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Sample records for brazil employing tillandsia

  1. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  2. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  3. Atmospheric quality in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the biondicator capacity of Tillandsia capillaris f. incana (Mez.), widely distributed in Argentina, in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area with a surface of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Republic Argentina. The area was subdivided in grids of 25 x 25 km being collected pools at T. capillaris in each one of the intersection points when this was present. Of each pool three subsamples were analyzed independently. Besides, for 20% of the points, quintupled samples were collected in order to analyze the variability inside the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The concentration of chemical-physiological parameters was also determined with the objective of detecting symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde, and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used for calculating a pollution index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and mapping. Different patterns of geographical distribution were obtained for the different metals that allow to reflect the so much contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn, and Co probably originated from the soil. For Pb, the highest values were in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of minerals that close contains Pb in granitic rocks. Ni showed origin mainly anthropogenic, with values a risen in places close to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development, as well for Cu, whose presence could be related to the pesticides employment. (author)

  4. Atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as a biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, M L; Gudiño, G L; Wannaz, E D; Plá, R R; González, C M; Carreras, H A; Orellana, L

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals were evaluated throughout a wide region of Argentina. In addition, the biomonitor performance of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris was studied in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Argentine Republic. This area was subdivided into grids of 25 x 25 km. Pools of T. capillaris, where present, were collected at each intersection point. From each pool three sub-samples were analyzed independently. Furthermore, five replicates were collected at 20% of the points in order to analyze the variability within the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Chemical-physiological parameters were also determined to detect symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used to calculate a foliar damage index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and mapping. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn and Co probably originated in the soil. For Pb, the highest values were found in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of Pb in the granitic rocks. Ni showed mainly an anthropogenic origin, with higher values found in places next to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development. The same was observed for Cu, whose presence could be related to the employment of pesticides. The foliar damage index distribution map showed that the central and southeastern zones were the ones where the major damage in the bioindicator was

  5. Tillandsia usneoides: a successful alternative for biomonitoring changes in air quality due to a new highway in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Alves, Edenise Segala; Victorio, Mariana Pereira; Moura, Barbara Baesso; Domingos, Marisa; Rodrigues, Caroline Albuquerque; Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2016-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that absorbs water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere by scales covering its surface. We expanded the use of this species as a broader biomonitor based on chemical and structural markers to detect changes in air quality. The usefulness of such comprehensive approach was tested during the construction and opening of a highway (SP-21) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The biomonitoring study was performed from 2009 to 2012, thus comprising the period during construction and after the highway inauguration. Metal accumulation and structural alterations were assessed, in addition to microscopy analyses to understand the metal chelation in plant tissues and to assess the causes of alterations in the number and shape of scale cells. Altogether, our analyses support the use of this species as a wide biomonitor of air quality in urbanized areas. PMID:26396016

  6. Quality study of the air at Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the utilization of the bromelia specie Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) for characterization of the particle dispersion at urban and industrial regions. As a case study, a program will be developed for the monitoring the aerosols generated due to action of weather on the solid waste open sky stored and over the waste basin belonging to the INGA, located at Sepetiba bay. The identification of the stable metals will be done by the PIXE technique, and the radionuclides identification by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The preliminary results of aerosol samples collected at Ilha da Madeira region indicate the presence of particles containing Cd, V, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Zn, Cu, Co and S. The variation in the percentage of each element at the points of collection suggests that there exist more than one aerosol source at the region

  7. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  8. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  9. Payroll tax reduction in Brazil : Effects on employment and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R. Scherer (Clóvis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper evaluates the effects of the elimination of a payroll tax on employment and wages in four manufacturing and service sectors in Brazil in early 2012. This tax, which accounted for 20 percent of the wage bill, was levied on employers and financed social security programmes. This

  10. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  11. Remote Sensing-Based Detection and Spatial Pattern Analysis for Geo-Ecological Niche Modeling of Tillandsia SPP. In the Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Siegmund, A.; del Río, C.; Osses, P.; García, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called `fog oases' dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF) are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  12. REMOTE SENSING-BASED DETECTION AND SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR GEO-ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING OF TILLANDSIA SPP. IN THE ATACAMA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called ‘fog oases’ dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  13. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048). The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h-1 to reach saturation conditions when fog was applied.

  14. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h−1 to reach saturation conditions

  15. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog drip or occult precipitation can result in negative interception because small drops are deposited on all plant surfaces and subsequently fall to the ground once vegetation storage capacities are exceeded. Fog drip is normally disregarded, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions through applying simulated rain or fog. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543±77 vs. 325±56 mg, p=0.048. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.54 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. T. recurvata contributed 20% to the rain interception of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata. Meteorological data registered during one year at Cadereyta, México showed that radiative fog formation was possible during the dry season. The results showed the potential role of T. recurvata in capturing fog, which probably is a main source of water during the dry season that supports their reproductive and physiological activity at that time. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be

  16. Determinants of Changing Informal Employment in Brazil, 2000–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Fairris, David; Jonasson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores possible causal determinants of changing wage and salary informality over the period 2000–2010 in Brazil. We utilize demographic census and other institutional data sources from the opening and closing years of the decade, informality regressions in both years that exploit variation across workers and municipalities in informality rates and their causal determinants, and a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition of changing mean informality rates over the decade. Among the determinan...

  17. Employment, real wages and external constraint: the case of Brazil and Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar R

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, economic analysis of the impact of economic policy responses to external debt on employment and wages in Brazil and Chile - discusses trends in minimum wages, unemployment and underemployment; reviews the economic implications and social implications of reduced consumer demand, export promotion, import substitution, devaluation and export of capital. Graphs, references, statistical tables.

  18. Suitability of Tillandsia usneoides and Aechmea fasciata for biomonitoring toxic elements under tropical seasonal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaoli, Patricia; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Tavares, Armando R; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    Aechmea fasciata was evaluated for the first time as a biomonitor of toxic elements, in comparison to the biomonitoring capacity of Tillandsia usneoides, a well-established biomonitor bromeliad species. Plants of both species were exposed to air pollutants from industrial, urban, and agricultural sources, under the tropical seasonal climate, from June/2011 to April/2013, in five sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, for 8 consecutive exposure periods of 12 weeks each. The levels of essential and non-essential elements, including trace metals, were quantified at the end of each exposure. T. usneoides and A. fasciata indicated N, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, and V as air contaminants in the studied sites, during wet and dry seasons and both species were recommended for qualitative biomonitoring. Concentration levels of N, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, B, Co, and Ni were significantly higher in T. usneoides than in A. fasciata. However, A. fasciata showed a higher effective retention capacity of Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Co during field exposure, as indicated by the estimate of enrichment factor relative to basal concentrations. This species is more suitable for detecting the atmospheric pollution level of those metals than the T. usneoides. Both species indicated adequately the seasonal differences in the pollution levels of several elements, but T. usneoides presented higher ability for biomonitoring the spatial variations and for indicating more properly the sources of each element in the studied region than the A. fasciata. PMID:26844661

  19. Foreign Ownership, Employment and Wages in Brazil: Evidence from Acquisitions, Divestments and Job Movers

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Pedro Silva; Luiz A. Esteves

    2008-01-01

    How much do developing countries benefit from foreign investment? We contribute to this question by comparing the employment and wage practices of foreign and domestic firms in Brazil, using detailed matched firm-worker panel data. In order to control for unobserved worker differences, we examine both foreign acquisitions and divestments and worker mobility, including the joint estimation of firm and worker fixed effects. We find that changes in ownership do not tend to affect wages significa...

  20. WP 83 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Brazil on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and ...

  1. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. PMID:26630037

  2. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  3. Environmental studies by means of the use of biomonitors (Tillandsia sp.) and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of healthful atmosphere is one of the main causes of health deterioration. The present study uses biomonitors, with the objective of knowing the levels of pollutant accumulation in nucleus zones, by means of Tillandsia's spp. sampling (a Bromeliaceae, epiphyte that captures the atmosphere's nutrients and concomitantly accumulates heavy metals) during the spring station. They correspond to intersections between avenues with high vehicular flow and particular characteristics as for mobile emission's sources, in Asuncion City; subdivided in such form that, each plant has the same probability to be selected, being 5 species of Tillandsia: T. recurvata L. (94%); T. meridionalis Baker (59%); T loliaceae Mart. (29%); T. duratii Visiani (12%), and T. tricholepis Baker (6%). These species were evaluated for element levels by means of X ray fluorescence energy dispersive, with conventional geometry. (author)

  4. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae) influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Caio C.C. Missagia; Maria Alice S. Alves

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae). We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production) at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológ...

  5. Multiplier of employment and wages: A comparative study for southern region and the rest of Brazil in 1999 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel dos Santos Fachinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the multiplier effect of jobs and income for the formal and informal categories, in an inter-regional input-output system. Therefore, it was used the array in the Southern Region and the Rest of Brazil, estimated for the years 1999 and 2004 organized in 23 sectors, with microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD in the same years. Consider one, the individuals’ characterization according to educational level, age, income, gender and employment category (formal and informal. The main results include a decrease of the contribution from the macros sectors of Agricultural and Services in the regions. The State of Paraná, Santa Catarina and the Rest of Brazil decreased multipliers wages in formal and informal categories for most sectors, which was not observed in Rio Grande do Sul. The largest employment multipliers for both formal and informal categories were to sectors linked to Industry.

  6. Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Radil, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is aimed at the problems of labour-law relations. The main topic is the employment, its legal modification and functioning in practice. The Labour Code is often the subject of amendments and it is necessary to immediately apply all the changes into the practice. Based on finding from the legal theory there has been analysed a specific organisation, verified a functionality of personnel procedures in connection with the legal modification of the employment set in the Labo...

  7. How is mechanical ventilation employed in a pediatric intensive care unit in Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon da Silva; Audrey Rie Ogawa Shibata; Farias, Julio A; Eduardo Juan Troster

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relationship between mechanical ventilation and mortality and the practice of mechanical ventilation applied in children admitted to a high-complexity pediatric intensive care unit in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients admitted to a Brazilian high-complexity PICU who were placed on mechanical ventilation for 24 hours or more, between October 1st, 2005 and March 31st, 2006. RESULTS: Of the 241 patients admit...

  8. Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation. The employment generation according to Leontief's matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 15 years, a strong evolution in the concept of the use of energy for industrial purpose was brought in step by step by the Governments and users themselves. The progress within the fields of energy savings, thermal control and reduction of air pollution must be pointed out. Within this scheme the natural gas technology has overcome many technical difficulties and the solutions using natural gas rank among the most efficient to tackle current problems. The aim of this work is to analyse Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation and it influences in the Brazilian economy

  9. Air pollution patterns in two cities of Colombia, S. A. according to trace substances content of an epiphyte (Tillandsia recurvata L. ). [Tillandsia recurvata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimpff, E.

    1984-01-01

    The air pollution of two major Colombian cities (Medellin and Cali) has been examined by means of 66 samples of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata L., which acts as a biofilter. After performing heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr), pesticides (BHCs, HCB, dieldrine, endrine, DDTs), PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: FA, BaP, IcdP, BghiP) analyses, the results proved the utility of this inconspicuous plant to determine the airborne contamination of both inorganic and organic trace substances. Using principal component analysis, 10 classes of independent pollution sources could be discriminated for both regions: Zn and the PAH; BHCs, endrine and DDTs; Ni and Cr, and (4) to (10) the other contaminants, which resulted to be more or less independent from each other. By means of cluster analysis, 6 to 8 pollutional groups were clustered for heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH separately. The topographic and industrial features of the Cali and Medellin areas are discussed in relation to the regional means of heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH content. While Cali is distinctive of high levels of Pb, Cu, BaP, and pesticides, Medellin is more severely polluted by Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, FA, and IcdP. In comparison to the southern U.S. and Central Europe, both conglomeration areas appear to be heavily polluted by Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and DDTs.

  10. The bromelias (Tillandsia sp.) stuck the prone public electrician as indicator of air cationic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of advance in the investigation it focuses the possibility that of the landscape for an attentive observation and question, with low cost and limited time can obtain a vision most approximate thing possible of the quality of the atmosphere to be able on that base to elaborate programs of development and minimize of the contamination. For that objective Tillandsias is photographed fixed in electric cable that based on the environmental balance of the ecosystem and of the visualized parameters indicate atmospheric pollution after an analysis of fluorescence of rays X. Was verifies that the collected bromelias captures all the ions differing in quantity according to the local collection and the dominant pollution. With the data and gathered approaches can take decisions the most appropriate possible to guide policies of the law that spread to remedy the environmental risks and to minimize them especially the atmospheric controlling the industrial pollution

  11. Population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia butzii in cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana

    2016-02-01

    Epiphytes are a major component of tropical montane cloud forests. Over-exploitation and forest loss and degradation affect remnant populations. In this study, we analysed the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia butzii over a 2-y period in a tropical montane cloud forest fragment in southern Mexico. Matrix analysis revealed that the T. butzii population is likely to be stable at the study site. On average the λ value did not differ significantly from unity: λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.978 (0.936-1.001). λ was highly influenced by stasis, to a lesser extent by growth and only slightly by fecundity. Overall, adult plant stasis and phalanx growth habit played a fundamental role in population maintenance. T. butzii tolerance to xeric conditions may contribute to population stability in the studied region.

  12. A Menu Of Minimum Wage Variables For Evaluating Wages and Employment Effects: Evidence From Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Sara

    2004-01-01

    The international literature on minimum wage greatly lacks empirical evidence from developing countries. Brazil’s minimum wage policy is a distinctive and central feature of the Brazilian economy. Not only are increases in the minimum wage large and frequent but also the minimum wage has been used as anti-inflation policy in addition to its social role. This paper estimates the effects of the minimum wage on both wages and employment using panel data techniques and monthly household data from...

  13. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. ► Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. ► Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. ► Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. ► Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g−1 DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  14. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  15. How is mechanical ventilation employed in a pediatric intensive care unit in Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relationship between mechanical ventilation and mortality and the practice of mechanical ventilation applied in children admitted to a high-complexity pediatric intensive care unit in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients admitted to a Brazilian high-complexity PICU who were placed on mechanical ventilation for 24 hours or more, between October 1st, 2005 and March 31st, 2006. RESULTS: Of the 241 patients admitted, 86 (35.7% received mechanical ventilation for 24 hours or more. Of these, 49 met inclusion criteria and were thus eligible to participate in the study. Of the 49 patients studied, 45 had chronic functional status. The median age of participants was 32 months and the median length of mechanical ventilation use was 6.5 days. The major indication for mechanical ventilation was acute respiratory failure, usually associated with severe sepsis / septic shock. Pressure ventilation modes were the standard ones. An overall 10.37% incidence of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome was found, in addition to tidal volumes > 8 ml/kg, as well as normo- or hypocapnia. A total of 17 children died. Risk factors for mortality within 28 days of admission were initial inspiratory pressure, pH, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, oxygenation index and also oxygenation index at 48 hours of mechanical ventilation. Initial inspiratory pressure was also a predictor of mechanical ventilation for periods longer than 7 days. CONCLUSION: Of the admitted children, 35.7% received mechanical ventilation for 24 h or more. Pressure ventilation modes were standard. Of the children studied, 91% had chronic functional status. There was a high incidence of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, but a lung-protective strategy was not fully implemented. Inspiratory pressure at the beginning of mechanical ventilation was a predictor of mortality within 28 days and of a longer course of mechanical ventilation.

  16. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived 6 mo. In contrast, 9.3 percent of transplanted laboratory seedlings survived 15 mo. To repopulate trees, we recommend transplanting laboratory-grown seedlings, as large as practically possible, to ...

  17. Diversity and Genetic Structure of the Mexican Endemic Epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-ASTORGA, JORGE; CRUZ-ANGÓN, ANDREA; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Andrew P. Vovides

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance...

