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Sample records for brazil ecological social

  1. Resource degradation, marginalization, and poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to social-ecological resilience in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep K. Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In assessing why "fishery may rhyme with poverty", Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes, which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation, and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelerate poverty. We extend his analysis by exploring these four mechanisms further and by intertwining them with processes of environmental change and degradation. Our goal is to understand poverty in local fisheries as a process rooted in social and institutional factors as influenced by ecological dynamics. We argue that understanding poverty will require a focus on the social-ecological system (SES as a whole, and addressing poverty will mean rebuilding not only collapsed stocks but the entire social-ecological system, including restoring relationships between resources and people. Information from two cases, the Chilika Lagoon on the Bay of Bengal in India, and the Paraty region on the southeastern coast of Brazil, is used to understand how fishery social-ecological systems come under pressure from drivers at multiple levels, resulting in a range of impacts and pushing the system to a breaking point or collapse. We analyze elements of what it takes for the whole system to break down or collapse and push fishers into poverty and marginalization. The Chilika SES has already broken down, and the Paraty SES is under pressure from multiple drivers of change. The two cases help contrast key dynamics in the social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental spheres, for lessons on system collapse and recovery. Rebuilding fisheries may be examined as a process of building and strengthening resilience. The challenge is to make the fishery social-ecological system more resilient, with more flexibility and options, not only within fishing activities but also within a range of other sectors.

  2. Social-Ecological Changes in a Quilombola Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Through a combined adaptive cycle and political ecology approach, this article explores how the Afro-Brazilian Quilombolas of Bombas, living inside the protected area of PETAR, respond to and shape social-ecological changes in the Atlantic Forest. Field data reveal that both environmental restrictions and social policies of state transfer payments and food packages have contributed to decreased engagement in agricultural practices, loss of traditional knowledge, and reduced agro-biodiversity. The claim to land rights based on a Quilombola identity and recent negotiations with forest authorities insinuate a shift of this trend. Contrary to dominant conservation narratives, the findings indicate that small-scale shifting cultivation practices by the Quilombolas have the potential to increase structural ecological complexity of the Atlantic Forest. The article therefore argues that legalization of settlement and subsistence activities is important not only for livelihood security and social cohesion of Bombas inhabitants, but also possibly for biodiversity conservation.

  3. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  4. Social Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  5. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  6. Ecological Modernization and Corporate Social Responsibility

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    Naira Tomiello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of social and environmental enterprises revealed in the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and analyzed in the light of Ecological Modernization Theory (TME.The overall objective of this study is to understand CSR from the perspectiveof TME through more detailed research of a CSR program called  Clube dos Produtores [Producers Club].This program aims to influence the supply chain to adopt responsible and sustainable practices, and seeks to strengthen the small and medium producers through structured actions, such as training, qualification, and inspection, stimulating quality, innovation and productivity growth. It is conducted in parallel, in Portugal, by the Rede Sonae de Distribuição and, in Brazil, by Walmart Company. The data collection included both Countries. In Portugal, the Clube dos Produtores has emerged to combine the synergy between distribution and production and promote the development of domestic production. It takes the environment as the genesis for its creation, maintains a nationalist approach by encouraging the consumption of domestic products, and recognizes consumer pressure as the force for continuous innovation of products and services. In addition, it reconciles tradition and modernity through products supported by different generations. In Brazil, the Club is founded on the sustainability discourse; the customer awareness about environmental issues was not captured in the research; the producers innovations result from their own initiatives to participate in fairs or from direct contact with consumers; the dialogue between tradition and modernity occurs primarily through the entrepreneurial capacity of the producers and less direct intervention by Walmart.

  7. The Social-Ecological Ideal.

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    Gaidamak, A.; Tiittanen, T.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that it is essential for preschool education to explore environmental and ecological values. Discusses cognitive development of socio-ecological knowledge at three age levels. Asserts that folk tales provide good examples of ecological values because beauty usually triumphs over ugliness and good over evil. (CFR)

  8. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

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    Janna M. Shackeroff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

  9. Social learning research in ecological economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding

  10. Can law foster social-ecological resilience?

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    Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Benson, Melinda H.

    2013-01-01

    Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy, but unfortunately, many environmental laws were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding that there was a “balance of nature” that could be managed and sustained. This view assumes that natural resource managers have the capacity to predict the behavior of ecological systems, know what its important functional components are, and successfully predict the outcome of management interventions. This paper takes on this problem by summarizing and synthesizing the contributions to this Special Feature (Law and Social-Ecological Resilience, Part I: Contributions from Resilience 2011), focusing on the interaction of law and social-ecological resilience, and then offering recommendations for the integration of law and social-ecological resilience.

  11. Can Law Foster Social-Ecological Resilience?

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    Ahjond S. Garmestani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy, but unfortunately, many environmental laws were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding that there was a "balance of nature" that could be managed and sustained. This view assumes that natural resource managers have the capacity to predict the behavior of ecological systems, know what its important functional components are, and successfully predict the outcome of management interventions. This paper takes on this problem by summarizing and synthesizing the contributions to this Special Feature (Law and Social-Ecological Resilience, Part I: Contributions from Resilience 2011, focusing on the interaction of law and social-ecological resilience, and then offering recommendations for the integration of law and social-ecological resilience.

  12. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the...

  13. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

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    Graham Epstein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  14. Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from...... the review, we realized that research is mainly per- formed through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and that each study usually fo- cuses on one specific kind social media at a time. We believe that the social media ecology should be researched as a whole and in relationship with the physical...

  15. Marxism, social metabolism, and ecologically unequal exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Authors working on "industrial metabolism" or "social metabolism" look at the economy in terms of flows of energy and materials. Together with the ecological economists, they see the economy as a subsystem of a larger physical system. Marx and Engels followed with a few years' delay many of the remarkable scientific and technical novelties of their time.

  16. Social Ecological Model Analysis for ICT Integration

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    Zagami, Jason

    2013-01-01

    ICT integration of teacher preparation programmes was undertaken by the Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) project in all 39 Australian teacher education institutions and highlighted the need for guidelines to inform systemic ICT integration approaches. A Social Ecological Model (SEM) was used to positively inform integration…

  17. Enacting a social ecology: radically embodied intersubjectivity.

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    McGann, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognitive science frequently describe the mind as "world-involving," indicating complementary and interdependent relationships between an agent and its environment. The precise nature of the environment is frequently left ill-described, however, and provides a challenge for such approaches, particularly, it is noted here, for the enactive approach which emphasizes this complementarity in quite radical terms. This paper argues that enactivists should work to find common cause with a dynamic form of ecological psychology, a theoretical perspective that provides the most explicit theory of the psychological environment currently extant. In doing so, the intersubjective, cultural nature of the ecology of human psychology is explored, with the challenges this poses for both enactivist and ecological approaches outlined. The theory of behavior settings (Barker, 1968; Schoggen, 1989) is used to present a framework for resolving some of these challenges. Drawing these various strands together an outline of a radical embodied account of intersubjectivity and social activity is presented.

  18. Ecological Citizenship and Social Representation of Water

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    Marta Biagi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the social representations of water in urban cultures of Argentina, placing the subject as a matter of academic and practical interest. Some questions have guided this investigation—What is water for the urban dweller? What are the actions that a citizen is willing to exercise?—A qualitative research was conducted (according to Yin’s case analysis methodology in Gualeguaychú and Buenos Aires. Following the collected data, the authors reconstructed the dominant paradigm in both cities, which was the ecocentric model. However, the acceptance of ecological values and beliefs is not an indicator of the exercise of proecological behavior concerning water. Empirical findings have guided the authors to inquire the degree of relationship between social representations and attributes of Andrew Dobson’s model of ecological citizenship.

  19. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

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    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  20. Social-ecological systems, social diversity, and power: insights from anthropology and political ecology

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    Michael Fabinyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A social-ecological system (SES framework increasingly underpins the "resilience paradigm." As with all models, the SES comes with particular biases. We explore these key biases. We critically examine how the SES resilience literature has attempted to define and analyze the social arena. We argue that much SES literature defines people's interests and livelihoods as concerned primarily with the environment, and thereby underplays the role of other motivations and social institutions. We also highlight the SES resilience literature's focus on institutions and organized social units, which misses key aspects of social diversity and power. Our key premise is the importance of inter- and multi-disciplinary perspectives. To illustrate this, we draw attention to the critique of earlier ecological anthropology that remains relevant for current conceptualizations of SESs, focusing on the concepts of social diversity and power. And we discuss insights from social anthropology and political ecology that have responded to this critique to develop different ways of incorporating social diversity and power into human-environment relations. Finally, we discuss how these social science perspectives can help improve the understanding of the "social" in SES resilience research.

  1. The social ecology of health: leverage points and linkages.

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    Grzywacz, J G; Fuqua, J

    2000-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the usefulness of social ecology theory for improving the treatment and prevention of poor health. The social ecology of health, unlike the topics of previous triptychs in Behavioral Medicine, is a field without a clearly defined body of literature. We begin with an overview of the ecological perspective and ecological theory as outlined by Bronfenbrenner and colleagues, provide examples of how ecological concepts have been demonstrated to influence health, and discuss how these concepts can be used by health professionals. We present a heuristic model illustrating leverage points and linkages (i.e., socioeconomic status, family, work, and school), for health, and we conclude with a consideration of the benefits of social ecology to health professionals and a summary of the limitations of the ecological model.

  2. Framing futures: visualizing on social-ecological systems change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    An appreciation of the complexity and uncertainty that characterizes linked human and natural systems - or social-ecological systems - has proliferated throughout the sciences in recent decades. However, dominant societal images, mental models and discourses frame the complexity of social-ecological

  3. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

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    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  4. Putting the "E" in SES: unpacking the ecology in the Ostrom social-ecological system framework

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    Jessica M. Vogt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ostrom social-ecological system (SES framework offers an interdisciplinary tool for studies of linked human-natural systems. However, its origin in the social sciences belies the effectiveness of its interdisciplinary ambitions and undermines its ability to cope with ecological complexity. To narrow the gap between inherently dynamic ecological systems and the SES framework, we need to explicitly recognize that SES outcomes are coproduced by social systems in which choices are made, as well as an ecological system with a diverse assortment of dynamic natural processes that mediate the effect of those choices. We illustrate the need for more explicit incorporation of ecological attributes into the SES framework by presenting a case study of a community-managed forest in Indiana, USA. A preliminary set of ecological attributes are also proposed for inclusion in the SES framework with the aim of spurring interest in further development of a truly interdisciplinary framework for the study of SESs.

  5. Comparison of Frameworks for Analyzing Social-ecological Systems

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    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare 10 established frameworks for analyzing social-ecological systems. We limited ourselves to frameworks that were explicitly designed to be used by a wider community of researchers and practitioners. Although all these frameworks seem to have emerged from the need for concepts that permit structured, interdisciplinary reasoning about complex problems in social-ecological systems, they differ significantly with respect to contextual and structural criteria, such as conceptualization of the ecological and social systems and their interrelation. It appears that three main criteria suffice to produce a classification of frameworks that may be used as a decision tree when choosing a framework for analysis. These criteria are (i whether a framework conceptualizes the relationship between the social and ecological systems as being uni- or bidirectional; (ii whether it takes an anthropocentric or an ecocentric perspective on the ecological system; and (iii whether it is an action-oriented or an analysis-oriented framework.

  6. Introduction: Social-Ecological Resilience and Law

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    Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, "resilience theory," which embraces uncertainty and n...

  7. Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Heather M; Basurto, Xavier; Nenadovic, Mateja; Sievanen, Leila; Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Cota-Nieto, Juan José; Erisman, Brad E; Finkbeiner, Elena; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Moreno-Báez, Marcia; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Reddy, Sheila M W; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alexandra; Siegel, Katherine; Ulibarria-Valenzuela, José Juan; Weaver, Amy Hudson; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2015-05-12

    Environmental governance is more effective when the scales of ecological processes are well matched with the human institutions charged with managing human-environment interactions. The social-ecological systems (SESs) framework provides guidance on how to assess the social and ecological dimensions that contribute to sustainable resource use and management, but rarely if ever has been operationalized for multiple localities in a spatially explicit, quantitative manner. Here, we use the case of small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico, to identify distinct SES regions and test key aspects of coupled SESs theory. Regions that exhibit greater potential for social-ecological sustainability in one dimension do not necessarily exhibit it in others, highlighting the importance of integrative, coupled system analyses when implementing spatial planning and other ecosystem-based strategies.

  8. Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!

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    Charles, Eric P

    2011-03-01

    What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.

  9. Ecological interactions of sea sponges (Animalia, Porifera according to artisanal fishermen from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

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    Loyana Docio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first ethnospongiological study in Brazil, and it aimed at recording artisanal fishermen’s knowledge about sea sponges and their ecological interactions. The study was carried out in the Ilha do Contrato community at Camamu Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. The data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews and projective tests, and followed the usual techniques of ethnographic surveys. The interviewees had knowledge regarding ecological interactions among fish, sea sponges and sponge endofaunal composition. According to the results, there is some congruence between folk wisdom and scientific knowledge. The importance of integrating local knowledge into management and conservation plans designed for the Camamu Bay region, as well as the set of data on ecology of reef communities, should be considered.

  10. Social and Ecological Systems as an Object of Ecological Territorial Marketing: Analysis and Synthesis of Definitions

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    Anastasiya Sergeevna Strekalova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the marketing role in a sustainable development of territories and the solution of problems of environmental protection is proved, lack of difficult integration of concept ecological and place marketing on micro- and mesolevels is established. The comparative analysis of approaches to the formation of a conceptual basis of the theory of social and ecological systems as the methodological basis of ecological place marketing is carried out. The braking factors of the formulation of the definitions of monoaspect describing interaction of supersystems of the nature, society and the economy connected with difficulty of their universal use in research of other disciplinary or interdisciplinary profile are assigned. It is expedient to use institutional evolutionary E. Ostrom’s approach to interpretation of social and ecological systems. It is proved that such systems are characterized by the increased level of system integration and interdependence of their elements which are difficult for decomposition into separate objects of management; domination of informal institutes and heterogeneity of institutional structure which determines the high level of uncertainty and operational expenses, congenital from them. The author assigned the methodological principles of the marketing analysis of the social and ecological systems founded on the principles of a continuity of social and natural processes, heterogeneity of a subject and structure of object, an economic causal relationship, stakeholdering, evolutionary character and transformation of the market of the social and ecological relations.

  11. The Social Ecology Research Project, 1988-1991. Final Report.

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    Coleman, J. Michael; Minnett, Ann M.

    This report describes the Social Ecology Research Project, which assessed the foundations of personal-social competence in children with mental handicaps (MH). Children with mild MH (n=1,200) and their normally achieving peers (n=2,500), all ages 8-14, were studied over 3 years. Students were assessed in resource and regular classrooms, and…

  12. Research topics in Social Psychology in Brazil

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    Cláudio V. Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available How is the portrait of the Brazilian scientific production in Social Psychology of the past few years? This study aims to address especifically this question, by visiting the articles published by Brazilian scholars since 1980, all of whom have been recognized and sponsored by the Brazilian National Council on Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq. Production from 80 Brazilian researchers was analysed, based on phenomena traditionally studied by Social Psychologists (e.g., Social Influence, which served as a priori categories. Articles that reflect studies developed in 5 geopolitical regions of the country, but data showed regions South and Southeast with the highest concentration in terms of academic production. Such finding is discussed in terms of the influence of an individualist culture on Brazilian research. Observing the main Social Psychology topics studied by Brazilians, it was noticed a centrality of the "Psychological" approach to Social Psychology, mainly originated in English-speaking countries.

  13. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

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    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  15. Ecology and conservation of dusky grouper (Epinephelidae in southern Brazil

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    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus has a broad global distribution and is currently listed as an endangered species at the IUCN Red List. This species has large commercial and ecological importance, but only at the last decade the first studies were carried out on its bioecology at its southernmost distribution limit in Southwestern Atlantic. This region is largely formed by sand bottoms, where the occurrence of reefs and rocks are scarce. Rocky bottoms occur in the neritic region (along 20 to 30 m isobaths and in the jetties in the littoral region, and in both areas the dusky grouper occur frequently. Our studies showed that immature individuals (mean: 4 yrs of dusky groupers inhabiting rocky jetties in the littoral region represents an important economical incoming for artisanal fishermen, whereas adults (mean: 8 yrs are mostly caught at offshore banks 15-25 m deep by coastal fisheries. Microscopic analyses of gonads of littoral and neritic individuals suggest that the littoral region is a growing nursery area and the neritic is a reproductive site. Feeding ecology studies based on stomach content and stable isotopes showed that the species has an important role as top predators in both regions. Future studies on the residence time of immature individuals in the littoral using telemetry are fundamental to further understand the ecology of this endangered species in the Southwestern Atlantic and to help its fishing management and conservation.

  16. Urban Environmental Education From a Social-Ecological Perspective: Conceptual Framework for Civic Ecology Education

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    Keith G. Tidball

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of environmental education practices are emerging to address the needs of an increasingly urban population. Drawing from social-ecological systems and social learning theory, we propose a conceptual framework to stimulate research questions in urban environmental education. More specifically, our conceptual framework focuses on environmental education programs that are nested within and linked to community-based stewardship or civic ecology practices, such as community forestry, streamside restoration, and community gardening. It suggests ways in which educational programs, stewardship practice, and other social-ecological system components and processes interact through feedback loops and other mechanisms, as well as means by which urban environmental education might lead to local ecosystem services and human and community well-being. Human and community outcomes may in turn result in pressure to change environmental policies.

  17. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

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    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  18. Social-ecological resilience and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, “resilience theory,” which embraces uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems, has provided a robust, invaluable foundation for sound environmental management. Reforming American law to incorporate this knowledge is the key to sustainability. This volume features top legal and resilience scholars speaking on resilience theory and its legal applications to climate change, biodiversity, national parks, and water law.

  19. Social-ecological predictors of global invasions and extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Aaron; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Most assessments of resilience have been focused on local conditions. Studies focused on the relationship between humanity and environmental degradation are rare, and are rarely comprehensive. We investigated multiple social-ecological factors for 100 countries around the globe in relation to the percentage of invasions and extinctions within each country. These 100 countries contain approximately 87% of the world’s population, produce 43% of the world’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP), and take up 74% of the earth’s total land area. We used an information theoretic approach to determine which models were most supported by our data, utilizing an a priori set of plausible models that included a combination of 15 social-ecological variables, each social-ecological factor by itself, and selected social-ecological factors grouped into three broad classes. These variables were per capita GDP, export-import ratio, tourism, undernourishment, energy efficiency, agricultural intensity, rainfall, water stress, wilderness protection, total biodiversity, life expectancy, adult literacy, pesticide regulation, political stability, and female participation in government. Our results indicate that as total biodiversity and total land area increase, the percentage of endangered birds also increases. As the independent variables (agricultural intensity, rainfall, water stress, and total biodiversity) in the ecological class model increase, the percentage of endangered mammals in a country increases. The percentage of invasive birds and mammals in a country increases as per capita GDP increases. As life expectancy increases, the percentage of invasive and endangered birds and mammals increases. Although our analysis does not determine mechanisms, the patterns observed in this study provide insight into the dynamics of a complex, global, social-ecological system.

  20. Social-Ecological Predictors of Global Invasions and Extinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Lotz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most assessments of resilience have been focused on local conditions. Studies focused on the relationship between humanity and environmental degradation are rare, and are rarely comprehensive. We investigated multiple social-ecological factors for 100 countries around the globe in relation to the percentage of invasions and extinctions within each country. These 100 countries contain approximately 87% of the world's population, produce 43% of the world's per capita gross domestic product (GDP, and take up 74% of the earth's total land area. We used an information theoretic approach to determine which models were most supported by our data, utilizing an a priori set of plausible models that included a combination of 15 social-ecological variables, each social-ecological factor by itself, and selected social-ecological factors grouped into three broad classes. These variables were per capita GDP, export-import ratio, tourism, undernourishment, energy efficiency, agricultural intensity, rainfall, water stress, wilderness protection, total biodiversity, life expectancy, adult literacy, pesticide regulation, political stability, and female participation in government. Our results indicate that as total biodiversity and total land area increase, the percentage of endangered birds also increases. As the independent variables (agricultural intensity, rainfall, water stress, and total biodiversity in the ecological class model increase, the percentage of endangered mammals in a country increases. The percentage of invasive birds and mammals in a country increases as per capita GDP increases. As life expectancy increases, the percentage of invasive and endangered birds and mammals increases. Although our analysis does not determine mechanisms, the patterns observed in this study provide insight into the dynamics of a complex, global, social-ecological system.

  1. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  2. An Ecological Validation of Social Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; Sutterfield, Sara J.

    1980-01-01

    Two classrooms of first graders (N=40) were administered Damon's moral judgment measure, Shure and Spivack's social problem solving measure, and the Stanford-Binet vocabulary. Concurrently, two observers in the children's school environment recorded incidences of successful resolutions of interactions, amount of derogation, and the number of times…

  3. Population ecology of hantavirus rodent hosts in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H B V; Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S

    2014-08-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts.

  4. Social, economic en ecological evaluation of the polder Breebaart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ComCoast

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this evaluation is to gain insight in the social, economic en ecological impacts of an overtopping resistant dike compared to a traditional dike in combination with different forms of land use in the hinterland. At the same time this pilot study should provide support the decision makers

  5. Channeling power across ecological systems: social regularities in community organizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D; Inzeo, Paula Tran; Faust, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Relational and social network perspectives provide opportunities for more holistic conceptualizations of phenomena of interest in community psychology, including power and empowerment. In this article, we apply these tools to build on multilevel frameworks of empowerment by proposing that networks of relationships between individuals constitute the connective spaces between ecological systems. Drawing on an example of a model for grassroots community organizing practiced by WISDOM—a statewide federation supporting local community organizing initiatives in Wisconsin—we identify social regularities (i.e., relational and temporal patterns) that promote empowerment and the development and exercise of social power through building and altering relational ties. Through an emphasis on listening-focused one-to-one meetings, reflection, and social analysis, WISDOM organizing initiatives construct and reinforce social regularities that develop social power in the organizing initiatives and advance psychological empowerment among participant leaders in organizing. These patterns are established by organizationally driven brokerage and mobilization of interpersonal ties, some of which span ecological systems.Hence, elements of these power-focused social regularities can be conceptualized as cross-system channels through which micro-level empowerment processes feed into macro-level exercise of social power, and vice versa. We describe examples of these channels in action, and offer recommendations for theory and design of future action research [corrected] .

  6. Social Movements in Brazil and their Educational Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Elie

    1998-03-01

    Using a distinction first proposed by Alain Touraine between historic and social movements, Ghanem's review of grassroots initiatives in Brazil argues that, despite differences in composition and aims, movements such as the landless rural workers, indigenous groups, and the women's movement in Brazil have attempted to shift the current socioeconomic order toward a new equilibrium - a process that is, however, not yet complete. In Ghanem's view, these movements are best described as historic movements. Addressing their educational aims, the author finds that they tend to fall into two types: (1) the self-provision of knowledge related to the set of problems that gave rise to their movement in the first place; (2) the striving for access to knowledge that is due to them as citizens and yet not given to them by the state. Often, social movements in Brazil are obliged to offer educational services through their own resources, services which are characterized by precarious conditions and which make the right to quality education still a distant dream.

  7. Social protection in Brazil: what has changed in social assistance after the 1988 Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsman, Jeni; de Andrade, Gabriela Rieveres Borges; Farias, Luis Otávio

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in the social assistance component of social protection in the two decades that followed the 1988 Constitution. It discusses the transformations of social protection and social assistance in the past decades and the processes that in the 1990 s advanced the reform of social assistance policies in Brazil without, however, producing great changes in how services were delivered. By 2000 there had been a great expansion of resources as well as benefits and services coverage in social assistance. This paper argues that conditional cash transfer programs, though created and spread in an international context of restrictive policies, when integrated into Brazil s public and universal system of social assistance, substantively widened the scope of social protection. Some effects of the expansion in the Brazilian social protection system are identified: less income inequality; creation of an institutional capacity in the area of social assistance; the social, political and symbolic meaning of the inclusion of a large segment of the population in a public system of social assistance by means of a provision structure that does not belong to traditional devices of philanthropy and clientelism.

  8. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  9. Networks of Corporate Social Responsibility in Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In research on CSR in Brazil and Argentina, we saw a huge disparity in the grass-roots of the theme in each country. The hypothesis, stemming from this article, is that the great success of the CSR movement in Brazil and its relatively weak development in Argentina is due to the presence of a hegemonic dispute - in observed dynamic communication - among some segments of business elites regarding the purpose of CSR, present in the Brazilian case and absent in Argentina. This article intends to discuss the concept of hegemonic dispute - highlighting conflict as a fundamental social relationship in the configuration of network topographies of movements to promote CSR in both countries. Such an understanding is essential for professionals and researchers working in the area of ​​organizational communication.

  10. Social-ecological resilience to changes in moisture recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Line; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Keys, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Scientists from the biophysical and social sciences often define resilience substantially different. Biophysical scientists primarily use resilience to understand how a system can return to an equilibrium following a perturbation, and social scientists use resilience to understand what enables, or disable, human development. In the Anthropocene, where social changes are causing both linear and nonlinear biophysical changes, with local or distant feedbacks on society, it is important to develop integrated definitions and analytical methods to analyze combined social-ecological interactions. There has been a growing amount of research in this field over the last decade, but with a primary focus on relatively small-scale regions or specific ecosystems. In this paper we review literature dealing with interdisciplinary aspects of resilience to global change and develop a conceptual framework for analyzing social-ecological resilience in relation to moisture recycling (i.e. where evaporation from land returns as precipitation on land). We first identify current social drivers of changes in evaporation (including e.g. large scale land and water acquisitions, and REDD+ programs). We then identify geographic regions where the effects of altered evaporation on moisture recycling can risk a) causing thresholds in specific biomes (such as between forests and savannas), or b) shifts in social systems (such as collapse of rainfed farming systems). We also identify institutional structures that enhance the capacity to enhance resilience through either dealing directly with drivers, or building adaptive capacity to changes in moisture recycling. We particularly stress the difference between regional feedbacks (where the consequences are felt in the same regions where decisions are made), and teleconnections, i.e. where local decision in one place is altering important drivers for distant social-ecological systems. Through this review we identify the characteristics of interlinked

  11. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  12. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  13. Human Dimensions of Coral Reef Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet but are declining because of human activities. Despite general recognition of the human role in the plight of coral reefs, the vast majority of research focuses on the ecological rather than the human dimensions of reef ecosystems, limiting our understanding of social relationships with these environments as well as potential solutions for reef recovery. General frameworks for social-ecological systems (SESs have been advanced, but system-specific approaches are needed to develop a more nuanced view of human-environmental interactions for specific contexts and resource systems, and at specific scales. We synthesize existing concepts related to SESs and present a human dimensions framework that explores the linkages between social system structural traits, human activities, ecosystem services, and human well-being in coral reef SESs. Key features of the framework include social-ecological reciprocity, proximate and underlying dimensions, and the directionality of key relationships and feedback loops. Such frameworks are needed if human dimensions research is to be more fully integrated into studies of ecosystem change and the sustainability of linked SESs.

