes as defined by clonal complex. This suggests that phase variable Mod proteins may be associated with distinct phenotypes and hence invasive potential of N. meningitidis strains.

  20. Distribution of the type III DNA methyltransferases modA, modB and modD among Neisseria meningitidis genotypes: implications for gene regulation and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimee; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Harrison, Odile B.; Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Jennings, Michael P.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Seib, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific bacterium that varies in invasive potential. All meningococci are carried in the nasopharynx, and most genotypes are very infrequently associated with invasive meningococcal disease; however, those belonging to the ‘hyperinvasive lineages’ are more frequently associated with sepsis or meningitis. Genome content is highly conserved between carriage and disease isolates, and differential gene expression has been proposed as a major determinant of the hyperinvasive phenotype. Three phase variable DNA methyltransferases (ModA, ModB and ModD), which mediate epigenetic regulation of distinct phase variable regulons (phasevarions), have been identified in N. meningitidis. Each mod gene has distinct alleles, defined by their Mod DNA recognition domain, and these target and methylate different DNA sequences, thereby regulating distinct gene sets. Here 211 meningococcal carriage and >1,400 disease isolates were surveyed for the distribution of meningococcal mod alleles. While modA11-12 and modB1-2 were found in most isolates, rarer alleles (e.g., modA15, modB4, modD1-6) were specific to particular genotypes as defined by clonal complex. This suggests that phase variable Mod proteins may be associated with distinct phenotypes and hence invasive potential of N. meningitidis strains. PMID:26867950

  1. Stratigraphical discontinuities, tropical landscape evolution and soil distribution relationships in a case study in SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cooper

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available On a regional summit surface in the county of Piracicaba (SP within the Peripheric Depression of São Paulo, formed of discontinued flattened tops, there is an abrupt transition between a Typic Hapludox and a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox, together with two stoneline layers. Using stratigraphical, mineralogical, and cartographic studies, this transition and the soil distribution of this surface were studied, correlating them with the different parent materials and the morphoclimatic model of landscape evolution in Southeastern Brazil. The Typic Hapludox was formed on a sandy Cenozoic deposit (Q that overlies a pellitic deposit of the Iratí formation (Pi, representing a regional erosive discordance. Westwards to the Piracicaba River, this sequence is interrupted by a diabase sill overlain by a red clayey material which gave origin to the Kandiudalfic Eutrudox. Two post-Permian depositional events were identified by the two stonelines and stratigraphical discontinuities. The first event generated the deposition of a sandy sediment in the form of levelled alveoluses on regional barriers, most of these formed by dikes and diabase sills, probably during a drier phase. The second depositional event, leading to the deposition of the red clay was probably the dissection of the previously formed pediplane during a humid climate, followed by another pedimentation process during a later, drier period.

  2. Spatial distribution of scorpions according to the socioeconomic conditions in Campina Grande,State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thassiany Sarmento Oliveira de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to its frequency and morbidity, such as that caused by scorpions have achieved public health importance in certain regions of the world. The present exploratory ecological study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile and spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Campina Grande, State of Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Geographical information system techniques were used to record the scorpion stings, and Google Earth software, Track Maker, and ArcGIS 10 Esri were used as geocoding databases. The Moran test was used to evaluate spatial correlation, and the Pearson chi-square test was used to analyze associations between scorpion stings and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,466 scorpion stings. Envenomations were more frequent among women (n = 908, 61.9%, and most patients were aged 13-28 years (n = 428, 29.2%. The Southern region of the city had the largest number of registered cases (n = 548, 37.4%, followed by the Western region (n = 510, 34.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis of scorpionism revealed an irregular occurrence in Campina Grande. Further, no association was observed between the socioeconomic factors analyzed and the geographic location of the scorpion envenomations. Detection of spatial areas with an increased risk of scorpionism can help prioritize adoption of preventive measures in these regions to reduce the associated incidence and morbidity.

  3. Spatial distribution of fish assemblages along environmental gradients in the temporary ponds of Northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina K. Tondato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten temporary ponds in northern Pantanal were studied in July 2006 to explore whether a spatial distribution pattern existed in the composition of fish assemblages, and to identify which environmental variables determined their distribution. The existence of any spatial pattern was tested using the multivariate Mantel correlogram, while the influence of environmental variables was quantified by a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A total of 8735 individuals was sampled from 29 species, predominantly represented by Hyphessobrycon elachys and Serrapinnus calliurus. Composition of fish assemblages varied among ponds, but this variation had no significant spatial pattern for any of the distance classes considered, thus indicating that the species composition varied independently of the distance between ponds. This suggests that stochastic dispersal processes did not influence the spatial structure of species, as predicted by the neutral theory. Conversely, species composition in the ponds was determined by variables that included depth, macrophyte richness and cover. Species such as Markiana nigripinnis, Crenicichla vittata and Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae occurred in deeper waters, while Parauchenipterus striatulus, Eigenmannia trilineata and Psellogrammus kennedyi were mainly associated with greater richness and macrophyte cover, as already demonstrated by the niche theory applied in ponds which tended to have similar characteristics and a similar fish composition.

  4. Diversity and distribution of oligochaetes in tropical forested streams, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Falci Theza Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and beta diversity of oligochaete assemblages were investigated in different spatial scales to verify the influence of environmental factors and geographic distance on their structure. Two types of mesohabitats (riffles and pools were sampled in eight first-order streams located in four preservation areas (Poço D’Anta Municipal Biological Reserve, Santa Cândida Municipal Biological Reserve, Ibitipoca State Park and a private farm called Fazenda Floresta and two Atlantic Forest phytophysiognomies (Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Rocky Field. Variations in the taxon richness, abundance and composition of the oligochaete assemblages occurred between streams and phytophysiognomies, but not between riffles and pools in the same stream. Low beta diversity values were found and both turnover and nestedness contributed similarly in the environments studied, which could have occurred because of the high capability of oligochaetes to adapt to different environmental conditions. Although the canonical correspondence analysis explained 85.5% of the data (first three axes, the partial Mantel test showed greater influence of geographic distance on the faunal composition than the environmental variables measured. Simple linear regression confirmed this result and showed that the decay of similarity increased with distance between streams. The information from this study sheds light on how environmental and spatial factors determine the variation in the distribution and diversity of oligochaetes in forested low-order streams.

  5. Seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semiarid region, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal distribution and gastrointestinal nematode parasite load in crossbred Santa Inês tracer lambs, and to correlate the rainfall during the study period with occurrences of parasitic infections. Sixty-four male tracer lambs between the ages of four and eight months were used in the study. Two tracer lambs were inserted into the herd every 28 days to determine the pattern of infective larvae available in the environment. Variation in the fecal egg count (FEC of nematodes was observed at the study site, with many samples containing undetectable parasite loads during the dry season. The larvae identified in coprocultures wereHaemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp.,Cooperia sp., Strongyloides sp. andOesophagostomum sp. The nematodes recovered at necropsy were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, Trichuris sp.,Oesophagostomum sp. and Skrajabinema ovis. The total number of larvae and the total number of immature and adult forms recovered from the tracers showed seasonal distributions that significantly correlated with the amount of rainfall received that month (p value ≅ 0.000 in all cases . The species H. contortus was predominant in the herd and should be considered to be main pathogenic nematode species in these hosts under these conditions.

  6. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotype of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Rodríguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    in wheat. The NIV genotype was found at low levels in most samples. Study of genotype composition within the Danish F. graminearum and F. culmorum population was based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed that the dominating genotype of F. graminearum in wheat is 15ADON. For barley, the PCA...... analysis indicated that the F. graminearum population consisted of all three genotypes, and in triticale, the F. graminearum population consisted mainly of 15ADON genotype. F. culmorum/F. cerealis showed correlation to the NIV genotype in wheat and triticale but not in barley. F. culmorum/F. cerealis also...