  18. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  19. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  20. Invertebrados acuáticos asociados a la Bromelia Tillandsia turneri Baker. en un bosque altoandino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ospina María Fabiola

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Las bromelias como plantas fitotelmas mantienen una compleja cadena trófica que incluye invertebrados asociados a depósitos de agua. Se determinó la comunidad de invertebrados acuáticos de la bromelia Tillandsia turneri en un bosque altoandino en el Municipio de Chocontá, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se estudiaron 37 individuos de la bromelia ubicadas desde 0 hasta 6 m de altura, a las cuales se realizaron mediciones morfológicas, de contenido de agua y análisis fisicoquímico de esta y se colectaron los invertebrados asociados. Los órdenes mas abundantes fueron Coleóptera, Díptera y Cladócera; por medio de un análisis de similaridad de Morisita Horn se encontró que las bromelias son similares en cuanto a composición de invertebrados, por lo que se sugiere que pertenecen a un solo estrato dentro del bosque y que los procesos de ovoposición y dispersión para los grupos estudiados tienen igual probabilidad de ocurrir en las bromelias ubicadas de 0 a 6 m de altura.

  1. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. PMID:25683682

  2. Biomonitoring potential of five sympatric Tillandsia species for evaluating urban metal pollution (Cd, Hg and Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    The present study quantifies non essential heavy metals highly toxic for biological systems (Pb, Hg and Cd) in five autochthonous epiphytic plants from Tillandsia genus (T. recurvata, T. meridionalis, T. duratii, T. tricholepis, T. loliacea) according to different traffic levels (reference, low, medium and high polluted sites) in Asunción (Paraguay). The three metals increased in polluted sites following Pb (till 62.99 ppm in T. tricholepis) > Cd (till 1.35 ppm in T. recurvata) > Hg (till 0.36 ppm in T. recurvata) and Pb and Cd levels were directly related to traffic flow. Although the species showed similar bioaccumulation pattern (namely, higher levels of metals in polluted sites), enrichment factors (maximum EF values 37.00, 18.16, and 11.90 for Pb, Hg, and Cd, respectively) reported T. tricholepis as the most relevant bioindicator due to its wide distribution and abundance in study sites, low metal content in control site and high metal contents in polluted sites, and significant correlations with traffic density of Pb and Cd. This study emphasizes the necessity of biomonitoring air pollution in areas out of air monitoring control such as Asunción, where the high levels of metal pollution especially Pb, may represent an increment of risk for the human population inhabiting this urban area.

  3. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  4. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  5. The use of Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries as biomonitors of environmental pollution in Lima city, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate pollution in the city of Lima, Peru, an environmental monitoring was carried out using two species of biomonitors: Liquen Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries. Both samples were taken from an uncontaminated area to be exposed during three months in different sampling sites of the city. Then samples were collected, prepared and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, based k0 method. Results showed important contamination in East and North sites of the city coming from industrial activities and automotive vehicles emissions. (author).

  6. The Effects Of The Minimum Wage On Wages And Employment In Brazil - A Menu Of Minimum Wage Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, S.

    2004-01-01

    The international literature on minimum wage strongly lacks empirical evidence from developing countries. In Brazil, not only are increases in the minimum wage large and frequent - unlike the typically small increases focused upon in most of the existing literature - but also the minimum wage plays a central and complex role. In addition to its social role the minimum wage has been used as anti-inflationary policy, confirming its importance to the Brazilian Economy. This paper ana...

  7. Use of species of the genus Tillandsia as bio monitors of the atmospheric contamination using radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of epiphytic plants as bio monitors of environmental pollution is studied in this paper. Species of the genus Tillandsia were selected to make studies, on the one hand, using the Neutron Activation Analysis in order to make multielemental analysis to detect possible pollutants. Optimum conditions of preparation and treatment of the samples were determined to verify the elemental uptake in plant tissues. On the other hand, some studies were carried out to investigate the uptake (translocation) of possible pollutants by using radiotracers. With this aim, a conditioned area (glove box) has been developed in order to reproduce the environment of these plants. This glove box was used for studies with radiotracers. The results of the experiments with Hg as radiotracer are presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Distribution and sources of bioaccumulative air pollutants at Mezquital Valley, Mexico, as reflected by the atmospheric plant Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chang Martínez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mezquital Valley (MV, a Mexican wastewater-based agricultural and industrial region, is a ''hot spot'' of regulated air pollutants emissions, but the concurrent unregulated ones, like hazardous metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, remain undocumented. A biomonitoring survey with the epiphytic Tillandsia recurvata was conducted there to detect spatial patterns and potential sources of 20 airborne elements and 15 PAH. The natural δ13C and δ15N ratios of this plant helped in source identification. The regional mean concentrations of most elements was two (Cr to over 40 times (Ni, Pb, V higher than reported for Tillandsia in other countries. Eleven elements, pyrene and chrysene had 18–214% higher mean concentration at the industrial south than at the agricultural north of MV. The total quantified PAH (mean, 572 ng g−1; range, 142.6–2568 were composed by medium (65%, phenanthrene to chrysene, low (28%, naphthalene to fluorene and high molecular weight compounds (7%, Benzo(bfluoranthene to indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene. The δ13C (mean, −14.6‰; range, −5.7 to −13.7‰ was lower (<−15‰ near the major petroleum combustion sources. The δ15N (mean, −3.0‰; range, −9.9 to 3.3‰ varied from positive at agriculture/industrial areas to negative at rural sites. Factor analysis provided a five-factor solution for 74% of the data variance: (1 crustal rocks, 39.5% (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Sr, Ti; (2 soils, 11.3%, contrasting contributions from natural (Mg, Mn, Zn and saline agriculture soils (Na; (3 cement production and fossil fuel combustion, 9.8% (Ca, Ni, V, chrysene, pyrene; (4 probable agricultural biomass burning, 8.1% (K and benzo(g,h,iperylene, and (5 agriculture with wastewater, 5.2% (δ15N and P. These results indicated high deposition of bioaccumulative air pollutants at MV, especially at the industrial area. Since T. recurvata reflected the regional differences in exposition, it is recommended as a biomonitor for comparisons

  9. The flexibilization of employment relationships in the health sector: the reality in a Federal University Hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sheila Maria Parreira; Coelho, Maria Carlota de Rezende; Borges, Luiz Henrique; Cruz, César Albenes de Mendonça; Massaroni, Leila; Maciel, Paulete Maria Ambrósio

    2015-10-01

    This was a socio-historical study that aimed to analyze the repercussions of the flexibilization of labor relationships within a University hospital (UH) using the thematic oral history method and triangulation of sources made up of workers' statements, institutional documents and relevant literature. It was observed that flexibilization, driven by state reform in the 1990s, had a structural impact on the trajectory of this institution, that, due to government downsizing policy, adopted outsourcing to maintain staff, leading to high staff turnover, various types of conflicts, and discontinuity and lack of organization of work processes. We conclude that the flexibilization of employment relationships became a handicap for this UH, disrupting services, negatively affecting students and service users, contributing to the deterioration of working conditions and lack of protection of workers. PMID:26465847

  10. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family. PMID:27168370

  11. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch.) L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel.) L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira; Merielem Saldanha Martins; Mariane Paludette Dorneles; Cesar Carvalho de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulatio...

  12. Poluição e a densidade de vegetação: BTEX em algumas áreas públicas de Curitiba - PR, Brasil Pollution and density of vegetation: BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba - PR, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi; Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi; Roosevelt de Azevedo; Leila Teresinha Maranho

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in some public areas of Curitiba-PR, Brazil, was evaluated. Their concentrations were then related to the vegetation's density in each area. Average benzene concentrations varied from 3.9 to 6.1 μg m-3, with higher values occurring in poorly dense vegetation areas. For toluene, average concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 μg m-3. The effect of such pollutants was evaluated by means of a bio indicator, Tillandsia s...

  13. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  14. Size-dependent allocation of biomass to ancillary versus flowers of the inflorescences of the epiphyte Tillandsia stricta Soland (Bromeliaceae Influência do tamanho do corpo na alocação de biomassa em estruturas de suporte e flores da bromélia epífita Tillandsia stricta Soland. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mantovani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of resources invested in reproduction is closely correlated to plant size. However, the increase in reproductive investment is not always proportional to the increase in vegetative growth, as the proportion of plant resources allocated to reproduction can increase, decrease or be maintained along different plant sizes. Although comprising thousand of species, epiphytes are poorly studied in relation to reproductive allocation (RA. We describe the variation in the RA of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia stricta Soland with increasing plant sizes. Our goal is not only to evaluate the RA of the whole inflorescence but also quantify the contribution of ancillary structures in the final RA of this plant species. With increasing sizes of T. stricta the reproductive allocation of biomass to the whole inflorescence decreased significantly along plant sizes from 37% to 12%. Reproductive allocation to ancillary and to flowers decreased respectively from 30% to 9% and 10% to 3%. As leaves are the main source of water and nutrients absorption in atmospheric Tillandsia, the total leaf area and area per leaf were used as indicators of foraging capacity, that also increased with plant size. We discuss these results with respect to the capacity of T. stricta to reproduce in the heterogeneous environment of the canopies.A quantidade de recursos investidos na reprodução sexuada em geral é positivamente correlacionada à quantidade dos mesmos recursos investidos no corpo vegetativo da planta; porém nem sempre de forma proporcional. A proporção dos recursos da planta alocados na reprodução sexuada pode aumentar, diminuir ou se manter constante ao longo do aumento do tamanho do corpo vegetativo. Embora compreendendo milhares de espécies, as epífitas são pouco conhecidas quanto ao padrão de alocação de recursos na reprodução sexuada. Neste estudo é descrita a variação da alocação de recursos na reprodução sexuada da bromélia ep

  15. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. PMID:27357408

  16. Employing graduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittaway, Luke; Clark, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides managers in the tourism sector with guidance on the likely effects for their business of employing graduates, tourism being a sector with a currently low level of graduate employment.

  17. Employment persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischman, Charles A.; Joshua H. Gallin

    2001-01-01

    The recent U.S. expansion has provided employment experience to individuals at tail of the skill distribution. Will these opportunities bestow persistent benefits in the form of greater future employability? Using synthetic cohorts constructed from the CPS, this paper estimates the degree of persistence in cohort-level employment rates in excess of persistence in aggregate macroeconomic conditions. This approach is in some ways superior to testing for hysteresis in the aggregate unemployment ...

  18. Trabalho e emprego na educação infantil no Brasil: segmentações e desigualdades Labor and employment in early childhood education in Brazil: cleavages and inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Fraga Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se trazer resultados de pesquisa empírica sobre situações de trabalho e emprego nas instituições de educação infantil no Brasil, evidenciando o caso de Belo Horizonte, capital de Minas Gerais, que apresenta oferta em creches e pré-escolas, representativa da realidade dos grandes centros urbanos brasileiros. Efetuou-se o levantamento de fontes documentais, legislação, estatísticas, entrevistas e observações, no intuito de evidenciar as relações entre as tipologias das instituições de educação infantil e as formas de contratação, carreira, salário e condições de trabalho. As situações investigadas se referiram aos estabelecimentos de ensino público (estadual e municipal e estabelecimentos de ensino privados, segundo as categorias particular, comunitária, filantrópica e confessional. Os estabelecimentos estudados foram escolhidos, segundo amostra intencional, por localização e público preferencial atendido. Informações também foram buscadas junto aos empregadores - públicos e privados e junto às representações sindicais/associativas dos profissionais, nos setores públicos e privados. Evidenciou-se existência de profissionais com status e formação/qualificação diferenciados, bem como variadas modalidades de relações de emprego e trabalho, que revelam processo de precarização no exercício profissional na educação infantil. Segmentações no interior do setor público, e entre setor público e privado, reiteram desigualdades históricas no campo. Por outro lado, uma demanda crescente por profissionalização é observada.The present work aims at presenting results of empirical research about the situations of labor and employment in institutions of child education in Brazil, highlighting the case of Belo Horizonte, Capital city of Minas Gerais State, which offers nurseries and preschools and it is representative of Brazilian urban centers. An analysis including documental sources

  19. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  20. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de...... eksternt kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  1. Labour market of bachue Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Rato Mhc; Braganca SL

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on the labour market of Brazil - discusses theoretical aspects of labour market and labour law, effects of government's wage policy, minimum wage laws, underemployment, unemployment, labour market segmentation, labour demand and labour supply in the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, the number of self employed, labour mobility, etc. Diagram, references and statistical tables.

  2. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  3. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  4. Setor e emprego informal no Brasil: análise dos resultados da nova série do sistema de contas nacionais - 2000/07 The informal sector and informal employment in Brazil: an analysis of the results of the new series from the national account system (2000/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hallak Neto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste texto é retratar o setor informal brasileiro à luz das novas possibilidades de análise que se constituíram a partir da revisão da série do Sistema de Contas Nacionais (SCN, realizada em 2007. São apresentados os resultados referentes à geração de valor adicionado e ao número de ocupações por setor produtivo e tipo de emprego para o Brasil no período recente, considerando a metodologia revista do novo manual internacional de contas nacionais. A base de dados utilizada foi a nova série do SCN, cujo ano de referência é 2000 e os dados disponíveis compreendem os anos 2000 a 2007. Em 2007, o setor informal, que empregava 27,7% dos postos de trabalho do país, teve uma contribuição de 9,9% na geração do valor adicionado. O emprego informal como um todo, por sua vez, alcançou 56,4% das ocupações totais.The central objective of this paper is to present the informal sector in Brazil in face of new possibilities resulting from the revision of the Brazilian SNA series in 2007. The results concerning the generation of value added and the number of occupations by sector of production and type of employment for Brazil in a recent period, are presented in the study. The SNA new series database was used, where the reference year is 2000 and the available data cover the years 2000 to 2007. In the last year of the series, the informal sector, which accounts for 27.2% of jobs in the country, displayed a contribution of 9.9% in the generation of value added. In turn, informal employment as a whole reached 56.4% of total employment.

  5. Science employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    Rapid growth in private sector high-technology companies coupled with the expected unprecedented U.S. peacetime defense buildup paint an optimistic picture for future employment in scientific and engineering fields, according to forecasts by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Between 1982 and 1987, up to nearly 750,000 new positions will be created in scientific, engineering, or technical fields, a new NSF report states. By 1987 these occupations will account for 4 million jobs, or 3.5% of the total U.S. work force. New positions in the earth sciences are predicted to increase about 2% per year.

  6. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  7. The effects of adult literacy on earnings and employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro; Rocha, Maúna Soares de Baldini

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides evidence of the effects of adult literacy on individuals’ income and employability in Brazil based on information obtained from the monthly employment survey (PME). The OLS results indicate that after controlling for observable characteristics, there is a 21.25% increase in wages for individuals who become literate; however, there is no significant impact on employability. Moreover, the findings show an 8.1% increase in the probability of being employed in the formal secto...

  8. Brazil; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure investment in Brazil. Brazil has inferior overall infrastructure quality relative to almost all its export competitors. Brazil’s infrastructure endowment ranks low by international standards, and its low quality affects productivity, market efficiency, and competitiveness. Areas in which Brazil’s competitiveness has lagged include, but are not limited to, education, innovation, governance, and justice. Brazil’s infrastructure gap has be...

  9. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  10. The Effects of Adult Literacy on Earnings and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauna Soares de Baldini; Ponczek, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides evidence of the effects of adult literacy on individuals' income and employability in Brazil based on information obtained from the monthly employment survey (PME). The OLS results indicate that after controlling for observable characteristics, there is a 21.25% increase in wages for individuals who become literate; however,…

  11. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  12. EMPLOYERS EXPECTATIONS AND STUDENTS EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sudha;

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the increased competition and rapid changing economy, entry and survival of graduates in industries is tougher than ever before. The employers' expectations are changing day by day and graduates have to obtain new skills for their sustainability. Mere academic skill alone will not help the graduates for better employment. Due to lack of employability skills graduates are not employable even though there are opportunities. In this study an attempt is made to find out the organiz...