  14. Marine reserves as linked social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Christie, Patrick; Cinner, Joshua E; Dalton, Tracey; Daw, Tim M; Forrester, Graham E; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserves are increasingly recognized as having linked social and ecological dynamics. This study investigates how the ecological performance of 56 marine reserves throughout the Philippines, Caribbean, and Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is related to both reserve design features and the socioeconomic characteristics in associated coastal communities. Ecological performance was measured as fish biomass in the reserve relative to nearby areas. Of the socioeconomic variables considered, human population density and compliance with reserve rules had the strongest effects on fish biomass, but the effects of these variables were region specific. Relationships between population density and the reserve effect on fish biomass were negative in the Caribbean, positive in the WIO, and not detectable in the Philippines. Differing associations between population density and reserve effectiveness defy simple explanation but may depend on human migration to effective reserves, depletion of fish stocks outside reserves, or other social factors that change with population density. Higher levels of compliance reported by resource users was related to higher fish biomass in reserves compared with outside, but this relationship was only statistically significant in the Caribbean. A heuristic model based on correlations between social, cultural, political, economic, and other contextual conditions in 127 marine reserves showed that high levels of compliance with reserve rules were related to complex social interactions rather than simply to enforcement of reserve rules. Comparative research of this type is important for uncovering the complexities surrounding human dimensions of marine reserves and improving reserve management.

  15. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  16. Efficient and resilient governance of social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Adam

    2015-09-01

    New institutions are critically needed to improve the resilience of social-ecological systems globally. Watershed management offers an important model due to its ability to govern mixed-ownership landscapes through common property regimes, translating national goals into local action. Here, I assess the efficacy of state watershed management institutions in the Pacific Northwest, based on their ability to support local watershed groups. I use document analysis to describe and compare state institutions in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California. Results indicate that state institutional efficiency and resilience are the key factors determining watershed group activity and stability. The primary drivers of institutional efficiency and resilience were institutional unification, robust funding portfolios, low agency conflict, and strong support for economic multiplier effects, creative partnerships, and scholarly research. My findings elucidate the critical role of institutional efficiency and resilience in governing dynamic and complex social-ecological systems, enabling the flexibility to address emergent transformations.

  17. Experimental platforms for behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in using behavioral experiments to study hypotheses on the governance of social-ecological systems. A diversity of software tools are used to implement such experiments. We evaluated various publicly available platforms that could be used in research and education on the governance of social-ecological systems. The aims of the various platforms are distinct, and this is noticeable in the differences in their user-friendliness and their adaptability to novel research questions. The more easily accessible platforms are useful for prototyping experiments and for educational purposes to illustrate theoretical concepts. To advance novel research aims, more elaborate programming experience is required to either implement an experiment from scratch or adjust existing experimental software. There is no ideal platform best suited for all possible use cases, but we have provided a menu of options and their associated trade-offs.

  18. Social Farming in the Promotion of Social-Ecological Sustainability in Rural and Periurban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina García-Llorente

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are facing a spectrum of landscape changes and vulnerability as a consequence of financial and environmental crises. Innovative approaches are required to maintain the provision of social services and manage ecosystem services in these areas. We explore the capacity of social farming to create viable and sustainable rural and periurban areas according to a social-ecological perspective. We use the key elements of social-ecological systems under social farming practices to analyse (1 the role of local communities and non-formal institutions; (2 the involvement of target stakeholders; and (3 the explicit connection between agroecosystems and human wellbeing. To do so, we selected and described four cases of local social farming initiatives in terms of the key elements of social-ecological systems and conducted a literature review to provide an overview of the explicit impact of social farming on the quality of life. We found that social farming illustrates hybrid governance solutions beyond market instruments that could be applied for the governance of agroecosystems. It can also provide a range of other wellbeing and cultural ecosystem services to rural and urban inhabitants. Greater cooperation between social farming and ecosystem service science could rebound in rural landscape sustainability.

  19. Bridging ecological and social systems coevolution. A review and proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gual, Miguel A. [Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Crtra. Utrera, Km 1, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Program, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Social and Natural sciences have, for the most part, ignored the existence of interlinked/interdependent evolutionary processes between cultural and biotic systems, both embedded in an overall dynamic biophysical environment. In this paper, we explore the potential of filling this gap by further developing a common coevolutionary framework based on earlier work in ecological economics. Our main concern is to contribute to the understanding of socioecological coevolution in two ways: (1) to find a general framework that accommodates advances in the explanation of sociocultural evolution in social sciences and, (2) to identify the specific mechanisms that could link this knowledge to what is known in the biological sciences. (author)

  20. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems.

  1. Ecological and Social Aspects of Ecological Restoration: New Challenges and Opportunities for Northern Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in ecological restoration has recently intensified as scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders use restoration in management strategies to address and mitigate global climate change and biodiversity loss. Northern ecosystems offer special challenges to restoration managers because of their short growing seasons and long recovery periods. This special feature of Ecology and Society on ecological restoration in northern regions draws together 11 papers based on presentations from the conference "Restoring the North", convened in October 2011 in Selfoss, Iceland. We summarize two themes of this conference: (1 setting objectives and evaluating success in restoration, and (2 legislation, policy, and implementation of restoration. We conclude that northern countries altogether comprise a significant knowledge base and suggest five actions to enhance restoration practices within them: (1 improved documentation of restoration actions, including objectives, measures and results, (2 regular evaluation of restoration progress and outcome, (3 coordination of conservation actions among northern countries, including location of restoration actions to sites where they are most useful in a global context, (4 formation of a common platform to strengthen development of research about ecological, political, social, and technical aspects of ecological restoration, and (5 education of new generations of restoration actors who can work in diverse biogeographic settings and cultures.

  2. Social determinants and their interference in homicide rates in a city in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geziel dos Santos de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to analyze the possible relationship between social determinants and homicide mortality in Fortaleza (CE, Brazil. METHOD: To investigate whether the rate of mortality by homicides is related to social determinants, an ecological study with emphasis on spatial analysis was conducted in the city of Fortaleza. Social, economic, demographic and sanitation data, as well as information regarding years of potential life lost, and Human Development Index were collected. The dependent variable was the rate of homicides in the period 2004 to 2006. In order to verify the relationship between the outcome variable and the predictor variables, we performed a multivariate linear regression model. RESULTS: We found associations between social determinants and the rate of mortality by homicides. Variables related to income and education were proven determinants for mortality. The multiple regression model showed that 51% of homicides in Fortaleza neighborhoods are explained by years of potential life lost, proportion of households with poor housing, average years of schooling, per capita income and percentage of household heads with 15 or more years of study. The coefficients for years of potential life lost and households with poor housing were positive. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the mortality by homicide is associated with high levels of poverty and uncontrolled urbanization, which migrates to the peripheries of urban centers.

  3. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  4. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  5. Social and cultural dimensions of hypertension in Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    Full Text Available Elevated arterial blood pressure varies substantially in relation to social and cultural variables. Early work on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and blood pressure documented this variation, which could not be explained entirely by conventional factors such as diet, physical activity, or access to medical care. These findings stimulated the development of a model of stress and disease. The stress model emphasizes social and psychological factors that are perceived by individuals to be stressful, as well as factors that help individuals to respond to those stressors. Conventional stress models are, however, problematic because the primary emphasis is on individual perception, with little consideration of the social and cultural context in which stress occurs. This paper describes a complementary model of social and cultural influences on disease risk, placing greater emphasis on how individuals are able to approximate, in their own behaviors, shared cultural models of life, referred to as "cultural consonance". Findings from research in Brazil indicate that the higher an individual's cultural consonance, the lower his or her blood pressure. These results indicate the importance of linking different levels of analysis - the cultural, the individual, and the biological - to understand disease risk.

  6. Social and cultural dimensions of hypertension in Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressler William W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated arterial blood pressure varies substantially in relation to social and cultural variables. Early work on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and blood pressure documented this variation, which could not be explained entirely by conventional factors such as diet, physical activity, or access to medical care. These findings stimulated the development of a model of stress and disease. The stress model emphasizes social and psychological factors that are perceived by individuals to be stressful, as well as factors that help individuals to respond to those stressors. Conventional stress models are, however, problematic because the primary emphasis is on individual perception, with little consideration of the social and cultural context in which stress occurs. This paper describes a complementary model of social and cultural influences on disease risk, placing greater emphasis on how individuals are able to approximate, in their own behaviors, shared cultural models of life, referred to as "cultural consonance". Findings from research in Brazil indicate that the higher an individual's cultural consonance, the lower his or her blood pressure. These results indicate the importance of linking different levels of analysis - the cultural, the individual, and the biological - to understand disease risk.

  7. Hydraulic engineering in the social-ecological delta: understanding the interplay between social, ecological, and technological systems in the Dutch delta by means of “delta trajectories”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Several of the world's largest deltas have recently been conceptualized as social-ecological delta systems. Although such conceptualizations are valuable in emphasizing complex interaction between social actors and ecological processes in deltas, they do not go into specific dynamics that surround t

  8. The Oak Ridges Moraine as a Social Innovation: Strategic Vision as a Social-Ecological Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. P. McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM case is unique in that it represents a social innovation in Canadian, if not North American, ecosystem-based land-use planning. A social innovation is an initiative, product, process, or program that profoundly changes the basic routines, resources, and authority flows or beliefs of any social system. Successful social innovations have durability and broad impact. We interpret the narrative of the ORM conservation process to explore the utility of an emerging social innovation conceptual model, the 'vision as social interaction' framework using resilience thinking and the role of vision in social change within complex social-ecological systems. Qualitative data from two interrelated studies of the moraine were reinterpreted and include 38 in-depth, semistructured interviews conducted between 2004-2006, as well as extensive participant observation at over 50 moraine conservation meetings, workshops, and events. The results of our study indicate that emerging model of social innovation can be linked with other models of 'radical change' such as those that employ concepts like 'policy windows' to describe opportunities for continued innovation once an initiative has reached the routinized phase. Just as with the panarchy cycle, when a social-ecological system reaches the conservation phase, the system has a propensity to collapse and reorganize. Rather than seeing this as the end of an initiative or program, such as is the case with the ORM, stakeholders can see it as an opportunity for reorganization with newly released resources and new opportunities.

  9. Local ecological knowledge and the interaction of porpoises with fishing on the coast of the state of Para, Brazil

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    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishing has a great importance to the socioeconomic development of the Amazonian riparian communities, which have a local knowledge on the environment, its fauna and flora. This knowledge is of paramount importance for the management and conservation of fish stocks and species that interact with the fishing activity, such as the populations of gray porpoises (Sotalia sp. and pink porpoises (Inia geoffrensis. Therefore, to register local ecological knowledge and the interaction of porpoises with fishing on the coast of the state of Para, Brazil, 82 semi-structured interviews were carried out in 3 different colonies of fishermen: colony Z-1 (Soure, colony Z-7 (Maracana, and colony Z-23 (Colares. The species Sotalia sp. had a strong social structure, it can be observed in the region both during the dry and rainy seasons, while the species I. geoffrensis didn’t present a social structure, it’s observed in the region especially during the rainy season. The pink porpoise showed a larger interaction with fishing than the gray porpoise, however, this interaction was particularly detrimental to the activity, while the gray porpoise showed both a beneficial and a harmful interaction with fishing. The incidental capture of porpoises primarily occurred through nets and trawls, harming their populations. Captured animals were mostly released, however, there were records of consumption for food, use as bait, and selling of the animal’s eyes. This information will constitute the basis for further studies on the biology, ecology, and estimate of the mortality of porpoises on the Amazon coast. Management measures should be adopted, along with the communities studied, for the conservation of these animals in the region.

  10. Sustainability: ecological, social, economic, technological, and systems perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Heriberto; Pawlowski, Christopher W.; Mayer, Audrey L.; Hoagland, N.Theresa [West Martin Luther King Drive, 45268, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: ''.. development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs..'' However, there is no mathematical theory embodying these concepts, although one would be immensely valuable in humanity's efforts to manage the environment. The concept of sustainability applies to integrated systems comprising humans and the rest of nature; the structures and operation of the human component (society, economy, law, etc.) must be such that they reinforce the persistence of the structures and operation of the natural component (ecosystem trophic linkages, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, etc.). One of the challenges of sustainability research lies in linking measures of ecosystem functioning to the structure and operation of the associated social system. We review the nature of this complex system including its ecological, social, economic, and technological aspects, and propose an approach to assessing sustainability based on Information Theory that bridges the natural and human systems. These principles are then illustrated using a model system with an ecological food web linked to a rudimentary social system. This work is part of the efforts of a larger multidisciplinary group at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. (orig.)

  11. [Sociology of health, social ecology and media democracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2012-05-27

    The correlation of the sociology of health, social ecology and media democracy is demonstrated in the study. In societies of today, the role of the media is unquestionable in disseminating information relating to health and the environment. According to Paragraph (1) of Article XXI of the Hungarian Constitution of 2011, everyone has the right to a healthy environment. An environmentalist media democracy may forward environmental justice, environmental education, and environmentalist economy, etc. All these are required in order to establish a society where the healthy environment is an objective value.

  12. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  13. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers

  14. Stasis and change: social psychological insights into social-ecological resilience

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    Elizabeth V. Hobman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists have used the concept of resilience since the 1970s. Resilience also features in many of the social and economic sciences, though in a less central role and with a variety of interpretations. Developing a fuller understanding of the concept of social-ecological resilience promises advances in how science can contribute to achieving better environmental outcomes, locally and globally. Such a development requires articulation of different perspectives on resilience and critical engagement across those perspectives. We present, in some detail, a particular perspective on resilience developed by the pioneering social psychologist Kurt Lewin. We suggest that Lewin's explicit use of social-ecological systems in his framework presaged much of the current social-ecological understanding of resilience. We set out some key details of his framework, notably the characteristics of his field theory, his use of group dynamics as a vehicle for social change, his introduction and development of the principles of action research, and his three-step change model. We conclude by mentioning some areas of the framework that are under-theorized or not theorized at all.

  15. The Social Ecology of Maternal Infant Care in Socially and Economically Marginalized Community in Southern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K.; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to better understand the social ecology of infant care (IC) as experienced and perceived by mothers living in a deprived Arab Bedouin community in Israel, where children's health indicators are poor. We used the integrative model of Garcia Coll et al. (Garcia Coll C, Lamberty G, Jenkins R "et al." An integrative model for the study…

  16. Ecological Theory Origin from Natural to Social Science of Vice Versa? A Brief Conceptual History for Social Work

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    Karen Smith Rotabi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The origin of holistic social work and ecological theory was investigated. Emphasis was placed on Howard W. Odum, founding dean of the University of North Carolina School of Public Welfare, and subsequent scholarship by his sons, collaborators on the first American ecology text. Eugene and Howard Thomas Odum, internationally recognized ecological scholars, identified holism as a universal concept originating in social sciences, crediting their father’s earlier sociological work,which later bridged to ecosystems ecology. A historical review of the influential sociologists, social workers, and ecologists is presented to build the case for ecological theory transfer across the three disciplines, beginning with sociology. Critique of the current use of the ecological perspective is discussed, specifically social work’s tendency to target social systems and behavior while largely ignoring the natural environment.

  17. Research for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Social and Ecological Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Hall, Emilie; Conder, Emily; Lane, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    The social and ecological validity of a body of research may impact the degree to which interventions will be used outside of research contexts. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which social and ecological validity were demonstrated for interventions designed to increase social skills for young children with autism…

  18. Social ecology of resilience and Sumud of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity. In Europe, research into resilience extends back to the 1800s. The understanding of resilience has developed over four overlapping waves. These focus on individual traits, protective factors, ecological assets and (in the current wave) social ecological factors. The current wave of resilience research focuses on the contribution of cultural contextualisation and is an approach that is discussed in this article, which draws on Arabic and English language literature located through a search of multiple databases (CINAHL, British Nursing Index, ASSIA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE). Findings suggest that 'Sumud' is linked to the surrounding cultural context and can be thought of as an innovative, social ecological, approach to promoting resilience. We show that resilience is a prerequisite to 'Sumud', meaning that the individual has to be resilient in order to stay and not to leave their place, position or community. We close by pressing the case for studies which investigate resilience especially in underdeveloped countries such as Palestine (occupied Palestinian territories), and which reveal how resilience is embedded in pre-existing cultural contexts.

  19. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Robert J.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  20. Epidemiology and social inequalities of periodontal disease in Brazil

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    Pamella Valente Palma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies discuss the relationship between social inequalities and their effect on health, but no consensus has been reached. This can be explained by the fact that this relationship is not found in all diseases, nor in all people, and is inconsistent over time. The intent of this study was to examine the epidemiology and the social inequalities of periodontal disease in Brazil through a comparison of the two most recent nationally-based epidemiological studies of oral health conducted in the country (SBBrasil. According to the SBBrasil 2003 and 2010 studies, there is perceptible improvement in the periodontal status of the population, however intra-regional differences persist, possibly explained by inequitable access to health services. These inequalities can adversely affect access to health information and network services, as well as interfere with the implementation of public policy. It was observed that the presence of dental calculus increases with age, reaching the highest prevalence among adults, close to 64%, and declining in the elderly. This group presented the worst periodontal condition, while adults had higher gingival bleeding.

  1. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

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    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  2. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

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    Rosely Sichieri

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  3. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

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    Sichieri Rosely

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  4. On the routes of Social Psychology in Brazil Sobre os rumos da Psicologia Social no Brasil

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    Celso Pereira de Sá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the different paths of knowledge production that Social psychologists have run in Brazil, the text makes a distinction between a stricto sensu Social Psychology and the lato sensu one. The stricto sensu Social Psychologycomprises the trends found in the historical development of the discipline and in scientific modernity: the mainstream "psychological" Social Psychology; the European "sociological" Social Psychology; the "micro-sociological" perspectives, since Mead. The lato sensu Social Psychology comprises the trends that emerged aside the subject's history or very recently, following other epistemological guidelines: the Marxist Social Psychology, institutional analysis, socio-historical Psychology, socio-constructionism, and the philosophical Social Psychology. The eight trends listed are then submitted to evaluations regarding the two basic dimensions of Social Psychology: societal and psychological. A comparative picture of those evaluations discloses differences between the stricto and lato sensu sets of Social Psychology, as well as between the several trends in the scope of each set.Considerando os variados rumos de produção de conhecimento trilhados no Brasil pelos psicólogos sociais, o texto faz distinção entre uma Psicologia Social stricto sensu e outra lato sensu. À Psicologia Social stricto sensu correspondem as correntes que se situam no desenvolvimento histórico da disciplina e na modernidade científica: a Psicologia Social "psicológica" mainstream; a Psicologia Social "sociológica" europeia; as perspectivas "microssociológicas", desde Mead. À Psicologia Social lato sensu correspondem as correntes surgidas à margem da história da disciplina ou muito recentemente, com outras diretrizes epistemológicas: Psicologia Social marxista, análise institucional, Psicologia sócio-histórica, sócio-construcionismo e Psicologia Social filosófica. As oito correntes listadas são em seguida submetidas a avalia

  5. The role of social learning for social-ecological systems in Korean village groves restoration

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    Eunju Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, social learning has been recognized as a means to foster adaptation to changing conditions, and more broadly, social-ecological systems resilience. However, the discussion of social learning and social-ecological resilience in different cultural contexts is limited. In this study we introduce the Korean Village Groves Restoration Project (VGRP through the lens of social learning, and discuss implications of the VGRP for resilience in villages impacted by industrialization and decline of traditional forest resources. We conducted open-ended interviews with VGRP leaders, government and NGO officials, and residents in four villages in South Korea, and found that villages responded to ecosystem change in ways that could be explained by the characteristics of social learning including interaction, integration, systems orientation, and reflection. However, the processes of learning varied among the four villages, and were associated with different levels of learning and different learning outcomes related to changes in village grove management and governance. The cultural and historical context can be used to help understand social learning processes and their outcomes in the Korean cases.

  6. New challenges for Social Psychology in Brazil Novos desafios para a Psicologia Social no Brasil

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    Willem Doise

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analysed the variety of contemporary social psychological approaches in Brazil as part of a network and of a complex common scientific system. They mutually influence each other in different ways, according to intricate patterns of approach and avoidance, of confirming agreements in various ways and, of course, also accentuating disagreements. The paper suggests that such intervention could further a mutual discussion on the role that social psychologists could play or not in the process of societal change that characterizes the Brazilian society, and on how they eventually should or should not intervene in this change. In order to dynamize even more the social psychology community in Brazil, the idea of Summer Schools could be recommended.Neste artigo analisamos a variedade das abordagens contemporâneas da psicologia social no Brasil como parte de uma rede e de um complexo sistema científico comum. Eles se influenciam mutuamente de diferentes maneiras, de acordo com intrincados padrões de aproximação e esquiva, confirmando acordos de vários tipos e, é claro, também acentuando as divergências. O artigo sugere que tal simpósio poderia promover uma discussão sobre o papel dos psicólogos sociais no processo de mudança social que caracteriza a sociedade brasileira e, eventualmente, como eles poderiam intervir nesta mudança. A fim de dinamizar ainda mais a comunidade da Psicologia Social no Brasil, a idéia de Escolas de Verão poderia ser recomendada.

  7. Double coupling: modeling subjectivity and asymmetric organization in social-ecological systems

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    David Manuel-Navarrete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological organization is a multidimensional phenomenon that combines material and symbolic processes. However, the coupling between social and ecological subsystem is often conceptualized as purely material, thus reducing the symbolic dimension to its behavioral and actionable expressions. In this paper I conceptualize social-ecological systems as doubly coupled. On the one hand, material expressions of socio-cultural processes affect and are affected by ecological dynamics. On the other hand, coupled social-ecological material dynamics are concurrently coupled with subjective dynamics via coding, decoding, personal experience, and human agency. This second coupling operates across two organizationally heterogeneous dimensions: material and symbolic. Although resilience thinking builds on the recognition of organizational asymmetry between living and nonliving systems, it has overlooked the equivalent asymmetry between ecological and socio-cultural subsystems. Three guiding concepts are proposed to formalize double coupling. The first one, social-ecological asymmetry, expands on past seminal work on ecological self-organization to incorporate reflexivity and subjectivity in social-ecological modeling. Organizational asymmetry is based in the distinction between social rules, which are symbolically produced and changed through human agents' reflexivity and purpose, and biophysical rules, which are determined by functional relations between ecological components. The second guiding concept, conscious power, brings to the fore human agents' distinctive capacity to produce our own subjective identity and the consequences of this capacity for social-ecological organization. The third concept, congruence between subjective and objective dynamics, redefines sustainability as contingent on congruent relations between material and symbolic processes. Social-ecological theories and analyses based on these three guiding concepts would support the

  8. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

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    Duncan Amy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376 and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT. Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs.

  9. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised.

  10. Common Core Themes in Geomorphic, Ecological, and Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Chin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Core themes of geomorphology include: open systems and connectivity; feedbacks and complexity; spatial differentiation of dominant physical processes within a landscape; and legacy effects of historical human use of resources. Core themes of ecology include: open systems and connectivity; hierarchical, heterogeneous, dynamic, and context-dependent characteristics of ecological patterns and processes; nonlinearity, thresholds, hysteresis, and resilience within ecosystems; and human effects. Core themes of environmental governance include: architecture of institutions and decision-making; agency, or ability of actors to prescribe behavior of people in relation to the environment; adaptiveness of social groups to environmental change; accountability and legitimacy of systems of governance; allocation of and access to resources; and thresholds and feedback loops within environmental policy. Core themes common to these disciplines include connectivity, feedbacks, tipping points or thresholds, and resiliency. Emphasizing these points of disciplinary overlap can facilitate interdisciplinary understanding of complex systems, as well as more effective management of landscapes and ecosystems by highlighting drivers of change within systems. We use a previously published conceptual framework to examine how these core themes can be integrated into interdisciplinary research for human-landscape systems via the example of a river.

  11. Lab experiments for the study of social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marco A; Holahan, Robert; Lee, Allen; Ostrom, Elinor

    2010-04-30

    Governance of social-ecological systems is a major policy problem of the contemporary era. Field studies of fisheries, forests, and pastoral and water resources have identified many variables that influence the outcomes of governance efforts. We introduce an experimental environment that involves spatial and temporal resource dynamics in order to capture these two critical variables identified in field research. Previous behavioral experiments of commons dilemmas have found that people are willing to engage in costly punishment, frequently generating increases in gross benefits, contrary to game-theoretical predictions based on a static pay-off function. Results in our experimental environment find that costly punishment is again used but lacks a gross positive effect on resource harvesting unless combined with communication. These findings illustrate the importance of careful generalization from the laboratory to the world of policy.

  12. Social-ecological system framework: initial changes and continuing challenges

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    Michael D. McGinnis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological system (SES framework investigated in this special issue enables researchers from diverse disciplinary backgrounds working on different resource sectors in disparate geographic areas, biophysical conditions, and temporal domains to share a common vocabulary for the construction and testing of alternative theories and models that determine which influences on processes and outcomes are especially critical in specific empirical settings. We summarize changes that have been made to this framework and discuss a few remaining ambiguities in its formulation. Specifically, we offer a tentative rearrangement of the list of relevant attributes of governance systems and discuss other ways to make this framework applicable to policy settings beyond natural resource settings. The SES framework will continue to change as more researchers apply it to additional contexts; the main purpose of this article is to delineate the version that served as the basis for the theoretical innovations and empirical analyses detailed in other contributions to this special issue.

  13. The succession process at social enterprises in Brazil

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    Edileusa Godói-de-Sousa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was based on a study of social enterprises in Brazil, to find out if and how these organizations plan and manage the succession process for their senior positions. The study investigated the subset of the associations dedicated to collectively producing goods and services, because they are formally set up and aimed at speeding up the dynamism of local development. The empirical research consisted of two stages. The first was a survey covering a sample of 378 organizations, to find out which of those had already undergone or were undergoing a succession process. The second interviewed the main manager of 32 organizations, to obtain a description of their succession experience. In this stage, the research aimed to analyze how the Individual, Organization and Environment dimensions interact to configure the succession process, identifying which factors of each of these dimensions can facilitate or limit this process. The following guiding elements were taken as the analytical basis: Individual dimension - leadership roles, skill and styles; Organization dimension - structure, planning, advisory boards, communication (transparency, control and evaluation; and Environment dimension - influence of the stakeholders (community, suppliers, clients, and business partners on the succession process. The results indicated that succession in the researched associations is in the construction stage: it adapts to the requirements of current circumstances but is evidently in need of improvement in order for more effective planning and shared management of the process to be achieved.

  14. One health from a social-ecological systems perspective: enriching social and cultural dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers insights from the environmental management paradigm of 'social-ecological systems' and related bodies of theory on people-environment relationships to assist the evolution of the One Health interdisciplinary endeavour of health promotion across human-animal ecosystem relationships. It also seeks to expand thinking about the social and cultural dimensions that are likely to prove important in the development of thinking and practice in the One Health field. It advocates consideration of cultural and economic relationships affecting people's interactions with domesticated and wild animal species and ecosystems, and exploration of the cognitive and behavioural aspects of these interactions.

  15. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  16. The influence of ecology on sociality in the killer whale (Orcinus orca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Suzanne; Kuningas, Sanna; Esteban, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The persistence and size of social groups can be plastic and governed by ecological selection or be under greater genetic control and constrained by phylogenetic inertia. Comparing sociality of phylogenetically divergent populations under the same ecolog- ical conditions or between groups within ...