  7. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in anal cytological and histological specimens from HIV-infected men who have sex with men and men who have sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Laila; Videla, Sebastian; Cañadas, Mari-Paz; Piñol, Marta; García-Cuyàs, Francesc; Vela, Sandra; Molina-López, Rafael A; Coll, Josep; Sirera, Guillem; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2013-09-01

    Anal cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Moreover, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an additional risk factor for anal cancer. Therefore, when designing preventive protocols for HIV-infected men, it is important to detect high-risk (HR) oncogenic HPV genotypes present in their anal canals. However, most studies have focused only on men who have sex with men (MSM). To estimate the prevalence of HPV and describe its genotype distribution using anal cytology and histology specimens from HIV-infected populations of MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW). Crosssectional study of the CARH·MEN cohort. Single-center prospective cohort of HIV-infected men attending the Outpatient HIV Clinic of Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol (Spain), where they undergo annual screening for HPV infection of the anus, penis and mouth. Four hundred eighty-three HIV-infected men (341 MSM, 142 MSW) with no current or previous history of anal condylomata. HPV genotypes detected (multiplex-PCR), cytology results (Papanicolaou test) and histology results (biopsy-based). Cytological abnormalities were detected in 40% of MSM (129/321; 95%CI, 35-46) and 20% of MSW (26/131; 95%CI, 13-28) (OR=2.7; 95%CI, 1.7-4.4). All high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were positive for HR-HPV in both groups. High-resolution anoscopy was performed in 146 patients (120 MSM, 26 MSW) with abnormal cytological diagnoses. Lesions were visualized in 80 MSM (67%) and 14 MSW (54%) (OR=1.7 [95%CI, 0.7-4.0]). Histological diagnosis was anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)-1 in 51 MSM (64%) and 6 MSW (43%), AIN-2 in 9 MSM (11%) and 3 MSW (21%), AIN-3 in 7 MSM (9%) and 1 MSW (7%), and normal in 13 MSM (16%) and 4 MSW (29%). HPV16 was the most prevalent HR genotype. Study limitations include its crosssectional design. Anal cancer screening should be offered to all HIV-infected men, regardless of their sexual orientation.

  8. Changes in total and central adiposity and body fat distribution among 7-10-year-old schoolchildren in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Danielle Biazzi; de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg; González-Chica, David Alejandro; da Costa, Filipe Ferreira; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Lobo, Adriana Soares

    2015-08-01

    To describe changes in total and central adiposity and body fat distribution in children over a 5-year period by investigating variations in BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and skinfold thicknesses (SFT). A school-based sample of children from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary schools participated in two cross-sectional studies in 2002 (n 2936) and 2007 (n 1232). Public and private schools of Florianopolis, Brazil. Schoolchildren aged 7-10 years had their weight, height, WC and SFT measured according to standard procedures. Body fat distribution was assessed by triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and medial calf skinfold measurements. Changes in BMI, WC, WHtR and SFT were analysed, adjusting for type of school and monthly family income. Adjusted mean differences between 2002 and 2007 for BMI and WC were always positive and of similar magnitude between boys and girls. However, a statistically significant increase was observed only for BMI (raw and Z-score values) in boys. WHtR remained stable in both sexes. Adjusted median values for SFT also increased in boys and girls, except for triceps skinfold. BMI, WC and SFT tended to increase across age classes in both sexes. The relative change observed for the median central skinfolds (subscapular and suprailiac) was greater than that of peripheral skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SFT) appeared to increase at a faster rate than total adiposity (BMI). The increase in central SFT indicates that the relative change is due primarily to a rise in central adiposity.

  9. Modern Diatom Distributions in Guanabara Bay Sediment and Oceanic Areas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty three superficial sediments were collected in Guanabara Bay to physical-chemistry and diatom analyses in the ambit to Monitoring Project (CENPES/PETROBRAS. A total of 146 taxa of diatoms were identified where the most frequent taxa in Guanabara Bay were Amphora spp., Coscinodiscus spp. and Navicula yarrensis var. yarrensis. These species are potentially harmful that might harm fisheries and mariculture during blooms. The values of ecological indexes like richness and diversity followed the estuarine gradient were the higher values were found in the mouth and de low in the inner part. The multivariate analyzes permitted recognize seven diatom assemblages in the bay. The DCA analyze shows the most influence in the distribution of assemblages were the depth and pH. The diatom assemblages analyze proved to be an efficient tool in the environmental diagnosis of Guanabara Bay.

  10. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fluid dynamical analysis of the distribution of ink jet printed biomolecules in microarray substrates for genotyping applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksman, J Frits; Pierik, Anke

    2008-10-14

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are tools used to analyze samples for the presence of specific DNA sequences. In the system as presented here, specific DNA sequences are first amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during which process they are labeled with fluorophores. The amplicons are subsequently hybridized onto an oligonucleotide microarray, which in our case is a porous nylon membrane with microscopic spots. Each spot on the membrane contains oligonucleotides with a sequence complementary to part of one specific target sequence. The solution containing the amplicons flows by external agitation many times up and down through the porous substrate, thereby reducing the time delaying effect of diffusion. By excitation of the fluorophores the emitted pattern of fluorophores can be detected by a charge-coupled device camera. The recorded pattern is a characteristic of the composition of the sample. The oligonucleotide capture probes have been deposited on the substrate by using noncontact piezo ink jet printing, which is the focus of our study. The objective of this study is to understand the mechanisms that determine the distribution of the ink jet printed capture probes inside the membrane. The membrane is a porous medium: the droplets placed on the membrane penetrate in the microstructure of it. The three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the capture probes inside the membrane determines the distribution of the hybridized fluorescent PCR products inside the membrane and thus the emission of light when exposed to the light source. As the 3D distribution of the capture probes inside the membrane eventually determines the detection efficiency, this parameter can be controlled for optimization of the sensitivity of the assay. The main issues addressed here are how are the capture probes distributed inside the membrane and how does this distribution depend on the printing parameters. We will use two model systems to study the influences of different parameters: a

  12. Thermal plasticity in postembryonic life history traits of a widely distributed Collembola: Effects of macroclimate and microhabitat on genotypic differences.

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    Sengupta, Sagnik; Ergon, Torbjørn; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2017-10-01

    Life history traits in many ectotherms show complex patterns of variation among conspecific populations sampled along wide latitudinal or climatic gradients. However, few studies have assessed whether these patterns can be explained better by thermal reaction norms of multiple life history traits, covering major aspects of the life cycle. In this study, we compared five populations of a Holarctic, numerically dominant soil microarthropod species, Folsomia quadrioculata, sampled from a wide latitudinal gradient (56-81°N), for growth, development, fecundity, and survival across four temperatures (10, 15, 20, and 25°C) in common garden experiments. We evaluated the extent to which macroclimate could explain differences in thermal adaptation and life history strategies among populations. The common garden experiments revealed large genotypic differences among populations in all the traits, which were little explained by latitude and macroclimate. In addition, the life history strategies (traits combined) hardly revealed any systematic difference related to latitude and macroclimate. The overall performance of the northernmost population from the most stochastic microclimate and the southernmost population, which remains active throughout the year, was least sensitive to the temperature treatments. In contrast, performance of the population from the most predictable microclimate peaked within a narrow temperature range (around 15°C). Our findings revealed limited support for macroclimate-based predictions, and indicated that local soil habitat conditions related to predictability and seasonality might have considerable influence on the evolution of life history strategies of F. quadrioculata. This study highlights the need to combine knowledge on microhabitat characteristics, and demography, with findings from common garden experiments, for identifying the key drivers of life history evolution across large spatial scales, and wide climate gradients. We believe that

  13. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in oropharynx and oral cavity cancer in France--The EDiTH VI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Guily, Jean Lacau; Jacquard, Anne-Carole; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Haesebaert, Julie; Beby-Defaux, Agnès; Clavel, Christine; Agius, Gérard; Birembaut, Philippe; Okaïs, Claire; Léocmach, Yann; Soubeyrand, Benoît; Pradat, Pierre; Riethmuller, Didier; Mougin, Christiane; Denis, François

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers has gradually increased over the last decades. Recent studies suggest an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and several head and neck cancers, especially oropharyngeal and oral cavity invasive carcinomas. The objective was to assess the overall and type specific HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinomas in France. Paraffin-embedded tumour specimens were retrospectively collected in 12 French centres and centrally tested for HPV detection and genotyping (INNO-LiPA assay). A total of 523 cases (77% males) were collected, among which 60% were oropharyngeal and 40% oral cavity carcinomas. The most frequent anatomical sites were tonsil (58.9%) and base of tongue (13.7%) for the oropharynx and floor of mouth (41.1%) and oral tongue (38.3%) for the oral cavity. Overall HPV prevalence was 46.5% in oropharyngeal carcinomas and 10.5% in oral cavity carcinomas and was higher in female than in male cases (63.5% vs 42.2% in oropharynx and 17.2% vs 8.0% in oral cavity). About 95% of HPV-positive cases were infected by a single HPV type. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type and was found in 89.7% and 95.5% of HPV-positive oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinoma cases, respectively. All other HPV types had prevalence below 5%. Our results indicate that HPV is common among oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinoma cases in France and emphasize the predominance of HPV 16. The potential benefit of HPV vaccination on the occurrence of head and neck carcinomas should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

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    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  15. Vertical distribution of benthic marine organisms on rocky coasts of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago (Brazil

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    Verena Rapp de Eston

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative samples of flora and fauna were collected in several points, from the supralittoral fringe down to 30 m, using mainly aqualungs. Species distribution and abundance were determined along four transects, up to 200 m long, in selected places. Samples were taken from 25 x 25 cm quadrats positioned at fixed intervals along the transects down to a variable depth, depending on algal percentage cover and their substrate. The intertidal zone was populated essentially by molluscs. The subtidal was covered predominantly by macroalgae. Montastrea cavernosa, Siderastrea stellata and Mussismillia hispida were the only animal species with a significant percentage cover within the quadrats. Dictyopteris justii, D. plagiograma, Dictyota cervicornis, D. linearis, D. mertensii, Sargassum platycarpum, Sargassum sp, and Stypopodium zonale were the plants with the highest biomass and/or percentage cover, along with Amphiroa fragilissima, Caulerpa verticillata, and crustose corallines. The scarcity of sea urchins, along with the dominance of algae known to produce chemical feeding deterrents or to have a calcareous nature, points towards a strong pressure by predators, with fishes probably playing a key role in the maintenance of the structure of this subtidal community.