  13. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  14. Employer's investments in hospital workers' employability and employment opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, E.J.; Knies, E.; Leisink, P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employer’s investments (through job characteristics and managerial support) and employees’ employment opportunities, with employability, conceptualized as perceived up-to-date expertise and willingness to change, as a mediati

  15. Employment Polarization and Immigrant Employment Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Wielandt, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Building on the task-based approach of technological change, this paper discusses the interaction between occupational polarization (e.g. a gradual increase of native employment in the lowest and highest-paying jobs) and employment opportunities of immigrant workers. Using high quality administrative data for Germany, I first show that technological change is positively related to employment growth of natives in low-paying occupations that are also typically held by immigrant workers. In...

  16. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  17. Employability-miles and worker employability awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, R.; Grip, A. de; Witlox, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the use and impact of a firm-sponsored training ("Employability-miles") voucher scheme that aims to stimulate employees to develop a more active attitude toward their own employability. Using data from two surveys of the firm's workforce, we find that voucher use is related to various personality traits and personal characteristics. In particular, a worker's ambition, goal setting, and education level are positively related to voucher use. In addition, women and those wit...

  18. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  19. Modeling Pay and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunberg, Barbara; Green, Amanda; Reid, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Bank support for civil service reform (CSR) in developing countries used to focus mainly on improving government pay, and employment practices. In recent years, CSR programs have sought a broader set of management improvements. But getting public pay and employment right is still fundamental: establishing appropriate civil service employment dimensions, and providing rewarding-but affordab...

  20. Youth and Employment among the BRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Guerreiro Osorio; Pedro Lara de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    ?Come and Hope with Me!? This was the rallying call by South African Mongane Serote to draw the world?s attention to the battle fought by his people against Apartheid. It is in this spirit that we invite readers to explore this special edition of Policy in Focus. This issue is dedicated to the analysis of the usage of social programmes to promote youth employment in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries. In light of the 2014 BRICS Academic Forum, which will offic...

  1. Diversidade de bromeliáceas epífitas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, Belém, Pará, Brasil Diversity of epiphytic bromeliads in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa Quaresma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a diversidade no nível de espécie oferecem subsídios importantes para o desenvolvimento sustentável e a conservação biológica. Neste contexto, estudos com Bromeliaceae merecem destaque, especialmente porque o grupo é importante ecologicamente, mas ainda pouco conhecido na Região Norte. Neste trabalho, foram demarcadas duas parcelas de 100 m x 100 m em uma floresta de várzea localizada na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, em Belém, Estado do Pará. Cada parcela foi subdividida em oito parcelas de 50 m x 50 m, tendo todas as espécies e espécimes de bromeliáceas epífitas registradas e quantificadas. A diversidade do grupo foi calculada utilizando o índice de Shannon-Wiener. Foram registrados 1.339 indivíduos pertencentes a oito espécies e quatro gêneros. Tillandsia e Aechmea apresentaram maior riqueza. A diversidade de espécies na área foi de H= 1,10, apresentando dominância acentuada de muitos indivíduos em poucas espécies.Information about diversity at the species level offers data for sustainable development and biological conservation. In this context, studies about Bromeliaceae are noteworthy, especially because this group is ecologically important and poorly known in the North Region of Brazil. In this study, two grids (100 m x 100 m were delineated in a floodplain forest in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The grids were subdivided into eight grids of 50 m x 50 m, and all species and individuals of epiphytic Bromeliaceae were recorded and quantified. The diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener index. A total of 1,339 individuals, belonging to eight species and four genera were recorded. Tillandsia and Aechmea presented the greatest richness. The diversity of species was H= 1.10, presenting sharp dominance of many individuals of few species.

  2. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  3. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  4. Bromeliáceas notables de colombia, iii

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lyman B.

    2012-01-01

    Aechmea (Platyaechmea) anómala / Greigia excerta / Guzmania coriostachya / Guzmania cryptantha / Guzmania gloriosa / Pitcairnia alborubra / Pitcairnia bella / Pitcairnia oblanceolata / Pitcairnia Schultzei / Pitcairnia semaphora / Tillandsia chontalensis / Tillandsia disticha / Tillandsia excavata / Tillandsia Funckiana / Tillandsia Gardneri / Tillandsia (Platystachys) mima / Tillandsia rectiflora

  5. Disability employment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mont, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series aimed at analyzing disability employment policy, and developing recommendations for policy reform in middle income countries. As the first paper in this series, this study provides a general overview of the relationship between disability and employment, focusing primarily on disability employment policies in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. It discusses how well these policies address the dual functions of integration...

  6. Assessing employment in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Aaron George

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the total number of employed and the full-time equivalent employment in Malta are estimated for the last three decades. These series give a new picture of the historical development of employment and productivity in Malta. The estimated full-time equivalent time series, in spite of its limitations, is a first step on the way towards a comprehensive statistical measure of labour input in Malta

  7. Deficiency of employability capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.

    2012-01-01

    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  8. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all current outside employment held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officers) approved by the Ethics Commission....

  9. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  10. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  11. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Reigosa; Anabele Stefânia Gomes; Alfredo Gui Ferreira; Fabian Borghetti

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a so...

  12. Employment of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Robert A., Comp.

    This document presents Pennsylvania guidelines for interpreting child labor legislation. In Section I employment certification of minors under the child labor law, the school laws of Pennsylvania, and the federal law are discussed. In Section II the issuing officers responsible for issuing employment certificates are identified, procedures for…

  13. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country's nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country's economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U3O8 (100 thousand pounds). Brazil's state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U3O8 (600 million pounds U3O8) in reserves

  14. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present an employer's view of the recent trends in occupational radiation exposure and discuss their implications as to the effectiveness of the existing system of radiation protection. Future needs are considered from the perspective of those employers operating in a global context. The general conclusions do not support major changes, but a change in emphasis and presentation to give greater clarity for the benefit of all stakeholders. The views presented are derived from discussions within industry, but do not represent the views of any particular employer

  15. Policy Debate | Education and Employment Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mourshed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: These papers are contributions to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by McKinsey’s research team, the initial paper addresses the Education to Employment challenge. It is based on McKinsey’s study, which looked at skill development in 25 different countries and investigated education-to-employment initiatives. The authors claim that the most successful efforts are those where different stakeholders interact intensively and frequently. Employers need to get involved in education, and educators should play a bigger role in employment.The paper is followed by critical comments by two authors, Beatriz Cardoso, Executive Director of Laboratório de Educação, Brazil, and Shailaja Fennell lecturer at the Centre of Development Studies, University of Cambridge, UK.This debate can be pursued on the Journal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/423.

  16. Retail Employment Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Robert Walters, one of the world’s leading professional specialist recruitment consultancies, has recently released a report on employment opportunities in China’s consumer goods retail industry in the first half of this year. Excerpts follow:

  17. Employer's liability for damage

    OpenAIRE

    Baštýřová, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse and clarify in detail the issue of liability for damage in Labour law with focus on liability for damage of employer. At first the thesis defines conception of liability and liability in Labour law in general. The thesis also deals with characteristic features, functions and prevention of liability for damage in Labour law as well. The main part is devoted to liability for damage of employer with regards to judicial decision. It explains gener...

  18. English for Employability: India

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Gore, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper situates the issue of employability skills in India in relation to the world economic changes and their impact on the job market. An overview of the last decade's government policies shows numerous initiatives trying to address the skills gap. In 2013, large scale India-based employability studies started to show the criticality of the skills situation in the Indian upcoming workforce (Wheebox 2013, Aspiring Minds 2014). This summary from the latest reports has been frequently quot...

  19. International Production and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Anca-Mihaela TEAU; Cristina Elena PROTOPOPESCU

    2013-01-01

    The present article analyses the impact of an integrated international production system on the quantity and quality of employment, human resource development and, more generally, to the organization of work. As created assets have become more and more important in international competitiveness, employment effects (e.g., human resource development, industrial relations) associated with transnational corporations are of great interest to all host countries, in particular developing countries.

  20. Employability through covenants

    OpenAIRE

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    How can a sustainable employment insurance system be guaranteed as a major element of the ESM? First a summary overview of the Lisbon targets and their impact on the policies of and in the member states of the European Union is given. Then follow data and problems associated with the target of enhancing employability by means of pushing continuous vocational training (CVT). Next, some Dutch experiences are sketched with covenants, and point to critical success factors. The contribution elabor...

  1. Employment by Lotto Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Bettina; Klijn, Flip

    2006-01-01

    We study employment by lotto (Aldershof et al., 1999), a procedurally fair matching algorithm for the so-called stable marriage problem. We complement Aldershof et al.'s (1999) analysis in two ways. First, we give an alternative and intuitive description of employment by lotto in terms of a probabilistic serial dictatorship on the set of stable matchings. Second, we show that Aldershof et al.'s (1999) conjectures are correct for small matching markets but not necessarily correct for large mat...

  2. Informal Employment in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maligalig, Dalisay; Cuevas, Sining; Rosario, Aleli

    2009-01-01

    The paper developed a methodology for classifying workers into formal and informal employment using the 2005 Bangladesh Labor Force Survey (LFS). Although the 2005 LFS was not designed to collect data for this purpose, it included questions that can be used to determine whether workers are engaged in formal or informal employment. However, the process of identifying the combination of questions that could distinguish between formal and informal workers was hampered by data inconsistencies tha...

  3. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  4. Racial Discrimination in the Brazilian Labor Market: Wage, Employment and Segregation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Béatrice D'Hombres; Jean-Louis ARCAND

    2003-01-01

    The social science literature has done much to document pervasive racial discrimination in Brazil and there is little doubt that a very dark color is a handicap to social advancement. Nevertheless, very few empirical economic studies have attempted to quantify the impact of ethnic discrimination in Brazil. Using data culled from the Pesquisa National por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), this paper fills this void by analysing ethnic wage and employment gaps, as well as occupational segregation i...

  5. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  6. Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members

  7. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  8. Graduates and initial employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon, Sharon Elizabeth; Rolleston, Anna; Mackie, Joan

    2008-07-01

    This research project was undertaken to inform nurse educators in the Department of Nursing and Health Studies of Manukau Institute of Technology of the employment opportunities for new graduate nurses emerging from the three year degree and registration programme. The research study aimed to contribute evidence for informed discussion when issues around curriculum development arose, particularly those issues that affect employment success of graduates. A literature review was undertaken of local and international studies and this highlighted a number of studies that examined the experience of new graduates in employment. There was however little evidence that studies had focused on the experiences of graduates as they initially sought employment or their perceptions of how their ability to successfully gain employment was linked to the nursing programme they were exiting from. The data collection tool was a survey consisting of a number of closed questions which required respondents to indicate the option most closely fitting their experience. Analysis of these results was undertaken using SPSS. The last section of the survey invited respondents to comment on any aspect of the focus of the study and qualitative analysis was undertaken of these comments. Graduates from the programme for the previous three years were targeted and names and addresses were available from departmental and institute databases. The research was submitted to the MIT Research and Ethics Committee who stated that the project did not require ethical approval as a retrospective, anonymous survey. 89.8% of graduates across the three years were successful in gaining employment in the first three months post registration. The number of graduates employed within a District Health Board (DHB) declined across the three years but there were no significant differences between cohorts. Overall, 73% of graduates were employed into new graduate positions. The majority of graduates felt that their

  9. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  10. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review......, it becomes possible to specify employment relations parameters between the indirect and direct employer and employees in a manner that will ensure working conditions consistent with these traditions, substantially enhancing the prospect of authenticity in employment relations. This theology of the workplace...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  11. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  12. Cooperation between employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidance is given on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organisation have the potential to expose to ionising radiation the employees of another. One of the Regulations of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. OWRs give more detailed requirements for the performance of the duties where one employers' classified employee works in another employer's controlled area. This document explains the separate responsibilities of site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required, and gives guidance on how it can be achieved. It also gives guidance to nuclear site licence holders regarding their duties under IRR 85 in such circumstances. (Author)

  13. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  14. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  15. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  16. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications of...

  17. Employer-to-Employer Flows in the United States: Estimates Using Linked Employer-Employee Data

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Bjelland; Bruce Fallick; John Haltiwanger; Erika McEntarfer

    2008-01-01

    We use administrative data linking workers and firms to study employer-to-employer flows. After discussing how to identify such flows in quarterly data, we investigate their basic empirical patterns. We find that the pace of employer-to-employer flows is high, representing about 4 percent of employment and 30 percent of separations each quarter. The pace of employer-to-employer flows is highly procyclical, and varies systematically across worker, job and employer characteristics. Our findings...

  18. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  19. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia

  20. Employer Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  1. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  2. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  3. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  4. Competing with Your Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    Eleventh in a series featuring the 22 principles of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Code of Ethics, this article presents a scenario: A training consultant decides to start his own company and convince 5 of his employers's clients to contract with him. Suggests that the complex ethical issues involved warrant seeking…

  5. Employment without Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less...

  6. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  7. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen;

    2011-01-01

    employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  8. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen;

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark, the...

  9. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  10. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  11. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  12. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  13. EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIEL CLAUDIU MURSA

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses the relationship between the education degree of the working force and employment. The recent studies show that the major causes of the contemporary unemployment constitute the absence of knowledge, aptitudes, qualifications supposed by the dynamics of the modern economic system. The work demonstrates that the education gathers a more and more important economic value because of the increase in the complexity of the productive process imposed by the necessity to provide a...

  14. The concept of employability

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald W.; Lindsay, Colin Dale

    2005-01-01

    The concept of ‘employability’ plays a crucial role in informing labour market policy in the UK, the EU and beyond. This paper analyses current and previous applications of the term and discusses its value as an exploratory concept and a framework for policy analysis. It then traces the development of the concept, discusses its role in current labour market and training strategies (with particular reference to the UK) and seeks to identify an approach to defining employability that can better...

  15. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Minh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students’ core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how differences in levels of competencies which are expected to outperform the job expectations and competencies possessed by ex-students, and any differences in...

  16. Protection against employment claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, R P; Pendrak, R F

    1998-01-01

    Risk managers already deal with a great many issues in today's complex, managed-care driven, healthcare environment. Now they must add expertise in handling ever more complicated employment issues. This article addresses areas risk managers need to both know and understand concerning this area of law, and some steps they can take to minimize loss or provide for insurance protection for any loss. PMID:10176547

  17. Exclusion, employment and opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Tony; Hills, John

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between employment, education, opportunity, social exclusion and poverty are central to current policy debates. Atkinson argues that the concepts of poverty, unemployment and social exclusion are closely related, but are not the same. People may be poor without being socially excluded, and vice versa. Unemployment may cause poverty, but this can be prevented. Equally, marginal jobs do not ensure social inclusion. Britton argues that convential economic analysis misses a key ...

  18. Employment without Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less work over more income and consumption. Lower work input to production can take many differnet forms, such as job sharing, lowering production efficiency, reduction in labor force, etc. In this light...

  19. Are Franchises Bad Employers?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cappelli; Monika Hamori

    2007-01-01

    Franchise jobs are often viewed as epitomizing a “low-road†employee-management approach characterized by high turnover and several practices that are deemed unsophisticated, such as low investment in training, deskilling of work, and little encouragement of employee involvement. Research on franchise operations suggests, however, that the basic operating principles and practices of franchises tend to be more sophisticated than those of equivalent independent operators. Might their employe...