  17. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-08-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

  18. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil.This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR.A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 -an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93-with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24-20.92, inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51-3.15, Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55-4.67 and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71-15.36, low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72-44.55 and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14-4.74 were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90, as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase. Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year and low birth weight (-1.43% decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year.Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care

  19. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae) in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and...

  20. Evaluating social and ecological vulnerability of coral reef fisheries to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Cinner

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to evaluate the links between the social and ecological dimensions of human vulnerability to climate change. We use an empirical case study of 12 coastal communities and associated coral reefs in Kenya to assess and compare five key ecological and social components of the vulnerability of coastal social-ecological systems to temperature induced coral mortality [specifically: 1 environmental exposure; 2 ecological sensitivity; 3 ecological recovery potential; 4 social sensitivity; and 5 social adaptive capacity]. We examined whether ecological components of vulnerability varied between government operated no-take marine reserves, community-based reserves, and openly fished areas. Overall, fished sites were marginally more vulnerable than community-based and government marine reserves. Social sensitivity was indicated by the occupational composition of each community, including the importance of fishing relative to other occupations, as well as the susceptibility of different fishing gears to the effects of coral bleaching on target fish species. Key components of social adaptive capacity varied considerably between the communities. Together, these results show that different communities have relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of social-ecological vulnerability to climate change.

  1. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  2. Mapping of capacities for research on health and its social determinants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borde, Elis; Akerman, Marco; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    This article describes tendencies in research on social determinants of health (SDH) and health inequities in Brazil (2005-2012) and maps research system structures to analyze capacities for research on health and its social determinants. Brazil has a strong national research system and counts on a wealth of research in the field of SDH drawing on a long tradition of research and political commitment in this area. While innovative strategies seeking to strengthen the links between research, policy and practice have been developed, the impact of SDH research continues to be largely restricted to the academic community with notable but still insufficient repercussions on public policy and the social determinants of health inequities. SDH research in Brazil will therefore need to become even more responsive to social urgencies and better attuned to political processes, enhancing its capacity to influence strategic policy decisions affecting health inequities and mobilize strategic agendas for health equity.

  3. Farm Ownership, Political Participation, and Other Social Participation in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Es, J. C.; Whittenbarger, Robert L.

    This study investigates the relationship between land ownership and social and political participation. A sociological thesis holding that land ownership is the basis of social class distinction and, more importantly, widespread differences in economic and political power is tested in a case study of some 300 farmers in Central Brazil. Findings…

  4. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flora de Novaes Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in the study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species and Polypodiaceae (22 species. The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species and Thelypteris (9 species. Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  5. Probing the interfaces between the social sciences and social-ecological resilience: insights from integrative and hybrid perspectives in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Stone-Jovicich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists, and scholars in related interdisciplinary fields, have critiqued resilience thinking's oversimplification of social dimensions of coupled social-ecological systems. Resilience scholars have countered with "where is the ecology" in social analyses? My aim is to contribute to current efforts to strengthen inter- and transdisciplinary debate and inquiry between the social-ecological resilience community and the social sciences. I synthesize three social science perspectives, which stress the complex, dynamic, and multiscalar interconnections between the biophysical and social realms in explaining social-environmental change, and which place both the social and ecology centre stage in their analyses: materio-spatial world systems analysis, critical realist political ecology, and actor-network theory. By integrating, in a nondeterministic and nonessentialist manner, the biophysical environment into social inquiries (integrative approaches or by altogether abolishing the ecology/nature and human/culture divide (hybrid perspectives, these three social-science perspectives are well placed to foster stronger inter- and transdisciplinary ties with social-ecological resilience. Materio-spatial world systems analysis is highly compatible with resilience thinking. The emphasis on world systems structures and processes offers the potential to enrich resilience analyses of global environmental change, global governance and stewardship, planetary boundaries, and multiscale resilience. Critical realist political ecology offers avenues for more in-depth interdisciplinary inquiries around local/traditional/indigenous knowledge systems and power. It also challenges resilience scholars to incorporate critical analyses of resilience's core concepts and practices. Actor-network theory proposes a very different starting point for understanding and assessing social-ecological resilience. Its focus on "resilience-in-the-making" offers unique insights

  6. Feeding ecology of three juvenile mojarras (Gerreidae in a tropical estuary of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Limeira Felinto de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Distributions and feeding ecology of mojarra species from shallow water of a tropical estuary in Northeastern Brazil were observed aiming to investigate differences in distribution and resource partitioning among juveniles of three species of mojarras. Fishes were collected with a beach seine across four sites along a salinity gradient from January to December of 2011. Highest abundances were recorded during the rainy season in the upper and middle estuary. Microcrustaceans, mainly copepods, were the preferential prey items of all mojarras, irrespective of size or hydrological season, suggesting these areas may be important nursery habitats. Juveniles of mojarra used two important mechanisms for exploitation of resources: (1 spatial segregation along the salinity and temperature gradient, such as abundance of Eucinostomus melanopterus increased from downstream to upstream estuary, while Eugerres brasilianus displayed an opposite pattern; (2 differences related to the volumetric proportion of the main prey items, with indications that E. melanopterus and Diapterus rhombeus fed predominantly on Calanoida and Cyclopoida, while the diet of E. brasilianus was dominated by items of infauna. Such strategies were important for resource partitioning, favouring the coexistence of these three species in the estuary.

  7. Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality.

  8. Ecological interactions of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A Sherlock

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory and field observations summarized in this paper on visceral leishmaniasis ecology in the State of Bahia, Brazil are based on the author's observations over the past 35 years in a number of state's foci, public health records and literature citations. The disease is endemic with epidemic outbreaks occurring every ten years and its geographical distribution is expanding rapidly in the last years. Leishmania chagasi is the main ethiologic agent of the visceral leishmaniasis but Le. amazonensis s. lato was the only leishmania isolated by other authors from some visceral leishmaniasis human cases in the state. Lutzomyia longipalpis (with one or two spots on tergites III and IV and two sized different populations was epidemiologically incriminated as the main vector. It was found naturally infected with promastigotes, and it was infected with four species of leishmanias in the laboratory. Although the experimental transmission of Le. amazonensis by the bite of Lu. longipalpis to hamsters was performed, the author was not successful in transmitting Le. chagasi in the same way. The dog is the most important domestic source for infection of the vector, however it is not a primary reservoir. The opossum Didelphis albiventris was found naturally infected with Le. chagasi but its role as reservoir is unknown. Foxes and rodents were not found infected with leishmanias in Bahia.

  9. Defining social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an ecological model of social networks and community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplican, Stacy Clifford; Leader, Geraldine; Kosciulek, John; Leahy, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Social inclusion is an important goal for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, families, service providers, and policymakers; however, the concept of social inclusion remains unclear, largely due to multiple and conflicting definitions in research and policy. We define social inclusion as the interaction between two major life domains: interpersonal relationships and community participation. We then propose an ecological model of social inclusion that includes individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and socio-political factors. We identify four areas of research that our ecological model of social inclusion can move forward: (1) organizational implementation of social inclusion; (2) social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities living with their families, (3) social inclusion of people along a broader spectrum of disability, and (4) the potential role of self-advocacy organizations in promoting social inclusion.

  10. Social-ecological enabling conditions for payments for ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R. Huber-Stearns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "enabling conditions" centers on conditions that facilitate approaches to addressing social and ecological challenges. Although multiple fields have independently addressed the concept of enabling conditions, the literature lacks a shared understanding or integration of concepts. We propose a more synthesized understanding of enabling conditions beyond disciplinary boundaries by focusing on the enabling conditions that influence the implementation of a range of environmental policies termed payments for ecosystem services (PES. Through an analysis of key literature from different disciplinary perspectives, we examined how researchers and practitioners refer to and identify enabling conditions within the context of PES. Through our synthesis, we identified 24 distinct enabling conditions organized within 4 broad themes: biophysical, economic, governance, and social-cultural conditions. We found that the literature coalesces around certain enabling conditions, such as strong ecosystem science and existing institutions, regardless of disciplinary background or journal audience. We also observed key differences in how authors perceive the direction of influence for property type, program objectives, and number of actors. Additionally, we noted an emphasis on the importance of the contextual nature of many enabling conditions that may cause certain conditions to have a disproportionate impact on successful implementation in some circumstances. Unraveling the relative importance of specific enabling conditions in diverse contexts remains a research frontier. Ultimately, no single disciplinary perspective is likely to provide all necessary insights for PES creation, and given the intertwined nature of enabling conditions, practitioners need to consider insights from multiple dimensions. Our work suggests opportunities to better connect diverse conversations through integration of concepts, a common vocabulary, and a synthetic framework.

  11. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  12. Ecological Tax Reform in Denmark: history and social acceptability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, Jacob [Danish Ministry of Taxation, Nicolai Eigtveds Gade 28, 1402 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Larsen, Anders; Hansen, Kirsten [AKF, Nyropsgade 37, 1602 Copenhagen V (Denmark); Dahl, Anja [Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen, Linnesgade 22, DK-1361, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2006-05-15

    Despite the long-term and positive experience with Ecological Tax Reform (ETR), the PETRAS study indicates that awareness about the principles behind ETR is low among both businesses and the general public in Denmark. As well as the lack of awareness of ETR, attitudes towards environmental taxation appear negative. When explaining the political intentions behind ETR, attitudes seem to improve somewhat, but they still remain overall sceptical. Based on the history and the results of the PETRAS project the article will describe some of the main impediments for further development of environmental tax and ETR policies in Denmark. The article concludes that the main reason why the ETR policy has been met with such apparently low social acceptability in Denmark is that the 'green' of the 'green' tax reform has been somewhat oversold. On this basis it recommends the pursuit of a courageous government strategy of, openly and repeatedly, stressing the revenue purposes of environmentally related taxes over the environmental purposes in an effort to redirect public discussions towards relevant issues like the pros and cons of environmentally related taxation compared with other types of taxation and the connection between the overall tax burden and demands for government spending. Such a bold government 'confession' to the obvious revenue purposes of the environmentally related taxes could make them, if not popular, then at least a bit more acceptable to businesses and the general public. (author)

  13. Enhancing the Ostrom social-ecological system framework through formalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hinkel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Frameworks play an important role in analyzing social-ecological systems (SESs because they provide shared concepts and variables that enable comparison between and accumulation of knowledge across multiple cases. One prominent SES framework focusing on local resource use has been developed by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues. This framework is an extensive multi-tier collection of concepts and variables that have demonstrated relevance for explaining outcomes in a large number of case studies in the context of fishery, water, and forestry common-pool resources. The further development of this framework has raised a number of issues related to the formal relationships between the large number of concepts and variables involved. In particular, issues related to criteria for ordering the concepts into tiers, adding new concepts, defining outcomes metrics, and representing dynamics in the framework have been identified. We address these issues by applying methods from research fields that study formal relationships between concepts such as domain-specific languages, knowledge representation, and software engineering. We find that SES frameworks could include the following seven formal components: variables, concepts, attribution relationships, subsumption relationships, process relationships, aggregation relationships, and evaluation metrics. Applying these components to the Ostrom framework and a case study of recreational fishery, we find that they provide clear criteria for structuring concepts into tiers, defining outcome metrics, and representing dynamics. The components identified are generic, and the insights gained from this exercise may also be beneficial for the development of other SES frameworks.

  14. Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S.; Allen, Craig R.; Ban, Natalie C.; Biggs, Duan; Biggs, Harry C.; Cumming, David H.M; De Vos, Alta; Epstein, Graham; Etienne, Michel; Maciejewski, Kristine; Mathevet, Raphael; Moore, Christine; Nenadovic, Mateja; Schoon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

  15. Social and environmental inequities in dental caries among indigenous population in Brazil: evidence from 2000 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2013-09-01

    This ecological study investigated the association between social and environmental inequities and dental caries among indigenous people in Brazil. Dental caries data were gathered from articles identified from electronic databases for the period between 2000 and 2007. Independent variables were obtained from the census of Health Information System for Sanitation Indigenous Populations. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the association between social and environmental characteristics and dental caries (DMFT index) according to the age group. Results were analyzed for 48 indigenous peoples from 19 selected studies. The occurrence of dental caries in particular age groups was inversely associated with the location of villages outside the Amazon region (12, 15 - 19, and 20 - 34 years), availability of electricity (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years) and proportion of households covered with straw/thatch (20 - 34 years). The presence of schools was statistically associated with higher DMFT averages (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years). It can be concluded that aspects of location and existing infrastructure in indigenous communities, which are linked to the availability of oral health services, are associated with the occurrence of dental caries in indigenous populations in Brazil.

  16. Social and environmental inequities in dental caries among indigenous population in Brazil: evidence from 2000 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This ecological study investigated the association between social and environmental inequities and dental caries among indigenous people in Brazil. Dental caries data were gathered from articles identified from electronic databases for the period between 2000 and 2007. Independent variables were obtained from the census of Health Information System for Sanitation Indigenous Populations. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the association between social and environmental characteristics and dental caries (DMFT index according to the age group. Results were analyzed for 48 indigenous peoples from 19 selected studies. The occurrence of dental caries in particular age groups was inversely associated with the location of villages outside the Amazon region (12, 15 - 19, and 20 - 34 years, availability of electricity (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years and proportion of households covered with straw/thatch (20 - 34 years. The presence of schools was statistically associated with higher DMFT averages (15 - 19 and 20 - 34 years. It can be concluded that aspects of location and existing infrastructure in indigenous communities, which are linked to the availability of oral health services, are associated with the occurrence of dental caries in indigenous populations in Brazil.

  17. Energy efficiency in social housing: Opportunities and barriers from a case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodach, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.bodach@gmail.co [Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM), Mendelssohnstrasse 75-77, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Betzdorfer Strasse 2, 50679 Cologne (Germany); Hamhaber, J., E-mail: johannes.hamhaber@fh-koeln.d [Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Betzdorfer Strasse 2, 50679 Cologne (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    This paper investigates the energy efficiency in a segment of the building sector in emerging countries by analyzing and evaluating the energy efficiency of a social housing project in Brazil. Energy efficiency measures and bioclimatic design strategies are developed in order to improve thermal comfort in this social housing project and to reduce the energy consumption and expenses of their residents. The institutional barriers and constraints toward higher efficiency are described. The results of this study show that there is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in emerging countries like Brazil. The implementation and consideration of the energy efficiency measures and policy recommendations would contribute substantially to the goal to dampen the fast growth of energy demand in these countries. Moreover the improvement of energy efficiency in the social housing sector could be a driver for market transformation towards more sustainability in the whole building sector. - Research highlights: {yields}There is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in Brazil. {yields}Energy-efficient social housing would contribute substantially to dampen the fast growth of energy consumption in emerging countries like Brazil. {yields}Implementation of energy efficiency would improve the income situation of the poorest strata of the population.

  18. Geography as destiny? Social and ecological resilience in rangelands of the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Social-ecological systems perspectives focus on the reciprocal relationships between human and natural ecosystem elements and how these interactions determine human well-being, ecological state change, and land use change. In the arid southwestern US, which is dominated...

  19. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farine, D.R.; Firth, J.A.; Aplin, L.M.; Crates, R.A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a fra

  20. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social-ecological system: implications for human wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C; Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Paddock, Jessica; Baker, Susan; McKenzie, Len J; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass ecosystems are diminishing worldwide and repeated studies confirm a lack of appreciation for the value of these systems. In order to highlight their value we provide the first discussion of seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system on a global scale. We consider the impact of a declining resource on people, including those for whom seagrass meadows are utilised for income generation and a source of food security through fisheries support. Case studies from across the globe are used to demonstrate the intricate relationship between seagrass meadows and people that highlight the multi-functional role of seagrasses in human wellbeing. While each case underscores unique issues, these examples simultaneously reveal social-ecological coupling that transcends cultural and geographical boundaries. We conclude that understanding seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system is crucial in carving pathways for social and ecological resilience in light of current patterns of local to global environmental change.

  1. Social roles and performance of social-ecological systems: evidence from behavioral lab experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as

  2. Understanding social-ecological change and transformation through community perceptions of system identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrachuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an empirical approach to consider social-ecological system change and transformation by drawing on resource users' knowledge and perceptions. We applied this approach in the Cau Hai lagoon, a coastal area dominated by small-scale fisheries in central Vietnam. Nine focus groups with more than 70 fishers were used to gather information about key social-ecological system elements and interactions, historical social-ecological dynamics, and possible thresholds between distinct social-ecological system identities. The patterns of change in livelihoods and resource exploitation in the Cau Hai lagoon are similar to those seen in other coastal lagoon and small-scale fishery contexts. Our findings show some promise for the use of local knowledge and the perceptions of resource user communities to understand and characterize social-ecological transformations. Importantly, however, we also demonstrate how social-ecological transformations are complicated processes driven by many factors beyond the control of any singular individual or group. We argue that (1 the occurrence of social-ecological transformations can result in either positive or negative outcomes and (2 that we need to direct our thinking away from drawing tidy conclusions about if and when social-ecological transformations take place. Our research also encourages scholars to carefully consider how we frame the benefits of participatory, community-based governance initiatives. Importantly, we need to examine the ways that governance initiatives will be beneficial for some people and detrimental for others, and we need to be fully aware of locally contested interests and acknowledge competing priorities for fisheries management and human well-being. Community-oriented assessments informed by resilience thinking can help to open up questions about economic, political, cultural, and environmental aspects of undesirable path dependencies and traps.

  3. Fit in the Body: Matching Embodied Cognition with Social-Ecological Systems

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    Janne I. Hukkinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fit has focused on the macrolevel fit between social institutions and ecosystems, and bypassed the microlevel fit between individual cognition and its socio-material environment. I argue that the conceptualizations we develop about social-ecological systems and our position in them should be understood as ways for a fundamentally cognitive organism to adapt to particular social and ecological situations. Since at issue is our survival as a species, we need to better understand the structure and dynamics of fit between human cognition and its social-ecological environment. I suggest that the embodied cognition perspective opens up possibilities for "nudging" evolution through the conceptual integration of the cognitively attractive but ecologically unrealistic neoclassical economics, and the cognitively less attractive but ecologically more realistic adaptive cycle theory (panarchy. The result is a conceptually integrated model, the Roller Coaster Blend, which expresses in metaphorical terms why competitive individuals are better off cooperating than competing with each other in the face of absolute resource limits. The blend enables the reframing of messages about the limits of the social-ecological system in terms of growth rather than degrowth. This is cognitively appealing, as upward growth fires in our minds the neural connections of "more," "control", and "happy." The blend's potential for nudging behavior arises from its autopoietic characteristic: it can be both an account of the social-ecological system as an emergent structure that is capable of renewing itself, and a cognitive attractor of individuals whose recruitment reinforces the integrity of the social-ecological system.

  4. [The results of complex social and ecologic study in the city of Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, I D; Magasumov, A M; Simonova, N I; Eĭdel'man, Ia L; Simenido, Iu V

    1997-01-01

    The authors present results of social and ecologic study carried out in Ufa. The results describe the course of ecologically important processes and phenomena in correlation with the public subjective understanding. Public health is influenced by hygienic parameters of food and water quality as well as a complex of social, economic and psychologic factors. Weak correlation between those parameters and ambient air pollution necessitates more accurate approach to ecologic mapping of cities and to manipulation with data on lower atmosphere pollution with chemical hazards.

  5. Energy efficiency in social housing. Opportunities and barriers from a case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodach, Susanne [Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM), Mendelssohnstrasse 75-77, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hamhaber, J. [Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Betzdorfer Strasse 2, 50679 Cologne (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    This paper investigates the energy efficiency in a segment of the building sector in emerging countries by analyzing and evaluating the energy efficiency of a social housing project in Brazil. Energy efficiency measures and bioclimatic design strategies are developed in order to improve thermal comfort in this social housing project and to reduce the energy consumption and expenses of their residents. The institutional barriers and constraints toward higher efficiency are described. The results of this study show that there is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in emerging countries like Brazil. The implementation and consideration of the energy efficiency measures and policy recommendations would contribute substantially to the goal to dampen the fast growth of energy demand in these countries. Moreover the improvement of energy efficiency in the social housing sector could be a driver for market transformation towards more sustainability in the whole building sector. (author)

  6. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  7. '"My Land, Your Social Transformation": Conflicts within the Landless People Movement (MST), Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Rute

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian "Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra" (MST) is one of the best-known and most prominent rural social movements. The unequal distribution of land in Brazil, and the neglect of this problem by successive Brazilian governments contributed greatly to the organisation of rural movements striving for the implementation…

  8. Social-ecological network analysis of scale mismatches in estuary watershed restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jesse S; Baggio, Jacopo A

    2017-03-07

    Resource management boundaries seldom align with environmental systems, which can lead to social and ecological problems. Mapping and analyzing how resource management organizations in different areas collaborate can provide vital information to help overcome such misalignment. Few quantitative approaches exist, however, to analyze social collaborations alongside environmental patterns, especially among local and regional organizations (i.e., in multilevel governance settings). This paper develops and applies such an approach using social-ecological network analysis (SENA), which considers relationships among and between social and ecological units. The framework and methods are shown using an estuary restoration case from Puget Sound, United States. Collaboration patterns and quality are analyzed among local and regional organizations working in hydrologically connected areas. These patterns are correlated with restoration practitioners' assessments of the productivity of their collaborations to inform network theories for natural resource governance. The SENA is also combined with existing ecological data to jointly consider social and ecological restoration concerns. Results show potentially problematic areas in nearshore environments, where collaboration networks measured by density (percentage of possible network connections) and productivity are weakest. Many areas also have high centralization (a few nodes hold the network together), making network cohesion dependent on key organizations. Although centralization and productivity are inversely related, no clear relationship between density and productivity is observed. This research can help practitioners to identify where governance capacity needs strengthening and jointly consider social and ecological concerns. It advances SENA by developing a multilevel approach to assess social-ecological (or social-environmental) misalignments, also known as scale mismatches.

  9. The evolutionary and ecological consequences of animal social networks: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Jens; Croft, Darren P; Wilson, Alexander D M; Wolf, Max

    2014-06-01

    The first generation of research on animal social networks was primarily aimed at introducing the concept of social networks to the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology. More recently, a diverse body of evidence has shown that social fine structure matters on a broader scale than initially expected, affecting many key ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we review this development. We discuss the effects of social network structure on evolutionary dynamics (genetic drift, fixation probabilities, and frequency-dependent selection) and social evolution (cooperation and between-individual behavioural differences). We discuss how social network structure can affect important coevolutionary processes (host-pathogen interactions and mutualisms) and population stability. We also discuss the potentially important, but poorly studied, role of social network structure on dispersal and invasion. Throughout, we highlight important areas for future research.

  10. Resilience and challenges of marine social-ecological systems under complex and interconnected drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Sebastián; Macho, Gonzalo; Antelo, Manel; Rodríguez-González, David; Kaiser, Michel J

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by an interdisciplinary group of researchers from different disciplines (biology, ecology, economics, and law) that deal with key dimensions of marine social-ecological systems. Particularly, the local and global seafood provision; the feasibility and management of marine protected areas; the use of marine ecosystem services; the institutional dimension in European fisheries, and the affordable models for providing scientific advice to small-scale fisheries. This Special Issue presents key findings from selected case studies around the world available to educators, policy makers, and the technical community. Together, these papers show that a range of diverse ecological, economic, social, and institutional components often mutually interact at spatial and temporal scales, which evidence that managing marine social-ecological systems needs a continuous adaptability to navigate into new governance systems.

  11. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  12. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied

  13. Ecology and Evolution of Communication in Social Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Menzel, Florian; Nehring, Volker; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-03-10

    Insect life strategies comprise all levels of sociality from solitary to eusocial, in which individuals form persistent groups and divide labor. With increasing social complexity, the need to communicate a greater diversity of messages arose to coordinate division of labor, group cohesion, and concerted actions. Here we summarize the knowledge on prominent messages in social insects that inform about reproduction, group membership, resource locations, and threats and discuss potential evolutionary trajectories of each message in the context of social complexity.

  14. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.Foram avaliadas a dieta e a ecologia alimentar da cioba Lutjanus analis no Banco dos Abrolhos, Leste do Brasil. O Banco dos Abrolhos abrange os maiores e mais diversos recifes de corais do Atlântico Sul, onde cerca de 270 espécies de peixes recifais e costeiros ocorrem. Para a avaliação das variações sazonais e ontogênicas na dieta, exemplares de L. analis foram obtidos através de um programa de monitoramento em quatro cidades do extremo sul da Bahia, entre junho de 2005 e março de 2007. Estômagos de 85 exemplares com comprimento total variando entre 18,1 e 74,0 cm foram examinados. Os itens alimentares foram identificados at

  15. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction : Making the case for ecological validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those ar

  16. Identifying Social-ecological Linkages to Develop a Community Fire Plan in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A.S Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in rural Mexico presents a unique opportunity to study the linkages and feedback within coupled social-ecological systems due to the fact that agrarian or indigenous communities control approximately half of the national territory of Mexico. We used social and ecological diagnostic tools to develop a fire management strategy for a communal forest containing an endemic piñón pine species, Pinus cembroides subs. orizabensis, in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The ecological diagnostic was done through fuel inventory, forest structure sampling, and fire behaviour modelling. The social assessment was conducted through household interviews, community workshops, and direct participant observation. The ecological fire hazard was quantified and coupled with the social assessment to develop a fire management plan. Vertical fuel continuity and flashy surface fuels created a high fire hazard. Modelled fire behaviour showed a rapid rate of spread and high flame lengths under multiple scenarios. Relative impunity for starting forest fires, poor community and inter-agency organisation, and lack of project continuity across organisational sectors appear to be the most significant social limiting factors for wildfire management. Combining both social and ecological diagnostic tools provides a comprehensive understanding of the actual risks to forests, and identifies realistic community-supported options for conservation on cooperatively managed lands.

  17. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments.

  18. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new landsc

  19. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Reed, Daniel C.; Orth, Robert J.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Beck, Michael W.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J.; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; Blaeij, De Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts an

  20. The Integration of Social-Ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing recognition of the inherent uncertainty associated with the dynamics of ecological systems and their often non-linear and surprising behavior, however, presents a set of problems outside the scope of classic environmental law, and has lead to a fundamental understanding a...

  1. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  2. Contribution of Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste to the Social Inclusion in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. M. Lino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the selective collection and recycling as alternative ways to promote the social inclusion in Brazil and help the country to eradicate extreme poverty and misery and achieve the first of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG1 of the UN. This work is based on the data from a Brazilian metropolitan city of Campinas and is extended to Brazil. The results show that the municipality of Campinas collects monthly 8000 tons of recyclables which if recycled can avail jobs to nearly 13,000 waste collectors with a minimum national salary of R$ 622/month or alternatively can create 40,280 Family Grants of R$ 200/month. In Brazil, the collected recyclables potential is about 2.4 million tons per month which can avail jobs to 2,350945 waste collectors or alternatively create about 7.3 millions Family Grants.

  3. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  4. Developmental Change in Social Responsibility during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…

  5. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a transitional forest in Maranhao, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Jivanildo P.; Andréa Ricci-Lobão; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate), but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing th...