  16. Distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    F. G. ARAÚJO

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes Reservoir, a 30 km² impoundment in Rio de Janeiro State (Lat. 22º42'-22º50'S; Long. 43º53'-44º05'W was assessed to detect patterns of available habitat use by the fish. A standardized monthly sampling program was carried out from January to December 1994 at three zones of the reservoir (upper, near tributary mouths; middle; and lower, near the dam. Fishes were caught by gillnets, (50 m long, 3 m height, with mesh ranging having from 25 to 45 mm between knots, submerged during 12 hours. A total of 5,089 fishes were collected comprising 15 species, 14 genera and 9 families. Loricariichthys spixii, Astyanax bimaculatus, Parauchenipterus striatulus, Astyanax fasciatus parahybae, Oligosarchus hepsetus, Rhamdia parahybae, Hypostomus affinis, and Geophagus brasiliensis were the most abundant species, each contributing above 1% of the total number. Loricariichthys spixii was the dominant species, contributing over 80% of total number and biomass. Fish abundance, number of species, and biomass were higher in the upper zone, but differences from this overall pattern were shown by some species. Loricariichthys spixii and Rhamdia parahybae were more abundant in the upper zone, while all other species showed no differences in their abundance among the zones. Seasonal environmental variables of temperature, pH, transparency, and water level did not show a clear association with fish occurrence. Most fish used the different zones of the reservoir with no clear sign of spatial separation. High dominance of L. spixii, reduced abundance of reolific species Leporinus copelandii and Cyphocharax gilberti, and presence of introduced species such as Cichla monoculus and Tilapia rendalli are indications of antropic effects in the fish community.

  17. Richness and distribution of aquatic macrophytes in a subtropical reservoir in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Carolina Pavão

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: to evaluate the richness, biomass and distribution of aquatic macrophytes in a subtropical reservoir in the dry and rainy seasons. Methods this study was carried out in the Itupararanga Reservoir, an important water source in São Paulo State, undergoing a continuous process of eutrophication. Samples of macrophytes were collected at 12 sampling sites in the summer and at 9 sampling sites in the winter in the Itupararanga Reservoir using the quadrat method (0.25 m2. In the laboratory, the plants were washed to remove the coarse material and then were dried (60 °C for biomass determination (gDW. m-2. All the species in the sampling sites in both periods were identified using the specific literature. In each sampling site, the water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen were measured using a probe. The temporal and spatial differences were analyzed using t-test and a Cluster Analysis was performed. Results The checklist showed sixteen species, 75% of them were emergent. From the 16 species, 15 were present in the summer and 10 in the winter. Eichhornia crassipes, Polygonum sp., and Urochloa sp. were the frequent taxa and had the highest biomass in both periods. The winter showed the highest biomass mainly due to the growth of free-floating species. The headwaters of the reservoir, the most eutrophic region, showed that the highest macrophyte richness and the sampling sites of this area were clustered in both the summer and winter. Conclusions There was no significant spatial variation among the measured variables. E. crassipes, Salvinia sp. and Urochloa sp. showed a significant variation of biomass between two periods. Urochloa sp. is a nuisance species occurring in up to 60% of the sampling sites having implications for the whole catchment. Continuous macrophyte monitoring is important due to the increasing trophic status of this ecosystem.

  18. Sediment grain size distribution and heavy metals determination in a dam on the Paraná River at Ilha Solteira, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minello, Maria Clara S; Paçó, Ana L; Martines, Marco Antonio U; Caetano, Laercio; Dos Santos, Ademir; Padilha, Pedro M; Castro, Gustavo R

    2009-07-15

    This paper reports on a preliminary evaluation of the grain size distribution of cadmium, lead and copper in sediment from Catarina Beach, Ilha Solteira, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Surface sediments were fractionated with sediments organic matter content determined by the loss on ignition was 6.8, 1.7 and 0.6% in the P3, P1 and P2 samples, respectively. The distribution of metal concentrations in sieved sediment followed the order P3 < P2 < P1 thereby suggesting an interaction with organic matter.

  19. Growth trends, genotype-environment interaction and genetic gains in six-year-old rubber tree clones (Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Budwood from seven different clones of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] was planted in replicated trials in four different test sites in the plateau region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The clones represented a range of imported germplasm, whereas the locations were selected to represent a range of rubber growing areas. Girths were measured for six years consecutively, before the initiation of tapping for latex. Total number of latex vessel rings (lvr and bark thickness (bt were measured at six years. The largest average for all characters was observed in Matão. Overall means for girth, total number of latex vessel rings and bark thickness at six years were 35.26 cm, 11.30 units and 4.83 mm, respectively. Both the test sites and clones showed statistically significant differences in girth, lvr and bt values. There were significant clone x site interactions. Girth at one year was not a reliable predictor of future field performance. Broad sense heritability for girth was 0.16, and for lvr and bt it was 0.28 and 0.40, respectively, at six years. Repeatability was quite high, from 0.52 to 0.75 for all characters in all years. When two clones out of seven were selected, expected genetic gain in girth was about 2.0%; for lvr and bt it was 7.0% and 14.6%, respectively.

  20. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2014-07-16

    Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with β-carotene (βC), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher βC than white cassava, and the additional complement of βC was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of βC per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of βC during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-βC from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with βC has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking.

  1. Distribution of serological screening markers at a large hematology and hemotherapy center in Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sônia Mara Nunes da; Oliveira, Milena Batista de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2016-01-01

    To assess the distribution of serological markers in blood donors at the blood banks of the Fundação Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Minas Gerais (Hemominas), Brazil, between January 2006 and December 2012. This is a descriptive, retrospective study on blood donors screened using serological tests for markers of transmitted diseases at the state blood-banking network. Approximately 78.9% of the donors were considered eligible for the study after clinical screening. Repeat donors represented 68.2% of the total sample, with males being predominant as blood donors (66.8%). Total serological ineligibility was 3.05%, with total anti-HBc being the most common marker (1.26%), followed by syphilis (0.88%) and human immunodeficiency virus (0.36%). The prevalences of the markers for hepatitis C, Human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Chagas disease and HBs-Ag were 0.15%, 0.09%, 0.13% and 0.18%, respectively. The blood bank of Governador Valadares had the highest percentage of positive anti-HBc donors (2.41%). With regard to human immunodeficiency virus, the blood bank of Além Paraíba had the lowest percentage of positive donors while the blood banks of Juiz de Fora and Betim had the highest percentages. The blood bank in the city of Montes Claros had the highest prevalence of the marker for Chagas disease (0.69%). Data on the profile of serological ineligibility by the blood banks of the Fundação Hemominas highlights the particularities of each region thereby contributing to measures for health surveillance and helping the blood donation network in its donor selection procedures aimed at improving blood transfusion safety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Distributed deformation structures in shallow water carbonates subsiding through a simple stress field (Jandaira Formation, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Bisdom, Kevin; Bezerra, Hilario; Reijmer, John; Cazarin, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Despite the scarcity of major deformation structures such as folds and faults, the flat-lying, post-rift shallow water carbonates of the Jandaira Formation (Potiguar Basin, NE Brazil) display well-organized fracture systems distributed of tens of km2. Structures observed in the outcropping carbonates are sub-vertical, generally N-S trending mode I and hybrid veins and barren fractures, sub-vertical roughly E-W trending stylolites and sub-horizontal stylolites. These features developed during subsidence in a simple and constant stress field characterized by, beside gravity, a significant horizontal stress probably of tectonic origin. The corresponding depth curves have different origin and slopes and, therefore, cross each other resulting in position of the principal stresses which change with depth. As a result, the type and amount of fractures affecting subsiding rocks change despite the fact that the far-field stresses remain constant. Following early diagenesis and porosity elimination in the first 100-200m depth, Jandaira carbonates experienced wholesale fracturing at depths of 400-800m resulting in a network of NNW-NE trending fractures partly organized in conjugate sets with a low interfault angle and a sub-vertical intersection, and sub-vertical stylolites roughly perpendicular to the fractures. Intense fluid circulation was activated as a consequence through the carbonates. With increasing subsidence, sub-horizontal stylolites formed providing calcite which precipitated in the open fractures transforming them in veins. The Jandaira formation lost thereby the permeability it had reached during the previous stage. Because of the lack of major deformation, the outcrops of the Jandaira Formation is an excellent analog for carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East, South Atlantic and elsewhere.