  20. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  1. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  2. Incapacity benefits and employment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Jonathan Michael; Snower, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the employment implications of allowing people the opportunity of using a portion of their incapacity benefits to provide employment vouchers for employers that hire them. The analysis indicates that introducing this policy could increase employment, raise the incomes of incapacity benefit recipients, and reduce employers? labor costs. The analysis explicitly derives the optimal voucher, i.e. the voucher that maximizes employment at no extra budgetary cost. This voucher is ...

  3. Environmental and Social Accounting for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmentally extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) has been constructed for Brazil for the first time. We review in detail previous studies in this field, describe the construction, structure and data sources of the Brazilian SAM, and demonstrate the effect of system closure. Examining a range of type-I and type-II multipliers, we show that incomes generated by final consumption are highly skewed towards rich households, but energy requirements and carbon emissions are higher for the consumption of the poor. A significant negative correlation exists between employment and income on one hand, and energy requirements and carbon emissions on the other, while a significant positive correlation exists between imports, and energy and carbon. These correlations demonstrate that there is scope for policies that pursue imports substitution and reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions whilst increasing employment and income

  4. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  5. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer, employee, and employ. 779.19 Section 779.19 Labor... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.19 Employer, employee, and employ. The Act's major provisions impose certain requirements and prohibitions on every “employer” subject...

  6. [The health system of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde. PMID:21877078

  7. EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the Lisbon Agenda, the Romanian Government drew up the National Programme for Reform for 2007-2010, which established national priorities, and ways and tools to achieve economic reform and growth. Transition in Romania implied a complex and extensive system of regulations and institutions for stimulating employment and creating a flexible system of social protection. The new regulations were focused on harmonisation with the Community labour law. Increasing investment in human capital is essential for a competitive and dynamic economy. Besides, labour market policies were formulated for correcting labour market imbalances.

  8. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  9. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L.

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  10. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  11. Drought Preparedness in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ana Paula A.; Engle, Nathan L.; De Nys, Erwin; Molejón, Carmen; Sávio Martins, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Large portions of Brazil's Northeast have experienced an intense and prolonged drought for the majority of 2010–2013. This drought, along with other droughts that have hit the South in recent years, has sparked a new round of discussions to improve drought policy and management at the federal and state levels. To assist with these efforts, the World Bank recently conducted a series of evaluations on national and sub-national drought preparedness measures and approaches across five country cas...

  12. Brazil: Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues Paper discusses the macroeconomic implications of pension reforms in Brazil. It assesses empirically the relationship between fiscal policy and the real effective exchange rate in emerging markets and draws policy implications. It reviews the current status of local capital markets in the country, the key challenges, and policy options for further development. The paper also provides a detailed description of consumer credit developments and analyzes recent indicators of ...

  13. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  14. Dependent self-employment: workers between employment and self-employment in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Mühlberger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    "Analysing the British Labour Force Survey, we highlight that dependent self-employed workers constitute a group distinct from both employees and independent self-employed workers in the labour market group. Dependent self-employed workers show characteristics of a more volatile labour market attachment than employed or self-employed workers. We provide empirical evidence that dependent self-employed workers are rather pushed than pulled into this labour market status, making dependent self-e...

  15. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  16. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  17. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  18. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  19. Employer Support for Employee Voluntarism

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Constantine

    1999-01-01

    This study uses the microdata from the 1997 National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (NSGVP) and from a comparable survey for 1987 to answer a number of key questions pertaining to the role of employers in support of employee voluntarism: (a) How extensive is employer support? (b) How has employer support change over the last 10 years? (c) What organizations or activities do employer support the most? (d) How employer support affects employee volunteers?

  20. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and sheltered employment. This chapter describes the various instruments supporting employment of disabled people applied in the EU Member States and the USA. Their effectiveness is assessed, based on...

  1. Employment patterns in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nickell, Stephen; Nunziata, Luca

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of labour demand and the determinants of employment rates across the OECD. We find: (i) labour demand adjusts less rapidly when employment protection is more strict and union density is higher; (ii) there is no evidence that overall job turnover is influenced by employment protection; (iii) union density and coverage are negatively related to employment/population ratios, although this effect can be entirely offset by coordination; (iv) strict employment protec...

  2. Rural employment in industrialised countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, John Marshall; Bollman, Ray D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the recent changes in rural employment in the OECD countries, highlighting the growing role of employment in services and, in some cases, manufacturing activity. In many, but not all, rural areas the secular decline in agricultural employment has been more than counterbalanced by growing employment in these other sectors. However, the diversity of employment growth within and between rural areas is stressed, as are the implications of this diversity for policy. A range of ...

  3. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  4. A note on inflation targeting and economic growth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Libânio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relation between monetary policy and economic performance in Brazil during the period 1999-2006. In particular, it discusses the growth effects of the inflation targeting regime through its effects on aggregate demand. It is argued that monetary policy under IT reacts in a procyclical and asymmetric way to fluctuations in economic activity (too "tight" during recessions, not so "loose" during expansions. Such pattern may generate a downward bias in aggregate demand, with negative real effects on output growth and employment. Our results suggest that monetary policy has been procyclical and asymmetrical in Brazil under inflation targeting. The main economic policy implication of this study is that central banks should consider more seriously the real effects of monetary policy on output and employment.

  5. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  6. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  7. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  8. The Employment Impact of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Paul W.; Register, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the macro employment effects of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act as amended. The results indicate mixed effects on the legislation on older workers and workers of traditional retirement age.

  9. Astronomy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  10. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  11. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  12. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  13. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP About ODEP ... State Policy Youth in Transition Publications for Order Disability Statistics August 2016 Disability Employment Statistics Ages 16 ...

  14. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards of...

  15. Employability: wat beweegt de werknemer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luken, T.

    2003-01-01

    Dit artikel biedt een samenvatting van twee onderzoeksrapporten: een algemeen literatuuronderzoek rond employability en interviews bij een aantal bedrijven in de Metalektro. Hoofdvragen waren: hoe staat het met de employability? En hoe kan deze bevorderd worden?

  16. Single-employer pension plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  17. Performance of Local Employment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hanell, Tomas; Persson, Lars Olof

    2003-01-01

    At the national level the employment system consists of the set of institutions, and policies affecting institutions, which together moderate the level of production, employment and unemployment in the country (Schmid, G. & Gazier, B. eds. 2002. The Dynamics of Full Employment. Edward Elgar). These institutions include employment legislation, taxation policy and the education and training systems. However, the dynamics and the complexity of the national labour markets could only be understood...

  18. Employer Training Needs in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Woodbury

    1992-01-01

    The Survey of Employer Training Needs in Hawaii was undertaken to gather information and data on the needs and preferences of employers in Hawaii regarding government assistance with training. The need for such information was created by passage of Act 68, Session Laws of Hawaii 1991, which created the Hawaii Employment and Training Fund "to assist employers and workers through innovative programs to include, but not be limited to, business-specific training, upgrade training, new occupationa...

  19. Employability of nursing care graduates:

    OpenAIRE

    Donik Barbara; Pajnkihar Majda; Bernik Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students and employers point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between th...

  20. Ethnic minority self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, ethnic minority groups are over-represented in self-employment compared with the majority community. The kind of work done by minority entrepreneurs can therefore be an important driver of the economic well-being of their ethnic group. Furthermore, growing the self-employment sector is a policy objective for many governments, which see it as a source of innovation, economic growth, and employment. While self-employment might offer economic opportunities to minority groups, ...

  1. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  2. Waste management in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management policies set up in developed countries have in general been used by other countries with less experience in the nuclear field as the basis for developing waste disposal rules or guidelines according to their particular political, social and economic conditions. The waste management question became a main concern in Brazil during the licensing period of the Angra I nuclear power plant and the other fuel cycle facilities envisaged under the Agreement between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany. Before the Angra I licensing period, all final waste products arising from nuclear activities were released into the environment because their radioactive levels were below the standard limits. The Research, Development and Demonstration (RDD) Project initiated by the National Nuclear Energy Commission has the purpose to provide information that may contribute to the formulation of recommendations for a waste disposal policy, as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of the Brazilian waste disposal concept. The paper briefly describes the waste management policy in some countries, their contributions to the studies carried out in the RDD Project, and the recommendations and mechanisms for implementing the waste management proposal, and presents general information concerning the Brazilian repository concept. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  3. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  4. [Blood regulation in Brazil: contextualization for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Júnior, João Batista; Costa, Christiane da Silva; Baccara, João Paulo de Araújo

    2015-10-01

    The use of blood products as essential medicines and the recognition of the high risk associated with blood transfusions require governments to take regulatory action with a focus on quality and safety. In this scenario, regulatory agencies play an essential role in socially advancing the guarantee that blood components will be produced according to current operating rules. Thus, in the effort to manage sanitary risks involved in the processing and use of blood, the Brazilian regulatory model, based on the construction of a national blood policy overseen by the State, has undergone conceptual improvement and review of the tools employed to achieve its goals. With the inclusion of good manufacturing practices as part of the Brazilian norms, as recommended by the World Health Organization, the country has moved forward in its view of blood facilities as manufacturing centers producing blood-derived biologics for therapeutic applications. It has also strengthened the need to develop safety mechanisms for blood donors and recipients. The development of a State-coordinated national blood policy and the institution of a national surveillance system with legitimate power of inspection are essential elements used in Brazil to guarantee the amount, quality, safety, and timeliness of blood supply to the population. The present article aims to discuss the present context of the blood regulatory model in Brazil so as to identify the challenges for improvement of this model. PMID:26758225

  5. Labelling and Packaging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Tania M; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Brazil is the largest country in South America, with an area of 8 547 403.5 square kilometres and a population of 169 799 170 (IBGE, 2000). Its geopolitical structure com-prises 26 states and one Federal District, the capital of Brazil, Brasilia. Each state is divided into municipalities, of which there are a total of 5 507. The primary causes of death in Brazil are cardiovascular diseases and cancer and their major risk factor is tobacco use. Lung cancer is the...

  6. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth. It...... reviews the theoretical rationale, presents the growth patterns in GSDP and employment, and estimates the employment-productivity components of GSDP growth per capita using the Shapley decomposition analysis. The results show that Punjab has slipped in terms of GSDP per capita over this period but...... structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out to be...

  7. Biomass gasification: A demonstration in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine (BIG-GT) cycles offer considerable opportunities for improved efficiency in biomass power systems. As a result of international collaboration, a full-scale plant in Brazil will be the first commercial scale demonstration plant to utilise this system. The project, if successful, will lead to the commercial development of highly efficient, relatively easily installed biomass energy plants. The global implications could be significant, with biomass possibly contributing to power supplies in a scale similar to nuclear and hydro by the mid 21st century. It could provide a basis for rural development and employment in developing countries, and utilization of excess crop land in the industrial world

  8. Beyond Lifetime Employment: Re-fabricating Japan's Employment Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Matanle, P

    2006-01-01

    Japanese working cultures have for many decades been dominated by the so-called system of lifetime employment in large organizations. Although the proportion of the working population employed under this system is often in dispute,1 it dominates the employment horizon. Moreover, the system radiates out beyond the boundaries of the Japanese firm. For example, it is the system to which the secondary and higher education systems are geared and towards which Japan's most academically successful s...

  9. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Gao; Lunqu Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on ...

  10. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  11. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  12. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  13. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  14. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  15. Automobile Pollution Control in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Ferraz; Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have been rapidly increasing in the major urban areas of Brazil caused mainly by the increasing use of vehicles. In the presence of this negative externality, environmental regulation is required. Car emission control policies in Brazil have relied basically on mandatory emission standards and subsidies for specific cleaner technology resulting in substantial decrease of car emission rates. Nevertheless, car sale taxes, differentiated by vehicles’ size and fuel, h...

  16. Employability und WerkerInnen

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Diese qualitative Studie untersucht das Employabilitykonzept am Beispiel von Werkern eines deutschen Werkes eines deutschen Automobilherstellers. Ihre Wahrnehmung des Konzepts Employability und die Hintergründe dieser Wahrnehmung sind im Fokus. Einem triangulativen Ansatz folgend wird weiterhin die Perspektive betrieblicher Vertreter auf das Konzept Employability erhoben. Es werden zudem betriebliche Prozesse und Strukturen erhoben, die als bedeutsam für auf Employability bezogene Wahrnehmung...

  17. Wage Bargaining and Employer Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Falch, Torberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares union wage bargaining outcomes across different types of employers. Five different employer objectives are discussed; profit–, welfare– and output maximization, and two specifications of a Leviathan. The model shows that the ordering of the union wage level across employer types depends on the functional form of product demand. With constant elasticity of product demand, the wage tends to be lowest in the output maximization case, while with a linear product demand, the wa...

  18. Employment in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Forni, Lorenzo; Giordano, Raffaela

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model of wage-employment determination in private and public sectors, which allows us to analyze the effects of different institutional arrangements on labor market equilibria. In particular, it focuses on how different degrees of coordination in decision processes affect hiring and wage setting outcomes. Cooperation in unions’ behavior results in wage increases and employment reduction in the private sector, whereas it induces wage moderation and employment expansion in...

  19. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Šlaus; Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of populati...

  20. Should firms employ personalized pricing?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments in information technology (IT) have enabled firms to employ personalized pricing. Should all firms employ personalized pricing even though the adaptation costs of such pricing strategies are not high? This paper theoretically demonstrates a situation in which all firms do not always employ personalized pricing even though the fixed costs to do so is zero. The model is based on those of Thisse and Vives (1988) and Shaffer and Zhang (2002). Our model incorporates the fac...

  1. Unions and Equal Employment Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. Leonard

    1984-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in the growth of minority and female employment between union and non-union manufacturing plants in California during the late 1970's, In this sector, unionized plants do not exhibit anymore gross employment discrimination than do nonunion plants against black or Hispanic men, or against black or white women, despite ther ecessions of the 1970's that displaced low seniority workers. Black males actually enjoy faster growth of employment share in unionized plant...

  2. Illegal Drug Use and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between employment and the use of marijuana and cocaine for males in National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 1984 and 1988. Previous studies yielding mixed evidence may have inadequately accounted for the simultaneity between drug consumption and employment. I implement an instrumental variable procedure that identifies drug use with variables that are empirically unrelated to employment, including the regional cocaine price and a state marij...

  3. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  4. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  5. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  6. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore, this...... paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance and...... positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  7. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems that the...... employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over...

  8. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  9. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  10. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  11. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  12. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  13. Employment-Related Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  14. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  15. Other Forms of Employment: Temporary Employment Agencies and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Wadensjö, Eskil; Andersson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the majority of employed people are full-time employees with a non-temporary job and work at a workplace of the company in which they are employed. They are making careers at the employer they are employed by and most work-place changes are to other jobs of the same type. But it does not include large groups in the labour market. Many of those who have tenured positions work part-time, not full-time, and many both full-time and part-time workers have fixed-per...

  16. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  17. Medicinal compositae from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The family Compositae is one of the largest in the plant kingdom. Several species are used in popular medicin. Thus, the leaf extract of Calea pinnatifida Banks, known as aruca, is employed in the treatment of amoebiasis. A chemical study is carried out in order to discover the active principles of the species. (Author)

  18. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  19. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  20. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  1. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:12288109

  2. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  3. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  4. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  5. Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer and the Ethnic Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Magnus; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minorities have lower wages compared to the ethnic majority in most EU-countries. However, to what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. This study sets out to examine what role prejudice play in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe's most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer. O...

  6. Greater Springfield employment challenges: findings of employer survey and interviews

    OpenAIRE

    David Plasse; Marques Benton; Lynn E. Browne; Prabal Chakrabarti; DeAnna Green; Yolanda Kodrzycki; Ana Patricia Muñoz; Richard Walker; Bo Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from in-depth interviews and a survey of employers in the Greater Springfield area regarding (a) employment opportunities for entry-level workers with limited skills and (b) barriers that residents of Springfield's low-income neighborhoods face in accessing these jobs. The survey and interviews indicate that entry-level jobs that do not require college are available in the Springfield area. However, even entry-level jobs require the ability to perform a variet...