  6. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  7. Gasto social no Brasil: programas de transferência de renda versus investimento social Social spending in Brazil: income transfer programs versus social investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contrapõe a evolução recente do gasto no Brasil: redução do gasto com infra-estrutura social e aumento das transferências monetárias sujeitas à comprovação de renda. Evidencia-se que o modelo de combate à pobreza vigente no Brasil concentrado em programas focalizados de transferência de renda sem promover em simultâneo o aumento do gasto per capita em educação, saneamento básico, habitação não equaciona a questão da desigualdade. Neste artigo, trabalhamos com dados secundários da PNAD e do orçamento da União, estados e municípios.This paper compares the dynamics of social spending in Brazil, with lower outlays on basic services and more direct monetary transfers through means-test programs, highlighting the fact that as Brazil's social safety net concentrates on cash transfer programs without simultaneously increasing per capita outlays on education, basic sanitation and housing, it is not resolving the issue of inequality. This paper works with secondary data from the National Household Sampling Survey, together with Federal, State and Municipal budgets.

  8. A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances R. Westley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling’s adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado’s model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent in complex adaptive systems, we propose a more coherent theory of strategic agency, which links particular strategies, on the part of transformative agents, to phases of system change.

  9. Learning as You Journey: Anishinaabe Perception of Social-ecological Environments and Adaptive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Davidson-Hunt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the linkages between social-ecological resilience and adaptive learning. We refer to adaptive learning as a method to capture the two-way relationship between people and their social-ecological environment. In this paper, we focus on traditional ecological knowledge. Research was undertaken with the Anishinaabe people of Iskatewizaagegan No. 39 Independent First Nation, in northwestern Ontario, Canada. The research was carried out over two field seasons, with verification workshops following each field season. The methodology was based on site visits and transects determined by the elders as appropriate to answer a specific question, find specific plants, or locate plant communities. During site visits and transect walks, research themes such as plant nomenclature, plant use, habitat descriptions, biogeophysical landscape vocabulary, and place names were discussed. Working with elders allowed us to record a rich set of vocabulary to describe the spatial characteristics of the biogeophysical landscape. However, elders also directed our attention to places they knew through personal experiences and journeys and remembered from stories and collective history. We documented elders' perceptions of the temporal dynamics of the landscape through discussion of disturbance events and cycles. Again, elders drew our attention to the ways in which time was marked by cultural references to seasons and moons. The social memory of landscape dynamics was documented as a combination of biogeophysical structures and processes, along with the stories by which Iskatewizaagegan people wrote their histories upon the land. Adaptive learning for social-ecological resilience, as suggested by this research, requires maintaining the web of relationships of people and places. Such relationships allow social memory to frame creativity, while allowing knowledge to evolve in the face of change. Social memory does not actually evolve directly out of

  10. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  11. The Ecology of Social Learning in Animals and its Link with Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel; Graber, Sereina; Schuppli, Caroline; Burkart, Judith

    2017-01-09

    Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species. Direct tests of the cultural intelligence hypothesis require good estimates of the amount and kind of social learning taking place in nature in a broad variety of species. These estimates are lacking so far. Here, we start the process of developing a functional classification of social learning, in the form of the social learning spectrum, which should help to predict the mechanisms of social learning involved. Once validated, the categories can be used to estimate the cognitive demands of social learning in the wild.

  12. Integrating Ecological and Social Ranges of Variability in Conservation of Biodiversity: Past, Present, and Future

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    K. Norman Johnson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical range of variability has been proposed as a concept that can be used by forest land managers to guide conservation of ecosystem functions and biodiversity conservation. The role of humans in historical range of variability has remained somewhat murky and unsettled, even though it is clear that humans have been, are, and will continue to be forces of disturbance and recovery in forested landscapes. We attempt to develop concepts that integrate the ecological and social forces affecting landscape variability. Toward that end, we present a conceptual framework that places "range of variability" into a broader context and integrates the ecological and social forces affecting landscapes past, present, and future. We use two terms to aid us in understanding the utility of historical range of variability as a context and future range of variability as a point of comparison: (1 the ecological range of variability is the estimated range of some ecological condition as a function of the biophysical and social forces affecting the area and (2 the social range of variability is the range of an ecological condition that society finds acceptable at a given time. We find it is important to recognize that future range of variability represents a constantly emerging and changing set of conditions, and that the more humans push a system to depart from its historical range of variabiloity domain, the less likely it becomes that historical range of variability processes will prove useful as benchmarks in recovering a system.

  13. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  14. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  15. Social support, health and oral health promotion in the elderly population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The world people increasing aging, including Brazil, emphasizes the importance of measure to deal with this situation. In Brazil, the majority of elderly is woman, lives in houses with other generations, is economic reference in these houses, is in the low economic level, has at least one chronic disease, is independent to do daily life activities, doesn’t have teeth, and look for health care services in the Unified National Health System (SUS. Brasilian elderly have exposed the social vulnerability situations, they are submited to direct interference of the social determinants in the health-disease process. The Social Support includes social policies and networks, that plays a role the agent to join the elder and the society, it is decreasing the risks of social exclusion and consequently the damages to his/her health through Health Promotion measurements. This article concerns the Social Support and some of its aspects like: Type and place of residence, Transport and Financial Support; in Brazilian elderly and its relation between the Health Promotion.

  16. Exploring Social Quality and Community Health Outcomes: An Ecological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life is widely used as a measure of individual well-being in developed countries. Social quality (SQ), however, describes how favorable the socioenvironmental components are that impact the life chance of an individual. Despite the associations between SQ, including institutional capacity and citizen capacity, and other community indicators, the impact of SQ on community health status has not been fully examined. This study investigated the interrelationships among institutional capacity, citizen capacity, and their associations with community-level health indicators such as mortality and suicide among 230 local governments in South Korea. Under the principles of conceptual suitability, clarity, reliability, consistency, changeability, and comparability, a total of 81 SQ indicators were collected, and 19 indicators of the 81 indicators were selected. The 19 indicators were transformed by the imputation of missing values, standardization, and geographic information system transformation. It was found that the health outcome of local government was superior as social welfare, political participation, and education were higher. According to the result of the regression analysis based on the regional type, social welfare had the most influence on the health level of local government in both metropolises and small-/medium-sized cities. In addition, education and political participation had a positive effect on the health indicator of local metropolis government. However, SQ indicators did not have any meaningful influence at the county level. Therefore, small- and medium-sized cities need to promote the collective health of the local government through improving social welfare, and metropolises need to consider the complex relationship among other indicators while increasing the level of social welfare and education. Meanwhile, counties need to develop health indicators that reflect aged population characteristics and social environment of rural areas

  17. Social-ecological Resilience and Biodiversity Conservation in a 900-year-old Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are increasingly being recognized as coupled social-ecological systems, whose effectiveness depends on their resilience. Here I present a historical profile of an individual case study, the New Forest (England, which was first designated as a protected area more than 900 years ago. Uniquely, a traditional pattern of land use has been maintained ever since, providing a rare opportunity to examine the resilience of an integrated social-ecological system over nine centuries. The New Forest demonstrates that over the long term, coupled social-ecological systems can be resilient to major internal and external shocks, including climate change, mass human mortality and war. Changes in governance had the greatest impact on the reserve itself, with two major crises identified in the mid-19th and 20th centuries. Resolution of these crises depended on the formation of alliances between local people and external partners, including the general public, a process that was supported by improvements in visitor access. Over a timescale of centuries, this social-ecological system has been highly dynamic in disturbance regimes but relatively stable in land use patterns. However, the factors underpinning resilience have changed over time. This case study suggests that for protected areas to be effective over the long term, social structures and institutions as well as environmental processes require adaptive capacity.

  18. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  19. Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae in central Brazil.

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    Reuber A. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on diet, activity, habitat use, and anti-predator behavior are presented for a population of Pseudis bolbodactyla in central Brazil. The most common diet items were diurnal plant-associated insects. Pseudis bolbodactyla shows both diurnal and nocturnal activity and uses mainly areas with aquatic vegetation (submerged and emergent. Individuals detect predators Visually and through vibrations in the water.

  20. Organ Donation in Brazil: Analysis of Governmental Campaigns Under the Perspective of Social Marketing

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    Leonardo Benedito Oliveira Rezende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Focus on Social Marketing: An analysis of the governmental campaigns about donation of organs in Brazil. Currently in Brazil the demand of organ donation is higher than the offer of them. Although the relevant legislation, which is identified in the country is a high demand of people waiting for a compatible organ donor and , on the other hand, a low supply of possible potential donors. Before this situation, the following research has as an objective to analyze the perspective of donors and potential organ donors in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil concerning social marketing strategies used by the government. To do so, a research in quantitative and qualitative approach was done. The data in the quantitative part was collected directly through a survey done with 412 individuals and for the qualitative part, 23 semi-structured interviews with people directly involved in the process of organ donation were held. The results indicate that one of the main factors which interfere negatively in the intention of donating organs is related to safety matters. It emphasizes, still, a low perception concerning the efficiency of social marketing campaigns towards organ donation. Yet, according to the interviewees , such campaigns should merge calls negative and positive in order to provide individuals in addition to the emotional awareness , emotional or cognitive imbalances.

  1. Conflito social e welfare state: Estado e desenvolvimento social no Brasil Social conflict and welfare state: state and social development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guedes Gomes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta que no Brasil a luta de classes não alcançou dimensões profundas que pudesse engendrar a constituição do welfare state. Ao contrário, o Estado, sobretudo sua forma mais moderna, capitalista, que emergiu a partir da década de 1930, sempre se antecipou aos movimentos sociais que representassem ameaças de rupturas. De forma repressiva, o Estado brasileiro desde o Império dissipou os conflitos com o objetivo de manter uma certa harmonia em favor do processo de expansão e reprodução capitalista e a integração dos espaços regionais. O artigo, portanto, é uma tentativa, prematura, de entender o processo de constituição dos sistemas de seguridade social, analisando as experiências de alguns países e suas respectivas características, com isso confrontando alguns estudos e realizando comparações com a dinâmica da luta de classes no Brasil e a função do Estado nesse processo.This article defends the theory that the class struggle in Brazil has not been able to engender the formation of a welfare state. On the contrary, the nation which emerged in the 1930s - above all in its more modern capitalistic form - has always prevented social movements that could pose any threat of a rupture. Since when it was a monarchy, Brazil has dealt with its conflicts in a repressive fashion, with the goal of maintaining a certain harmony in the interest of the expansion and the propagation of capitalism as well as regional integration. This text, therefore, is an attempt, albeit premature, to understand the process involving the formation of the social security system in Brazil, by analyzing the experiences of a number of countries and their respective characteristics, thus examining a few studies and making comparisons with the class struggle dynamic in Brazil and the role of the State in this process.

  2. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Thel

    Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  3. ASSISTANCE SOCIAL POLICY IN BRAZIL AND BOLSA FAMÍLIA PROGRAM: CRITICAL POINTS

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    Haidée de Caez-Pedroso- Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social assistance policy in Brazil. It Is based on the critical social theory and brings as a starting point reflections on the relationship between capital accumulation and the emergence of the social question. Considering the Brazilian society and the correlation of forces between social classes, we try to present as the social rights were made in the country. Into contemporary debate, we have reviewed the main social causes, political and economic that mediated the implementation of social policies in the context of neoliberal reforms in the 1990s, when come to the fore the income transfer programs as poverty reduction strategies. When the Trabalhadores Party takes the federal government, some changes occurred mainly in the management of social welfare policy, but the liberal-conservative character of social policies remains, and in particular the actions recommended in the Bolsa Família Program. These elements point to the challenges of professionals working in the management and implementation of these social policies that are committed to the interests of the working class, both in terms of their training with regard to their professional practice.

  4. Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

    2008-06-01

    Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel

  5. Genesis of an indigenous social-ecological landscape in eastern Panama

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    Divya Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the interplay between ecological and social influences in the context of land-use decision-making is sparse. To help fill this gap, we conducted participatory land-cover mapping in an indigenous territory of eastern Panama to identify factors that influenced household land-use decisions. The map illustrated a mosaic of land cover dominated by pasture. Primary discourse on influences from 35 semistructured interviews with landowners, women, and youth emphasized economic concerns, such as subsistence, and social-cultural factors, such as reticence to abandon traditional agriculture. Multivariate analysis showed that timing of family settlement helped determine proportion of forest cover, and place of origin helped determine proportion of short fallow for agriculture. Cultural norms and economic opportunities inform gendered perspectives; women perceived internal social-cultural influences and men perceived external and ecological influences on the land. Giving consideration to subsistence, traditional land uses, social organization, and women's perspectives could inform future communal reforestation.

  6. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  7. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Steyaert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  8. The role of social values in the management of ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Christopher D; Kendal, Dave

    2014-11-01

    The concept of value is central to the practice and science of ecological management and conservation. There is a well-developed body of theory and evidence that explores concepts of value in different ways across different disciplines including philosophy, economics, sociology and psychology. Insight from these disciplines provides a robust and sophisticated platform for considering the role of social values in ecological conservation, management and research. This paper reviews theories of value from these disciplines and discusses practical tools and instruments that can be utilised by researchers and practitioners. A distinction is highlighted between underlying values that shape people's perception of the world (e.g. altruistic or biospheric value orientations), and the values that people assign to things in the world (e.g. natural heritage, money). Evidence from numerous studies has shown that there are multiple pathways between these values and attitudes, beliefs and behaviours relevant to ecological management and conservation. In an age of increasing anthropogenic impacts on natural systems, recognising how and why people value different aspects of ecological systems can allow ecological managers to act to minimise conflict between stakeholders and promote the social acceptability of management activities. A series of practical guidelines are provided to enable social values to be better considered in ecosystem management and research.

  9. Humans and Seagrasses in East Africa : A social-ecological systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela

    2006-01-01

    The present study is one of the first attempts to analyze the societal importance of seagrasses (marine flowering plants) from a Natural Resource Management perspective, using a social-ecological systems (SES) approach. The interdisciplinary study takes place in East Africa (Western Indian Ocean, WIO) and includes in-depth studies in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Natural and social sciences methods were used. The results are presented in six articles, showing that seagrass ecosystems are ri...

  10. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  11. Risk and Protective Factors for Homophobic Bullying in Schools: An Application of the Social-Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Garbarino, James

    2012-01-01

    Homophobic bullying is a serious concern for students, parents, teachers, and school officials. This article reviews evidence on the status of this problem and how it may be addressed in a multilevel and multidisciplinary manner growing out of a social-ecological perspective on homophobic bullying as a social phenomenon. The ecological framework…

  12. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  13. Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Martín-López, Berta; Daw, Tim M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect...

  14. Social-ecological and regional adaption of agrobiodiversity management across a global set of research regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, L.E.; Pulleman, M.M.; Brussaard, L.; Bawa, K.; Brown, G.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Garcia-Barrios, L.E.; Hollander, A.D.; Lavelle, P.; Ouedraogo, E.; Pascual, U.; Setty, S.; Smukler, S.M.; Tscharntke, T.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2012-01-01

    To examine management options for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, eight research regions were classified into social-ecological domains, using a dataset of indicators of livelihood resources, i.e., capital assets. Potential interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture were then compared

  15. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  16. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  17. Applying the Social Ecological Model to Creating Asthma-Friendly Schools in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Henry J.; Hester, Laura L.; Perry, Mark A.; Stewart-Briley, Collette; Reagon, Valamar M.; Collins, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2010, the Louisiana Asthma Management and Prevention Program (LAMP) implemented the Asthma-Friendly Schools Initiative in high-risk Louisiana populations. The social ecological model (SEM) was used as a framework for an asthma program implemented in 70 state K-12 public schools over 2 years. Methods: Activities included a needs…

  18. Environmental Education for Social-Ecological System Resilience: A Perspective from Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to integrate environmental education, with a focus on building capacity at the level of the individual, with frameworks for resilience, with a focus on adaptive capacity at the level of the social-ecological system. Whereas previous work has focused on enhancing system-level capacity through building adaptive capacity in…

  19. Program on ecosystem change and society: An international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Norström, A.V.; Olsson, O.; Schultz, L.; Agarwal, B.; Balvanera, P.; Campbell, B.; Castilla, J.C.; Cramer, W.; DeFries, R.; Eyzaguirre, P.; Hughes, T.P.; Polasky, S.; Sanusi, Z.A.; Scholes, R.J.; Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality a

  20. Sleep in Mexican-American Adolescents: Social Ecological and Well-Being Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents' sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and…

  1. Advancing adaptive governance of social-ecological systems through theoretical multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Clark, J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been rising scientific and policy interest in the adaptive governance of social ecological systems. A systematic literature review of adaptive governance research during the period 2005–2014, demonstrates a vibrant debate taking place that spans a variety of empirical and t

  2. To manage inland fisheries is to manage at the social-ecological watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Lynch, Abigail J; Young, Nathan; Cowx, Ian G; Beard, T Douglas; Taylor, William W; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Approaches to managing inland fisheries vary between systems and regions but are often based on large-scale marine fisheries principles and thus limited and outdated. Rarely do they adopt holistic approaches that consider the complex interplay among humans, fish, and the environment. We argue that there is an urgent need for a shift in inland fisheries management towards holistic and transdisciplinary approaches that embrace the principles of social-ecological systems at the watershed scale. The interconnectedness of inland fisheries with their associated watershed (biotic, abiotic, and humans) make them extremely complex and challenging to manage and protect. For this reason, the watershed is a logical management unit. To assist management at this scale, we propose a framework that integrates disparate concepts and management paradigms to facilitate inland fisheries management and sustainability. We contend that inland fisheries need to be managed as social-ecological watershed system (SEWS). The framework supports watershed-scale and transboundary governance to manage inland fisheries, and transdisciplinary projects and teams to ensure relevant and applicable monitoring and research. We discuss concepts of social-ecological feedback and interactions of multiple stressors and factors within/between the social-ecological systems. Moreover, we emphasize that management, monitoring, and research on inland fisheries at the watershed scale are needed to ensure long-term sustainable and resilient fisheries.

  3. Using expert informed GIS to locate important marine social-ecological hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Pouyan; Parkes, Margot; Stephen, Craig; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-01

    The marine environment provides significant benefits to many local communities. Pressure to develop coastal waterways worldwide creates an urgent need for tools to locate marine spaces that have important social or ecological values, and to quantify their relative importance. The primary objective of this study was to develop, apply and critically assess a tool to identify important social-ecological hotspots in the marine environment. The study was conducted in a typical coastal community in northern British Columbia, Canada. This expert-informed GIS, or xGIS, tool used a survey instrument to draw on the knowledge of local experts from a range of backgrounds with respect to a series of 12 social-ecological value attributes, such as biodiversity, cultural and economic values. We identified approximately 1500 polygons on marine maps and assigned relative values to them using a token distribution exercise. A series of spatial statistical analyses were performed to locate and quantify the relative social-ecological importance of marine spaces and the results were ultimately summarized in a single hotspot map of the entire study area. This study demonstrates the utility of xGIS as a useful tool for stakeholders and environmental managers engaged in the planning and management of marine resources at the local and regional levels.

  4. Termite Communities in Sugarcane Plantations in Southeastern Brazil: an Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Termites are key components of soil fauna, playing an essential role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, they can cause significant economic losses in commercial plantations, such as sugar cane. Therefore, the correct identification of termite species is critical for pest control. Here, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups of termites in sugarcane plantations in 53 cities throughout the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. We also analyzed the influence of macroclimatic variables on termite species distribution and functional groups. We found 22 taxa of two families, of which the most frequent species were Termitidae (96.51%. Within this family, Apicotermitinae had the highest frequency of occurrence (37.12%, followed by Termitinae (30.57%, Syntermitinae (27.95%, and Nasutitermitinae (0.8 %. The other family, Rhinotermitidae, had the lowest frequency (3.5%, being represented only by Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. We classified Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29.26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24.89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13.10%, and Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6.99% as common taxa. The remaining 18 species were classified as rare. The most common functional group was humus-feeders (37%, followed by wood-feeders (34%, grass-litter feeders (25%, and intermediate feeders (4%. Climate influenced the distribution of common species, humus-feeders and grass-litter feeders. Regarding the pest status of termites in sugar cane plantations, we suggest that the exasperated use of pesticide in the last decades has reduced the abundance of species considered pests (e.g. Heterotermes and reinforce the importance of ecological approaches for determining the best pest control methods. Comunidades de Cupins em Cultivos de Cana-de-Açúcar no Estado de São Paulo: Uma Abordagem Ecológica Resumo. Os cupins são importantes componentes da fauna de solo, atuando na decomposição da mat

  5. [Social capital and quality of healthcare: the experiences of Brazil and Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Selma Cristina; Hernaez, Angel Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Distinct models of health management reflect the core principles upon which they were founded and their institutional arrangement can lead to the improvement of health policy. This paper seeks to reflect on the potential benefits and limitations of the organizational structure and the social capital to lead to changes in the performance of public health organizations in the quest for enhanced quality of care. The description and analysis of two experiences of universal public health systems, in Catalonia and in Brazil, reveal similarities in the legal basis of both health systems. However, the mode of deployment differed greatly, which gave rise to divergent management experiences. One prioritized managerial organization, while the other concentrated on the importance of the social actors promoting the institutionalization of social capital. It is suggested that models of management with dialogue between an efficient organizational design and citizen participation capable of constructing social capital may lead to change in the organizational culture and enhance the quality of care.

  6. Social representation of Hansen's disease thirty years after the term "leprosy" was replaced in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Leide Wand-del-Rey; Mendes, Carla Maria; Tardin, Rachel Tebaldi; Cunha, Mônica Duarte; Arruda, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theories of social representation (SC) and Central Core (CC), a structural study was undertaken regarding the neologism hanseniase (Hansen's disease), the term adopted by Brazil's Ministry of Health in the 1970s. Carried out during 2001, this study interviewed eight hundred housewives residing in the Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias municipalities. It found that Hansen's disease is part of a process of modernization of common thinking, anchored in the additional representation of leprosy. This finding is understandable from the perspective that the central structure of a social representation has a historical determination, so short -and middle-term changes are not to be expected. Furthermore, there has been no ongoing investment in social marketing to make the new terminology more widely known. The authors discuss the relation between social representation and the concept of the history of mentalities.

  7. A complex social-ecological disaster: Environmentally induced forced migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechkemmer, Andreas; O'Connor, Ashley; Rai, Abha; Decker Sparks, Jessica L.; Mudliar, Pranietha; Shultz, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the 21st century, global issues are increasingly characterized by inter-connectedness and complexity. Global environmental change, and climate change in particular, has become a powerful driver and catalyst of forced migration and internal displacement of people. Environmental migrants may far outnumber any other group of displaced people and refugees in the years to come. Deeper scientific integration, especially across the social sciences, is a prerequisite to tackle this issue.

  8. A social-ecological impact assessment for public lands management: application of a conceptual and methodological framework

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda L. Bentley Brymer; Holbrook, Joseph D.; Ryan J. Niemeyer; Alexis A. Suazo; J. D. Wulfhorst; Kerri T. Vierling; Newingham, Beth A.; Timothy E. Link; Rachlow, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    According to the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), federal action to manipulate habitat for species conservation requires an environmental impact statement, which should integrate natural, physical, economic, and social sciences in planning and decision making. Nonetheless, most impact assessments focus disproportionately on physical or ecological impacts rather than integrating ecological and socioeconomic components. We developed a participatory social-ecological impact...

  9. Effects of food ecology on social play: a laboratory simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J D; Baldwin, J I

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory group of 8 squirrel monkeys was exposed to two experimental conditions in which food was made moderately and extremely difficult to obtain, compared with the free access conditions of baseline. Both experiments produced sharp decreased in the frequency of social play within 4 to 6 days. The stronger manipulation produced the more dramatic effect, reducing play to 1% of the baseline level (P less than .001). Neither experiment produced a total absence of play as was observed in a previous field study in southwestern Panama (Baldwin and Baldwin 1973, 1974) which suggests that the field study sampled conditions of even more severe and/or prolonged food deprivation. No pathological or dysfunctional consequences were observed in any of the circumstances where play was reduced to zero or near zero. The question is raised whether certain theories of play have overstated the case for the necessity of play experience in producing normal socialization in primates. Alternative hypotheses are presented concerning the factors that determine the frequency of play and the consequences of play versus no-play for socialization. After both experiments, the frequency of play rose to a level 50% higher than the average baseline levels of play. This "rebound" reached a peak 5 to 6 days after the termination of each experiment; and during the subsequent days the frequency of play declined to more normal levels. A reinforcement theory is presented as a possible explanation of the rebound effect.

  10. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudenda, Ntombi B; Malone, John B; Kearney, Michael T; Mischler, Paula D; Nieto, Prixia del Mar; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km) using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD) water budget (WB) concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD) was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 °C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus) conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration) of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB). Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga), low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.

  11. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombi B. Mudenda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD water budget (WB concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 °C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB. Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga, low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.

  12. Ecological aspects of the vectorial control of Chagas' disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João Carlos P.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility and most important ecological aspects of vectorial Chagas' disease control are discussed. The spread and maintenance of this disease involve multiple ecological and sociopolitical factors that must be taken into account when control programs are planned, executed and evaluated. In spite of its complexity, Chagas disease can be controlled using methods that target specific mechanisms of transmission, the most important being vectorial and transfusional. Major ecological problems in Chagas' disease control do not exist, even in the case of the chemical control of triatomine vectors. The main challenges for the Brazilian Control Program at this moment are: its maintenance as a political priority; the threat of peridomestic vectors; and the consolidation of permanent horizontal and participative epidemiological surveillance systems against the vector.

  13. Natal dispersal in a social landscape:Considering individual behavioral phenotypes and social environment in dispersal ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tina W WEY; Orr SPIEGEL; Pierre-Olivier MONTIGLIO; Karen E MABRY

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal, the movement of an organism from its birthplace to the site of first reproduction, is fundamental to many ecological and evolutionary processes. Mechanistically, individual dispersal decisions can depend on both individual phe-notype and environmental cues. In particular, many established evolutionary theories of dispersal highlight the importance of the social environment. More recent research in behavioral ecology has focused on the importance of individual behavioral pheno-types. We reviewed the literature on individual behavioral phenotypes and dispersal and suggest that how individual behavioral phenotypes interact with the immediate social environment experienced by individuals in influencing dispersal is still poorly un-derstood, despite growing interest. We found that very few studies had examined the interaction of individual behavioral pheno-types and social factors, and behavioral phenotypes related to social tendencies were less commonly measured than were beha-vioral phenotypes related to exploration or response to risk. Further, and unsurprisingly, studies on social behavioral phenotypes and dispersal behaviors during the transience stage of dispersal were underrepresented compared to the departure or settlement stages. Future studies in this area should aim to: a) make explicit links between behavioral traits and their proposed effects on dispersal decisions throughout multiple stages of dispersal, b) integrate more continuous dispersal variables, and c) consider the effects of the spatial distribution and phenotypes of conspecifics (i.e., the social landscape) encountered by individual dispersers [Current Zoology 61 (3): 543–556, 2015].

  14. Ecological Momentary Assessment of social functioning in schizophrenia: impact of performance appraisals and affect on social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia.