  3. Differences in allocation patterns and in the use of distributive principles emerge from children of Brazilian parents in Brazil and in the United States

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    Leonardo Rodrigues Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate differences in the way children in Brazil and USA allocate resources and justify their decisions in a fictional situation. The sample was composed by 178 children of Brazilian parents: 98 Brazilian, living in Brazil, and 80 American children, who had low familiarity with Brazilian culture. Participants were requested to resolve a distributive dilemma during which characters with different personal attributes reunited to a picnic in a public park. The results showed that most children preferred equality or near-equality patterns of distribution to allocate the food among the characters of the dilemma. Preference for other patterns of distribution like equity and need was related to age and nationality. Also, children who used equality as justification for their distributions were more consistent (that is, they distributed the food using an allocation system who matched their justification than children who used other types of justifications. Results are discussed in light of recent works on sharing and processes of socialization during childhood.

  4. Genotype distribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C and C677T gene in Indonesian infertile men

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    Dwi A. Suryandari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionin metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. Variants of MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene result in reduced plasma folate levels and increase the susceptibility to spermatogenic arrest. This research aims to analyses MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphism in Indonesian infertile men with azoospermia and oligozoospermia.Methods: This cross sectional study takes 3 mL of blood from 150 infertile men with oligozoospermia and azoospermia. MTHFR gene is analyzed using polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR with specific primers. PCR-RFLP analysis of the MTHFR gene using restriction enzymes MboII and HinfI determines allotypes, both of SNP A1298C and C677T in oligozoospermia and azoospermia in Indonesian population.Results: The results show that the distribution of allotypes of MTHFR gene SNP A1298C and A677T is not significantly different (p>0.05 between patient groups with oligozoospermia and azoospermia.Conclusion: MTHFR gene polymorphisms, both of SNP A1298C and C677T are not associated with male infertility in Indonesian men including patients with severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia. (Med J Indones 2012;21:23-7Keywords: DNA methylation, MTHFR, spermatogenic arrest

  5. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L K; Jensen, J D; Rodríguez, A; Jørgensen, L N; Justesen, A F

    2012-07-16

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays, based on polymorphisms in the TRI12 gene of the trichothecene pathway, were developed to identify and quantify the trichothecene genotypes producing 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) or nivalenol (NIV) in the Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three genotypes, 3ADON, 15ADON and NIV were found in all five cereal species, great annual variation in the occurrence of the trichothecene genotypes was evident with considerable variation between the samples. 3ADON was the dominant genotype in barley, triticale, rye and oats while 15ADON was most dominant in wheat. The NIV genotype was found at low levels in most samples. Study of genotype composition within the Danish F. graminearum and F. culmorum population was based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed that the dominating genotype of F. graminearum in wheat is 15ADON. For barley, the PCA analysis indicated that the F. graminearum population consisted of all three genotypes, and in triticale, the F. graminearum population consisted mainly of 15ADON genotype. F. culmorum/F. cerealis showed correlation to the NIV genotype in wheat and triticale but not in barley. F. culmorum/F. cerealis also showed some correlation to 3ADON especially in wheat and triticale. Selected wheat and barley samples from 1957 to 2000 showed low amounts of F. graminearum and F. culmorum in general but with a dominance of the 3ADON genotype. 15ADON was not detected in these samples, except for very low amounts in the sample representing the years from 1997 to 2000. Detection of low amounts of the 15ADON genotype in these historical samples and the relatively high amounts of 15ADON

  6. Characteristics of the distribution of doctors in the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in the states of Brazil's Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Priscila Tamar Alves; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Leite, Antonio Flaudiano Bem; Carvalho, Islândia Maria de Sousa; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano; Brito-Silva, Keila Silene de

    2016-09-01

    Inequalities in access to health, reflecting shortages and inadequate geographical distribution of health professionals, have been indicated as a challenge for Brazil. This paper analyzes the geographical distribution of professionals of the Mais Médicos Program allocated in the Northeastern Region of Brazil, through a descriptive cross-sectional study. Secondary data provided by the Health Ministry were used, and thematic maps of distribution of doctors in the Region were prepared. Data on 4,716 doctors who became members of health teams in 1,294 municipalities in six Indigenous Health Districts in the years 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. The greater part of the municipalities of the Region received between one and five doctors. The municipalities most benefited had, at least, 20% of their population in extreme poverty. 99.9% of the doctors were allocated in a Health Center or Primary Healthcare Unit. The majority were women (57%), predominantly of the 45-49 age group (24%). In spite of the advances achieved by the Program - such as distribution of the doctors in locations with greater vulnerability - some States continue to have significant shortages of healthcare.

  7. Distribution of hepatitis B infection in Brazil: the epidemiological situation at the beginning of the 21 st century

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    Francisco José Dutra Souto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil was formerly considered a country with intermediate hepatitis B endemicity, with large heterogeneity between Brazilian regions and areas of high prevalence, especially in the Amazon basin. Systematic vaccination of children was initiated in 1998. Between 2004 and 2009, a large population-based study reported decreased prevalence in all regions of Brazil. This review analyzed the current hepatitis B epidemiological situation in Brazil through a systematic search of the scientific literature in MEDLINE, LILACS, and CAPES thesis database, as well as disease notifications to the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The search strategy identified 87 articles and 13 theses, resulting in 100 total publications. The most recent results indicate reduced hepatitis B prevalence nationwide, classifying Brazil as having low endemicity. Most studies showed HBV carrier prevalence less than 1%. However, there are still isolated regions with increased prevalence, particularly the Amazon, as well as specific groups, such as homeless people in large cities and isolated Afro-descendant communities in the center of the country. This review alsao detected successful vaccination coverage reported in a few studies around the country. The prevalence of anti-HBs alone ranged from 50% to 90%. However, isolated and distant localities still have low coverage rates. This review reinforces the downward trend of hepatitis B prevalence in Brazil and the need to intensify vaccination strategies for young people and adults in specific regions with persisting higher HBV infection prevalence.

  8. The effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3: a prospective cohort study in Brazil

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    Artico Simara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV do not respond to treatment with conventional interferon (IFN combined with ribavirin (RBV. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa-2a or 2b (PEG-IFN 2a or 2b concomitantly with RBV in patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, which were non-responders or relapsers to initial treatment with IFN / RBV and to identify possible predictors of sustained virological response (SVR. Methods From September 2003 to March 2009 a cohort of 216 patients who had previously failed therapy with a regimen of standard interferon and ribavirin, were followed in a specialized service implemented in the Brazilian Unified Health System, Rio Grande do Sul. All patients were retreated with PEG-IFN 2a or 2b per week, associated with RBV, through oral route, with doses determined according to weight (1,000 mg if weight ≤ 75 Kg and 1,250 mg if ≥ 75 Kg per day for 48 weeks. The HCV-RNA was tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Virological Response (VR within 48 weeks and SVR in the 72 weeks was considered for evaluation of treatment efficacy. Analyses were performed in patients who received at least one dose of PEG-IFN. Results The SVR rate for non-responders to previous treatment was 34.4% and for relapsers was 50% (p = 0.031. As predictive factors that contribute to improve SVR, were identified the age (p = 0.005, to be relapsers to previous treatment (p = 0.023 and present liver biopsy examination Metavir F0-F2 (p = 0.004. In assessing the safety profile, 51 patients (23.6% discontinued treatment prematurely. Conclusions This alternative retreatment for patients who have failed prior therapies for anti-HCV, has demonstrated promising SVR rate, provided that it includes a careful selection of patients with predictors of response and adverse events monitored.