  7. Essays on Municipal Public Finance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Rachel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies local public finance in Brazil, with a focus on how federal and state government policies affect local spending and revenue generation. In Chapter I, I provide a descriptive analysis of local public finance in Brazil, with a focus on local revenue generation. In addition to describing the system of public finance in Brazil from a municipal perspective, I discuss the major challenges facing local governments in Brazil and in other low and middle income countries and ...

  8. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  9. The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of reforestation in Brazil and makes an evaluation of federal government policies used to stimulate that activity. Despite the huge increase of reforestation areas in Brazil since the 1970s, what put up Brazil as the sixth large country with reforested areas, a scarcity of roundwood from reforested areas is happing in that country during the first decade of the 21st century. Federal government implemented three programs to foster the reforestation in Brazil d...

  10. 29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... employment relationship with a different employer. A determination of whether the employment by the employers... the employee by the other joint employer or employers. 4 Walling v. Friend, et al., 156 F. 2d 429...

  11. Regional development - rural employment opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.

  12. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  13. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  14. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil

  15. 45 CFR 400.76 - Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment services, participation in employability service programs, and acceptance of appropriate offers of... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment General Requirements § 400.76 Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability...

  16. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  17. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RSS Email Share Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS) Menu About VETS Who We Are & What We ... VETERANS SERVICE PROVIDERS TRANSITIONING SERVICE MEMBERS WOMEN VETERANS VETS NEWS & BLOG September 2, 2016 Veteran Unemployment Continues ...

  18. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  19. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  20. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  1. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  2. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  3. Employment and hours of work

    OpenAIRE

    Kudoh, Noritaka; Sasaki, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model of the labor market in which the degree of substitution between employment and hours of work is determined as part of a search equilibrium. Each firm chooses its demand for working hours and number of vacancies, and the earnings profile is determined by Nash bargaining. The earnings profile is generally nonlinear in hours of work, and defines the trade-off between employment and hours of work. Concave production technology induces firms to overemploy and, a...

  4. Pension investments in employer stock

    OpenAIRE

    Even, William E.; David A. MacPherson

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of a pension fund investing in the stock of the sponsoring firm. Using a merger of data on pension asset holdings from IRS Form 5500 filings and financial data on the company's stock from CRSP, two broad questions are addressed: First, what factors influence the extent of a pension fund's investments in the employer's stock? Second, when a pension invests in the employer's stock, how much is lost as a result of poor diversification? The empirical results s...

  5. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - RURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-01-01

    The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...

  6. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  7. Employer branding - Living the brand

    OpenAIRE

    Rebrovic, Luna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study aims to link the body of knowledge on employer branding with the concept of organizational identity. Given the power of potentially instructing and directing organizational members, employer branding is not only seen as a marketing tool but also as a tool for forming and expressing key values of an organization (Alvesson, 2009; Kärreman and Rylander, 2008:103). The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between an employee and an organization's b...

  8. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José

    1997-01-01

    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  9. Graduate employability in transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bydanova, Elisaveta

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses higher education graduates' employability in Russia. We seek to find out what demands are placed on graduates by the modern labour market in Russia, in order to know how higher education should perform to prepare the employable professional. The transition from the communist economy to a labour market one generated important transformations on graduate labour market. A quasi-total abolition of the public regulating mechanisms in study to work transition, changes in social...

  10. Domestic Violence, Employment, and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Audra Bowlus; Shannon Seitz

    2005-01-01

    Using unique, representative data on domestic violence, we document several stylized facts on abuse: the average characteristics of abused wives and abusive husbands are markedly different than the characteristics of individuals in non-violent marriages, the vast majority of violent marriages end in divorce, and employment rates are lower for women who experience abuse. We then construct a sequential model of employment, marriage and abuse. The results indicate abuse is the primary factor in ...

  11. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  12. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  13. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)

  14. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  15. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  16. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  17. Consumers' healthcare rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M J

    1996-01-01

    In many countries the rights of patients and consumers of health services are gaining ground and becoming law. As elsewhere, consumers in Brazil are becoming increasingly knowledgeable and demanding respect for their rights. Yet many Brazilian health services--public and private--are still reluctant to accept public evaluation and criticism. But with Brazil's new consumer's code the stage is set for a more active role of patients in their health decisions and for nurses and health professionals to acquiesce to consumers' dissatisfaction and respond with improved professional performance. PMID:8894838

  18. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  19. Employment profiles in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L

    1997-01-01

    Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may

  20. Europlat Employability Survey: Core findings and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek Stanislav; Mareš Jan; Neusar Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents the core findings of the Europlat employability survey focusing on employability issues related to the post-Bologna transformations of psychology study programmes across the European Union. The objectives of the survey were to find out: (1) how relevant the employability/employment issue is; (2) what the current problems are in the employability/employment area; and (3) to explore the best practices in dealing with employability/employment issues. Findings cover both the nation...

  1. 49 CFR 382.411 - Employer notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer notifications. 382.411 Section 382.411... Employer notifications. (a) An employer shall notify a driver of the results of a pre-employment controlled... being notified of the disposition of the employment application. An employer shall notify a driver...

  2. Employability and productivity among older workers : apolicy framework and evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Murrugarra, Edmundo

    2011-01-01

    As Latin American and the Caribbean countries face rapid aging transitions, the economic contribution of older workers will need to be strengthened. This paper uses household data from Brazil and Mexico to characterize labor market behavior of older workers, such as participation, sectoral and type of employment, and productivity, to identify critical areas for policy intervention. The paper also discusses other social policy related issues like health, remittances, and family arrangements. T...

  3. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  4. China's Employment Promotion Law Guarantees Right to Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU XUEYUN

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's legislature is soliciting comments and suggestions to the draft of Employment Promotion Law as an endeavor to democratize its process of legislation. Up to April 25 the National People's Congress had received over 11,000items of comments and suggestions.

  5. International employment policies: employment and stabilisation in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens L

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of stabilization and adjustment policies (economic policy) on employment, Mexico, prospects for the 1980s - examines the transition from import substitution industrialization to an economic model based on export oriented industry, structural changes and subsequent financial collapse (financial policy), economic growth performance, 1978-1981, the external debt crisis, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  6. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Angel

    1995-01-01

    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  7. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  8. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  9. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods to...

  10. The population question in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  11. Labor inspection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One aspect the literature overlooks on the effects of labor regulation of labor market efficiency is the degree of the legislation's effectiveness, i.e., its actual enforcement in daily work relations. Even the more sophisticated econometric studies (which take into account the effects of interaction between labor market regulatory institutions in explaining its dynamics leave this central issue aside, namely enforcement versus non-enforcement of the law. Keeping this issue in mind, we seek to answer the following question in this article: given that the effectiveness of labor legislation depends on the interaction between the overall sanctions and the probability of the employer getting caught breaking the law, and given that the law's effectiveness is a decisive aspect for the real measurement of a country's labor costs, to what extent is the Brazilian labor inspection system designed to meet its objective, namely, to enforce the law?

  12. 76 FR 72977 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  13. 76 FR 55948 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  14. 77 FR 76074 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  15. 77 FR 20436 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  16. 77 FR 51579 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  17. 77 FR 30330 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... Veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring Veterans....

  18. INDISPENSABILITY OF ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun K Behera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how English acts as a binding language across the world. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. Moreover, the impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries has also been taken up. Growing desires of the people, coupled with a deep - rooted need to have an improved standard of living has been touched upon. Attempts have been made here how these factors play a vital role in employability. The economic and cultural change in the third world countries and how it has impacted the employment opportunities, plus the reasons why English plays a vital role in all these are also covered in the paper. I have tried to deal with the attitudinal change in the government organizations and their role in adding to the burgeoning employment opportunities and the accompanying importance of English.

  19. Strategies Employed in Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛

    2008-01-01

    Idioms which are regarded as the essence of language have drawn great attention from scholars.Most of them just focus Oil its cultural consideration.In this thesis the author intends to make a comprehensive study on practical strategies employed in idiom translation.

  20. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  1. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  2. A Theory of Employment Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Brenda

    1990-01-01

    In the form of a poem, a pregnant mother of a small child tells her experiences during employment interviews with a number of law firms, ranging from the perceived errors of the interviewers to the surprises and the mistakes made by the applicant. (MSE)

  3. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Graaf-Zijl

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  4. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online education"…

  5. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents…

  6. Transnational Education and Employability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…

  7. Physical attractiveness, employment and earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  8. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study. PMID:27115230

  9. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  10. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in... competitive factors in Brazil affecting U.S. and Brazilian agricultural sales in third country markets....

  11. Employment Protection Regulations and Their Impact on Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Pointner

    2006-01-01

    Employment protection legislation (EPL) forms part of the institutional framework governing labor market allocation processes. It increases the costs enterprises incur when terminating contracts, either directly via severance payments or indirectly via procedural costs (e.g. notice periods or court trials). EPL is often considered to be the main reason for the high unemployment level in several euro area countries. While the empirical evidence for this correlation is generally rather weak, mo...

  12. Social enterprises and employment: Mainstreaming SMEs and employment creation

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Lanzona

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that mainstreaming small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and social enterprises (SEs) into various international treaties will require the assumption of positive externalities, which markets cannot fully evaluate. To show this, the possible influence that SEs may have on SME development and, eventually, on employment will be discussed. SEs are small- and medium-sized commercial businesses providing valuable social service to customers and sustainable jobs and training for up t...

  13. Inconsistencies in reported employment characteristics among employed stayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bassi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement error, and its potentially distorting role, in information on industry and professional status collected by labour force surveys. The focus of our analyses is on inconsistent information on these employment characteristics resulting from yearly transition matrices for workers who were continuously employed over the year and who did not change job. As a case-study we use yearly panel data for the period from April 1993 to April 2003 collected by the Italian Quarterly Labour Force Survey. The analysis goes through four steps: (i descriptive indicators of (disagreement; (ii testing whether the consistency of repeated information significantly increases when the number of categories is collapsed; (iii examination of the pattern of inconsistencies among response categories by means of Goodman’s quasi-independence model; (iv comparisons of alternative classifications jointly by professional status and occupation. Results document sizable measurement error, which is only moderately reduced by more aggregated classifications. They suggest that even cross-section estimates of employment by industry and/or professional status are affected by non-random measurement error.

  14. 29 CFR 401.5 - Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer. 401.5 Section 401.5 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.5 Employer. Employer means any employer or any group or association of employers engaged in an industry affecting commerce (a) which is, with respect to...

  15. 20 CFR 345.207 - Defunct employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defunct employer. 345.207 Section 345.207... EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.207 Defunct employer. If the Board determines that an employer has permanently ceased to pay compensation with respect to...

  16. Family Business, Employment, and GDP

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Dan; Sjögren, Hans; Bjuggren, Carl Magnus

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the proportion of family business and its contribution to employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Our analysis adds to the literature by including all listed firms and by investigating a longer period than has heretofore been reported. The main contribution is to extend the analysis to include all firms in the economy using census data. Our study is devoted to the case of Sweden. Family business makes up half of the listed firms, and three quarters of all firms, accounting for...

  17. Telecommunications dynamics, output and employment

    OpenAIRE

    Jungmittag, Andre; Welfens, Paul J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In EU countries, opening up of telecommunications markets and regulations have helped to reduce the price of digital services which is an important quasi-input factor in all firms. Integrating the use of telecommunications in a macroeconomic production function is the analytical starting point for our interdependent analysis of output, use of telecommunications and employment. Based on unit root and co-integration analysis as well as an error correction three-equation model which are estimate...

  18. Employment and Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur R. Khan

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of employment-intensive growth in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 ratified by setting specific targets with respect to eight different goals: eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality; reduction of child mortality; improved maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and promoting global partn...

  19. Regional variations in cyclical employment

    OpenAIRE

    M I Howland

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the author develops and tests a model of regional responses to national business-cycles. The model divides cyclical decline in each state into two sectors: a basic sector and a nonbasic sector. The industrial mix, capital - labor ratio, age of capital stock, level of unemployment insurance benefits, labor shortage, and extent of labor-force unionization of a state are hypothesized to influence the response to national recessions by the economy of a state. Employment decline in t...

  20. Entrepreneurial skills and wage employment

    OpenAIRE

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufí, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of entrepreneurial skills among the population is often considered as an adequate policy to enhance job creation and economic growth. However, neither the definition of entrepreneurial skills, nor the costs and benefits of such a policy are clear. Our aim is to check whether the benefits of entrepreneurial skills extent beyond self-employment. We use a sample of higher education graduates from Spain, from the year 2000 interviewed in 2005 (REFLEX survey). We denote entrepreneurial s...

  1. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? On the one hand, critics of teenage employment argue that most teenage jobs have little career potential, provide few new skills, take away time from schoolwork and extracurricular activities, foster negative attitudes toward work, and encourage problem behaviors. On the other hand, research shows that some early work experiences do not undermine academic performance and school activities, and some jobs can...

  2. Ethical employment in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karlstrøm, Caroline Bay

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this paper is ethical employment in developing countries, and how multinational companies should conduct business in less developed countries. First three theories within ethics will be covered; utilitarianism, justice and human rights. Those are used to judge whether a case is unethical or not. Thereafter are the employees rights covered, and two international conventions that protects these rights are described; the International Labour Organizations and the UN G...

  3. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  4. Population and Employment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Keyfitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    China's effectiveness in population control can be credited to the direct line of command through party and administrative cadres that extends from the leadership in Beijing down to the production team in a distant rural commune. The reason that the administrative machine has devoted so much attention to population control is twofold: the perceived limits of the natural environment, as indicated by slowness of growth of food supplies, and the difficulty of arranging productive employment for ...

  5. Employment and SMEs during crises

    OpenAIRE

    Varum, C.A.; Rocha, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The persistent increasing duration of unemployment has become an issue during economic crises. Although lay-offs at large firms normally make headlines during crises, we still know little about the potential impact of firm size on adjustment behavior in a crisis. We studied effects of firm size on employment growth during economic slowdowns using a rich microeconomic database for the 1988-2007 period in Portuguese manufacturing industry. The results show that economic downturns affect firm gr...

  6. Measures Taken to Secure Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The background In 2008, the financial crisis has swept the globe and its tentacles went across the Pacific Ocean to mainland China. Along with the global economic recession and the slowdown of domestic economic growth, the unemployed and the new em-ployees have become the direct victims of this economic cold wave. The issue of employment is the focus of attention of society from all walks of life.

  7. Maternal Employment and Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Anderson; Kristin F. Butcher; Levine, Phillip B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother/child data from the National Longitudin...

  8. Brazil, oil and statoil: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Linchausen, Harald Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed some light on what challenges Brazil faces concerning its oil reserves. It also considers Statoil’s situation and attempts to analyse the challenges both face. Hotelling’s rule and Dunning’s OLI framework are presented and used in order to complete this analysis. The thesis starts by looking at the history of petroleum in Brazil and Norway. Next, the theoretical framework is outlined. The challenges for both Brazil and Statoil are presented and anal...

  9. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  10. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  11. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The fol...

  12. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  13. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  14. State Government Bailouts in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilaqua, Afonso S.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the consolidation of democracy after the end of the military regime in the mid-1980s, Brazil has gone through a period of remarkable decentralization both in fiscal and political terms. The move towards decentralized management and control of public finances has been followed by a series of bailouts of state governments by the federal government. The lack of effective control on borrowing, coupled with reputational effects originating from these repeated bailout operations, red...