  15. Ecological Divergence, Adaptive Diversification, and the Evolution of Social Signaling Traits: An Empirical Study in Arid Australian Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Danielle L; Melville, Jane; Joseph, Leo; Keogh, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Species diversification often results from divergent evolution of ecological or social signaling traits. Theoretically, a combination of the two may promote speciation, however, empirical examples studying how social signal and ecological divergence might be involved in diversification are rare in general and typically do not consider range overlap as a contributing factor. We show that ecologically distinct lineages within the Australian sand dragon species complex (including Ctenophorus maculatus, Ctenophorus fordi, and Ctenophorus femoralis) have diversified recently, diverging in ecologically relevant and social signaling phenotypic traits as arid habitats expanded and differentiated. Diversification has resulted in repeated and independent invasion of distinct habitat types, driving convergent evolution of similar phenotypes. Our results suggest that parapatry facilitates diversification in visual signals through reinforcement as a hybridization-avoidance mechanism. We show that particularly striking variation in visual social signaling traits is better explained by the extent of lineage parapatry relative to ecological or phylogenetic divergence, suggesting that these traits reinforce divergence among lineages initiated by ecologically adaptive evolution. This study provides a rare empirical example of a repeated, intricate relationship between ecological and social signal evolution during diversification driven by ecological divergence and the evolution of new habitats, thereby supporting emergent theories regarding the importance of both ecological and social trait evolution throughout speciation.

  16. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Raddi (Lacertilia, Scincidae at the restinga of Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the ecology of the skink Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 at the restinga habitat of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are studied. Most of the lizards were first sighted on the ground, though a few were using perches (mainly cacti up to 30 cm high. Mean body temperature in activity was 33.1 ± 2.4ºC and was significantly correlated to air temperature. There was sexual dimorphism in size (snout-vent length - SVL, with females growing larger than males. Frequency of broken tails was high overall (83% and did not differ between sexes. Females and males are sexually mature at 49 mm and 47 mm SVL, respectively. Brood size averaged 3.2 ± 1.0 (range 1-5 and was positively and significantly related to female SVL (r = 0.65, p = 0.001. Relative clutch mass (RCM of seven gravid females averaged 0.250 ± 0.042, being relatively low compared to those of other congeners. The diet of M. agilis was composed basically of arthropods, with relatively large and soft-bodied arthropods such as spiders, caterpillars and homopterans being the most important prey. The results of our work confirm and expand the knowledge of ecological tendencies previously observed for M. agilis in other areas.

  17. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  18. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  19. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  20. Integrating Social Power and Political Influence into Models of Social–Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon M. Hall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shaping policy for environmental sustainability depends upon decision-makers conceptualizing problems in ways that are either shared or similar enough to communicate about, diagnose, and act. The quality of this shared mental model of a social–ecological system (SES is paramount to its effectiveness. Fundamentally, the mental model must integrate multiple kinds of knowledge about the system. If the decision-making body's assumptions about, description of, and solution for a problem do not to reflect the many ways stakeholders know a system, then the products of that decision-making process are viewed as illegitimate. Sustainability policy must fit the often subtle social order of the communities expected to implement it. In this essay, we discuss how a systems-based perspective can be a versatile tool for tackling these challenges of knowledge integration and decision-making in the context of a complex SES. Using social theory of Pierre Bourdieu, we construct a conceptual model that illustrates a route for integrating locally known social complexities (power, influence gleaned from stakeholder interviews (N = 57. Stakeholders and end-user groups may dismiss any model that they perceive fails to satisfactorily account for specific, locally salient social nuances. Our approach leverages the overlapping notion of “capital” in social and ecological theory to demonstrate how reciprocal interactions between human and ecological systems can be adopted into tools for reaching viable solutions to SES problems. Keywords: Sustainability science, Social capital, Power, Boundary object, Water resources management, Floodplain development, Riparian ecology

  1. Managing Nitrogen in the anthropocene: integrating social and ecological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Davidson, E. A.; Kanter, D.; Cai, R.; Searchinger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle by agricultural activities has provided nutritious food to society, but also poses increasing threats to human and ecosystem health through unintended pollution. Managing nitrogen more efficiently in crop production is critical for addressing both food security and environmental challenges. Technologies and management practices have been developed to increase the uptake of applied nitrogen by crops. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, yield per unit nitrogen input) is also affected by social and economic factors. For example, to maximize profit, farmers may change crop choice or their nitrogen application rate, both of which lead to a change in NUE. To evaluate such impacts, we use both theoretical and empirical approaches on micro (farm) and macro (national) scales: 1) We developed a bio-economic model (NUE3) on a farm scale to investigate how market signals (e.g. fertilizer and crop prices), government policies, and nitrogen-efficient technologies affect NUE. We demonstrate that if factors that influence nitrogen inputs (e.g. fertilizer-to-crop price ratios) are not considered, NUE projections will be poorly constrained. The impact of nitrogen-efficient technologies on NUE not only depends on how technology changes the production function, but also relies on the prices of the technologies, fertilizers, and crops. 2) We constructed a database of the nitrogen budget in crop production for major crops and major crop producing countries from 1961 to 2010. Using this database, we investigate historical trends of NUE and its relationship to agronomic, economic, social, and policy factors. We find that NUE in most developed countries follows a "U-shape" relationship with income level, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory. According to the dynamics revealed in the NUE3 model, we propose three major pathways by which economic development affects NUE, namely consumption, technology, and public policy

  2. Resilience Pivots: Stability and Identity in a Social-Ecological-Cultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Rotarangi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How is cultural resilience achieved in the face of significant social and ecological change? Is resilience compatible with changed structures, functions, and feedbacks as long as identity is maintained? The concept of cultural resilience has been less explored than its older siblings ecological resilience, social resilience, and social-ecological resilience. We seek to redress the balance, drawing from resilience thinking to examine how a New Zealand Māori tribal group of landowners retained strong cultural identity and connectedness to their land despite enduring significant changes in land use, economy, tenure, and governance. The landowners negotiated radical transformations in the ecology and land use of their home lands on terms that supported matters of cultural importance. The key resilience concepts of adaptation and transformation were helpful in analyzing the trajectory of change, but fell short of representing the elements of stability that supported the cultural resilience of the landowners. The concept of resilience pivots was designed to address this conceptual gap, and to offer another heuristic to resilience thinking by focusing on stability rather than change. Resilience pivots are those elements of a resilient system that remain stable despite adaptation or even transformation of other elements of that system, and in doing so support the maintenance of the system's distinctive identity.

  3. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change.

  4. How Does Football Influence the Political System and Juridify Social Movements? Brazil, June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Schwartz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to current trends in the analysis of new social movements, protests are related to economic issues or social inequalities, particularly those of a religious or ethnic nature which, in turn, produce new communications directed at the political system. The present study aims to determine the relationship between football and the social movements that occurred in Brazil in June 2013, as well as investigate the responses of the political system to these social grievances, centered primarily on the juridification of these social spheres. Thus, it focuses on how the legal and political systems absorb these communications into their self-referential logic. To that end, the methodology used is based on the structural functionalism of Niklas Luhmann and his theory of autopoietic social systems. The results demonstrate that both systems – political and legal – were significantly influenced by football, specifically by the substantial investments allocated to hosting the 2014 World Cup in Brazil which, when contrasted with the low return of public services in the country, reveal the root causes of June 2013. Según las tendencias actuales en el análisis de los nuevos movimientos sociales, las protestas están relacionadas con cuestiones económicas o desigualdades sociales, en particular las de carácter religioso o étnico que, a su vez, producen nuevas comunicaciones dirigidas al sistema político. Este estudio pretende determinar la relación entre el fútbol y los movimientos sociales que se produjeron en Brasil en junio de 2013, así como investigar las respuestas del sistema político a estas demandas sociales, centradas principalmente en la juridificación de estas esferas sociales. Por lo tanto, se centra en cómo los sistemas legales y políticos absorben estas comunicaciones en su lógica autorreferencial. Para ello, la metodología empleada se basa en el funcionalismo estructural de Niklas Luhmann y su teoría de los sistemas

  5. The Diatom Anorthoneis dulcis Hein from Southern Brazil: Morphology and Ecology

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    Garcia Marinês

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new geographic locality for Anorthoneis dulcis is reported. The paper describes the distribution and relative abundance of A. dulcis in Lagoa dos Patos lagoon (a lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil from samples collected between 2004 and 2005, and shows that this rare species is present all year round. This study extends the species distribution to South America indicating that the species can thrive on sand grains in lentic estuarine, and freshwater areas. It widens the range of tolerance to environmental parameters. The valve fine structure, morphology, and dimensions are in agreement with the original diagnosis.

  6. 2011 AERA Presidential Address: Designing Resilient Ecologies--Social Design Experiments and a New Social Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about designing for educational possibilities--designs that in their inception, social organization, and implementation squarely address issues of cultural diversity, social inequality, and robust learning. I discuss an approach to design-based research, social design experiments, that privileges a social scientific inquiry…

  7. Culture and the Immune System: Cultural Consonance in Social Support and C-reactive Protein in Urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we examine the distribution of a marker of immune system stimulation-C-reactive protein-in urban Brazil. Social relationships are associated with immunostimulation, and we argue that cultural dimensions of social support, assessed by cultural consonance, are important in this process. Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, approximate shared cultural models. A measure of cultural consonance in social support, based on a cultural consensus analysis regarding sources and patterns of social support in Brazil, was developed. In a survey of 258 persons, the association of cultural consonance in social support and C-reactive protein was examined, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, depressive symptoms, and a social network index. Lower cultural consonance in social support was associated with higher C-reactive protein. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.

  8. The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies.

  9. Social and Historical Approaches Regarding Street Children in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in the Context of the Transition to Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Gisalio Cerqueira; Neder, Gizlene

    2001-01-01

    This review examines the social literature on Brazilian street children to determine causal factors. Stressing the socioeconomic aspects of poverty and social exclusion, the analyses identify three basic themes: the family, high failure rates in school, and child/adolescent labor. The role of Brazil's economic crisis of the late 1970s and…

  10. Social-Ecological Innovation in Purposeful Organizations: Implications & Impacts in an Age of Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Blahova, Michaela

    Purpose: This present age is one that is human-made, rather than defined by geologic strata. As such it has come to be called the Anthropocene Age. It is an age fraught with wicked social, ecological, and environmental challenges for which no clear resolutions exist. While many means of warfare...... that span societal, ecological, and economic dimensions. Findings: Edmund Husserl cited intentionality as central to human consciousness. Most certainly intentionality is equally central to conscious enterprise consideration and combat of wicked global challenges we face – ones that threaten people, planet...

  11. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and Their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social ecology and group cohesion in pilot whales and their...N000141410410 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigates the social ecology and cohesion of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad multi...how noise affects large delphinids such as pilot whales is important since these species have different social systems and seem to respond

  12. Management of Transpetro's corporate social and environmental responsibility in the midwest of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Walderes [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, Goias (Brazil); Bortolon, Carlos Roberto; Castro, Newton Camelo de; Machado Cardoso, Guilherme [Transpetro, Goiania, Goias (Brazil); Da Silva, Simone Rodrigues [ATP Engenharia, Goiania, Goias (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Since 2003, all Transpetro sites have been certified by quality, environment, and operational safety and health international standards. However, compliance with corporate social and environmental responsibility policies is not always the case in every regional business unit. The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment initiated in 2008 to meet this challenge and develop mechanisms for monitoring performance along various parameters at a regional scale. This experiment was carried out at the Transpetro land and oil terminals in the Midwest of Brazil. A team of management professionals was put together and an appropriate methodology was selected. The results from this analysis showed that social and environmental responsibilities can be conveniently and successfully managed at the local level and that this function is highly relevant to a company's operations. This study proved that local social responsibility mechanisms should be used to foster the maturing of corporate citizenship.

  13. STIMULATING SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION THROUGH SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BUSINESS BEHAVIOR: AN STUDY IN WALMART BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Under a market dynamic current, increasingly new behaviors of business are required in relation to the social and environmental aspects. Thus, considering the emergence of a new consumption paradigm, this paper aims to identify how a social and environmental behavior of Wal-Mart Brazil can be stimulating an effective sustainable consumption in the supermarket retail. According to this idea, this research had a qualitative approach and was conducted by a case of study, in which we identified that with an incorporation of responsible practices exist a stimulus to sustainable consumption in the retail studied, in order to a new behavior in the company. For this, we can identify that was necessary a set of social interactions that contribute with a different perspective.

  14. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

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    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  15. The Paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salyvonchyk, Svetlana; Nora, Vinicius; Lopes, Priscila F; Silvano, Renato A M

    2012-06-27

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen's local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the "defeso system" (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  16. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  17. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  18. Religion as a Social Substitute for the State: Faith-Based Social Action in Twenty-First Century Brazil (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliott Mourier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and pluralist religion plays a vital role in development in contemporary Brazil. As advisors that supplement and, occasionally, even substitute for a state bureaucracy absent or overwhelmed in many vulnerable areas, Brazilian religious organisations are once again becoming the favoured partners of the state. This reconfiguration is taking place under markedly different conditions than in the colonial era, when the throne and the altar worked together in an intimate relationship. Since then, successive constitutions have imposed the legal separation of politics and religion. On a social level, however, the two spheres today appear dedicated to cooperation. This chapter analyses the current tendency of the Brazilian government to ‘contract’ an increasing number of religious entities to deliver and manage many of its social development responsibilities in ‘public-religious partnerships’. In light of this trend, the time has come to reconsider the historical relationship between the state and the Church(es in Brazil, a phenomenon currently characterised by the advent of a ‘supplemental secularism’.

  19. The role of cooperation for improved stewardship of marine social-ecological systems in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Latin American and Caribbean (LAC countries are among the worlds' richest in marine biodiversity. Fish stocks in these regions are important for fishing communities, and fishing activities engage several million people. These fisheries depend on the natural services provided by a diverse range of marine social-ecological systems, but many LAC fisheries are in a degraded state, and concerns about overexploitation are widespread. With most fishery resources fully exploited or overexploited, opportunities for development lie primarily in restoring depleted stocks and using stocks more efficiently. The papers published in the Special Feature "Cooperation, Local Communities, and Marine Social-Ecological Systems: New Findings from Latin America" present a range of experiences with ecosystem stewardship in the region and highlight promising perspectives for the future. The Special Feature consists of papers that deal with new findings from case studies which show how cooperation is key for building resilience in LAC fisheries. These case studies illustrate the effects of different types of cooperation and the roles of diverse stakeholders (fishers, scientists, environmental nongovernmental organizations, and national administrations, among others in different countries of the region. Combined, these papers describe social processes, leadership, and institutional and organizational changes of relevance for stewardship of marine social-ecological systems in Latin America. The field of resilience research is still in an explorative phase in the region, and our ambition with this Special Feature is that the new discoveries presented may stimulate additional research in this field, including increased international cooperation with LAC scientists.

  20. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ALESSI, Claudia Álvares Calvo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; José Roberto ALVES; CORBETT, Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST) and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD). AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incrimi...

  1. Contributing to Sustainability Education of East Asian University Students through a Field Trip Experience: A Social-Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of a field trip environmental education program with a social-ecological perspective on the experience and learning of university students from China, Japan, South Korea and Vietnam. The students visited Jeju Island, the Saemangeum Sea Dike, the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, South Korea. Their experiences and learning about social-ecological interactions were analyzed using the new environmental paradigm test, an evaluation questionnaire, group presentations and individual reports. Across demographic characteristics, the participants believed the program fairly presented the concept of social-ecological systems. Some developed new ideas of social-ecological systems through interpreting, transforming and contextualizing their field trip experience based on prior knowledge bases; others compared the sites to case studies. They preferred the sites where social-ecological issues were clearly presented by well-preserved landscapes, successful environmental management or environmental conflict. The results show the need for an advanced multi-dimensional methodology to evaluate students’ learning through constructive processes. The program design of this study from planning to field trip and evaluation, the field site design in which regional site resources were organized in a social-ecological context and the analysis of participants’ learning and experiences could contribute to attempts to couple the social-ecological perspective with the practice of sustainability and environmental education in field trip design.

  2. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

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    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available São divulgados os primeiros resultados da avaliação da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil através de técnicas de análise da distribuição espacial. São revisadas questões metodológicas, apontando as dificuldades de estabelecer regiões geográficas homogêneas no Brasil. Descrevem-se tendências recentes da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil - pauperização, interiorização e alteração na participação proporcional das categorias de exposição. Avalia-se a distribuição de casos de AIDS por Unidades da Federação (UFs, confeccionando-se mapas relativos à disseminação da epidemia no período 1987-1993 nas diversas UFs, estabelecendo-se os Centros Gravimétricos (CGs relativos a esses anos. A análise do posicionamento e deslocamento pluri-anual desses CGs indica a força atrativa do Estado de São Paulo como pólo de difusão da epidemia e uma expansão simultânea da epidemia em direção às fronteiras de ocupação. Essas tendências colocam dificuldades adicionais às atividades de prevenção ao acrescentarem novos segmentos populacionais e regiões geográficas ao quadro observado inicialmente nas principais regiões metropolitanas e segmentos mais afetados.The first of a series of papers concerning the evaluation of the dynamics of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil employing techniques of geographical analysis, is here presented. Results of research undertaken in the US (especially in New York City are compared with those of a recent investigation carried out in the city of S.Paulo, Brazil (Grangeiro, 1994. In both, geographical patterns of socio-demographic variables correlate with different patterns of the spread of the AIDS epidemic through the transmission groups. Recent trends of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil: the displacement toward medium sized cities and expansion frontiers, increasing report of AIDS cases among the poor and underprivileged, changes in the pattern of transmission with proportional

  3. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

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    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  4. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

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    Sérgio de Faria Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species and Myrtaceae (20 species were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which Siparuna guianensis was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.

  5. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlaine A Menezes; Monique Van Sluys; Angélica F. Fontes; Carlos F. D Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used ...

  6. Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Barthel, S; Ahrné, K

    2007-07-01

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  7. Lack of ecological context can create the illusion of social success in Dictyostelium discoideum

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of cooperation in microbes often focus on one fitness component, with little information about or attention to the ecological context, and this can lead to paradoxical results. The life cycle of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum includes a multicellular stage in which not necessarily clonal amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a possibly chimeric (genetically heterogeneous) fruiting body made of dead stalk and spores. The lab-measured reproductive skew in the spores of chimeras indicates strong social antagonism; this should result in low genotypic diversity, which is inconsistent with observations from nature. Two studies have suggested that this inconsistency stems from the one-dimensional assessment of fitness (spore production) and that the solution lies in tradeoffs between multiple traits, e.g.: spore size versus viability; and staying vegetative versus becoming dormant. We theoretically explore different tradeoff-implementing mechanisms and provide a unifying ecological framework ...

  8. Ecological and Social Dimensions of Ecosystem Restoration in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hagen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An international overview of the extent and type of ecological restoration can offer new perspectives for understanding, planning, and implementation. The Nordic countries, with a great range of natural conditions but historically similar social and political structures, provide an opportunity to compare restoration approaches and efforts across borders. The aim of this study was to explore variation in ecological restoration using the Nordic countries as an example. We used recent national assessments and expert evaluations of ecological restoration. Restoration efforts differed among countries: forest and peatland restoration was most common in Finland, freshwater restoration was most common in Sweden, restoration of natural heathlands and grasslands was most common in Iceland, restoration of natural and semi-cultural heathlands was most common in Norway, and restoration of cultural ecosystems, mainly abandoned agricultural land, was most common in Denmark. Ecological restoration currently does not occur on the Faroe Islands. Economic incentives influence ecological restoration and depend on laws and policies in each country. Our analyses suggest that habitat types determine the methods of ecological restoration, whereas socio-economic drivers are more important for the decisions concerning the timing and location of restoration. To improve the understanding, planning, and implementation of ecological restoration, we advocate increased cooperation and knowledge sharing across disciplines and among countries, both in the Nordic countries and internationally. An obvious advantage of such cooperation is that a wider range of experiences from different habitats and different socio-economic conditions becomes available and thus provides a more solid basis for developing practical solutions for restoration methods and policies.

  9. Sleep in Mexican American Adolescents: Social Ecological and Well-Being Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents’ sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and night-to-night variability in sleep duration and assessing the links between these dimensions of sleep and adjustment in Mexican American youth. Pa...

  10. Balancing the Realization of Ecological,Economic and Social Values of Forests for Sustainable Forest Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Forests provide multiple ecological,economic and social benefits.A truly sustainable forest management should lead to a balanced realization of these forest values.This paper categorizes the forest resources as appreciating resources and depreciating resources in accordance with the specific form of forest values,and defines them conceptually in regard to the contrasting and competitive nature of these values.Necessary theoretic discussions were then made for the feasibility and operability in terms of t...

  11. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  12. Ecological education as the factor of socialization of children with slow mental development

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    P. O. Omarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of system of training and education of children with slow mental development is an actual problem of contemporary correctional pedagogics and psychology. Realization of unity of cognitive, educational and correctional objectives during training allows these pupils to seize knowledge and the skills stipulated by the program of a mass comprehensive school, more successfully to adapt for conditions of the surrounding natural and social world. Ecological education can act as one of directions of optimization the process of socialization of younger schoolchildren with slow mental activity.

  13. [Intergenerational social mobility and health in Brazil: analyzing the "Social Dimensions of Inequalilies Survey (PDSD)," 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Luisa Sorio; Laguardia, Josué; Campos, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Although most studies consider health to be the result of social and economic insertion of the individuals, health may be considered a determining factor of the social opportunities achieved, especially with respect to chances of social mobility. The scope of this article is to understand the magnitude of the concurrent associations that sociodemographic, health and quality of life conditions (SF-36) exercise on chances of intergenerational social mobility on a probability sample of Brazilian homes in 2008. Social mobility was determined by the transition between occupational groups, which were defined using the Ganzeboom scale. Sociodemographic, health and quality of life features were associated with upward social mobility through logistic regression. A high level of schooling was the main determinant of chances of intergenerational social mobility. Women and youngsters ascended more intergenerationally. A positive association was observed between self assessment of health, physical health scores and upward mobility. Social mobility has become established as a multideterminate event. Physical health and perceived health were capable of influencing social transitions.

  14. [Social network analysis of animal behavioral ecology: a cross-discipline approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is a framework used to study the structure of societies. As an umbrella term that encompasses various tools of graph theory and mathematical models to visualize networks, SNA allows researchers to detect and quantify patterns in social networks. Within SNA, individuals are not independent, but are symbiotic or linked with one another in a network. Given its powerful analytical tools, SNA is capable of addressing a range of animal behaviors, and has accordingly become increasingly popular in behavioral ecology studies examining such notions as mate choice/sexual selection, cooperation, information flow and disease transition, behavioral strategies of individuals, fitness consequences of sociality and network stability. Nevertheless, SNA it relatively underutilized among Chinese behavioral ecologists. This study aims at highlighting the benefits of SNA in studying animal behaviors in order to promote greater utilization of SNA within Chinese studies. By first introducing social network theory and demonstrating how social networks can influence individual and collective behaviors, this paper provide a prospective overview of SNA's general utilization for the study of animal behavioral ecology as well as promising directions in the overall use of SNA.

  15. Community owned solutions: identifying local best practices for social-ecological sustainability

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    Jayalaxshmi Mistry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Policies and actions that come from higher scale structures, such as international bodies and national governments, are not always compatible with the realities and perspectives of smaller scale units including indigenous communities. Yet, it is at this local social-ecological scale that mechanisms and solutions for dealing with unpredictability and change can be increasingly seen emerging from across the world. Although there is a large body of knowledge specifying the conditions necessary to promote local governance of natural resources, there is a parallel need to develop practical methods for operationalizing the evaluation of local social-ecological systems. In this paper, we report on a systemic, participatory, and visual approach for engaging local communities in an exploration of their own social-ecological system. Working with indigenous communities of the North Rupununi, Guyana, this involved using participatory video and photography within a system viability framework to enable local participants to analyze their own situation by defining indicators of successful strategies that were meaningful to them. Participatory multicriteria analysis was then used to arrive at a short list of best practice strategies. We present six best practices and show how they are intimately linked through the themes of indigenous knowledge, local governance and values, and partnerships and networks. We highlight how developing shared narratives of community owned solutions can help communities to plan governance and management of land and resource systems, while reinforcing sustainable practices by discussing and showcasing them within communities, and by engendering a sense of pride in local solutions.

  16. Oak conservation and restoration on private forestlands: negotiating a social-ecological landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Tricia G; Schulte, Lisa A; Rickenbach, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the midwestern United States, oak (Quercus spp.) forests are considered critical habitat for conserving biodiversity and are a declining resource. Ecological conditions, such as deer herbivory and competition from more mesic broad-leaved deciduous species, have been linked to poor oak regeneration. In the Midwest, where up to 90% of forestland is privately owned, a greater understanding of social dimensions of oak regeneration success is especially critical to designing effective restoration strategies. We sought to determine factors that serve as direct and indirect constraints to oak restoration and identify policy mechanisms that could improve the likelihood for restoration success. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 natural resource professionals working in the Midwest Driftless Area. We found that most professionals anticipate that oak will remain only a component of the future forest. Furthermore, they identified the general unwillingness of landowners to adopt oak restoration practices as a primary driving force of regional forest change. The professionals pointed to interdependent ecological and social factors, occurring at various scales (e.g., economic cost of management, deer herbivory, and exurban residential development) as influencing landowner oak restoration decisions. Professionals emphasized the importance of government cost-share programs and long-term personal relationships to securing landowner acceptance of oak restoration practices. However, given finite societal resources, ecologically- and socially-targeted approaches were viewed as potential ways to optimize regional success.

  17. Resilience, Social-Ecological Rules, and Environmental Variability in a Two-Species Artisanal Fishery

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    Marshall Duer-Balkind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological resilience is an increasingly central paradigm for understanding sustainable resource management. In this study, we aimed to better understand the effect of environmental variability on the resilience of fishery systems, and the important role that social institutions and biophysical constraints play. To explore these issues, we built a dynamic model of the pen shell fishery of the indigenous Seri people in the Gulf of California, Mexico. This model included the dynamics of the two dominant species in the fishery (Atrina tuberculosa and Pinna rugosa, several institutional rules that the Seri use, and a number of ecological constraints, including key stochastic variables derived from empirical data. We found that modeling with multiple species, rather than the standard one-species model, uncovered more of the resilience that is present in the system. We also found that it is the combination of several social-ecological rules working in conjunction with the endogenous environmental variability that helps ensure the resilience of the system.

  18. Biodiversity governance and social-ecological system dynamics: transformation in the Australian Alps

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    Michael Lockwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation continues to be a challenging task for societies worldwide. We undertook a resilience assessment to address the following question: What are the ramifications of social-ecological system dynamics for biodiversity governance of a nationally significant landscape? Resilience assessment offers promise for guiding response strategies, potentially enabling consideration of ecological, social, economic, and governance influences on biodiversity-related activities. Most resilience assessments have, however, struggled to effectively incorporate governance influences. We applied a modified version of the Resilience Alliance workbook approach to explicitly address governance influences at each stage of an assessment of internationally significant biodiversity features in protected areas of the Australian Alps. The vulnerability of the Alps system to climate change suggests that it is moving into a release stage, with subsequent transformation hypothesized. Network governance is argued as enabling flexible, adaptive management and comprehensive engagement of stakeholders, both of which are critical to shaping how this transformation of the Alps as a valued focal system will occur. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee provides a promising governance structure for collaboration and comanagement across multiple jurisdictions. Our contribution was to demonstrate how a resilience assessment that explicitly embeds governance influences in social-ecological system dynamics can point to pathways for governance reform in the context of system transformation.