  9. Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: distribution, new records and list of species

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    Karina Bertazo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: Distribution, new records and list of species. The fauna of Simuliidae in Brazil is composed of 87 species, 17 of which are recorded from the state of Espírito Santo. Entomological collections were carried out in 2010-2011 with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the species richness of this family in the state. Ninety three rivers and streams were sampled, each collection being carried out in a 50m transect. During the study period 30 species were collected, 13 of which represent new records for the state, 12 of the genus Simulium and one of the genus Lutzsimulium. Among these new state records one, Simulium lobatoi, also represents a new record from southeastern Brazil. The other newly recorded species are: Lutzsimulium hirticosta, Simulium distinctum, Simulium exiguum, Simulium oyapockense, Simulium botulibranchium, Simulium petropoliense, Simulium clavibranchium, Simulium rappae, Simulium minusculum, Simulium dinellii, Simulium ochraceum and Simulium scutistriatum.

  10. Distribution of chemical compartments of soil organic matter and c stocks of a cambisol from south Brazil as affected by Pinus afforestation

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    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and stocks of soil organic matter (SOM compartments after Pinus monoculture introduction in a native pasture area of a Cambisol, Santa Catarina, Brazil, were investigated. Pinus introduction increased soil acidity, content of exchangeable Al+3 and diminished soil nutrients. Nevertheless, soil C stock increased in all humic fractions of the 0-5 cm layer after Pinus afforestation. In the subsurface, the vegetation change only promoted SOM redistribution from the NaOH-extractable humic substances to a less hydrophobic humin fraction. Under Pinus, soil organo-mineral interactions were relevant up to a 15 cm depth, while in pasture environment, this mechanism occurred mainly in the surface layer.

  11. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  12. The geographic distribution of Argas (Persicargas) miniatus and Argas (Persicargas) persicus (Acari: Argasidae) in America, with morphological and molecular diagnoses from Brazil, Chile and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Reyes, Mercedes; Martins, Thiago F; Leite, Romário C; Vilela, Vinicius L R; Benatti, Hector R; Ríos-Rosas, Daniela; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-01-01

    High similarity of morphological traits has historically overshadowed the identities and distributions of poultry-associated soft ticks Argas (Persicargas) miniatus and Argas (Persicargas) persicus in America. In order to model the occurrence of both parasites in the continent, in the current study we performed morphological and molecular analyses to identify ticks collected in hen houses from Brazil and northern Chile. Combining these results with literature data, and the examination of Argas allotments deposited in the tick collections "Coleção Nacional de Carrapatos Danilo Gonçalves Saraiva" (Brazil), the "Coleção Acarológica do Instituto Butantan São Paulo" (Brazil), and the "Colección Zoológica de la Academia de Ciencia de Cuba" (Cuba), we present a critical list with the localities where A. (P.) miniatus and A. (P.) persicus have been reported in the American continent. Our results confirmed the presence of A. (P.) miniatus in Brazil and Cuba, and A. (P.) persicus in Chile, which in particular, constitutes the first molecularly confirmed report of the later species for South America. Although A. (P.) miniatus and A. (P.) persicus have been documented in 21 American countries, the identity of some reports must still be considered as uncertain until detailed morphological and/or molecular studies are performed. When contrasted to a Köppen-Geiger climate classification, A. (P.) miniatus predominantly occurs in equatorial and A. (P.) persicus in arid climates. However, until undetermined reports of both species are correctly identified, any conclusion on their geo-climatological occurrence throughout the American continent would be rather speculative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil Identificação de espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium em bovinos leiteiros no Brasil

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    Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts.No presente estudo foram identificadas espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium originadas de bovinos leiteiros na região central do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 200 animais (100 bezerros e 100 vacas em 10 propriedades leiteiras. As amostras foram examinadas utilizando os métodos de microscopia óptica (MO, ensaio imunoenzimático (EI e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. As espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium foram determinados pelo método de polimorfismo no tamanho dos fragmentos de restrição (RFLP ou sequenciamento dos genes SSU-rRNA e GP60. A infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. teve ocorrência de 14% (28/200. A ocorrência em bezerros (26% foi significativamente maior do que em vacas (2%. Do total de 27

  14. Distribution of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genotypes in sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI); unexplained SUDI have a higher frequency of allele 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Goldwater, Paul N

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the role of IL-1RN genotype in unexplained infant deaths (including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)), non-infectious infant deaths, and infectious infant deaths, and to investigate whether IL-1RN genotype is related to the finding of organisms in normally sterile sites in infant deaths. IL-1RN 89bp variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction for 49 cases of unexplained sudden unexpected death in infancy (uSUDI), 13 cases of infectious sudden unexpected death in infancy, 10 cases of non-infectious sudden unexpected death in infancy, and 103 live control infants. IL-1RN genotype was then compared with the presence of bacteria in normally sterile sites in infant deaths. An association was found between the homozygous A2 allele and uSUDI (P = 0.007; 95% confidence interval 1.41-17.67) where carriage of the 2/2 genotype was 4.85 times more likely to increase risk of uSUDI compared with the predominant 1/1 genotype. The role of infection in uSUDI and SIDS may be via an immune response pathway where IL-1RN A2 affects interleukin (IL)-1 regulation. These results are consistent with previous research where polymorphic genotypes conferring more severe proinflammatory responses are found more frequently in uSUDI/SIDS infants than in controls.

  15. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in central Brazil

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    Ramon Ramos Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil and also to analyze the virus genotypes distribution, a total of 123 patients including 98 on hemodialysis, 13 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment, and 12 who received kidney transplantation were interviewed in one unit of dialysis treatment in Goiânia city. Blood samples were collected and serum samples tested for GBV-C/HGV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. Genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Eighteen samples were GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.6% (95% CI: 9.2-21.7. A high positivity for GBV-C/HGV RNA was observed in patients who had received kidney transplant (16.7%, followed by those on hemodialysis (15.3%, and peritoneal dialysis (7.7%. RFLP analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1, 2, and 3 of GBV-C/HGV; more precisely, 9 (50% samples were found belonging to the 2b subtype, 4 (22% to the 2a subtype, 3 (17% to genotype 1, and 2 (11% to genotype 3. The present data indicate an intermediate prevalence of GBV-C/HGV infection among dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil. Genotype 2 (subtype 2b seems to be the most prevalent GBV-C/HGV genotype in our region.

  16. White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution

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    Mariana A. Cherman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution. The objective of this study was to survey the occurrence and geographic distribution of white grub species (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in cultivated and non-cultivated fields of the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and develop a key at genus-level. Twenty-eight species from 15 genera and three subfamilies were recorded: Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae. The species or genera recorded for the first time in the state are: Cyclocephala metrica, C. tucumana, Isonychus albicinctus, Liogenys bidenticeps, L. fusca, L. obesa and L. sinuaticeps, Paranomala violacea, as well as unidentified species of Amononyx, Dicrania, Leucothyreus, Macrodactylus, Plectris and Rhizogeniates. Among the species recorded, 23 were associated with winter crops. Only Cyclocephala metrica, Dyscinetus rugifrons, two species of Leucothyreus and one species of the tribe Sericini were not present in cultivated crop fields. Cyclocephala flavipennis and Diloboderus abderus occurred in most of the municipalities sampled, often associated with Plectris sp., C. modesta and C. putrida. The highest richness of melolonthids was concentrated in the northeast of the Planalto region.

  17. Distribution and abundance of Cladocera (Branchiopoda in the Paraíba do Sul River estuary, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Mauro Sterza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the cladoceran community of the Paraíba do Sul River estuary, located in the district of São João da Barra, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, cladocerans were collected monthly in nine sampling stations from September 2002 until August 2003. Samples were obtained by subsurface tows using a plankton net with a 30 cm opening mouth and 70 micron mesh size, fitted with a mechanical flowmeter. Environmental parameters such as salinity and temperature were also obtained. Seventeen species of Cladocera were identified: Pseudoevadne tergestina, Penilia avirostris, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina micrura, Simocephalus kerhervei, Simocephalus vetalus, Simocephalus latirostris, Simocephalus serrulatus, Alona rectangula, Alona quadrangularis, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Camptocercus dadayi, Ceriodaphnia richardi, Diaphanosoma fluviatile, Kurzia latissima and Pleuroxus similis. The highest total abundance of Cladocera occurred in April in the marine zone of the estuary. The most abundant species during this period was Penilia avirostris. At the mixing and freshwater zones of the estuary, the most abundant species were Moina micrura, mainly in January; and Simocephalus vetalus and Bosmina longirostris during spring. From this scenario, it can be inferred that the cladoceran community of the Paraíba do Sul River estuary presents characteristics of marine, brackish and freshwater environments. Temperature and salinity seem to limit the occurrence and distribution of cladocerans in the estuary.O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a comunidade zooplanctônica de cladóceros no estuário do Rio Paraíba do Sul, localizado no município de São João da Barra, RJ. O zooplâncton foi coletado mensalmente de setembro/2002 a agosto/2003 em nove estações através de arrastos subsuperficiais com uma rede de plâncton com abertura de boca de 30 cm e malha de 70 mµ, dotada de fluxômetro mecânico. Foram medidas simultaneamente a

  18. New Insights into the Geographic Distribution of Mycobacterium leprae SNP Genotypes Determined for Isolates from Leprosy Cases Diagnosed in Metropolitan France and French Territories.