  15. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  16. Brazil: Mechanisms of Direct Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bovo, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    In the structure of Brazilian Government, regarding both the executive as well as the executive powers, the increase in ways in which society can participate in decisions of public interest, stands out. Among the shared or participatory managerial policies implemented in Brazil, the following are noteworthy: the participatory budget, managerial councils, committees dealing with watersheds, thematic conferences, plebiscites, public meetings and referenda. However, if compared to the size of Br...

  17. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  18. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  19. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  20. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  1. Gender differences in self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis Georgellis; Wall, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that influence transitions into self-employment, paying particular attention to gender differences. We find that: (i) men are more responsive to the wage differential between wage/salaried employment and self-employment; (ii) liquidity constraints are more important for men; and (iii) the link between father’s self-employment status and the probability of self-employment is stronger for men. Taken together, these results suggest that, for women, self-employment...

  2. What lessons from the NICs? the industrialisation process of Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea and Singapore.

    OpenAIRE

    Liemt, Gijsbert van

    1985-01-01

    Working paper comparing economic and industrial growth in four newly industrializing countries, Brazil, Korea R, Mexico and Singapore, 1960-1980 - discusses industrialization policy, trade policy, public investment and credit policy; considers the role of entrepreneurs, public enterprises, private enterprises and foreign enterprises; outlines the benefits including employment creation, wage increases and income distribution.

  3. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  4. Racial and Ethnic Employment Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fred A. Bellemore

    2001-01-01

    Employment discrimination is studied by examining the performance of baseball players at the highest minor league level in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s. Both Blacks and Hispanics face discrimination in promotion to the major leagues. Blacks faced it in the 1960s and 1970s and still did in the 1990s, but it subsided in years when jobs were created through expansion in the number of teams. Hispanics faced discrimination in the 1960s and 1970s that abated in years of expansion, but there is no si...

  5. 45 CFR 400.75 - Registration for employment services, participation in employability service programs and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., participation in employability service programs and targeted assistance programs, going to job interviews, and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment General Requirements § 400.75 Registration for employment services, participation in...

  6. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  7. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  8. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  9. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  10. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  11. An overview on small hydro in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of small-scale hydro development in Brazil was presented in the context of the Brazilian energy sector. Brazil's energy sector is currently comprised of 45 per cent renewable energy. Brazil is the tenth largest energy producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 105.986 MW. Brazil currently has an estimated 258.410 MW of hydroelectric power potential. Small hydropower (SHP) plants in Brazil are defined as plants capable of producing up to 30 MW of power, with a reservoir area smaller than 12 km2. It is estimated that SHP plants will provide 5 per cent of Brazil's electrical supply by 2030. SHP plants in Brazil typically use Kaplan and Pelton hydraulic turbines, as well as Michell-Banki cross-flow turbines. Hydrokinetic turbine prototypes are also being designed at the Federal University of Brazil. Researchers are currently developing a diffuser enhancement design. However, there are currently no designs available that use peripheric generators. Researchers are currently investigating the design of fish-friendly turbines as well as mobile dams. Development projects in the Amazon region were outlined. tabs., figs.

  12. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Transport

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the results for the transportation sector from a larger study, the low carbon study for Brazil, developed by the World Bank as part of its initiative to support the integrated efforts of Brazil to reduce global and national greenhouse gases emissions, while promoting long-term development. The study covers four key areas with potential low carbon options: 1) Land Use...

  13. 20 CFR 345.406 - Defunct employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defunct employer. 345.406 Section 345.406... EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Benefit Charging § 345.406 Defunct employer. Whenever the Board determines, pursuant to § 345.207 of this part, that an employer is defunct, the Board will...

  14. 49 CFR 383.37 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer responsibilities. 383.37 Section 383.37... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements and Employer Responsibilities § 383.37 Employer responsibilities. No employer may knowingly allow, require, permit, or authorize a driver...

  15. 49 CFR 380.509 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer responsibilities. 380.509 Section 380.509... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.509 Employer responsibilities. (a) Each employer... commerce after July 20, 2003, receives training required by § 380.503. (b) Each employer must place a...

  16. 20 CFR 702.111 - Employer's records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's records. 702.111 Section 702.111... § 702.111 Employer's records. Every employer shall maintain adequate records of injury sustained by... by any State authority. Records required by this section shall be retained by the employer for...

  17. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public...

  18. 14 CFR 1253.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.500 Employment. (a) General. (1... receives Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1253.500 Section...

  19. 15 CFR 8a.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 8a.500 Section...

  20. 34 CFR 104.13 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 104.13 Section 104.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Employment Practices § 104.13 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment test...

  1. 40 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section...

  2. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 54.500 Section...

  3. 43 CFR 41.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 41.500 Section 41.500...

  4. 6 CFR 17.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 17.500 Section 17.500...

  5. 31 CFR 28.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee's employment opportunities or status because of sex. (3) A recipient shall not enter into any... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 28.500 Section 28.500... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.500 Employment....

  6. 45 CFR 400.154 - Employability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employability services. 400.154 Section 400.154... Services Scope of Refugee Social Services § 400.154 Employability services. A State may provide the following employability services— (a) Employment services, including development of a family...

  7. Employment Trends in the European Postal Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Henten, Anders;

    An analysis of the employments trends in the Danish postal sector and the different factors that influence theses employment trends......An analysis of the employments trends in the Danish postal sector and the different factors that influence theses employment trends...

  8. Legal Consequences of Employer Discharge Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The employment contract is sometimes misunderstood by both employees and employers. Drafters of employee manuals, policies, and procedures should be aware that the nature of the at-will employment relationship can be transformed into a binding employment contract by the words and phrases chosen. In this article, the author uses the case of Eric,…

  9. 76 FR 34252 - Re-Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO) AGENCY... Veterans' Employment, Training, and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO) was reestablished on March 30, 2011 as a... Secretary of Veterans' Employment and Training (ASVET) in outreach to employers regarding training...

  10. 29 CFR 2530.210 - Employer or employers maintaining the plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer or employers maintaining the plan. 2530.210... Administration as Related to Benefits § 2530.210 Employer or employers maintaining the plan. (a) General... service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan shall be taken into account for purposes...

  11. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  12. An analysis of the procedural components of supported employment programs associated with employment outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    McDonnell, J.; Nofs, D; Hardman, M.; Chambless, C

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for worker...

  13. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of...

  14. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George

    2013-01-01

    nature of policies introduced to tackle youth (un)employment. It provides an overview of the six papers that make up this special issue and shows how highlighting the complexities and diversities of youth employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa provides valuable lessons, both for enhancing current......Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends and the...... conceptualisations and theorisation of youth employment and in terms of related policy instruments....

  15. Labor market transitions and self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen R. Rissman

    2007-01-01

    The self-employed are a heterogeneous group. Some are self-employed because they are good at it, while others are self-employed because they cannot find a better paying salaried job. Data from the CPS for prime age males show that workers are almost twice as likely to enter self-employment from unemployment as from paid employment. Furthermore, almost 22% of workers exit self-employment within the year with most returning to paid employment. This paper develops a framework for examining trans...

  16. Social Cost of Leptospirosis Cases Attributed to the 2011 Disaster Striking Nova Friburgo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pereira; Martha Barata; Aline Trigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social cost of the leptospirosis cases that were attributed to the natural disaster of January 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) through a partial economic assessment. This study utilized secondary data supplied by the Municipal Health Foundation of Nova Friburgo. Income scenarios based on the national and state minimum wages and on average income of the local population were employed. The total social cost of leptospirosis cas...

  17. Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal links between per capita combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for the case of Brazil, spanning the period 1980-2011. The Fisher statistic of the Wald test confirms the existence of long-run cointegration between the considered variables. Short-run emp...

  18. The Impacts of Global Warming on Farmers in Brazil and India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghi, A.; Mendelsohn, R

    2008-01-01

    How big a threat is global warming to climate-sensitive and economically important sectors such as agriculture in developing countries? How well will farmers be able to adapt to the threats of global warming? This paper attempts to shed light on these two important questions. A cross-sectional analysis is employed to estimate the climate sensitivity of agriculture in Brazil and India. Using panel data from both countries, the study measures how net farm income or property values vary with cli...

  19. Long-term health and socioeconomic consequences of child labor: Evidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuelian

    2012-01-01

    Child labor may impose positive and negative, direct and indirect effects on the long-term development of an individual. This study employs the Brazil Living Standards Measurement Study Survey to examine the long-run consequences of child labor on an adults income, health and educational attainment. When possible, the estimated models take into account of possible endogeneity and measurement error problems. The results suggest that early working has a negative and substantial income impact on...

  20. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1986-01-01

    Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...

  1. Why Do Individuals Choose Self-Employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Christopher; Henley, Andrew; Latreille, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes an analysis of the motivating factors cited by the self-employed in the UK as reasons for choosing self-employment. Very limited previous research has addressed the question of why individuals report that they have chosen self-employment. Two questions are addressed using large scale labour force survey data for the UK. The first concerns the extent to which the self-employed are self-employed out of necessity, opportunity, lifestyle decision or occupational choice. The ...

  2. The ethanol program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, José

    2006-10-01

    The number of automobiles in the world has been growing fast and today requires one quarter of the global petroleum consumption. This problem requires adequate solutions, one of which Brazil has achieved with the Sugarcane Ethanol Program. This paper presents the history of this program, from its launch in the 1970s to the today's condition of full competitiveness in a free market. It also shows how it can be replicated to other countries, in order to replace 10 per cent of the world's gasoline consumption.

  3. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  4. Employment and Regional Inequality in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Patache

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt that thinking about inequality plays a part in the judgments and actions of politicians, sociologists, economists and ordinary people, too. This paper examines which factors substantially influenced regional employment. Labour market, employment and unemployment have been the subject of various researches and the labour market object has been subject of dispute. Employment and unemployment are both decomposed and analyzed through separate components (such as: full employment, effective employment, atypical employment, precarious employment, regional/local employment etc., respectively, total unemployment, partial or hidden unemployment, technical and structural one and so on. The specific literature about the regional inequalities considered the income per capita as the most relevant indicator measured by Gini coefficient. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. At regional level we studied several indicators that generate regional disparities, and influence employment quality such us: employment rate, tertiary and medium employment, unemployment rate, occupied population in informal sector, employment in primary sector, rural employment, female employment. We developed a scoring based on the deviation from the average of a group of key indicators and devised a map of employment quality resulting from multi-criteria analysis.

  5. Industrial Growth and Structural Change: Brazil in a Long-Run Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Aldrighi; Colistete, Renato P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a long-run analysis of industrial growth and structural change in Brazil, from the coffee export economy in the nineteenth century to the present day. We focus on Brazil’s high economic growth in most of the twentieth century and the disruption caused by the collapse of debt-led growth in the early 1980s. We then examine the recent trends in economic growth and structural change, with a sectoral analysis of output, employment and productivity growth. Employing new data and...

  6. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months

  7. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  8. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F

    1985-01-01

    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  9. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  10. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months.

  11. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    OpenAIRE

    Tollefson, Scott D.

    1990-01-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under...

  12. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  13. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Moult, Ian; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in $4$- and $d$-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard m...

  14. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  15. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  16. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  17. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter's ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter's paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD¿s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradigm as the main axis of research in strategy. The generic strategies and the model of five forces are the elements of Porter's paradigm most employed, while the concepts of strategic groups and value chain are the ones that received less attention by researchers. The analysis of methodology and purpose of comunications indicates that the "porterian life" in Brazil was characterized by the acritical use of its concepts in order to describe the reality of the strategy in Brazil. There are no evidences of consistent and systematic attempts to test or adapt the porterian paradigm for the Brazilian context. And results indicate no evidences that this trend will be reversed.

  18. [Care and chronic illness: family caregiver's viewpoint in northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Maria de Sousa; Nations, Marilyn Kay

    2012-02-01

    The provision of care causes stress in everyday family dynamics leading to physical, mental and emotional complications in caregivers and spouses' loss of liberty and/or overwork. Between March and November 2006, this anthropological research examined family caregiving in the context of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). By means of ethnographic interviews, illness narratives and participant observation, the scope was to describe family reorganization and coexistence with the disease and its evolution, caregiver perceptions about patient difficulties and limitations experienced and strategies employed to tackle their illness. Six low-income family caregivers, living in poor, urban areas in the outskirts of the capital city, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, participated in the study. From the Content Analysis, two categories arose: "sharing suffering" and "attitudes and behavior perceived and experienced by caregivers." In-depth narratives revealed marked affection between patients and their family caregivers. Despite poverty, structural violence, unemployment, social prejudice and low salaries endemic in the Northeast of Brazil, the caregivers find effective ways to cope with chronic illness besides creating strategies to diminish suffering caused by the illness. PMID:22267046

  19. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  20. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  1. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Mesa P, Juan M. [BIOWARE Ltda., Caixa Postal 6086, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [EMBRAPA-Agroenergia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Filippetto, Daniele; Luengo, Carlos A.; Pippo, Walfrido Alonso [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos/Departamento de Fisica Aplicada/IFGW/UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6165, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  2. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  3. Scaling-up Local Development Initiatives: Brazil?s Food Procurement Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Nehring; Ben McKay

    2013-01-01

    Brazil aims to eradicate extreme poverty in the country by scaling-up policy initiatives for ?productive inclusion? and incorporating all extreme poor households into the country?s non-contributory social protection scheme. Brasil sem Miséria (Brazil without Misery), targets the Brazilian population living below the extreme poverty line of R$70 (US$35) a month? approximately 16.2 million people (Gov. of Brazil, 2012). According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) alm...

  4. Brazil's competitiveness in the soybean sector: will Brazil lose its competitiveness due to its patchy infrastructure ?

    OpenAIRE

    Blaich, Eli Elisa; PIller, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the competitiveness of Brazil within the soybean sector based on certain criteria. In particular it will assess one of Brazil’s main bottlenecks, its infrastructure, as well as expose what Brazil’s key competitive advantages toward its main competitor, the United States, are. Brazil has a long export history and its main exports have always been in the agricultural sector. Soybeans gained on importance in Brazil in the mid seventies and introduced a socioeconomic a...

  5. 45 CFR 400.82 - Failure or refusal to accept employability services or employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure or refusal to accept employability... SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment Failure Or Refusal to Accept Employability Services Or Employment § 400.82 Failure or refusal to accept...

  6. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed...

  7. SEEMP: A Networked Marketplace for Employment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celino, Irene; Cerizza, Dario; Cesarini, Mirko; Valle, Emanuele Della; de Paoli, Flavio; Estublier, Jacky; Fugini, Mariagrazia; Pérez, Asuncion Gómez; Kerrigan, Mick; Guarrera, Pascal; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ramìrez, Jaime; Villazon, Boris; Zhao, Gang

    Human capital is more and more the key factor of economic growth and competitiveness in the information age and knowledge economy. But due to a still fragmented employment market compounded by the enlargement of the EU, the human resources are not effectively exchanged and deployed. The business innovation of SEEMP1 develops a vision of an Employment Mediation Marketplace (EMM) for market transparency and effic ient mediation. Its technological innovation provides a federated marketplace of employment agencies through a peer-to-peer network of employment data and mediation services. In other words, the solution under development is a de-fragmentation of the employment market by a web-based collaborative network. The SEEMP-enabled employment marketplace will strengthen the social organization of public employment administration, maximize the business turnover of private employment agencies, improve citizens' productivity and welfare, and increase the competitiveness and performance of business.

  8. Updating Economic Theory: The Employment Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gordon

    1983-01-01

    Faculty jobs have a remarkable degree of freedom compared to other jobs, but they have comparatively low salaries. The income difference between academic employment and employment in corporations, law firms, and medicine causes morale problems in faculties. (MLW)

  9. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed...