  19. Environmental, economic and social impact of aviation biofuel production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonez, Paulo André; Feroldi, Michael; de Jesus de Oliveira, Carlos; Teleken, Joel Gustavo; Alves, Helton José; Sampaio, Silvio Cézar

    2015-03-25

    The Brazilian aviation industry is currently developing biofuel technologies that can maintain the operational and energy demands of the sector, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuels (mainly kerosene) and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the current research was to identify the major environmental, economic and social impacts arising from the production of aviation biofuels in Brazil. Despite the great potential of these fuels, there is a significant need for improved routes of production and specifically for lower production costs of these materials. In addition, the productive chains of raw materials for obtaining these bioenergetics can be linked to environmental impacts by NOx emissions, extensive use of agricultural land, loss of wildlife and intensive water use, as well as economic, social and political impacts.

  20. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  1. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil

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    Menezes Paulo R.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.

  2. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.

  3. Achieving social-ecological fit through bottom-up collaborative governance: an empirical investigation

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    Angela M. Guerrero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant benefits can arise from collaborative forms of governance that foster self-organization and flexibility. Likewise, governance systems that fit with the extent and complexity of the system under management are considered essential to our ability to solve environmental problems. However, from an empirical perspective the fundamental question of whether self-organized (bottom-up collaborative forms of governance are able to accomplish adequate fit is unresolved. We used new theory and methodological approaches underpinned by interdisciplinary network analysis to address this gap by investigating three governance challenges that relate to the problem of fit: shared management of ecological resources, management of interconnected ecological resources, and cross-scale management. We first identified a set of social-ecological network configurations that represent the hypothesized ways in which collaborative arrangements can contribute to addressing these challenges. Using social and ecological data from a large-scale biodiversity conservation initiative in Australia, we empirically determined how well the observed patterns of stakeholder interactions reflect these network configurations. We found that stakeholders collaborate to manage individual parcels of native vegetation, but not for the management of interconnected parcels. In addition, our data show that the collaborative arrangements enable management across different scales (local, regional, supraregional. Our study provides empirical support for the ability of collaborative forms of governance to address the problem of fit, but also suggests that in some cases the establishment of bottom-up collaborative arrangements would likely benefit from specific guidance to facilitate the establishment of collaborations that better align with the ways ecological resources are interconnected across the landscape. In our case study region, this would improve the capacity of stakeholders to

  4. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'.

  5. Ecological variability and rule-making processes for forest management institutions: a social-ecological case study in the Jalisco coast, Mexico

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    Sofía Monroy-Sais

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of social-ecological systems is becoming increasingly used since the framework provides a valuable set of variables for understanding relationships between people and ecosystems. This interaction focuses on the use and management of natural resources that, in many cases, are common-pool resources. In Mexico, common-pool resources have long been explored since at least 60% of the forested lands in the country are held under the legal figure of ‘ejidos’ and indigenous communities, which aimed at driving the collective use of lands and resources. However, few studies incorporate ecological processes for an integrated understanding of social-ecological systems. In this study, we seek to understand how ecological variability influences the creation and functioning of different rules and, consequently, institutions for forests management. Our case study was conducted in an ejido with high ecological variability located in Jalisco on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The research approach was interdisciplinary and combined qualitative and quantitative methods. We conducted participant observation and 23 semi-structured interviews; botanical collections were also carried out. We found that there is strong influence between ecological variables and the emergence of rules and collective action. The most important variables influencing these processes were the economic value of resource units, ecosystem services perceived by local people and location and size of the resource system (including area and number of species. Historical processes also play a part that generates knowledge of resource systems and the current social, economic and political settings at a larger scale. The establishment of relationships with variables that produce certain outcomes for the framework of the social-ecological system is an important challenge to be met in order to move forward in both theory and practice.

  6. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

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    Drew Cottle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  7. Social Psychology in Brazil and in the international scene Psicologia Social no Brasil e no cenário internacional

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    Helmuth Krüger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social Psychology in Brazil has been showing a progressive scientific growth since the 1970's. Such development justifies the current interest in performing an evaluation of scientific contributions of Brazilian Social Psychologists within the international context. In this respect, a literature review allowed the identification of 10 evaluative models in Social Psychology. Such models are applied to the psychological and sociological currents in Social Psychology, which are the most prominent internationaly. Even though such evaluative models are well designed, they present limitations with regard to their spectrum of application within Social Psychology. Thus a 5 - dimensional conceptual model has been developed: Philosophical assumptions; Research subject; Research methods and techniques; Conceptual matrix; Applications. Main results of the literature review were obtained from this 5 - dimensional model.A Psicologia Social no Brasil vem apresentando uma crescente maturidade científica desde a década de 1970. Esse desenvolvimento justifica o atual interesse em proceder a uma avaliação das contribuições científicas de psicólogos sociais brasileiros numa perspectiva internacional. Nesse sentido, foi conduzido um estudo bibliográfico, que possibilitou a identificação de 10 modelos de avaliação da Psicologia Social. Esses modelos são aplicados às vertentes psicológica e sociológica da Psicologia Social, que são as que mais se destacam no plano internacional. Embora esses modelos avaliativos estejam tecnicamente bem fundamentados, apresentam limitações quanto à abrangência do objeto a avaliar, que é a Psicologia Social. Assim, propõe-se um modelo baseado em cinco dimensões: pressupostos filosóficos; objeto de investigação; métodos e técnicas de pesquisa; matriz conceitual; e, aplicações. Os principais resultados deste estudo bibliográfico foram obtidos mediante a aplicação do modelo dessas cinco dimensões básicas.

  8. Política de cotas no Brasil: política social? Quota policy in Brazil: social policy?

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    Janete Luzia Leite

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as políticas de ação afirmativas - notadamente a política de cotas - como mais uma estratégia do capitalismo em seu estágio atual para passivizar a classe trabalhadora na luta pela ampliação de direitos sociais. Parte da hipótese de que segmentos historicamente explorados têm a sua não integração na sociedade como resultante da "questão social", e não de determinações particularistas. Para tanto, utiliza a teoria social crítica para analisar a emersão e o evolver das políticas sociais no Brasil e de que forma estas se metamorfoseiam sob a égide do governo Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. O sistema de cotas étnico-raciais para o ingresso no ensino superior público é aqui contrastado com a defesa de políticas públicas de caráter universal. Conclui que a assistencialização das políticas sociais é mais um instrumento para eliminar a luta política dos trabalhadores e escamotear as expressões da questão social.This article discusses affirmative action policies - notably quotas - as a current strategy of capitalism to pacify the working class in the struggle for expansion of social rights. It begins with the hypothesis that the lack of integration into society of historically exploited segments is a result of the "social question" and not of particular determinations. It therefore uses critical social theory to analyze the emergence and development of social policies in Brazil and understand in what way they were transformed under the aegis of the government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. The system of ethnic and racial quotas for entrance into public higher education is contrasted here with the defense of public policies of a universal character. The article concludes that social policies focused on providing assistance are tools designed to eliminate the political struggle of workers and hide social expressions.

  9. Ecology of a tick-borne spotted fever in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Binder, Lina C; Oliveira, Caroline S; Costa, Francisco B; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Gregori, Fábio; Polo, Gina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state of Brazil, bordering Uruguay. Clinical cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis were recently reported in Rio Grande do Sul. None of these cases was lethal, and all were confirmed by seroconversion to R. rickettsii antigens. Because serological cross-reactions are well known to occur between different SFG agents, the SFG agent responsible for the clinical cases remains unknown in Rio Grande do Sul, where no rickettsial agent is known to infect ticks. During 2013-2014, ticks and blood sera samples were collected from domestic dogs and wild small mammals, and from the vegetation in a SFG-endemic area of Rio Grande do Sul. Dogs were infested by Amblyomma ovale adult ticks, whereas small mammals were infested by immature stages of A. ovale, Ixodes loricatus, and adults of I. loricatus. Ticks collected on vegetation were adults of A. ovale, and immature stages of A. ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, and Amblyomma longirostre. Three Rickettsia species were detected: Rickettsia bellii in I. loricatus, Rickettsia amblyommii in A. longirostre, and a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) in A. ovale. Seroreactivity to SFG antigens were detected in 19.7 % (27/137) canine and 37.5 % (15/40) small mammal sera, with highest titers to R. parkeri. Results indicate that the R. parkeri-like agent, strain Atlantic rainforest, is circulating between A. ovale ticks, dogs and small mammals in the study area, suggesting that this SFG pathogen could be one of the etiological agents of SFG clinical cases in Rio Grande do Sul.

  10. Resilient Social Relationships and Collaboration in the Management of Social–Ecological Systems

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    Wayne A. Freimund

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and articulates a social relationships perspective of collaboration in the management of social–ecological systems (SESs. It provides a conceptual premise for understanding the dynamics of long-term social relationships that underlie collaborative processes. We argue that a resilience approach offers a better perspective for the study of change in long-term relationships. A conceptual framework based on the theories of resilience and social relationships is developed for analyzing the evolution of collaborative schemes. The essence of the framework is to facilitate understanding and building of resilient social relationships for effective collaboration through interpreting and managing relational change. We suggest that an analysis of resilient social relationships requires an understanding of the complexity and extent of relational change. The elements of a behavioral approach to relationships theory are discussed as a foundation for resilient social relationships. By incorporating the models of Holling (1995 and Cousins (2002 into a behavioral approach to relationships theory, the framework we propose can be used to determine the potential for change based on the amount of relational capital and the degree of relational connectedness in long-term social relationships.

  11. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  12. Ecological and social outcomes of a new protected area in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jaclyn M; Burgess, Neil D; Rantala, Salla; Vihemäki, Heini; Jambiya, George; Gereau, Roy E; Makonda, Fortunatus; Njilima, Fadhili; Sumbi, Peter; Kizaji, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Balancing ecological and social outcomes of conservation actions is recognized in global conservation policy but is challenging in practice. Compensation to land owners or users for foregone assets has been proposed by economists as an efficient way to mitigate negative social impacts of human displacement from protected areas. Joint empirical assessments of the conservation and social impacts of protected area establishment involving compensation payments are scarce. We synthesized social and biological studies related to the establishment of the Derema forest corridor in Tanzania's biodiverse East Usambara Mountains. This lengthy conservation process involved the appropriation of approximately 960 ha of native canopy agroforest and steep slopes for the corridor and monetary compensation to more than 1100 claimants in the surrounding villages. The overarching goals from the outset were to conserve ecological processes while doing no harm to the local communities. We evaluated whether these goals were achieved by analyzing 3 indicators of success: enhancement of forest connectivity, improvement of forest condition, and mitigation of negative impacts on local people's livelihoods. Indicators of forest connectivity and conditions were enhanced through reductions of forest loss and exotic species and increases in native species and canopy closure. Despite great efforts by national and international organizations, the intervention failed to mitigate livelihood losses especially among the poorest people. The Derema case illustrates the challenges of designing and implementing compensation schemes for conservation-related displacement of people.

  13. A Transactional/Ecological Perspective on Ethnic-Racial Identity, Socialization, and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane L; Watford, Jon Alexander; Del Toro, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We first review current literature on three ethnic-racial dynamics that are considered to be resources and stressors in the lives of ethnic-minority youth: ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. Next, we propose that a more contextualized view of these ethnic-racial dynamics reveals that they are interdependent, inseparable, and mutually defining and that an ecological/transactional perspective on these ethnic-racial dynamics shifts researchers' gaze from studying them as individual-level processes to studying the features of settings that produce them. We describe what is known about how identity, socialization, and discrimination occur in four microsystems-families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods-and argue that focusing on specific characteristics of these microsystems in which particular types of identity, socialization, and discrimination processes cooccur would be informative.

  14. Managing the three-rivers headwater region, china: from ecological engineering to social engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2013-09-01

    The three-rivers headwater region (THRHR) of Qinghai province, China plays a key role as source of fresh water and ecosystem services for central and eastern China. Global warming and human activities in the THRHR have threatened the ecosystem since the 1980s. Therefore, the Chinese government has included managing of the THRHR in the national strategy since 2003. The State Integrated Test and Demonstration Region of the THRHR highlights the connection with social engineering (focus on improving people's livelihood and well-being) in managing nature reserves. Based on this program, this perspective attempts a holistic analysis of the strategic role of the THRHR, requirements for change, indices of change, and approaches to change. Long-term success of managing nature reserves requires effective combination of ecological conservation, economic development, and social progress. Thus, the philosophy of social engineering should be employed as a strategy to manage the THRHR.

  15. Integrated ecological risk assessment of pesticides in tropical ecosystems: a case study with carbofuran in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, Sónia; Lopes, Isabel; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Domene, Xaxier; Nunes, Maria Edna Tenorio; Espíndola, Evaldo L G; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, Jose P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to contribute an ecologically relevant assessment of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticide applications in agricultural areas in the tropics, using an integrated approach with information gathered from soil and aquatic compartments. Carbofuran, an insecticide/nematicide used widely on sugarcane crops, was selected as a model substance. To evaluate the toxic effects of pesticide spraying for soil biota, as well as the potential indirect effects on aquatic biota resulting from surface runoff and/or leaching, field and laboratory (using a cost-effective simulator of pesticide applications) trials were performed. Standard ecotoxicological tests were performed with soil (Eisenia andrei, Folsomia candida, and Enchytraeus crypticus) and aquatic (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii) organisms, using serial dilutions of soil, eluate, leachate, and runoff samples. Among soil organisms, sensitivity was found to be E. crypticus bioassays performed with samples from the field trial, indicating the need for improvements in the laboratory simulator. However, the tool developed proved to be valuable in evaluating the toxic effects of pesticide spraying in soils and the potential risks for aquatic compartments.

  16. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling Characidae (Osteichthyes: Characiformes from the upper Tocantins River, Brazil

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    Maíra Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we studied the trophic ecology of four Characidae species from the Cavalo Stream, upper Tocantins River, considering diet overlap and trophic niche breadth. The diet of the four species was composed of adult and immature insects, both autochthonous and allochthonous in origin. Autochthonous items dominated the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858, Bryconamericus sp., and Creagrutus atrisignum Myers, 1917. By contrast, allochthonous items were dominant in the diet of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758. Trophic niche breadth varied among species, with the highest value recorded for M. dichroura (0.48, followed by Bryconamericus sp. (0.39, A. bimaculatus (0.33 and C. atrisignum (0.29. Similarity analysis revealed two groups with different patterns of food preference. The first group was composed of insectivorous and the second by omnivorous species. The overlap in food items consumed by the four species studied was high. We suggest that resources are not limited in this stream and that competition might not be regulating these populations. This is one more case corroborating the general pattern registered for Tropical environments, where resource partitioning and specialization are responsible by the organization of fish communities.

  17. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other’s knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty. PMID:27556175

  18. Cooperation Is Not Enough Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Caroline; Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  19. Separating Adaptive Maintenance (Resilience and Transformative Capacity of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wilson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many rural communities are vulnerable social-ecological systems (SES that must do more than become resilient to future environmental and social shocks: they must transform to achieve sustainability. We aimed first to conceptually explore the proposition that SES characteristics (identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions necessary for transformation may be distinct from those necessary for adaptive maintenance or resilience, and second, to propose metrics that may be used to assess these two types of system changes. We did this by interrogating literature and by investigating two rural towns in Australia using a combination of quantitative methods and focus groups to interrogate community social networks, capitals (human, natural, built, and social and future scenarios. Results indicated that (1 it is practicable to carry out a holistic assessment of SES characteristics (identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions, and (2 purposeful, positive transformation is supported by vision, identification with place, unhappiness (with the status quo, high personal contribution to social capital, open social networks, and latent capital(s. We conclude that rural communities possess capacities for adaptive maintenance (resilience and for system-wide transformation, and that the metrics used to assess each are sometimes discrete, sometimes common.

  20. Simulating social-ecological systems: the Island Digital Ecosystem Avatars (IDEA) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Gavaghan, David; Holbrook, Sally J; Planes, Serge; Troyer, Matthias; Bonsall, Michael; Claudet, Joachim; Roderick, George; Schmitt, Russell J; Zettler, Linda Amaral; Berteaux, Véronique; Bossin, Hervé C; Cabasse, Charlotte; Collin, Antoine; Deck, John; Dell, Tony; Dunne, Jennifer; Gates, Ruth; Harfoot, Mike; Hench, James L; Hopuare, Marania; Kirch, Patrick; Kotoulas, Georgios; Kosenkov, Alex; Kusenko, Alex; Leichter, James J; Lenihan, Hunter; Magoulas, Antonios; Martinez, Neo; Meyer, Chris; Stoll, Benoit; Swalla, Billie; Tartakovsky, Daniel M; Murphy, Hinano Teavai; Turyshev, Slava; Valdvinos, Fernanda; Williams, Rich; Wood, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology promises to revolutionize medicine, yet human wellbeing is also inherently linked to healthy societies and environments (sustainability). The IDEA Consortium is a systems ecology open science initiative to conduct the basic scientific research needed to build use-oriented simulations (avatars) of entire social-ecological systems. Islands are the most scientifically tractable places for these studies and we begin with one of the best known: Moorea, French Polynesia. The Moorea IDEA will be a sustainability simulator modeling links and feedbacks between climate, environment, biodiversity, and human activities across a coupled marine-terrestrial landscape. As a model system, the resulting knowledge and tools will improve our ability to predict human and natural change on Moorea and elsewhere at scales relevant to management/conservation actions.

  1. Energy and social and environmental consequences in Rondonia State, Brazil; Energia e reflexos socio-ambientais em Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Vania L. di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica; Paz, Luciana R.L. da [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Sociologia

    1996-12-31

    The social and environmental consequences of the recent occupation of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, are presented.The lack of basic structure for settlement of the migrants brought many problems and in this context, the use of renewable energy could be the basis for developing the region 10 refs., 2 figs.

  2. A mixed-methods analysis of social-ecological feedbacks between urbanization and forest persistence

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    Todd BenDor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined how social-ecological factors in the land-change decision-making process influenced neighboring decisions and trajectories of alternative landscape ecologies. We decomposed individual landowner decisions to conserve or develop forests in the rapidly growing Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S. region, exposing and quantifying the effects of forest quality, and social and cultural dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic value of forest resources, e.g., cultural attachment to land, influence woodland owners' propensity to sell. Data were collected from a sample of urban, nonindustrial private forest (U-NIPF owners using an individualized survey design that spatially matched land-owner responses to the ecological and timber values of their forest stands. Cluster analysis (n = 126 revealed four woodland owner typologies with widely ranging views on the ecosystem, cultural, and historical values of their forests. Classification tree analysis revealed woodland owners' willingness to sell was characterized by nonlinear, interactive factors, including sense of place values regarding the retention of native vegetation, the size of forest holdings, their connectedness to nature, 'pressure' from surrounding development, and behavioral patterns, such as how often landowners visit their land. Several ecological values and economic factors were not found to figure in the decision to retain forests. Our study design is unique in that we address metropolitan forest persistence across urban-rural and population gradients using a unique individualized survey design that richly contextualizes survey responses. Understanding the interplay between policies and landowner behavior can also help resource managers to better manage and promote forest persistence. Given the region's paucity of policy tools to manage the type and amount of development, the mosaic of land cover the region currently enjoys is far from stable.

  3. Ocean acidification may aggravate social-ecological trade-offs in coastal fisheries.

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    Rudi Voss

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA will influence marine ecosystems by changing species abundance and composition. Major effects are described for calcifying organisms, which are significantly impacted by decreasing pH values. Direct effects on commercially important fish are less well studied. The early life stages of fish populations often lack internal regulatory mechanisms to withstand the effects of abnormal pH. Negative effects can be expected on growth, survival, and recruitment success. Here we study Norwegian coastal cod, one of the few stocks where such a negative effect was experimentally quantified, and develop a framework for coupling experimental data on OA effects to ecological-economic fisheries models. In this paper, we scale the observed physiological responses to the population level by using the experimentally determined mortality rates as part of the stock-recruitment relationship. We then use an ecological-economic optimization model, to explore the potential effect of rising CO2 concentration on ecological (stock size, economic (profits, consumer-related (harvest and social (employment indicators, with scenarios ranging from present day conditions up to extreme acidification. Under the assumptions of our model, yields and profits could largely be maintained under moderate OA by adapting future fishing mortality (and related effort to changes owing to altered pH. This adaptation comes at the costs of reduced stock size and employment, however. Explicitly visualizing these ecological, economic and social tradeoffs will help in defining realistic future objectives. Our results can be generalized to any stressor (or stressor combination, which is decreasing recruitment success. The main findings of an aggravation of trade-offs will remain valid. This seems to be of special relevance for coastal stocks with limited options for migration to avoid unfavorable future conditions and subsequently for coastal fisheries, which are often small

  4. Ocean acidification may aggravate social-ecological trade-offs in coastal fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jörn O; Kapaun, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) will influence marine ecosystems by changing species abundance and composition. Major effects are described for calcifying organisms, which are significantly impacted by decreasing pH values. Direct effects on commercially important fish are less well studied. The early life stages of fish populations often lack internal regulatory mechanisms to withstand the effects of abnormal pH. Negative effects can be expected on growth, survival, and recruitment success. Here we study Norwegian coastal cod, one of the few stocks where such a negative effect was experimentally quantified, and develop a framework for coupling experimental data on OA effects to ecological-economic fisheries models. In this paper, we scale the observed physiological responses to the population level by using the experimentally determined mortality rates as part of the stock-recruitment relationship. We then use an ecological-economic optimization model, to explore the potential effect of rising CO2 concentration on ecological (stock size), economic (profits), consumer-related (harvest) and social (employment) indicators, with scenarios ranging from present day conditions up to extreme acidification. Under the assumptions of our model, yields and profits could largely be maintained under moderate OA by adapting future fishing mortality (and related effort) to changes owing to altered pH. This adaptation comes at the costs of reduced stock size and employment, however. Explicitly visualizing these ecological, economic and social tradeoffs will help in defining realistic future objectives. Our results can be generalized to any stressor (or stressor combination), which is decreasing recruitment success. The main findings of an aggravation of trade-offs will remain valid. This seems to be of special relevance for coastal stocks with limited options for migration to avoid unfavorable future conditions and subsequently for coastal fisheries, which are often small scale local

  5. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  6. The Next Generation of Scientists: Examining the Experiences of Graduate Students in Network-Level Social-Ecological Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Romolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the research and resources of hundreds of scientists from dozens of institutions, network-level science is fast becoming one scientific model of choice to address complex problems. In the pursuit to confront pressing environmental issues such as climate change, many scientists, practitioners, policy makers, and institutions are promoting network-level research that integrates the social and ecological sciences. To understand how this scientific trend is unfolding among rising scientists, we examined how graduate students experienced one such emergent social-ecological research initiative, Integrated Science for Society and Environment, within the large-scale, geographically distributed Long Term Ecological Research (LTER Network. Through workshops, surveys, and interviews, we found that graduate students faced challenges in how they conceptualized and practiced social-ecological research within the LTER Network. We have presented these conceptual challenges at three scales: the individual/project, the LTER site, and the LTER Network. The level of student engagement with and knowledge of the LTER Network was varied, and students faced different institutional, cultural, and logistic barriers to practicing social-ecological research. These types of challenges are unlikely to be unique to LTER graduate students; thus, our findings are relevant to other scientific networks implementing new social-ecological research initiatives.

  7. The color of child mortality in Brazil, 1950-2000: social progress and persistent racial inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles H; Magno de Carvalho, José Alberto; Guimarães Horta, Cláudia Júlia

    2010-01-01

    Now that racism has been officially recognized in Brazil, and some universities have adopted affirmative-action admission policies, measures of the magnitude of racial inequality and analyses that identify the factors associated with changes in racial disparities over time assume particular relevance to the conduct of public debate. This study uses census data from 1950 to 2000 to estimate the probability of death in the early years of life, a robust indicator of the standard of living among the white and Afro-Brazilian populations. Associated estimates of the average number of years of life expectancy at birth show that the 6.6-year advantage that the white population enjoyed in the 1950s remained virtually unchanged throughout the second half of the twentieth century, despite the significant improvements that accrued to both racial groups. The application of multivariate techniques to samples selected from the 1960, 1980, and 2000 census enumerations further shows that, controlling for key determinants of child survival, the white mortality advantage persisted and even increased somewhat in 2000. The article discusses evidence of continued racial inequality during an era of deep transformation in social structure, with reference to the challenges of skin color classification in a multiracial society and the evolution of debates about color, class, and discrimination in Brazil.

  8. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  9. Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis-stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M; Hymel, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    With growing recognition that bullying is a complex phenomenon, influenced by multiple factors, research findings to date have been understood within a social-ecological framework. Consistent with this model, we review research on the known correlates and contributing factors in bullying/victimization within the individual, family, peer group, school and community. Recognizing the fluid and dynamic nature of involvement in bullying, we then expand on this model and consider research on the consequences of bullying involvement, as either victim or bully or both, and propose a social-ecological, diathesis-stress model for understanding the bullying dynamic and its impact. Specifically, we frame involvement in bullying as a stressful life event for both children who bully and those who are victimized, serving as a catalyst for a diathesis-stress connection between bullying, victimization, and psychosocial difficulties. Against this backdrop, we suggest that effective bullying prevention and intervention efforts must take into account the complexities of the human experience, addressing both individual characteristics and history of involvement in bullying, risk and protective factors, and the contexts in which bullying occurs, in order to promote healthier social relationships.

  10. Organising a Safe Space for Navigating Social-Ecological Transformations to Sustainability

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    Laura Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world’s growing population whilst keeping human societies within a ‘safe operating space’ has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes that guide human responses in areas such as urban ecology, public health, resource security (e.g., food, water, energy access, economic development and biodiversity conservation. However, such systemic transformations necessitate experimentation in public arenas of exchange and a deepening of processes that can widen multi-stakeholder learning. We argue that there is an emergent potential in bridging the sustainability transitions and resilience approaches to create new scientific capacity that can support large-scale social-ecological transformations (SETs to sustainability globally, not just in the West. In this article, we elucidate a set of guiding principles for the design of a ‘safe space’ to encourage stronger interactions between these research areas and others that are relevant to the challenges faced. We envisage new opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that will develop an adaptive and evolving community of practice. In particular, we emphasise the great opportunity for engaging with the role of emerging economies in facilitating safe space experimentation.

  11. Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Laura; Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Doshi, Samir; Frantzeskaki, Niki

    2015-05-28

    The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world's growing population whilst keeping human societies within a 'safe operating space' has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes that guide human responses in areas such as urban ecology, public health, resource security (e.g., food, water, energy access), economic development and biodiversity conservation. However, such systemic transformations necessitate experimentation in public arenas of exchange and a deepening of processes that can widen multi-stakeholder learning. We argue that there is an emergent potential in bridging the sustainability transitions and resilience approaches to create new scientific capacity that can support large-scale social-ecological transformations (SETs) to sustainability globally, not just in the West. In this article, we elucidate a set of guiding principles for the design of a 'safe space' to encourage stronger interactions between these research areas and others that are relevant to the challenges faced. We envisage new opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that will develop an adaptive and evolving community of practice. In particular, we emphasise the great opportunity for engaging with the role of emerging economies in facilitating safe space experimentation.