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    Florence Reibel

    Full Text Available Between 20 and 30 bacteriologically confirmed cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year at the French National Reference Center for mycobacteria. Patients are mainly immigrants from various endemic countries or living in French overseas territories. We aimed at expanding data regarding the geographical distribution of the SNP genotypes of the M. leprae isolates from these patients.Skin biopsies were obtained from 71 leprosy patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2013. Data regarding age, sex and place of birth and residence were also collected. Diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli and/or amplification by PCR of the M. leprae-specific RLEP region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, present in the M. leprae genome at positions 14 676, 1 642 875 and 2 935 685, were determined with an efficiency of 94% (67/71. Almost all patients were from countries other than France where leprosy is still prevalent (n = 31 or from French overseas territories (n = 36 where leprosy is not totally eradicated, while only a minority (n = 4 was born in metropolitan France but have lived in other countries. SNP type 1 was predominant (n = 33, followed by type 3 (n = 17, type 4 (n = 11 and type 2 (n = 6. SNP types were concordant with those previously reported as prevalent in the patients' countries of birth. SNP types found in patients born in countries other than France (Comoros, Haiti, Benin, Congo, Sri Lanka and French overseas territories (French Polynesia, Mayotte and La Réunion not covered by previous work correlated well with geographical location and history of human settlements.The phylogenic analysis of M. leprae strains isolated in France strongly suggests that French leprosy cases are caused by SNP types that are (a concordant with the geographic origin or residence of the patients (non-French countries, French overseas territories, metropolitan France or (b more likely random in regions where

  19. New Insights into the Geographic Distribution of Mycobacterium leprae SNP Genotypes Determined for Isolates from Leprosy Cases Diagnosed in Metropolitan France and French Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Florence; Chauffour, Aurélie; Brossier, Florence; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Aubry, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Between 20 and 30 bacteriologically confirmed cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year at the French National Reference Center for mycobacteria. Patients are mainly immigrants from various endemic countries or living in French overseas territories. We aimed at expanding data regarding the geographical distribution of the SNP genotypes of the M. leprae isolates from these patients. Skin biopsies were obtained from 71 leprosy patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2013. Data regarding age, sex and place of birth and residence were also collected. Diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli and/or amplification by PCR of the M. leprae-specific RLEP region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), present in the M. leprae genome at positions 14 676, 1 642 875 and 2 935 685, were determined with an efficiency of 94% (67/71). Almost all patients were from countries other than France where leprosy is still prevalent (n = 31) or from French overseas territories (n = 36) where leprosy is not totally eradicated, while only a minority (n = 4) was born in metropolitan France but have lived in other countries. SNP type 1 was predominant (n = 33), followed by type 3 (n = 17), type 4 (n = 11) and type 2 (n = 6). SNP types were concordant with those previously reported as prevalent in the patients' countries of birth. SNP types found in patients born in countries other than France (Comoros, Haiti, Benin, Congo, Sri Lanka) and French overseas territories (French Polynesia, Mayotte and La Réunion) not covered by previous work correlated well with geographical location and history of human settlements. The phylogenic analysis of M. leprae strains isolated in France strongly suggests that French leprosy cases are caused by SNP types that are (a) concordant with the geographic origin or residence of the patients (non-French countries, French overseas territories, metropolitan France) or (b) more likely random in regions where diverse

  20. From the Atlantic Forest to the borders of Amazonia: species richness, distribution, and host association of ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Eder; Bernard, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    Better knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and their hosts can contribute to clarifying aspects of host specificity, as well as on the interactions among hosts, parasites, and the environment in which both exist. Ectoparasitic flies of the Nycteribiidae and Streblidae families are highly specialized hematophagous parasites of bats, whose distributional patterns, species richness, and associations with hosts remain underexplored and poorly known in Brazil. Here, we used information available in the literature and unpublished data to verify if the occurrence of bat hosts in a given environment influences the occurrence and distribution of nycteribiid and streblid flies in different ecoregions in the northeastern Brazil. We evaluate species richness and similarity between ecoregions and tested correlations between species richness and the number of studies in each ecoregion and federative unit. We recorded 50 species and 15 genera of bat ectoparasitic flies on 36 species and 27 genera of bat hosts. The Atlantic Forest had the highest fly species richness (n = 31; 62%), followed by Caatinga (n = 27; 54%). We detected the formation of distinct groups, with low species overlap between ecoregions for both flies and bats. Fly species richness was correlated with host species richness and with the number of studies in each federative unit, but not with the number of studies by ecoregion. Due to the formation of distinct groups with low species overlap for both groups, host availability is likely to be one of the factors that most influence the occurrence of highly specific flies. We also discuss host specificity for some species, produced an updated list of species and distribution for both nycteribiid and streblid flies with information on interaction networks, and conclude by presenting recommendations for more effective inventories of bat ectoparasites in the future.

  1. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  2. Genotype networks in metabolic reaction spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A metabolic genotype comprises all chemical reactions an organism can catalyze via enzymes encoded in its genome. A genotype is viable in a given environment if it is capable of producing all biomass components the organism needs to survive and reproduce. Previous work has focused on the properties of individual genotypes while little is known about how genome-scale metabolic networks with a given function can vary in their reaction content. Results We here characterize spaces of such genotypes. Specifically, we study metabolic genotypes whose phenotype is viability in minimal chemical environments that differ in their sole carbon sources. We show that regardless of the number of reactions in a metabolic genotype, the genotypes of a given phenotype typically form vast, connected, and unstructured sets -- genotype networks -- that nearly span the whole of genotype space. The robustness of metabolic phenotypes to random reaction removal in such spaces has a narrow distribution with a high mean. Different carbon sources differ in the number of metabolic genotypes in their genotype network; this number decreases as a genotype is required to be viable on increasing numbers of carbon sources, but much less than if metabolic reactions were used independently across different chemical environments. Conclusions Our work shows that phenotype-preserving genotype networks have generic organizational properties and that these properties are insensitive to the number of reactions in metabolic genotypes. PMID:20302636

  3. Avaliação de genótipos de pimentão no período de inverno, em Araguari, MG Genotypic evaluation of sweet pepper in the winter season in Araguari, MG, Brazil

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    José Ricardo Peixoto

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se um trabalho de pesquisa na Fazenda Jordão em Araguari, MG (18º38'30" S e 48º11'18" O, na época do inverno, com o objetivo de verificar o desempenho agronômico de genótipos de pimentão. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com 17 tratamentos (17 genótipos e quatro repetições. A parcela experimental foi constituída por uma fileira com 30 plantas, no espaçamento de 1,00 x 0,45 m. Efetuou-se um total de dez colheitas sendo a primeira feita aos 28 de julho de 1996 (77 dias após o transplante e a última em 9 de novembro de 1996. Vários híbridos F1 apresentaram boas características agronômicas, podendo ser plantadas na região, no período de inverno, principalmente Lygia, Magali e Magali R, Acuário, Luis, Fresco (BS 50-30 e Sambor. O híbrido Lygia F1 destacou-se em produtividade, seguido por Acuário F1 e Magali F1, e também em número total de frutos, porém apresentou formato de fruto próximo ao quadrado e classificação inferior de frutos extra AA. Os genótipos Acuário F1, Sambor F1, Fresco (BS 50-30 F1, Luis F1 e All Big se destacaram em frutos tipo extra AA, enquanto Magna Super, Nacional AG-506, Itaipu e Hércules AG-672, apresentaram maior número de frutos tipo extra A.An experimental field was carried out in the Jordão farm, located in Araguari, MG, Brazil, at 18º38'30" S and 48º11'18" W, during the winter season, with the purpose of evaluating the agronomic potential of sweet pepper cultivars. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 17 treatments (17 genotypes with four replications. The experimental plots were made up each of one line with 30 plants, with 1 m of space between lines and 0,45 m between plants. A total of ten harvestings were made starting on July 28, 1996 (77 days after transplanting and ending on November 9, 1996. Several F1 hybrids as Lygia F1, Magali F1, Magali R F1, Acuário F1, Luis F1, Fresco (BS 50-30 F1 and Sambor F1 showed good