  10. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  11. Company, its performance and perceived employer attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Musilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses influencers of employer attractiveness with high focus on company performance and other elements concerning company as such. Theoretical part of this thesis aims to bring relevant background for the practical analysis. In particular, it examines areas such as talent management, employee value proposition and employer branding and their connection to employer attractiveness. Practical part identifies objective and subjective drivers of employer attractiveness. This part co...

  12. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER SKILLS: DEFINITION, TEACHING, ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Novokilinova Anna Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with employability concept, what employability and career skills are, the list of skills which present-day employers value most. The article presents the experience of some overseas universities in enhancing student employability as well as the approaches to assess it. By the way of conclusion the author made up an opinion on the possibilities of implementing this experience into our environment, which, on the one hand, is a subject of discussion, on the other - can be a possi...

  13. EMPLOYABILITY MANAGEMENT: IS HIGHER EDUCATION IN CRISIS?

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, Alok Kumar; Shil, Nikhil Chandra

    2011-01-01

    The basic objective of higher education throughout the civilization was to be employable. Graduates are in competition to perform a good figure in the job market while they are there. Higher education and employment is intertwined though for few, it may be different. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are also busy to develop ways to make their graduates employable. The performance of HEIs at the end of the day will depend on the success of its graduates to the race of employment. A careful...

  14. The Economic Impacts of Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Fleming, David A.; Rupasingha, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Even as self-employment continues to increase, policymakers remain largely unaware of this trend and fail to see it as an opportunity for addressing enduring joblessness. In part, this is explained by limited data on the self-employed and by widespread perceptions that returns to self-employment are low; that the self-employed are merely patching together piecemeal work opportunities requiring limited skills; and that there are no local economic impacts or spillover benefits into other sector...

  15. Flexible Employment Arrangements and Workplace Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity that is witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. However, the effects of the employment flexible types on workplace performance has not been explored in Britain. In this study the relationship between two employment arrangements and the workplace performance is examined. More specifically, teleworking and compress hours are two main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee R...

  16. Strategies to improve English major graduates’ employability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Qi

    2012-01-01

    Universities’strategies to improve English major graduates’s employability are as follows:update teaching concept,optimize the arrangement of majors, improve teaching methods and increase educational efficiency, strengthen career guidance, ect. Students should improve their employability through making career planning,renewing employment idea and change employment psychology,enhance their own core competitive ness as well as grasp job-hunting skills,ect.

  17. Psychological Factors Associated with Obtaining Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…

  18. Graduate employment: issues for debate and enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, John

    2004-01-01

    Recent European studies have shown most graduates to be in quite reasonable employment situations a few years after graduating. While concerns continue to be expressed by some employers that many graduates do not possess the right skills and competencies, there is also considerable industry in many universities to improve the employability of their graduates. Does the evidence justify optimism?

  19. Employer Engagement in Education: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education. In this, the authors consider the range of different ways that employers can support the learning and progression of young people in British schools. The paper draws on a wide range of source material to ask: What are the typical benefits of different types of employer engagement? Do…

  20. 34 CFR 34.22 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer responsibilities. 34.22 Section 34.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.22 Employer responsibilities. (a)(1) Our garnishment order indicates a reasonable period of time within which an employer...

  1. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employer. 825.104 Section 825.104 Labor Regulations... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity...

  2. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer responsibilities. 1656.7 Section 1656.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program...

  3. 20 CFR 655.510 - Employer attestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, Prohibitions on longshore work by U.S. nationals; listing by country at 22 CFR 89.1... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer attestations. 655.510 Section 655... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers...

  4. 34 CFR 34.21 - Employer certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer certification. 34.21 Section 34.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.21 Employer certification. (a) Along with a garnishment order, we send to an employer a certification in a form...

  5. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  6. 49 CFR 25.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 25.500 Section 25.500...

  7. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 106.51 Section 106.51 Education Regulations... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51... employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by such recipient in a...

  8. 29 CFR 36.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by such recipient in a... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 36.500 Section 36.500 Labor Office of...

  9. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.500 Employment. (a... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 618.500 Section 618.500 Public...

  10. 22 CFR 229.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 229.500 Section 229.500...

  11. 6 CFR 17.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.505 Employment... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment criteria. 17.505 Section...

  12. 43 CFR 41.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.505 Employment criteria. A... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment criteria. 41.505 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 15a.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and...) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 15a.51 Section 15a.51 Agriculture...

  14. 32 CFR 196.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.500... employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by such recipient in a nondiscriminatory... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 196.500 Section 196.500...

  15. Prospects of Employment Growth in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Motkuri, Venkatanarayana

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the changes in work participation rates, participation rate in education and the growth of employment, and explores the prospects of employment growth in the state of Andhra Pradesh (India) in the scenario of declining population growth which acts as a limiting factors for the further employment growth.

  16. 40 CFR 5.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.505 Employment... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 5.505 Section...

  17. 31 CFR 28.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.505 Employment... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 28.505...

  18. 14 CFR 1253.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.505 Employment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment criteria. 1253.505 Section...

  19. 45 CFR 86.52 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.52 Employment criteria. A... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment criteria. 86.52 Section 86.52...

  20. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500...

  1. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities... employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by such recipient in a nondiscriminatory... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500 Energy NUCLEAR...

  2. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  3. Hispanic Self-Employment: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiker, Virginia Solis; Katras, Mary Jo; Montalto, Catherine P.; Olson, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on human capital, social capital, and acculturation theories, gender differences in income were examined among 7,760 self-employed Hispanic Americans in California, using 1990 census data. Hispanic self-employed women earned less than Hispanic self-employed men and were more likely to be in service occupations. Having less than a high…

  4. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deducted and withheld is allowed as a credit against the income tax liability of the employee receiving... the amount of such tax exceeds $100. (6) Separate accounting. If an employer fails to withhold and pay... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes....

  5. 24 CFR 8.12 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant's or employee's job skills, aptitude, or whatever other factor the test purports to measure... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Employment § 8.12 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not use any employment test... any class of individuals with handicaps unless: (1) The recipient demonstrates that the test score...

  6. Developing Employability in Higher Education Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The development of employability in higher music education concerns students, musicians, educators, administrators and funding bodies, and yet employability is both impossible to measure and poorly defined. This paper sets the context for a set of short papers that explore employability from the perspective of music. Because many of the issues…

  7. 29 CFR 788.16 - Employment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 788.16 Section 788.16 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.16 Employment relationship. (a) The Supreme Court has made... an independent contractor, but that the “total situation controls” (see Rutherford Food Corp. v....

  8. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  9. Trade, Informal Employment and Labor Adjustment Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Javier; Artuc, Erhan; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is ubiquitous in developing countries, but few studies have estimated workers' switching costs between informal and formal employment. This paper builds on the empirical literature grounded in discrete choice models to estimate these costs. The results suggest that inter-industry labor mobility costs are large, but entry costs into informal employment are significantly ...

  10. Financial stability and monetary policy -The case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Tabak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the effects of monetary policy over banks' loans growth and whether there is a bank lending channel operating in Brazil. Therefore, we employ a detailed high frequency panel data in which we include bank characteristics and ownership control. We contribute to the literature on bank lending channel by showing that during periods of loosening/tightening monetary policy, banks increase/decrease their loans. Additionally,our results illustrate that large, well-capitalized and liquid banks react differentially to the effects of monetary policy shocks. Finally, we show that the impact of monetary policy differs across state-owned, foreign and private domestic banks. These results are important for developing and conducting monetary policy.

  11. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  12. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  13. Misunderstanding International News in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Wainberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the nature of the Brazilian public comprehension of international news by revealing the quality of such reception with regard to a sample of 170 subjects randomly selected in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A questionnaire was created taking as a basis the directives of Bloom et al(1972. Evaluated in it are the cognitive and aff ective dimensions of thought. In the fi rst case, questions were formulated that allowed the establishment of the level of knowledge of individuals, as well as their comprehension abilities, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of a wide range of international news topics. For the aff ective dimension the following abilities were evaluated: attention, response, valorization, organization and the structuring of a value scale.

  14. The role of nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity consumption in Brazil continues to grow at a faster rate than electricity generation, and in 1991 consumption reached 227 TWh, surpassing generation by more than 22 TWh. Thus, for Brazil to achieve its ambitious economic development plan, in addition to solving its current political and macroeconomic issues, the development and diversification of alternative energy resources remains a high priority. As early as the 1970s, Brazil began to seriously consider nuclear energy as the main alternative source of energy that could help the country meet its projected electricity requirements through the end of the century. This decision was based primarily on the fact that Brazil's known reserves of uranium are far greater in energy content than that of its coal or oil reserves

  15. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    in three genera: Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, and Huperzia. Within each genus, the diversity (treated under various subgenera, sections, and subsections) has been discussed. In our new approach, these three genera are treated as subfamilies Lycopodiodeae (four genera in Brazil), Lycopodielloideae (three...

  16. Phytotherapy in Brazil: recovering the concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Martino Bufaino

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the evolution of the Brazilian legislation in recent years in the area of herbal products and discusses the concept of phytotherapy in Brazil, bringing information about how it works in Europe.

  17. Phytotherapy in Brazil: recovering the concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Martino Bufaino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the evolution of the Brazilian legislation in recent years in the area of herbal products and discusses the concept of phytotherapy in Brazil, bringing information about how it works in Europe.

  18. 29 CFR 780.304 - “Employed by an employer.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âEmployed by an employer.â 780.304 Section 780.304 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.304 “Employed by an employer.” (a) The employer may be an individual, a partnership, or a corporation. It is not necessary that the employer be a farmer as defined in § 780.131....

  19. Temporary employment and employability: training opportunities and efforts of temporary and permanent employees.

    OpenAIRE

    Forrier, Anneleen; Sels, Luc; Van Hootegem, Geert; De Witte, Hans; Vander Steene, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The rise of temporary employment contributes to the fact that people can no longer count on life time employment with one employer. The conclusion that life time employment within the same organisation is no longer a prerogative for all, inspires the search for new career concepts. 'Life time employability' is often put forward as an alternative to 'life time employment'. A successful career is, then, believed to be assured by having and obtaining the appropriate capacities for being continuo...

  20. Prediction of employability in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinski, S; Jackson, H J; Bell, R C

    1992-07-01

    This study, the third of a series of reports on employability and schizophrenia, investigated the effects of both interview and non-interview variables on employability. Data on 46 chronic schizophrenic inpatients included demographic and illness-related variables, measures of psychopathology and interview-based ratings of employment skill. Latent class analysis using linear structural relations (LISREL) modelling generated the main finding namely, that interview-based measures are the strongest determinants of employability. However, other variables pertaining to illness, prior functioning and negative symptoms, exert an effect on interview performance and hence indirectly influence employability ratings and judgements. PMID:1515375

  1. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Szybisz, M. A.; Szybisz, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimes in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent $\\beta>0$. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite ...

  2. Journalism as a profession in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Ferraz Fernandez; Cláudia Lago

    2011-01-01

    Journalism as a profession in Brazil discusses the professional characteristics of Journalism in Brazil under the following aspects: 1) formal conditions of access, 2) conditions and effects of the monopoly on the journalistic activity 3) presence of a distinct culture and ethic, based on the notion of the journalist’s social responsibility and 4) characteristics of the real community of individuals who share the journalistic identity. Based on this scope, we can perceive the singularity of t...

  3. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B; Cardell K. Jacobson

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey ...

  4. State of endocrinology and diabetology in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Giannella-Neto

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is a large, populous country in South America, which has one of the biggest concentrations of people with diabetes. This article reviews the current status of diabetes care, medical education and training, and diabetes/endocrine research in Brazil. It highlights achievements in public health and research, which can be emulated by other countries. In Endocrine/Diabetes fields, a more realistic and responsible policies in terms of medical traineeship, patient education, and mainly scient...

  5. Distribution of dental schools in Brazil, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Prado da Fonseca; Carla Martins Rocha; Estie Kruger; Marc Tennant; Fabio Luiz Mialhe; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The geographical distribution of dentistry schools has been the object of study in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Aim: To analyze the distribution of dentistry schools in Brazil by states and to correlate with the number of dentists in 2015. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The analysis of the courses distribution was carried out by states and categorized by public or private schools. All the institutions′ addresses were geocoded and mapped to illustrate the sp...

  6. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.)

  7. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Germán Añez; Maria Rios

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the num...

  8. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  9. Comparing the Power of Mexico and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pavchenko, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Mexico and Brazil are the two powers, who enjoy significant influence and contribute not only on the regional level, but to a certain extent on the global level as well. Having this common feature, the two centers of power differ dramatically in many aspects, starting from geopolitics, relation towards the super power and finishing with identity perception. The main aim of the research is to compare Mexico and Brazil during 2000 -- 2012, which will allow not only predicting possible developme...

  10. Brazil : Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Despite its origin as one of the pioneering and richest states of Brazil, Pernambuco today has a history of slower economic growth than Brazil as a whole. Pernambuco began as a sugar producing state and the expansion of sugar production led its economic development until the mid 1600s. Then Pernambuco declined, as sugar production became more profitable elsewhere in the world. It is estima...

  11. Land reform and landholdings in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Juliano

    2006-01-01

    Land and wealth are closely related in rural Brazil, a country characterized by high levels of inequality in terms of income or landholdings. After presenting a historical retrospective of land concentration and land reform in Brazil, this study evaluates the impact of the land reform programme undertaken in the 1990s on land ownership and land distribution. It is shown that the programme increased landownership among poor rural families and those with less educated household heads, reducing ...

  12. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    PAUNIĆ, ALIDA

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  13. The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies. PMID:25351302

  14. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  15. Agricultural links to nonagricultural growth: urbanization, employment, poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J W

    1991-01-01

    Economic development in Pakistan has occurred due to a successful agricultural sector. It stimulated the nonagricultural sector, especially the small and medium scale nonagricultural sectors. In fact, its multiplier effects on other sectors are slight if agricultural incomes tend to amass in large scale farms. It is indeed the expenditure patterns of small-medium farmers that stimulate local, labor intensive goods and services. Further agricultural development has resulted in a dispersion of urbanization and growth in employment. The successes in Pakistan should soon reduce the incidence of rural poverty as happened in Brazil, Thailand, Indonesia, and India. Considerable declines in poverty due to agricultural growth in these countries occurred because employment in nonagricultural activities was associated with the pace of agricultural growth. Further the poverty level was linked with per capita changes in agricultural production. This optimal development strategy for low income countries with a large agricultural sector is heavily based on factor productivity which increases technological change which then fuels income and economic growth. Another component is the expenditure of income which spurs growth in the high income elastic components of agriculture (e.g., livestock). The last component is that feedback to agriculture from efforts stimulated by agricultural growth increases the demand the thus maintains prices of those agricultural goods undergoing quick technological change. This phenomenon of growth in the agricultural sector stimulating growth in the nonagricultural sector has not occurred in Africa, however, because economic growth since the early 1970s has been due to urban oriented foreign aid. At early stages of development, the public sector must support activities, but eventually the private sector handles them. Planning for this strategy requires a broad statement and sectoral strategies developed by highly trained sectoral economists for the

  16. Desafios para a universalização dos serviços de água e esgoto no Brasil Challenges for providing universal access to water and sewer services in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alceu Castro Galvão Junior

    2009-01-01

    The present article discusses the challenges that must be met to achieve universal access to water and sewer services in Brazil. First, the principles concerning the topic in Brazilian law are presented, as well as theoretical aspects including concepts relating to universalization and the standards of service employed. The main challenges for the universalization of water and sewer services in Brazil include the definition and establishment of public policies and designation of responsibilit...

  17. 75 FR 13141 - The Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO); Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO); Notice of Open Teleconference Meeting The Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO) was established pursuant to... activities of the U.S. Department of Labor meet these needs; and assisting to conduct outreach to...