  12. Elevated elephant density does not improve ecotourism opportunities: convergence in social and ecological objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-07-01

    In order to sustainably conserve biodiversity, many protected areas, particularly private protected areas, must find means of self-financing. Ecotourism is increasingly seen as a mechanism to achieve such financial sustainability. However, there is concern that ecotourism operations are driven to achieve successful game-viewing, influencing the management of charismatic species. An abundance of such species, including the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), has been stocked in protected areas under the assumption that they will increase ecotourism value. At moderate to high densities, the impact of elephants is costly; numerous studies have documented severe changes in biodiversity through the impacts of elephants. Protected areas that focus on maintaining high numbers of elephants may therefore face a conflict between socioeconomic demands and the capacity of ecological systems. We address this conflict by analyzing tourist elephant-sighting records from six private and one statutory protected area, the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP), in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, in relation to elephant numbers. We found no relationship between elephant density and elephant-viewing success. Even though elephant density in the AENP increased over time, a hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that elephant density was not a driver of tourist numbers. In contrast, annual tourist numbers for the AENP were positively correlated with general tourist numbers recorded for South Africa. Our results indicate that the socioeconomic and ecological requirements of protected areas in terms of tourism and elephants, respectively, converge. Thus, high elephant densities and their associated ecological costs are not required to support ecotourism operations for financial sustainability. Understanding the social and ecological feedbacks that dominate the dynamics of protected areas, particularly within private protected areas, can help to elucidate the management

  13. Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Camilla Fahning Ferreira Caló

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Local Ecological and Taxonomic Knowledge (LEK of fish held by fishermen in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, known as the snapper ("vermelho" was examined from August 2005 to November 2006. Semi-structured interviews and tests were made with fishermen selected under the criteria of "specialists". The data analysis followed the union model of the different individual competences. Grouping analysis was performed on data referring to the localities of the occurrence of these fish, depth, coloration, and morphological characteristics of the species using the Pearson correlation coefficient (UPGMA. A total of 19 species were named within the snapper group, although three of them could not be scientifically identified. The Lutjanidae family presented the greatest numbers of species (n = 9. Other families mentioned were: the Serranidae (n = 3, Holocentridae (n = 2, Priacanthidae (n = 1, Mullidae (n = 1. The 1:1 correspondence between fishermen's local names and scientific species observed in this study indicates the richness of local fishermen knowledge. Analysis of the LEK related to the feeding habits of these fish and indicated that most were considered as being carnivorous, which agrees with the specialized literature consulted. In terms of their spatial distribution, two categories were detected: locality of occurrence (rivers/sea, coast, and offshore and depth (surface, mid-depth, mid-depth/deep, deep. The fish were considered locally to be "winter fish", based on harvested yields. Most of the interviewees knew little about the reproductive aspects of these fish. The main criteria used to identify, name, and classify the species were based on color and morphological aspects. Much of the information gathered in this study agreed with the published literature, which strengthens the importance of including LEK in planning and decision-making processes.

  14. Ecological and Social Evaluation of Coastal Tourism Destination Development: A Case Study of Balekambang, East Java

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    Luchman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sector in developing countries to support economic growth, and coastal areas are famous destinations in tourism. The plan and design for Balekambang coastal area as a tourism destination in East Java, Indonesia has been formulated and published. However, it seems lack ecological and social perspectives. This study examines coral reefs structure as one of the ecological parameter and tourist perspectives as social parameter for destination development evaluation. Twenty belt-transects were established along Balekambang coastline, and then divided into three sections, the east, the centre and the west sections. Every belt-transect was 200m in length and consists of 15 plots 1 x 2m. The tourist perspectives to Balekambang were determined using questionnaire among 234 respondents. Based on the Morisita similarity index, the coral reef of east section consists of 2 zones, the centre consists of 5 zones and west section consists of 4 zones. The Shannon diversity index (H’ among zones at every location was ranged. The diversity index of the east section ranged from 2.07 to 2.72, the central section ranged from 1.32 to 4.20, and the west section ranged from 3.13 to 4.20. Zones that were close to the coastline had lowest diversity indices than zones that located far from the coastline. Mostly, tourists stated that Balekambang was interesting, but the object of tourism should be added. Respondent knew there were forest surrounding Balekambang, and it has the possibility to develop as tourism destination. These findings argue that the forest conversion to cottage area that planned by the local government in the west section should be reviewed. It seems forest in the west section should be developed as a forest park to meet tourist needs and redistribute tourist concentration in the coastline. Keywords: Ecological and social evaluation, coastal, tourism, sustainable development, East Java.

  15. Ecological correlates of sociality in Pemphigus aphids, with a partial phylogeny of the genus

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    Whitfield John A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the systems of social organisation in the various species of Pemphigus aphids span the continuum from asociality through to advanced sociality (typified by the possession of morphologically specialised soldiers, the genus is an ideal model clade in which to study the influence of ecology on the origins of eusociality. We made detailed study of the ecology of three gall-dwelling species that show clear differences in their levels of social behaviour. To elucidate evolutionary relationships and to attempt to estimate the number of origins of sociality, we also created a phylogeny based on sequences spanning the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II for nine species of Pemphigus. Results P. spyrothecae, a highly social species with aggressive morphologically-specialised soldiers, has the longest galling phase, unsynchronised development of a large number of individuals in a densely-populated gall, and an extended period over which alates emerge. P. populi, a species with no soldiers, has the shortest galling phase, synchronised development of a small number of individuals in a sparsely-populated gall, and an extremely brief emergence period. The ecology of P. bursarius, which has behavioural soldiers that are not morphologically specialised, is intermediate between these two extremes. The galls of P. spyrothecae and P. bursarius form small openings during the course of the season and predation-related mortality is relatively high in these two species. Conversely, predation does not occur during the galling phase of P. populi, which has no soldiers but makes an entirely-sealed gall. The phylogeny allowed us to infer one likely point of origin of basic social defence and two independent origins of enhanced defence. Based on current knowledge of behaviour, the phylogeny also suggests that the defence trait may have been lost at least once. Conclusion The life-history strategy of P. spyrothecae appears to be geared

  16. [Inter-sector social mobilization for dengue control in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elvira Caires de; Vilasbôas, Ana Luiza Queiroz

    2011-08-01

    Discussions on the health-disease process and health promotion indicate the need to reach beyond the limits of the health sector itself to link knowledge from various fields in order to promote better health conditions for the population. Inter-sector approaches have thus emerged as a new rationale for guiding public policies. This study aimed to analyze the implementation of inter-sector actions in social mobilization for dengue control in Bahia State, Brazil, from 2008 to 2009, using evaluative research. A log frame was developed to define criteria for assessing the degree of implementation of the above-mentioned actions (implemented; partially implemented; not implemented). The results identified political support from government agencies as the main positive factor for inter-sector practices. Barriers included the concentration of responsibilities in a single sector and lack of planning as a work tool. The results emphasize inter-sector linkage as a persistent challenge.

  17. Illicit economies and social order: the border area of Peru, Brazil and Colombia

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    Noam López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the border shared by Peru, Colombia and Brazil has become an enclave of drug production and trafficking for the international markets. It is a territory whose control is disputed by non-state actors and where state security forces suffer from severe material and transport limitations. This paper takes an ethnographic approach to explain the limitations of border security and the institutional challenges of controlling drug and wood trafficking in this context. It places the ideas of reproduction and social change at the centre of the discussion on drugs and borders, as key ways of thinking about the dynamics of growing and processing coca-derived drugs in the global South.

  18. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil: communication for social change

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.

  19. Participating learning: an experience for youth training in Brazil as social subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Maria RODRIGUES DE MATOS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that youth involvement in groups, in this case the public policies that reflect the environment is a fertile opportunity to form social subjects. In this sense, it also shows that non-formal education is, outside of school is an effective tool for behavior change among youth, and in Brazil this kind of public investment contributes significantly to improve the youth level in many ways, particularly in implementing the National Environmental Education Policy, including with respect to the far-reaching policy decisions. The areas of participation, called councils, commissions, conferences, are spaces that primarily exist to perform the role of educator or educational structures space. The existence of these structures such as councils, groups, committees and networks is urgently needed. However, not enough to exert its educational role. It is essential to continuous development and ongoing activities, reflection and action.

  20. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  1. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

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    Moysés Simone T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  2. Social Thresholds and their Translation into Social-ecological Management Practices

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    Naomi Krogman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary discussion of how to improve our conceptualization of social thresholds using (1 a more sociological analysis of social resilience, and (2 results from research carried out in collaboration with the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations of the Yukon Territory, Canada. Our sociological analysis of the concept of resilience begins with a review of the literature followed by placement of the concept in the domain of sociological theory to gain insight into its strengths and limitations. A new notion of social thresholds is proposed and case study research discussed to support the proposition. Our findings suggest that rather than view social thresholds as breakpoints between two regimes, as thresholds are typically conceived in the resilience literature, that they be viewed in terms of collectively recognized points that signify new experiences. Some examples of thresholds identified in our case study include power in decision making, level of healing from historical events, and a preference for small-scale development over large capital intensive projects.

  3. Towards a more adaptive co-management of natural resources – increasing social-ecological resilience in southeast Madagascar

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    Gemma Holloway

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated on the southeast coast of Madagascar, Sainte Luce is a fishing village bordering some of the country’s last remaining littoral forests. Characterised by a combination of extreme poverty, the presence of highly - prized natural resources and feeble institutional structures, it is argued that Sainte Luce typifies contexts of social and ecological vulnerability found across Madagascar. The presence of the international mining giant, Rio Tinto, and the company’s role in managing a protected area bordering Sainte Luce, adds a complex dimension to this already highly vulnerable social - ecological context. Setting the case study within the context of recent natural resource management policies in Madagascar, the paper aims to highlight the need for innovative governance structures which match the complexity and dynamism of social - ecological systems such as that of Sainte Luce. We describe the approach taken by a local/international NGO partnership, Azafady, to build social and ecological resilience through a process of participatory and adaptive environmental action planning. The approach draws on concepts from adaptive co - management, which highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems and focuses on innovative institutional arrangements, social learning and cross-scale collaboration to manage the complexity and uncertainty of such systems. We examine the ways in which this approach has contributed to increasing social and ecological resilience in Sainte Luce and consider how progress made to date can be sustained and scaled up to wider geographical areas.

  4. Alcohol drinking patterns by gender, ethnicity, and social class in Bahia, Brazil

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    Almeida-Filho Naomar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study patterns of alcohol consumption and prevalence of high-risk drinking. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD were defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness (at least once a week. RESULTS: Fifty-six per cent of the sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall consumption was significantly related with gender (male, marital status (single, migration (non-migrant, better educated (college level, and social class (upper. No significant differences were found regarding ethnicity, except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor and other distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%. A positive association of HRD prevalence with education and social class was found. No overall relationship was found between ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects throughout all strata of independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social and cultural elements determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior. Additional research on long-term and differential effects of gender, ethnicity, and social class on alcohol use and misuse is needed in order to explain their role as sources of social health inequities.

  5. El argumento de responsabilidad social de la industria tabacalera en Brasil Social responsibility argument for the tobacco industry in Brazil

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    Tânia Cavalcante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema de la responsabilidad social corporativa ha sido asunto de gran importancia y preocupación en el mundo actual y ha recibido diferentes denominaciones, tales como responsabilidad social, ciudadanía corporativa, desarrollo sustentable o ética corporativa. Hoy más que nunca se hace necesario que órganos gubernamentales, así como las diversas representaciones de la sociedad civil organizada, actúen alineados con el concepto de desarrollo sustentable. Esto implica el entendimiento de que, junto con la preservación del medio ambiente, la salud y la educación representan la base de la productividad económica. Significa entender, asimismo, que una población saludable es esencial para la reducción de la pobreza, el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo sustentable. Las diferentes experiencias positivas de Brasil en el enfrentamiento de las estrategias de la industria tabacalera para minar los esfuerzos nacionales del control del tabaquismo tiene como base una amplia articulación en red. Esta red ha ejercido un papel fundamental de control social en el monitoreo y fiscalización de las políticas públicas para el control del tabaco, así como de las estrategias de la industria tabacalera.The issue of "corporate social responsibility" has been one of great importance and concern in the world and has received different names, such as social responsibility, corporate citizenship, sustainable development and corporate ethics. Today, more than ever, it has been necessary for governments, as well as the diverse representatives of "organized civil society," to act in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. This implies an understanding that preservation of the environment, health and education is related to economic productivity; it means an understanding that healthy populations are essential to the reduction of poverty, as well as economic growth and sustainable development. The various positive experiences in Brazil in

  6. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  7. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  8. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere.

  9. Industrial ecology and social metabolism: State of Heat; Ecologia Industrial y metabolismo socioeconomico: Concepto y evoluacion historica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alier, J.

    2003-07-01

    Industrial Ecology is a new term for an idea that arose in the nineteenth century, that of looking at the economy in terms of social metabolism. This implies to perceive the economy as a open to the entry of energy and materials, and to the exit of waste and dissipated heat. Nowadays there is empirical work on social metabolism at the corporations level and of the whole economy. This article summarized the work of some authors, pioneers in the fields of agricultural energetics and urban ecology. It also reconstructs the debated between a social metabolic approach and both Marxian and neoclassical economics approaches. (Author) 78 refs.

  10. Bringing analysis of gender and social-ecological resilience together in small-scale fisheries research: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarazuka, Nozomi; Locke, Catherine; McDougall, Cynthia; Kantor, Paula; Morgan, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    The demand for gender analysis is now increasingly orthodox in natural resource programming, including that for small-scale fisheries. Whilst the analysis of social-ecological resilience has made valuable contributions to integrating social dimensions into research and policy-making on natural resource management, it has so far demonstrated limited success in effectively integrating considerations of gender equity. This paper reviews the challenges in, and opportunities for, bringing a gender analysis together with social-ecological resilience analysis in the context of small-scale fisheries research in developing countries. We conclude that rather than searching for a single unifying framework for gender and resilience analysis, it will be more effective to pursue a plural solution in which closer engagement is fostered between analysis of gender and social-ecological resilience whilst preserving the strengths of each approach. This approach can make an important contribution to developing a better evidence base for small-scale fisheries management and policy.

  11. The role played by social-ecological resilience as a method of integration in interdisciplinary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Beichler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s multifaceted environmental problems, including climate change, necessitate interdisciplinary research. It is however difficult to combine disciplines to study such complex phenomena. We analyzed the experience we gained in applying a particular method of interdisciplinary integration, the ‘bridging concept.’ We outlined the entire process of developing, utilizing, and adapting social-ecological resilience as a bridging concept in a research project involving seven different disciplines. We focused on the tensions and opportunities arising from interdisciplinary dialogue and the understandings and manifestations of resilience in the disciplines involved. By evaluating the specific cognitive and social functions of resilience as a method of integration, we call for placing greater emphasis on the quality and value of the actual interdisciplinary process, rather than concentrating solely on the output of interdisciplinary work.

  12. The problem of spatial fit in social-ecological systems: detecting mismatches between ecological connectivity and land management in an urban region

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    Arvid Bergsten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of institutional fit in social-ecological systems has been empirically documented and conceptually discussed for decades, yet there is a shortage of approaches to systematically and quantitatively examine the level of fit. We address this gap, focusing on spatial fit in an urban and peri-urban regional landscape. Such landscapes typically exhibit significant fragmentation of remnant habitats, which can limit critical species dispersal. This may have detrimental effects on species persistence and ecosystem functioning if land use is planned without consideration of the spatial patterns of fragmentation. Managing habitat fragmentation is particularly challenging when the scale of fragmentation reaches beyond the control of single managers, thereby requiring different actors to coordinate their activities to address the problem at the appropriate scale. We present a research approach that maps patterns of collaborations between actors who manage different parts of a landscape, and then relates these patterns to structures of ecological connectivity. We applied our approach to evaluate the fit between a collaborative wetland management network comprising all 26 municipalities in the Stockholm County in Sweden and an ecologically defined network of dispersed but ecologically interconnected wetlands. Many wetlands in this landscape are either intersected by the boundary between two or more municipalities, or are located close to such boundaries, which implies a degree of ecological interconnectedness and a need for intermunicipal coordination related to wetland management across boundaries. We first estimated the level of ecological connectivity between wetlands in neighboring municipalities, and then used this estimate to elaborate the level of social-ecological fit vis-à-vis intermunicipal collaboration. We found that the level of fit was generally weak. Also, we identified critical misalignments of ecological connectivity and

  13. Managing social-ecological systems under uncertainty: implementation in the real world

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    Ana Nuno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions for natural resources are not made in a vacuum; the environmental and ecological conditions as well as the socioeconomic and political contexts affect goals, the choice of interventions, their feasibility, and which outcomes are obtained. Although uncertainty is recognized as a feature of natural resource management, little attention has been given to the uncertainty generated by institutional settings, historical contingency, and individual people's influence. These implementation uncertainties, related to the translation of policy into practice, make it difficult to predict the outcomes of management interventions within social-ecological systems. Using the conservation of species hunted for bushmeat in the Serengeti as a case study, we investigated the challenges and potential barriers to successful implementation of natural resource management policies. We used a mixed-methods approach, combining semistructured interviews with scenario building, social network, and institutional analysis exercises. Using a management strategy evaluation (MSE conceptual framework, we obtained insights into the constraints and opportunities for fulfilling stakeholder aspirations for the social-ecological system, analyzed the multiple roles played by different institutions in the system, and described the interactions between different actor types. We found that the respondents had generally similar views about the current and future status of the Serengeti but disagreed about how to address issues of conservation concern and were more uncertain about the actual outcomes of management interventions. Improving conservation implementation (rather than research, monitoring, or status assessment was perceived as the key priority to be addressed. Institutional barriers were perceived as an important challenge given that the decision-making and implementation processes were broadly distributed across a number of institutions. Conservation social

  14. Enhancing Social-Ecological Resilience in Indonesia: A Case of North Pekalongan District, Central Java

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    A. Artiningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last eight years (2008-2016, some areas in the northern part of Pekalongan have been experiencing coastal inundation. There have been social, economic and physical disruptions caused by coastal inundation particularly on built environments, paddy fields, and fishpond. The capacity of these areas to provide support for community livelihood has decreased significantly. This accumulative environmental change leads to the emerging of vulnerable regions which are characterized by limited social and ecological capability in responding to hazards. In order to enhance the social-ecological resilience, it is necessary to identify how these communities elevate their capacity and improve their livelihood. This paper presents empirical evidence of various pathways on how the community has transformed their capacity to respond to the changing environment due to coastal inundation. Using a case study approach, this paper explores on how the community has learned from their experiences, knowledge, and efforts withdrawn from the past, and then turns them into a better understanding to cope with, to adapt to, and to become resilient from coastal inundation. In-depth interviews with several key persons who are selected by purposive and snowballing sampling method are employed. These key persons represent the most capable person in each sub-district who poses some important data and information related to coastal inundation either as the individual, household members, or community organization members. The scope of area observation is limited to six sub-districts which adjacent to the coast in the North Pekalongan District. This research employs inductive approach and manual coding technique. The research demonstrates that social-ecological resilience will likely enhance in a community which is capable of nurturing flexible networking. Such networking has made it possible for important information, novel knowledge and practical tools and solutions spread

  15. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; de Oliveira Junior, José Max Barbosa; de Oliveira Junior, Raimundo Cosme; Souza Junior, Carlos; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Mac Nally, Ralph; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M S; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R C; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-06-05

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far.

  16. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D.; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M.; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; Junior, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira; Junior, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Junior, Carlos Souza; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Nally, Ralph Mac; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R.; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far. PMID:23610172

  17. Smart social adaptation prevents catastrophic ecological regime shifts in networks of myopic harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang; Wiedermann, Marc; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    In the anthropocene, the rise of global social and economic networks with ever increasing connectivity and speed of interactions, e.g., the internet or global financial markets, is a key challenge for sustainable development. The spread of opinions, values or technologies on these networks, in conjunction with the coevolution of the network structures themselves, underlies nexuses of current concern such as anthropogenic climate change, biodiversity loss or global land use change. To isolate and quantitatively study the effects and implications of network dynamics for sustainable development, we propose an agent-based model of information flow on adaptive networks between myopic harvesters that exploit private renewable resources. In this conceptual model of a network of socio-ecological systems, information on management practices flows between agents via boundedly rational imitation depending on the state of the resource stocks involved in an interaction. Agents can also adapt the structure of their social network locally by preferentially connecting to culturally similar agents with identical management practices and, at the same time, disconnecting from culturally dissimilar agents. Investigating in detail the statistical mechanics of this model, we find that an increasing rate of information flow through faster imitation dynamics or growing density of network connectivity leads to a marked increase in the likelihood of environmental resource collapse. However, we show that an optimal rate of social network adaptation can mitigate this negative effect without loss of social cohesion through network fragmentation. Our results highlight that seemingly immaterial network dynamics of spreading opinions or values can be of large relevance for the sustainable management of socio-ecological systems and suggest smartly conservative network adaptation as a strategy for mitigating environmental collapse. Hence, facing the great acceleration, these network dynamics should

  18. Social Media in the Changing Ecology of News: The Fourth and Fifth Estate in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Dutton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of the changing patterns of news production and consumption in the UK that are being shaped by the Internet and related social media. Theoretically, this focus addresses concern over whether the Internet is undermining the Fourth Estate role of the press in liberal democratic societies. The case study draws from multiple methods, including survey research of individuals in Britain from 2003-2011, analysis of log files of journalistic sites, and interviews with journalists. Survey research shows a step-jump in the use of online news since 2003 but a levelling off since 2009. However, the apparent stability in news consumption masks the growing role of social network sites. The analyses show that the Fourth Estate—the institutional news media—is using social media to enhance their role in news production and dissemination. However, networked individuals have used social media to source and distribute their own information in ways that achieve a growing independence from the Fourth Estate journalism. As more information moves online and individuals become routinely linked to the Internet, an emerging Fifth Estate, built on the activities of networked individuals sourcing and distributing their own information, is developing a synergy with the Fourth Estate as each builds on and responds to the other in this new news ecology. Comparative data suggests that this phenomenon is likely to characterize the developing news ecology in other liberal democratic societies as well, but more comparative research is required to establish the validity of this model.

  19. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their...or competitors, the size, composition and cohesion of the natal group as well as the dive activity of group members likely plays an important role in...context, by simultaeously tagging multiple individuals within the same group to study social coordination and group cohesion and how these social dynamics

  20. Meanings and robustness: Propositions for enhancing benefit sharing in social-ecological systems

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    Ernita van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Given increased pressure on natural resources to deliver benefits, complex trade-offs and the regulation of behaviours in relation to benefits is of key concern. Behaviours that signify resistance to the rules according to which benefits are allocated prompt us to consider causal links and feedbacks between benefits, perceptions of benefits, meanings attached to the benefits, and the regulatory instruments that mediate the distribution of benefits. An understanding of how meanings influence the perception of benefits exposes the complexity inherent in how people perceive and allocate value to natural resource benefits. Meanings are personal, sometimes overlapping, context dependent and variable across space and time. A challenge in directing resource user behaviour in common pool resources is that the relationship between the resource and resource use is typically not interpreted to include the manner in which users associate resource benefits with meanings. We propose that collective ordering of meanings and associated rules help to direct behaviours and in doing so they contribute to the purposeful maintenance of desirable elements of a social-ecological system (i.e. robustness. Using an example, we illustrate how tensions around benefit sharing are rooted in the emergence and changing prioritisation of contexts and meanings over time. The importance of eliciting, ordering and sanctioning of meanings is emphasised. We conclude by discussing the implications for robustness and benefit sharing in social-ecological systems and we comment on the usefulness and limitations of the framework.

  1. The Public Value of Urban Vacant Land: Social Responses and Ecological Value

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    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews scholarly papers and case studies on urban vacant land to gain a stronger understanding of its public value in terms of the ecological and social benefits it can bring. This literature review offers a conceptual overview of the potential benefits of vacant land with the goal of addressing gaps in knowledge about vacant land and to provide suggestions to planners and designers on how vacant properties can be integrated with other green infrastructure in cities. There are many opportunities to redevelop vacant land to enhance its ecological and social value, and many design professionals and scholars are becoming interested in finding new ways to exploit this potential, especially with regard to planning and design. A better appreciation of the public value of urban vacant land is vital for any effort to identify alternative strategies to optimize the way these spaces are utilized for both short-term and long-term uses to support urban regeneration and renewal. This study will help planners and designers to understand and plan for urban vacant land, leading to better utilization of these spaces and opening up alternative creative approaches to envisioning space and landscape design in our urban environments.

  2. Music Therapy, Social Policy and Ecological Models: A Located Example of Music in Australian Schools

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    Alexander Hew Dale Crooke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While music therapy courses rarely cover the finer points of social policy, a basic knowledge of how this system of governance works can be highly beneficial for those wanting to maximise their presence and impact in a given field. Taking an ecological approach, this article presents how music therapy as a discipline and practise can be seen as located within a structure of policy. Further, it illustrates how understanding this structure can help practitioners and researchers capitalise on the opportunities they provide, and work around the barriers they impose. It does this by providing a background of the ecological model approach, and discussing how this approach can be useful for thinking about the relationship between music therapy and social policy. It then uses the policy situation surrounding music in Australian schools to give a grounded example of how understanding this situation can help position music therapy to meet key policy goals at national and localised levels. It is hoped that increased awareness, and an example of how it can be applied, will empower music therapists to learn about policies in their specific areas, and capitalise on the opportunities they provide.

  3. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target's internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences.

  4. Plausible futures of a social-ecological system: Yahara watershed, Wisconsin, USA

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    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural watersheds are affected by changes in climate, land use, agricultural practices, and human demand for energy, food, and water resources. In this context, we analyzed the agricultural, urbanizing Yahara watershed (size: 1345 km², population: 372,000 to assess its responses to multiple changing drivers. We measured recent trends in land use/cover and water quality of the watershed, spatial patterns of 10 ecosystem services, and spatial patterns and nestedness of governance. We developed scenarios for the future of the Yahara watershed by integrating trends and events from the global scenarios literature, perspectives of stakeholders, and models of biophysical drivers and ecosystem services. Four qualitative scenarios were created to explore plausible trajectories to the year 2070 in the watershed's social-ecological system under different regimes: no action on environmental trends, accelerated technological development, strong intervention by government, and shifting values toward sustainability. Quantitative time-series for 2010-2070 were developed for weather and land use/cover during each scenario as inputs to model changes in ecosystem services. Ultimately, our goal is to understand how changes in the social-ecological system of the Yahara watershed, including management of land and water resources, can build or impair resilience to shifting drivers, including climate.