  4. Avaliação de genótipos de bananeira na região do baixo São Francisco, Sergipe Evaluation of banana genotypes in the low São Francisco river basin, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de 20 genótipos de bananeira nas condições edafoclimáticas da região do Baixo São Francisco-SE. O experimento foi instalado em área experimental da Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, no município de Propriá- SE. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três touceiras úteis por parcela. Foram avaliados caracteres de crescimento e produção no primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os híbridos PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-85 e FHIA-02, devido ao bom desempenho com relação ao peso do cacho e peso médio do fruto, podem ser recomendados para cultivo no Baixo São Francisco. O híbrido FHIA-18 apresentou excelentes características agronômicas, sendo uma alternativa a cultivar Prata-Anã. Os híbridos Ambrósia e Bucaneiro podem ser indicados por apresentarem cachos grandes e sabor semelhante às bananas do subgrupo Cavendish. O híbrido YB42-07 tem potencial para ser lançado como cultivar em áreas de cultivo de banana Maçã.The main objective of this work was evaluated the performance of twenty genotypes of Musa sp., in the environmental conditions of the Low São Francisco River Basin, Propriá, SE, and Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications and three useful plants per parcel. rowth and yield characteristics were analyzed during the first and second production cycles. Hybrids PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-85 and FHIA-02 because of the bigger production and greater weight of the fruit, should be recommended for culture in the region. Hybrid FHIA-18 presented excellent agronomic characteristics, being an alternative to 'Prata Anã'. The hybrids Ambrosia and Buccaneer can be an alternative for Cavendish bananas, by showing great bunches and similar flavor. Hybrid YB42-07 could be an option for areas of 'Silk' banana culture in the region of the Low São Francisco River, having potential to be set up as cultivar.

  5. Clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of Visceral leishmaniasis in children in São Paulo state: an emerging focus of Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufal Spir, Patricia Rodrigues; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Dayse, Aline; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis, and Brazil harbors about 90% of those infected in Latin America. Since 1998, the disease has been spreading quickly in São Paulo state, and the western region is considered an emerging focus of VL in Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of VL in children referred to a public tertiary hospital located in the western region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Methods: Medical records of children up to 18 years of age who were diagnosed with VL between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. Geospatial analysis was performed using the ArcGIS 10.2 platform. Results: Sixty-three patients were enrolled in the study; the median age was 3.3 ± 3.3 years. The median time interval between the onset of clinical symptoms and diagnosis was 16.1 ± 11.1 days, and the median time in the pediatric ward was 18.0 ± 9.4 days. Liposomal amphotericin B was the first-line treatment in 90.5% of the patients and 9.6% relapsed. One patient died (1.6%), and 19% were submitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Conclusion: The short interval between the onset of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment and the reduced number of days of hospitalization certainly influenced the small number of deaths, relapses, and severity among the children infected with VL. However, the disease is spreading fast in the western region of São Paulo state. Thus, integrated actions and effective monitoring of the disease are needed to complement curative practices. PMID:28221822

  6. Exploring the diversity and distribution of neotropical avian malaria parasites--a molecular survey from Southeast Brazil.

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    Gustavo A Lacorte

    Full Text Available Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches. Although this region has the potential to harbor a remarkable variety of avian parasites, there is a lack of information about the diversity of malarial parasites. We used molecular approaches to characterize the lineage diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities from three different habitats in southeast Brazil based on the prevalence, richness and composition of lineages. We observed an overall prevalence of 35.3%, with a local prevalence ranging from 17.2% to 54.8%. Moreover, no significant association between prevalence and habitat type could be verified (p>0.05. We identified 89 Plasmodium and 22 Haemoproteus lineages, with 86% of them described for the first time here, including an unusual infection of a non-columbiform host by a Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus parasite. The composition analyses of the parasite communities showed that the lineage composition from Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest was similar, but it was different from the lineage composition of Atlantic rainforest, reflecting the greater likeness of the former habitats with respect to seasonality and forest density. No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses. We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness. Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

  7. Radium isotope ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra) distribution near Brazil's largest port, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Thais H; de Oliveira, Joselene; Sanders, Christian J; Carvalho, Franciane; Sanders, Luciana M; Machado, Eunice C; Sá, Fabian

    2016-10-15

    This work investigates the (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra isotope distribution in river, estuarine waters and sediments of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC). The stratification of the Ra isotopes along water columns indicate differing natural sources. In sediments, the radium isotope activities was inversely proportional to the particle size. The highest concentrations of (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the water column were found in the bottom more saline waters and towards the inner of the estuary. These relatively high concentrations towards the bottom of the estuary may be attributed to the influence of tidally driven groundwater source and desorption from particles at the maximum turbidity zone. The apparent river water ages from the radium isotope ratios, (223)Ra/(224)Ra and (223)Ra/(228)Ra, indicate that the principal rivers that flow into the estuary have residence times from between 6 and 11days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  9. New records and bathymetric distribution of deep-sea shrimps of the family Glyphocrangonidae (Decapoda: Caridea from the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil

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    Flavio de Almeida Alves-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The caridean family Glyphocrangonidae Smith, 1884 is monotypic, including only the genus Glyphocrangon A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. The species of this genus are exclusively inhabitants of deep sea. The current contribution aims to enrich the knowledge of Glyphocrangon in the southwestern Atlantic, by reporting its occurrence and bathymetric distribution in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil. The samples were collected by R/V Luke Thomas and R/V Seward Johnson, with bottom trawling at isobaths of 400, 1,000 and 2,000 m, using an otter trawl semi-balloon. The specimens were identified and stored in the carcinological collection of the Museu de Oceanografia Prof. Petrônio Alves Coelho, in Recife, Brazil. A total of 810 specimens were examined from five species: Glyphocrangon aculeata A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, G. alispina Chace, 1939, G. longirostris (Smith, 1882, G. sculpta (Smith, 1882 and G. spinicauda A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Glyphocrangon spinicauda was the most abundant with 334 individuals, and G. sculpta was the rarest, with only one individual. All species were recorded in the study area for the first time.

  10. Population biology and distribution of the tanaid Kalliapseudes schubarti Mañé-Garzon, 1949, in an intertidal flat in Southeastern Brazil

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    F. P. P. Leite

    Full Text Available The population biology and the spatial and temporal distribution of Kalliapseudes schubarti Mañé-Garzon, 1949, a common tanaidacean in mud flats and estuaries in southern and southeastern Brazil, was studied in the Araçá region, São Sebastião (SP, Brazil. This species showed a clustered dispersion in the area and the individuals were concentrated in the superficial sediment layer (5 cm. Higher densities of K. schubarti were recorded in areas characterized by moderately sorted fine sediment. Multiple regression analysis revealed a positive influence of the organic matter contents and a negative effect of the silt-clay contents on the abundance of K. schubarti. This species showed a marked temporal variation with very low abundance in winter and fall (March to August. Sexual dimorphism was evidenced with males being larger than females. Ovigerous females were also larger than pre-ovigerous ones. Sex ratio was skewed towards females. Seven cohorts were identified during the sampling period, the estimated longevity was 12 months, and no seasonal oscillation in growth was evidenced. The continuous reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of larval phases (manca II and neutron and reproductive females throughout the year, and high fecundity among the tanaids associated with fast growth and limited longevity support the case for the opportunistic life strategy suggested for this species in the literature.