  18. Employability and Employment Approaches: Currently Practiced in Independent Living Programs. A Resource Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Bob; And Others

    This document provides descriptions of employment interventions as a resource for use in initiating or expanding employment services for individuals with disabilities. The document presents abstracts of 40 employability/employment interventions and practices currently in use by independent living programs throughout the United States. The…

  19. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... workers' compensation. (c) FWS general employment conditions and limitation. (1) Regardless of the student's employer, the student's work must be governed by employment conditions, including pay, that are....S. Department of Education. (d) Academic credit and work-study. (1) A student may be employed...

  20. What's a Good Job? The Importance of Employment Relationships. CPRN Study. Changing Employment Relationships Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant

    The Changing Employment Relationships Project examined the importance of good employment relationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the…

  1. Employer engagement initiative evaluation: Main report

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Brenda; Fuller, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The Employer Engagement Initiative (EEI) at the University of Southampton aimed to increase the coherence of the University’s approach to employer engagement, especially its ability to offer flexible education at postgraduate level in the shape of work-based learning (WBL), online/e-learning and flexible programmes. In doing this, the Initiative sought to facilitate employee learning, address employer needs, and contribute to the long-term development of the University in line wit...

  2. Self-Employment around Retirement Age

    OpenAIRE

    Hochguertel, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses panel data from the pan-European SHARE survey to study labor market behavior of older male self-employed vis-a-vis wage employed workers. We find the self-employed to work longer hours, to be more flexible in their hours allocation, and to retire later in all countries. We relate these differences in observed behavior to individual characteristics, economic resources, and to documented cross-national variation in labor market and social security institutions. Differential ince...

  3. Financial Literacy and Self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ćumurović, Aida; Hyll, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between financial literacy and self-employment. We use established financial knowledge-based questions to measure financial literacy levels. The analysis shows a highly significant correlation between self-employment and financial literacy scores. To investigate the impact of financial literacy on being self-employed, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on information on economic education before entering the labour market and education of ...

  4. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  5. Mental health consumers and employment opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Daljit

    2005-01-01

    Mental health consumers experience significantly high rates of unemployment compared with the general population. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the key barriers hindering employment opportunities. Evidence from this research suggests many barriers to employment, including stigma, lack of social support networks, low-levels of educational attainment and vocational experience, lack of meaningful employment opportunities, lack of vocational training and overall lack of awareness ...

  6. How does employer branding increase employee retention?

    OpenAIRE

    Suikkanen, Eveliina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how Employer Branding influences Employee Retention. A further aim was to study the concepts of employer branding, branding activites and retention and how they are linked to one another. A basic research was conducted by reviewing literature based on existing material. The concepts and implications of employer branding, marketing and branding, turnover and employee retention were researched and analysed. The literature review concluded three majo...

  7. Employer coverage of experimental medical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J

    1986-01-01

    Should an employer's medical plan pay for organ transplants, in vitro fertilization or other "experimental" or "high-risk" procedures? Most employers have looked to insurance companies to decide, but the rising frequency and cost of such procedures, coupled with the litigation potential they pose, raise policy making issues that employers themselves must face. A Hewitt Associates Consultant describes some problems and some solutions for insured and self-funded medical plans. PMID:10279242

  8. Unemployment Insurance, Job Search, and Informal Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Margolis, David N.; Navarro, Lucas; Robalino, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impacts of introducing unemployment insurance (UI) in middle income countries using the case of Malaysia, which today does not have such a system. The analysis is based on a job search model with unemployment and three employment sectors: formal and informal wage employment, and self employment. The parameters of the model are estimated to replicate the structure of the labor market in Malaysia in 2009 and the distribution of earnings for informal, formal and...

  9. Financing Unemployment Benefits : Dismissal versus Employment Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Baumann; Nikolai Stähler

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of using dismissal taxes to finance unemployment benefits. We compare dismissal and employment taxes in a model with search frictions. Employment taxes give rise to externalities because firms do not take into account the effects their dismissal decisions have on others. By introducing dismissal taxes to finance unemployment insurance, these externalities can partly be internalized. Taking into account the budget of the unemployment insurance, employment ta...

  10. Full Employment and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    2012-01-01

    The modern welfare state and full-employment policies have common intellectual roots. In the 1930s and 1940s, Keynesian visions of full employment and Beveridge-inspired ideas of a universal welfare state grew up in about the same intellectual environment. Both ideas emphasized a government’s responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. The two ideas were also projected by approximately the same individuals. From the very beginning, welfare-state arrangements and full-employment policies w...

  11. Early Maternal Employment and Family Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Sara Markowitz; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    2011-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the NICHD Study on Early Child Care (SECC) to examine the effects of maternal employment on family well-being, measured by maternal mental and overall health, parenting stress, and parenting quality. First, we estimate the effects of maternal employment on these outcomes measured when children are 6 months old. Next, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the effects of maternal employment on family outcomes during the first 4.5 years of children's ...

  12. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    LOPOO, LEONARD M.

    2004-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that self-care produces deleterious consequences for adolescents in the U.S. Since desscriptive evidence suggests that maternal employment is the primary explanation for adolescent self-care, maternal employment, it is frequently argued, is harming children. Heretofore, very little empirical research has actually investigated the impact of maternal employment on adolescent self-care, however, calling into question this assertion. This paper aims to fill this gap. The a...

  13. Generation Y preferences for employer brand benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot-Soulez, Chloé; Soulez, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the preoccupations of young graduates from Generation Y transitioning from education to employment. Reviewing job search and employer brand literature, we update graduates' preferences for employer brand benefits in their initial job search. Using conjoint analysis on a French sample (N = 592), we demonstrate that, even if on the whole they prefer job security and a relaxed work atmosphere, their expectations are heterogeneous. The results also show that the Internet is far...

  14. The strength of the employer brand

    OpenAIRE

    Franca, Valentina; Pahor, Marko

    2013-01-01

    According to the predicted demographic trends of an increasingly ageing population, companies will face an increasing level of competition for a decreasing talent pool of skilled workers. This research focuses on the study of recruiting - how the image of an employer, communicated to the job market through the employer brand, influences the pool of candidates that a company gets. We first develop a measure of the strength of employer brand by adapting the concept of brand value pyramid which ...

  15. Are Pollution Permit Markets Harmful for Employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Sanz; Sonia Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates if pollution permit markets are harmful for employment within a Wage Setting-Price Setting (WS-PS) model. The employment level is determined according to several financing unemployment benefits: a wage tax or the revenue of the pollution permit auction. We first show that a permit market weakens the union market power. Whatever the way that unemployment benefits are financed, the choice of the pollution cap is always neutral on the employment levels, and these latter a...

  16. Chapter 4. Employer-worker relationsh

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Tinajero, Sandra Paola

    2014-01-01

    The employment relationships of foreign farm and care workers in Ragusa are complex and asymmetrical. Such relations depend on the definition and continuous negotiation of the respective social positions, and boundaries between employers and workers, along the lines of class, ethnicity, nationality, and gender. Although employment relationships involve a commercial transaction (the exchange of labor against wages), the human dimension of such transaction renders more complex the negotiation o...

  17. Potential for energy production and use from biogas in Brazil; Potencial de aproveitamento energetico do biogas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Andre Luiz

    2009-12-15

    Biogas, produced from anaerobic digestion of organic matter in domestic, industrial and rural wastewaters and residuals, represent an alternative and renewable source of energy, with growing use worldwide. In Brazil, high population and its spatial concentration and expressive agricultural and agricultural-industrial production indicate a substantial potential of biogas production. The results presented in this work show a potential of biogas production of almost 2 billion cubic feet a day of CH{sub 4}. Viability of biogas production and use depends substantially on project scale. Generally, biogas projects are viable from landfills and domestic wastewater treatment for populations higher than 50,000 inhabitants and swine and dairy farms with at least 5,000 and 1,000 animals, respectively. Biogas is also competitive when compared to fossil fuels used in industry and transport. Despite incentive mechanisms for biogas production and use, like Clean Development Mechanism and renewable and alternative sources of energy incentives in Brazil, several regulatory, institutional, economical and technological barriers difficult the effective employment of biogas in Brazil. Thus, this work indicates the need of better coordination among different governmental levels, private sector and research and development institutions and effective policy formulation to promote a better employment of biogas in Brazil. (author)

  18. [Identification of schistosomiasis risk areas using spatial analysis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Luciana Lobato; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Pacheco, Selma Turrioni Azevedo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Carneiro, Deborah Daniela M Trabuco; Bavia, Maria Emilia

    2011-05-01

    The spread of schistosomiasis mansoni defies efforts by Brazil's Unified National Health System, thus demonstrating the need to reassess endemic control programs in the country. The aim of this study was to demarcate geographic areas at risk of schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, and to establish the epidemiological and socioeconomic profile of the disease in this municipality (county). Kernel density estimator exploratory analysis was used for visual identification of areas at risk. Kulldorff & Nagarwalla's spatial analysis was used to obtain statistically significant clusters and to measure risk. These technologies identified four risk areas for schistosomiasis. Clusters identified within the risk areas were characterized by lower socioeconomic conditions. Multiple correspondence analyses showed a distinct profile for positive patients in the primary cluster. The techniques employed here represent an important methodological acquisition for tracking and controlling schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas. PMID:21655841

  19. New vaccines against tuberculosis: lessons learned from BCG immunisation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antas, P R Z; Castello-Branco, L R R

    2008-07-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG has been employed for some 70 years in Brazil and lessons from its use should be taken in account for the development or improvement of new TB vaccines. The vast majority of the current population has been vaccinated with BCG, with the possible requirement for a booster immunisation in adulthood for TB protection. BCG Moreau strain also protects against leprosy, meningitis and extrapulmonary forms of TB. Factors related to differences in strain, dosage and BCG administering protocol have been responsible for the variable efficacy of BCG. This vaccine is clearly affected by, as yet unclear, host and/or environmental variables. In this brief review, we describe some aspects of BCG immunisation observed in Brazil that may be of importance for improving or replacing BCG. PMID:18440575

  20. Employment After Motherhood: A European Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Domènech, Maria

    2003-01-01

    There is theoretical evidence that economic and family policies have an important impact on mother''s employment. The aim of this article is to study empirically the women''s transitions from employment to non-employment after they have their first birth in Belgium, West-Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden. The paper investigates the evolution of post-birth employment across time and how these shifts are related to - cross-country - different policies and society. We also test if the withdrawal ...

  1. Employer attitudes toward persons with visible tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhor, P S; Bekhor, L; Gandrabur, M

    1995-05-01

    A total of 242 employers were surveyed over the telephone to assess their attitudes toward prospective employees with visible tattooing. Employers were divided into eight categories according to type of industry. Responses to the survey were tabulated and confidence intervals produced. It would appear that significant bias exists against the employment of persons with visible tattoos in the hospitality, beauty, retail and office sectors where less than 30% of those surveyed would employ a person with a tattoo. All industries except building and the public service admitted that they would be influenced by a visible tattoo in over 40% of cases. PMID:7646392

  2. 20 CFR 404.1009 - Who is an employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is an employer. 404.1009 Section 404.1009...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1009 Who is an employer. A person is an employer if he or she employs at least one employee. Sometimes it is not clear who a...

  3. Employer Practices in Improving Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities: A Transdisciplinary and Employer-Inclusive Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Linda; Bruyère, M.; Waelder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Share new knowledge about workplace practices related to employer success in hiring, retaining, and promoting people with disabilities, and promote use of findings to employers and service providers. Design: A transdisciplinary and multifaceted data gathering approach. Results: Provides an overview of the research approach taken and the…

  4. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantian

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  5. Brazil: A Portrait of Diparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Weber Abramo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparencia Brasil (an NGO dedicated to fi ghting corruption in the country involves systematically gathering stories about corruption and associated themes published in the daily press.Titled “Deu no Jornal” (It Made the News, the initiative has been collecting news stories published in 59 dailies and four weeklies since January 2004. The publications covered by the project comprise all the main newspapers from all 26 states, plus the Federal District. No signifi cant newspaper from any state is absent. News is taken from the newspapers’ web editions and introduced into a data base. Each story is fi led under a specifi c “case”2 and cases are categorized according to several descriptive criteria. At the time of this writing, Deu no Jornal included about 142,500 stories distributed among 3,586 diff erent cases, corresponding to an aggregate of about 326 million characters. On the average, about 3.5 new cases of corruption are reported by the Brazilian press somewhere every day. Deu no Jornal is the most comprehensive database of news stories on corruption in existence, not only in Brazil but worldwide.

  6. Light, distribution company in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the publication of the Roulet Report, Electricite de France (EDF), the French group is crossing tormented hours. Despite its good financial results in 2004 with a turnover of 46.9 Mds euros its debts are around 19.7 Mds euros and are mainly due to its international investments which were not all very profitable. The first source of concern remains the Latin America markets and more particularly the Brazilian one which recorded 1.6 Md euros of losses. The future of EDF investment in Brazil, through its acquisition of the distribution company, Light, is uncertain. Within a new electric power industry framework, after currency devaluation and a rationing, Light is now in a catastrophic financial situation. The last tariff revisions given by the Brazilian authorities and the economic characteristics of the concession put the distributor at the edge of the bankruptcy. This article presents the situation of EDF group and Light at the end of 2004. The main question is the future of the Brazilian distributor in general and more particularly within the French group EDF. (author)

  7. Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 1. Policy Briefing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is tha...

  8. Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 2. Detailed Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2002-01-01

    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is tha...

  9. Employment protection in Dutch collective labour agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schils

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch system of employment protection is often perceived as too strict for workers on permanent contracts, because of the large procedural inconveniences, difficulty of dismissal and high severance pay. It is suggested that the system of employment protection lowers labour market flexibility by

  10. 29 CFR 2200.34 - Employer contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer contests. 2200.34 Section 2200.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Pleadings and Motions § 2200.34 Employer contests. (a) Complaint. (1) The Secretary shall file a...

  11. 49 CFR 380.305 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer responsibilities. 380.305 Section 380.305... REQUIREMENTS LCV Driver-Instructor Requirements § 380.305 Employer responsibilities. (a) No motor carrier shall... requirements; and (iv) Identifies drivers certified under § 380.401 of this part, when requested by...

  12. 49 CFR 380.113 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer responsibilities. 380.113 Section 380.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY....113 Employer responsibilities. (a) No motor carrier shall: (1) Allow, require, permit or authorize...

  13. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  14. 34 CFR 106.52 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 106.52 Section 106.52 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited §...

  15. 75 FR 55392 - Employment Network Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...We are soliciting the views of the public, beneficiaries, advocates, Employment Networks (EN), and other professionals on a key part of our quality assurance and performance measurement system for the Ticket to Work (TTW) program. An EN is a private or public entity that provides employment support and/or vocational rehabilitation services to Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and......

  16. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: mujgan@sistemyon.com.tr [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  17. Young People in the Secondary Employment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonovskii, V.; Belousova, R.

    2007-01-01

    The phrase "secondary employment" has been familiar to the majority of Russians since back in the Soviet era, and can reasonably be viewed as part of a broader process of adaptation to new economic conditions since the end of the late 1980s. With young people, however, this approach to the phenomenon of secondary employment is not entirely…

  18. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  19. Immigrant Groups, Vocational Training, and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Ann Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effect of vocational training on employability for immigrant groups. Design/methodology/approach: Cognitive test results were computed as factor scores on broad ability variables, and group means were calculated. The effects of cognitive factors and training on employment were investigated in a series of…

  20. 45 CFR 84.13 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the test results accurately reflect the applicant's or employee's job skills, aptitude, or whatever... Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment test or other selection criterion...: (1) The test score or other selection criterion, as used by the recipient, is shown to be...