  11. Aging, Alzheimer’s, and APOE genotype influence the expression and neuronal distribution patterns of microtubule motor protein dynactin-P50

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    Orwa eAboud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports from neural cell cultures and experimental animal studies provide evidence of age- and disease-related changes in retrograde transport of spent or misfolded proteins destined for degradation or recycling. However, few studies address these issues in human brain from those who either age without dementia and overt neuropathology, or succumb to Alzheimer’s; especially as such propensity may be influenced by APOE genotype. We studied the expression and distribution of the dynein subunit dynactin-P50, the β amyloid precursor protein (βAPP, and hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau in tissues and tissue sections of brains from non-demented, neuropathology-free patients and from Alzheimer patients, with either APOE ε3,3 or APOE ε4,4. We found that advanced age in patients without dementia or neuropathological change was associated with coordinated increases in dynactin-P50 and βAPP in neurons in pyramidal layers of the hippocampus. In contrast, in Alzheimer’s, βAPP and dynactin were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the dynactin-P50 and βAPP that was present was located primarily in dystrophic neurites in Aβ plaques. Tissues from Alzheimer patients with APOE ε3,3 had less P-tau, more βAPP, dynactin-P50, and synaptophysin than did tissues from Alzheimer patients carrying APOE ε4,4. It is logical to conclude, then, that as neurons age successfully, there is coordination between retrograde delivery and maintenance and repair, as well as between retrograde delivery and degradation and/or recycling of spent proteins. The buildup of proteins slated for repair, synaptic viability, transport, and re-cycling in neuron soma and dystrophic neurites suggest a loss of this coordination in Alzheimer neurons. Inheritance of APOE ε3,3 rather than APOE ε4,4, is associated with neuronal resilience, suggestive of better repair capabilities, more synapses, more efficient transport, and less hyperphosphorylation of tau. We conclude that even in disease

  12. New species of Endecous (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae) from the Iguaçu National Park (Brazil), including bioacoustics, cytogenetic and distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Szinwelski, Neucir; Fianco, Marcos; Oliveira, Elliott Centeno DE; Mello, Francisco DE A G DE; Zefa, Edison

    2017-03-01

    In this study we describe two new species of cavicolous-straminicolous crickets for southern Brazil. Endecous chape n. sp. and E. naipi n. sp. are sympatric crickets that inhabit the Atlantic Semideciduous Forest of the Iguaçu National Park and adjacent areas. The descriptions were based on morphological characters, mainly from male genitalia and tegmina of adult males. Furthermore, we describe the chromosomes and the calling song of one of the new species, E. chape n. sp., presenting a discussion about the morphology of the phallic complex of Endecous and a distribution map for the species of the genus. The type-material is deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP), and in the Coleção de Insetos do Departamento de Zoologia (Zoology Department Insect Collection), Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP-Botucatu campus.

  13. Diesel oil safety stock in storage and distribution terminals: a case study: Porto Velho/Rio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rubens C. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); D' agosto, Marcio A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for calculating diesel oil safety stock in distributor terminals located in the northern of Brazil, applied on a case study for terminals in the state of Rondonia. From the mapping of logistic flows related to transport and storage of diesel oil, the risk factors that cause uncertainties in lead time were analyzed and quantified. Through a research conducted among economic agents (producers, distributors and carriers) operating in the region, it was measured the relevance and impact of risk factors on the safety stock in the terminals. The safety stock was calculated by the classical equation of inventories, as well as by the methodology proposed in this paper. The difference between the two methods has unveiled inefficiencies derived from uncertainties in lead time. Recommendations of actions to mitigate the risk factors are included at the end of this paper. (author)

  14. Molecular characterization of group A rotavirus isolates obtained from hospitalized children in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Karina Serravalle

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children. The objective of this study was to characterize the genotypes of Human Rotavirus found in children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the Pediatric Hospital Prof. Hosannah de Oliveira of the UFBA in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2002. Fecal samples were analyzed (n=358 by methods EIARA and SDS-PAGE for detection of Rotavirus. Positive samples of one or two of these methods (n=168 were submitted to RT-PCR and Multiplex-Nested PCR to determine genotypes G and P. A hundred sixty-eight (46.9% samples were positive and 190 (53.1% negative. Only 17 (4.7% samples had divergent results. The distribution of genotypes G during the first year, showed that the genotype G9 was present in 96,8% of the analyzed samples, in the second year, it was responsible for 96% and in the third year, 88,1%. The characterization of genotypes P demonstrated that the genotype P1A[8] was the most outstanding in all years. In this study we discuss the benefit to control the genotypes of Rotavirus through the molecular characterization for the development of potential vaccines.

  15. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, L K H; Kashima, S; Amarante, M F C; Haddad, R; Rodrigues, E S; Silva, K L T; Lima, T A; Castro, D B; Brito, F C; Almeida, E G; Covas, D T; Malheiro, A

    2012-02-01

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF_BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible "homogenous" subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country.

  16. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  17. Spatial and seasonal distribution of frogs in three environments in the Serra do Ouro Branco, extreme south of Cadeia do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Avelar São Pedro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide information on the spatial and seasonal distribution of frog species in the Serra do Ouro Branco, south Cadeia do Espinhaço, Brazil, from the tracking of three aquatic environments: a pond, a permanent stream and a temporary stream, carried out between July 2006 and June 2007. We found 28 species belonging to the families Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (2, Hylidae (16, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (2 and Microhylidae (1. The pond showed the greatest richness (20. Five different reproductive patterns were defined: (1 species that call year-round or almost year-round, with larger aggregations during rainy months, (2 opportunistic species with calling activity associated with the rainy months, (3 species that call predominantly in winter, (4 species with an explosive reproductive pattern, with peaks of calling activity during heavy rains, and (5 species that do not show a definite calling pattern. The reproductive activity of most species was shown to be associated with rainy months, but showed no link to the temperature. There was overlap in the seasonal distribution of some species. The spatial and seasonal species distribution seems to adapt to the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment occupied.

  18. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud. IN TWO FRAGMENTS AT DIFFERENT REGENERATION STAGES IN THE CAATINGA, IN SERGIPE, BRAZIL

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    Ana Cecília da Cruz Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to analyze the vertical and diameter structure and the spatial distribution pattern of Bauhinia cheilantha in two Caatinga fragments in Sergipe, Brazil, at different regeneration stages. Thirty plots were demarcated in area I (Canindé de São Francisco and Poço Redondo, which has vegetation regeneration, and 25 plots in area II (Porto da Folha with preserved vegetation, both having 400 m2. All B. cheilanthaindividuals had their height and circumference (circumference at breast height > 6 cm measured. Possible differences in height and diameter at breast height were tested in the two populations by using Student’s T-test. The distribution pattern of species was calculated through Payandeh’s index. We sampled 154 B. cheilantha individuals, equivalent to 33.3% of the plots in area I and in 1,027 individuals in area II, totaling 100% frequency. Height and the diameter of the two populations were statistically different, where AI achieved all values lower than AII. The spatial distribution pattern of B. cheilantha found in both areas was aggregate, with values of 11.85 and 9.00, respectively. Thus, it became clear that the population in AII is at a more advanced successional status than AI, due to its longer conservation time.

  19. Synanthropic triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: geographical distribution and natural Trypanosoma infection rates between 2006 and 2007

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    Maria Beatriz Araújo Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study shows a descriptive analysis of triatomine occurrence and its natural Trypanosoma infection rates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2006 and 2007. METHODS: Entomological data for the species, such as specimens captured in both intra and peridomiciles and natural infection index, were obtained via domiciliary capture in 147 municipalities from 11 Regional Managements of Health. The database was obtained from a sample of insects (100% infected and 20% non-infected sent to the Central Laboratory of Pernambuco. RESULTS: A total of 18,029 triatomines were analyzed from 138 municipalities of the state. Triatoma pseudomaculata (35%, Triatoma brasiliensis (34%, and Panstrongylus lutzi (25% were the most captured species. These species also showed a widespread geographical distribution in the state. Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma petrocchiae, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma sordida, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, and Triatoma infestans showed more limited geographical distribution and lower relative abundance. The parasitological research showed that 8.8% of the triatomines were naturally infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi and 91.3% of them were captured inside houses in 113 municipalities. P. lutzi showed the highest rates of natural infection. CONCLUSIONS: After the control of T. infestans, synanthropic species, such as T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, and P. lutzi, maintain the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in the state of Pernambuco. These species are widely distributed, and infected specimens have been found inside houses. Thus, an enhanced surveillance and vector control of Chagas disease is recommended in Pernambuco.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of American/Asian genotype DENV-2 in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D; Forshey, Brett M; Juarez, Diana S; Guevara, Carolina; Leguia, Mariana; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-08-01

    During the past decade, countries in South America have reported dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with American/Asian genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). DENV-2 strains have been associated with large outbreaks of dengue fever and DHF in numerous regions of Peru since the mid-1990s, but studies to address the origins, distribution, and genetic diversity of DENV-2 strains have been limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the envelope gene region of DENV-2 isolates from Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Sequences were aligned and compared to a global sample of DENV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the circulation of two DENV-2 genotypes in Peru: American (prior to 2001) and American/Asian (2000 to present). American/Asian genotype variants can be classified into two lineages, and these were introduced into Peru from the