  5. Ecosystem Services are Social-ecological Services in a Traditional Pastoral System: the Case of California's Mediterranean Rangelands

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    Lynn Huntsinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to value ecosystem services and support their production, two critical aspects may be neglected. The term "ecosystem services" implies that they are a function of natural processes; yet, human interaction with the environment may be key to the production of many. This can contribute to a misconception that ecosystem service production depends on, or is enhanced by, the coercion or removal of human industry. Second, in programs designed to encourage ecosystem service production and maintenance, too often the inter-relationship of such services with social and ecological processes and drivers at multiple scales is ignored. Thinking of such services as "social-ecological services" can reinforce the importance of human culture, perspectives, and economies to the production of ecosystem services. Using a social-ecological systems perspective, we explore the integral role of human activity and decisions at pasture, ranch, and landscape scales. Just as it does for understanding ecosystems, a hierarchical, multiscaled framework facilitates exploring the complexity of social-ecological systems as producers of ecosystem services, to develop approaches for the conservation of such services. Using California's Mediterranean rangelands as a study area, we suggest that using a multiscaled approach that considers the importance of the differing drivers and processes at each scale and the interactions among scales, and that incorporates social-ecological systems concepts, may help avoid mistakes caused by narrow assumptions about "natural" systems, and a lack of understanding of the need for integrated, multiscaled conservation programs.

  6. Assessing social--ecological trade-offs to advance ecosystem-based fisheries management.

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    Rudi Voss

    Full Text Available Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A. Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B. Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C. Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean.

  7. Assessing social--ecological trade-offs to advance ecosystem-based fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jörn O; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean.

  8. Regime shifts and panarchies in regional scale social-ecological water systems

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    Lance Gunderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we summarize histories of nonlinear, complex interactions among societal, legal, and ecosystem dynamics in six North American water basins, as they respond to changing climate. These case studies were chosen to explore the conditions for emergence of adaptive governance in heavily regulated and developed social-ecological systems nested within a hierarchical governmental system. We summarize resilience assessments conducted in each system to provide a synthesis and reference by the other articles in this special feature. We also present a general framework used to evaluate the interactions between society and ecosystem regimes and the governance regimes chosen to mediate those interactions. The case studies show different ways that adaptive governance may be triggered, facilitated, or constrained by ecological and/or legal processes. The resilience assessments indicate that complex interactions among the governance and ecosystem components of these systems can produce different trajectories, which include patterns of (a development and stabilization, (b cycles of crisis and recovery, which includes lurches in adaptation and learning, and (3 periods of innovation, novelty, and transformation. Exploration of cross scale (Panarchy interactions among levels and sectors of government and society illustrate that they may constrain development trajectories, but may also provide stability during crisis or innovation at smaller scales; create crises, but may also facilitate recovery; and constrain system transformation, but may also provide windows of opportunity in which transformation, and the resources to accomplish it, may occur. The framework is the starting point for our exploration of how law might play a role in enhancing the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt to climate change.

  9. Toward the social and acoustic ecology of social foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Sean Frederick Thurman

    The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is an endangered species of baleen whale found throughout the world. A subset of the Polynesian population of humpbacks that migrates to Southeast Alaska participates in the group foraging activity known as "bubble-net feeding." We applied social network analysis to eight years of observations of co-occurrence to understand the social organization of bubble-net feeding whales. Results indicate that there are two large communities in Southeast Alaska that inhabit geographically distinct areas. Among social foraging humpbacks, there is a high degree of preference for affiliating with individuals from the same community. There are three types of whales in the communities: (1) "core" members who eat herring consistently, (2) intermittent members that were observed participating irregularly, and (3) one-season participators. One of the specialized roles that some whales assume during bubble-net feeding is that of the whale who vocalizes to manipulate prey. We focused on the vocalizations produced by there task-specialists to see if we could classify distinct types of feeding calls. Classification and regression trees confirmed that most feeding calls were classifiable based on stable acoustic differences among the calls. The acoustic features that played the largest role in classifying calls were the mean and standard deviation of call formants, also known as harmonies. Formants are acoustic features that are stable within individual vocalizers. This indicates that the classification technique may provide a reliable method for identifying individual whales acoustically. Humpback vocal behavior is integral to bubble-net feeding and could be affected by vessel noise during social foraging. We subjected feeding humpbacks to moderate levels of vessel noise from small boats. The humpbacks increased the length of spaces between individual vocalizations but did rot increase the overall length of vocal bouts. Contrary to expectations

  10. Understanding adaptive capacity and capacity to innovate in social-ecological systems: Applying a gender lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philippa J; Lawless, Sarah; Dyer, Michelle; Morgan, Miranda; Saeni, Enly; Teioli, Helen; Kantor, Paula

    2016-12-01

    Development policy increasingly focuses on building capacities to respond to change (adaptation), and to drive change (innovation). Few studies, however, focus specifically on the social and gender differentiation of capacities to adapt and innovate. We address this gap using a qualitative study in three communities in Solomon Islands; a developing country, where rural livelihoods and well-being are tightly tied to agriculture and fisheries. We find the five dimensions of capacity to adapt and to innovate (i.e. assets, flexibility, learning, social organisation, agency) to be mutually dependant. For example, limits to education, physical mobility and agency meant that women and youth, particularly, felt it was difficult to establish relations with external agencies to access technical support or new information important for innovating or adapting. Willingness to bear risk and to challenge social norms hindered both women's and men's capacity to innovate, albeit to differing degrees. Our findings are of value to those aspiring for equitable improvements to well-being within dynamic and diverse social-ecological systems.

  11. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  12. [Social representation related to care in the family health program in Natal-Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maísa Paulino; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the core and outlying representational elements of healthcare constructed by Family Healthcare Program teams in Natal, Brazil, using the theory of social representations and the central core theory. The sample consisted of ninety healthcare practitioners working with this Program, with data collected through free word association, a questionnaire and focus groups. The core representation consists of attention/love and comfort, disclosing different understandings and showing that accumulated knowledge is supported by a view that is close to care-giving. However, traditional values and trivial connotations are maintained, hindering the implementation of more effective interventions in by this Program. The core composition indicated that any capacity-building efforts that try to modify attitudes - and thus the daily practice of these practitioners - must assign high priority to discussions on redefining these elements of attention/love and comfort. They must consider the set of mental, emotional, and practical elaborations as well as explanations arising from daily life that are introduced into the constitution of the social representations under examination, influencing choices and shaping the strategies used by practitioners to provide care.

  13. E-Voting and the Creation of Trust for the Socially Marginalized Citizens in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Filho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have been implemented in a quite intensive way in both developed and developing countries. In the discourse of the New Public Management (NPM, the principal role of ICT is to improve the delivery of public services to citizens and the distrust of public administration. In responding to distrust and the challenges facing the simplistic technological determinism discourse of ICTs in general and ICT for development in particular, building on areas of trust associated with economic development seems to have been emphasized. On the other hand, despite the influence of institutions in the design and use of ICTs as a compelling enabler of change mentioned in the theory of social shaping and the ideas of citizens’ orientation, where technological artifacts are social constructions, it seems to be evident that these institutions can reinforce the same technological determinism and trust. In this paper an attempt is made to show that the use of a technology like e-voting in Brazil has not contributed to improve political participation and the delivery of public services, despite the attempt to promote and create trust in e-voting. With a more critical view of trust, an attempt is made to show how institutions and technology are enmeshed in a structure of vested interests in the public sector in such a way that a fabricated trust is created smoothly.

  14. E-Voting and the Creation of Trust for the Socially Marginalized Citizens in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Filho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have been implemented in a quite intensive way in both developed and developing countries. In the discourse of the New Public Management (NPM, the principal role of ICT is to improve the delivery of public services to citizens and the distrust of public administration. In responding to distrust and the challenges facing the simplistic technological determinism discourse of ICTs in general and ICT for development in particular, building on areas of trust associated with economic development seems to have been emphasized. On the other hand, despite the influence of institutions in the design and use of ICTs as a compelling enabler of change mentioned in the theory of social shaping and the ideas of citizens’ orientation, where technological artifacts are social constructions, it seems to be evident that these institutions can reinforce the same technological determinism and trust. In this paper an attempt is made to show that the use of a technology like e-voting in Brazil has not contributed to improve political participation and the delivery of public services, despite the attempt to promote and create trust in e-voting. With a more critical view of trust, an attempt is made to show how institutions and technology are enmeshed in a structure of vested interests in the public sector in such a way that a fabricated trust is created smoothly.

  15. Social Cost of Leptospirosis Cases Attributed to the 2011 Disaster Striking Nova Friburgo, Brazil

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    Carlos Pereira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the social cost of the leptospirosis cases that were attributed to the natural disaster of January 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil through a partial economic assessment. This study utilized secondary data supplied by the Municipal Health Foundation of Nova Friburgo. Income scenarios based on the national and state minimum wages and on average income of the local population were employed. The total social cost of leptospirosis cases attributed to the 2011 disaster may range between US$21,500 and US$66,000 for the lower income scenario and between US$23,900 and US$100,800 for that of higher income. Empirical therapy represented a total avoided cost of US$14,800, in addition to a reduction in lethality. An estimated 31 deaths were avoided among confirmed cases of the disease, and no deaths resulted from the leptospirosis cases attributed to the natural disaster. There has been a significant post-disaster rise in leptospirosis incidence in the municipality, which illustrates the potential for increased cases—and hence costs—of this illness following natural disasters, which justifies the adoption of preventive measures in environmental health.

  16. Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change

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    Brian W. Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.

  17. A Typology of Benefit Sharing Arrangements for the Governance of Social-Ecological Systems in Developing Countries

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    Charles Breen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores and interprets relevant literature to construct a typology of benefit sharing arrangements for the governance of social-ecological systems in developing countries. The typology comprises three generic categories of benefit sharing arrangements: collaborative, market-oriented, and egalitarian. We contend that the three categories provide a useful basis for exploring and classifying the different societal arrangements required for governance of social-ecological systems. The typology we present is founded on a related set of explicit assumptions that can be used to explore and better understand the linkages among ecosystem services, benefit sharing, and governance. Issues that are strongly related to sustainability in developing countries form the core basis of our assumptions. Our aim is not to write a definitive exposition, but to spark debate and engage ongoing dialogue on governance and benefit sharing in the field of social-ecological systems.

  18. Ecological variability and rule-making processes for forest management institutions: a social-ecological case study in the Jalisco coast, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Monroy-Sais; Alicia Castillo; Eduardo García-Frapolli; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of social-ecological systems is becoming increasingly used since the framework provides a valuable set of variables for understanding relationships between people and ecosystems. This interaction focuses on the use and management of natural resources that, in many cases, are common-pool resources. In Mexico, common-pool resources have long been explored since at least 60% of the forested lands in the country are held under the legal figure of ‘ejidos’ and indigenous communities, whic...

  19. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Maria; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Prado, Amanda; Pardini, Renata; D´Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993–2012) and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature), landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane), and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index). We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest). In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk), and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks. PMID:27780250

  20. Regional syndromes: towards a dynamical classification of social-ecological sustainability challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, James; Dearing, John; Zhang, Enlou; Rong, Wang; Zhang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Schellnhuber et al (1997) first presented the concept of social-ecological syndromes as a means of mapping sustainability challenges facing modern regions to sets of sub-systems. They argued that the great diversity of global social-ecological systems could be represented as different combinations from a much smaller number of patterns of sub-systems. Here, we explore the possibility of extending this idea to an empirical and dynamical classification of system functioning, such as changes in the strength of connectivity, coupling between sub-systems and emergent phenomena. To demonstrate this approach we combine multi-decadal datasets for social, economic and biophysical changes from two contrasting regions in China. This allows us to reconstruct the evolution of system functioning in terms of regulating and provisioning ecosystem services. Climate records and political and policy time-lines provide insight about endogenous and exogenous drivers. Our findings show similar patterns in both regions of long-term trade-off between rising provisioning services and declining regulating services, but with important regional differences. In eastern China, the upward trajectory in provisioning services is strongly linked to the history of agricultural policy reforms but losses of regulating services are more an emergent phenomenon. In contrast, in southwest China, trajectories of provisioning and regulating services are both linked strongly to policy and development initiatives. In both regions, the last few years see the long term trade-off breaking down with provisioning services declining or remaining stationary while losses of regulating services continue to decline. Evidence exists in both regions that critical transitions have been crossed in some ecosystems. The strength of coupling between the socio-economic and biophysical sub-systems also remains strong and shows no sign of de-coupling in either region as required for sustainability. We discuss how our findings

  1. Scenario analysis for biodiversity conservation: a social-ecological system approach in the Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Lockwood, Michael; Moore, Susan A; Clement, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Current policy interventions are having limited success in addressing the ongoing decline in global biodiversity. In part, this is attributable to insufficient attention being paid to the social and governance processes that drive decisions and can undermine their implementation. Scenario planning that draws on social-ecological systems (SES) analysis provides a useful means to systematically explore and anticipate future uncertainties regarding the interaction between humans and biodiversity outcomes. However, the effective application of SES models has been limited by the insufficient attention given to governance influences. Understanding the influence governance attributes have on the future trajectory of SES is likely to assist choice of effective interventions, as well as needs and opportunities for governance reform. In a case study in the Australian Alps, we explore the potential of joint SES and scenario analyses to identify how governance influences landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes. Novel aspects of our application of these methods were the specification of the focal system's governance attributes according to requirements for adaptive capacity, and constraining scenarios according to the current governance settings while varying key social and biophysical drivers. This approach allowed us to identify how current governance arrangements influence landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes, and establishes a baseline from which the potential benefits of governance reform can be assessed.

  2. Senior Living Lab: An Ecological Approach to Foster Social Innovation in an Ageing Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Angelini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Senior Living Lab (SLL is a transdisciplinary research platform created by four Universities that aims at promoting ageing well at home through the co-creation of innovative products, services and practices with older adults. While most living labs for ageing well are focused on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, this social laboratory adopts a transdisciplinary approach, bringing together designers, economists, engineers and healthcare professionals to develop multiple forms of social innovation using participatory methods. The SLL is based on an ecological approach, connecting professionals and users in a cooperative network and involving all of the stakeholders concerned with ageing well, such as existing associations, business entities and policy-makers. Three main themes for the co-design of products and services were identified at the beginning of the SLL conception, each sustained by a major business partner: healthy nutrition to cope with frailty, improved autonomous mobility to foster independence and social communication to prevent isolation. This article shows the innovative transdisciplinary approach of the SLL and discusses the particular challenges that emerged during the first year of its creation, investigating the role of ICTs when designing products and services for older adults.

  3. Preserving knee function following osteoarthritis diagnosis: a sustainability theory and social ecology clinical commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, J; Wera, J; Henzman, C; Miller, T; Jakob, R; Caborn, D N M

    2015-02-01

    To sustain natural systems, there must be an ongoing balance between environmental, social, and economic considerations. A key element of sustainability theory is to identify the most vulnerable surroundings. The most vulnerable knee tissue is the articular cartilage as it is the last line of osteoarthritis (OA) defense. This tissue has a poor capacity for healing. Based on sustainability theory and social ecology concepts we propose that several key factors contribute to knee function preservation. Factors include health history, genetic predisposition, personal behaviors, and socio-environmental factors in addition to local-regional-global physiological system function. Addressing only some of these factors or any one factor in isolation may lead to less than optimal treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this commentary is to introduce a medical, surgical and rehabilitation management approach for patients with knee OA that considers more than physical function improvement. This approach also considers social, emotional, and environmental factors to better ensure patient satisfaction, fulfilled expectations and successful outcomes. A clinical care pathway is presented for a 57-year-old patient with medial compartment knee OA who is contemplating early arthroplasty versus a knee function preservation treatment approach. Early arthroplasty refers to high revision likelihood based on a minimum 15 year prosthesis life-expectancy.

  4. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  5. Social-ecological Resilience of a Nuosu Community-linked Watershed, Southwest Sichuan, China

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    Lauren S. Urgenson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers of the Nuosu Yi ethnic group in the Upper Baiwu watershed report reductions in the availability of local forest resources. A team of interdisciplinary scientists worked in partnership with this community to assess the type and extent of social-ecological change in the watershed and to identify key drivers of those changes. Here, we combine a framework for institutional analysis with resilience concepts to assess system dynamics and interactions among resource users, resources, and institutions over the past century. The current state of this system reflects a legacy of past responses to institutional disturbances initiated at the larger, national system scale. Beginning with the Communist Revolution in 1957 and continuing through the next two decades, centralized forest regulations imposed a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale of the ecological processes being managed. A newly implemented forest property rights policy is shifting greater control over the management of forest resources to individuals in rural communities. Collective forest users will be allowed to manage commodity forests for profit through the transfer of long-term leases to private contractors. Villagers are seeking guidance on how to develop sustainable and resilient forest management practices under the new policy, a responsibility returned to them after half a century and with less abundant and fewer natural resources, a larger and aggregated population, and greater influence from external forces. We assess the watershed's current state in light of the past and identify future opportunities to strengthen local institutions for governance of forest resources.

  6. Inclusive Protected Area Management in the Amazon: The Importance of Social Networks over Ecological Knowledge

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    Roger Strand

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Amacayacu National Park in Colombia, which partially overlaps with Indigenous territories, several elements of an inclusive protected area management model have been implemented since the 1990s. In particular, a dialogue between scientific researchers, indigenous people and park staff has been promoted for the co-production of biological and cultural knowledge for decision-making. This paper, based on a four-year ethnographic study of the park, shows how knowledge products about different components of the socio-ecosystem neither were efficiently obtained nor were of much importance in park management activities. Rather, the knowledge pertinent to park staff in planning and management is the know-how required for the maintenance and mobilization of multi-scale social-ecological networks. We argue that the dominant models for protected area management—both top-down and inclusive models—underestimate the sociopolitical realm in which research is expected to take place, over-emphasize ecological knowledge as necessary for management and hold a too strong belief in decision-making as a rational, organized response to diagnosis of the PA, rather than acknowledging that thick complexity needs a different form of action. Co-production of knowledge is crucial for governance, but mainly not for the reasons for which it is promoted.

  7. A Framework to Analyze the Robustness of Social-ecological Systems from an Institutional Perspective

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    John M. Anderies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available What makes social-ecological systems (SESs robust? In this paper, we look at the institutional configurations that affect the interactions among resources, resource users, public infrastructure providers, and public infrastructures. We propose a framework that helps identify potential vulnerabilities of SESs to disturbances. All the links between components of this framework can fail and thereby reduce the robustness of the system. We posit that the link between resource users and public infrastructure providers is a key variable affecting the robustness of SESs that has frequently been ignored in the past. We illustrate the problems caused by a disruption in this link. We then briefly describe the design principles originally developed for robust common-pool resource institutions, because they appear to be a good starting point for the development of design principles for more general SESs and do include the link between resource users and public infrastructure providers.

  8. The Capacity of Property Rights to Accommodate Social-Ecological Resilience

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    Richard A. Barnes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, I consider how social-ecological resilience can be facilitated by the use of property rights. Taking a legal perspective on the use of different forms of property, I consider how property rules can manifest the attributes of flexibility, responsiveness, optionality, and scalability associated with resilient systems. I note how different regulatory regimes such as domestic law and international law have differing capacities to accommodate property rights, and this in turn affects the capability of property to sustain resilience. The fluid nature of resilience and property systems defies simple conclusions about the influence of property rights on resilience. However, it is possible to make some general observations on how well-suited archetype forms of property such as private property and community-based holdings might be for regulating certain resources.

  9. A social ecological conceptual framework for understanding adolescent health literacy in the health education classroom.

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    Wharf Higgins, Joan; Begoray, Deborah; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2009-12-01

    With the rising concern over chronic health conditions and their prevention and management, health literacy is emerging as an important public health issue. As with the development of other forms of literacy, the ability for students to be able to access, understand, evaluate and communicate health information is a skill best developed during their years of public schooling. Health education curricula offer one approach to develop health literacy, yet little is known about its influence on neither students nor their experiences within an educational context. In this article, we describe our experience applying a social ecological model to investigating the implementation of a health education curriculum in four high schools in British Columbia, Canada. We used the model to guide a conceptual understanding of health literacy, develop research questions, select data collection strategies, and interpret the findings. Reflections and recommendations for using the model are offered.

  10. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

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    Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems.

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    Ostrom, Elinor

    2009-07-24

    A major problem worldwide is the potential loss of fisheries, forests, and water resources. Understanding of the processes that lead to improvements in or deterioration of natural resources is limited, because scientific disciplines use different concepts and languages to describe and explain complex social-ecological systems (SESs). Without a common framework to organize findings, isolated knowledge does not cumulate. Until recently, accepted theory has assumed that resource users will never self-organize to maintain their resources and that governments must impose solutions. Research in multiple disciplines, however, has found that some government policies accelerate resource destruction, whereas some resource users have invested their time and energy to achieve sustainability. A general framework is used to identify 10 subsystem variables that affect the likelihood of self-organization in efforts to achieve a sustainable SES.

  12. A social-ecological impact assessment for public lands management: application of a conceptual and methodological framework

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    Amanda L. Bentley Brymer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, federal action to manipulate habitat for species conservation requires an environmental impact statement, which should integrate natural, physical, economic, and social sciences in planning and decision making. Nonetheless, most impact assessments focus disproportionately on physical or ecological impacts rather than integrating ecological and socioeconomic components. We developed a participatory social-ecological impact assessment (SEIA that addresses the requirements of NEPA and integrates social and ecological concepts for impact assessments. We cooperated with the Bureau of Land Management in Idaho, USA on a project designed to restore habitat for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus. We employed questionnaires, workshop dialogue, and participatory mapping exercises with stakeholders to identify potential environmental changes and subsequent impacts expected to result from the removal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis. Via questionnaires and workshop dialogue, stakeholders identified 46 environmental changes and associated positive or negative impacts to people and communities in Owyhee County, Idaho. Results of the participatory mapping exercises showed that the spatial distribution of social, economic, and ecological values throughout Owyhee County are highly associated with the two main watersheds, wilderness areas, and the historic town of Silver City. Altogether, the SEIA process revealed that perceptions of project scale varied among participants, highlighting the need for specificity about spatial and temporal scales. Overall, the SEIA generated substantial information concerning potential impacts associated with habitat treatments for Greater Sage-Grouse. The SEIA is transferable to other land management and conservation contexts because it supports holistic understanding and framing of connections between humans and ecosystems. By applying

  13. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

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    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it.

  14. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

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    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  15. Open Source and Open Content: a Framework for Global Collaboration in Social-Ecological Research

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    Charles Schweik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses opportunities for alternative collaborative approaches for social-ecological research in general and, in this context, for modeling land-use/land-cover change. In this field, the rate of progress in academic research is steady but perhaps not as rapid or efficient as might be possible with alternative organizational frameworks. The convergence of four phenomena provides new opportunities for cross-organizational collaboration: (1 collaborative principles related to "open source" (OS software development, (2 the emerging area of "open content" (OC licensing, (3 the World Wide Web as a platform for scientific communication, and (4 the traditional concept of peer review. Although private individuals, government organizations, and even companies have shown interest in the OS paradigm as an alternative model for software development, it is less commonly recognized that this collaborative framework is a potential innovation of much greater proportions. In fact, it can guide the collective development of any intellectual content, not just software. This paper has two purposes. First, we describe OS and OC licensing, dispense with some myths about OS, and relate these structures to traditional scientific process. Second, we outline how these ideas can be applied in an area of collaborative research relevant to the study of social-ecological systems. It is important to recognize that the concept of OS is not new, but the idea of borrowing OS principles and using OC licensing for broader scientific collaboration is new. Over the last year, we have been trying to initiate such an OS/OC collaboration in the context of modeling land use and land cover. In doing so, we have identified some key issues that need to be considered, including project initiation, incentives of project participants, collaborative infrastructure, institutional design and governance, and project finance. OS/OC licensing is not a universal solution suitable for all

  16. A question of fit: reflections on boundaries, organizations and social-ecological systems.

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    Sternlieb, Faith; Bixler, R Patrick; Huber-Stearns, Heidi; Huayhuaca, Ch'aska

    2013-11-30

    Although there is acknowledgment that the complexity of social-ecological systems governance demands representation from diverse perspectives, there is little agreement in the literature on how to cross both fiat (human-demarcated) and bona fide (physical) boundaries to address such complexities. As a cohort of interdisciplinary scholars, we navigate the boundary between science and practice to address the question of fit regarding the role of organizations in transcending boundaries. We found there is a need to rectify discrepancies between theories about boundaries and theories about organizations. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework to analyze transboundary organizations, an umbrella term to group the literature on boundary organizations, intermediaries and bridging organizations; we introduce this term to illustrate they are not mutually exclusive and to facilitate interdisciplinary research. We first examine social-ecological systems (SES), a framework intended to improve understandings of boundaries and governance. We then continue to unpack the complexity of boundaries and organizations, specifically through important transboundary concepts such as scale and organizational learning. This helps frame our examination of the literature on: 1) boundary organizations; 2) bridging organizations (third-party entities); and 3) intermediaries (distinguished by their position between other actors). Our review identifies a number of discrepancies that pertain to the types of boundaries discussed and the roles assigned to organizations governing SES. Important characteristics have emerged from our review of transboundary organizations including legitimacy, saliency, urgency, and credibility. In developing a conceptual framework, we argue that transboundary organizations: 1) expand upon the boundary spectrum, 2) incorporate transboundary concepts, and 3) hybridize characteristics of boundary, bridging, and intermediary organizations. We conclude with a number

  17. Scale dependency in effectiveness, isolation, and social-ecological spillover of protected areas.

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    Ament, Judith M; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-08-01

    Protected areas are considered vital for the conservation of biodiversity. Given their central role in many conservation strategies, it is important to know whether they adequately protect biodiversity within their boundaries; whether they are becoming more isolated from other natural areas over time; and whether they play a role in facilitating or reducing land-cover change in their surroundings. We used matching methods and national and local analyses of land-cover change to evaluate the combined effectiveness (i.e., avoided natural-cover loss), isolation (i.e., changes in adjacent areas), and spillover effects (i.e., impacts on adjacent areas) of 19 national parks in South Africa from 2000 to 2009. All parks had either similar or lower rates of natural-cover loss than matched control samples. On a national level, mean net loss of natural cover and mean net gain of cultivation cover decreased with distance from park boundary, but there was considerable variation in trends around individual parks, providing evidence for both increased isolation and buffering of protected areas. Fourteen parks had significant positive spillover and reduced natural-cover loss in their surroundings, whereas five parks experienced elevated levels of natural-cover loss. Conclusions about social-ecological spillover effects from protected areas depended heavily on the measures of land-cover change used and the scale at which the results were aggregated. Our findings emphasize the need for high-resolution data when assessing spatially explicit phenomena such as land-cover change and challenge the usefulness of large-scale (coarse grain, broad extent) studies for understanding social-ecological dynamics around protected areas.

  18. BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTING RESTORATION STRATEGIES: SAN NICOLÁS ZOYATLAN SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM (GUERRERO, MEXICO

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    Virginia Cervantes Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, indigenous communities have been distinguished by continuous marginalization and degradation of their social-ecological systems (SES, and this is the case of San Nicolás Zoyatlan (Guerrero, Mexico. With the purpose of establishing restoration strategies, we conducted an in situ diagnosis to assess the current condition of the community and its disturbance factors. We combined methods of environmental and social sciences to analyze, in diachronic and synchronic contexts, how the SES’s natural resources are used. Results indicate that the chronic ecological disturbance of the SES and agrarian conflicts have contributed to the degradation of vegetation and soil. Thus, vegetation is impoverished, with secondary tropical deciduous forest (TDF shrub vegetation predominating, and the risk of soil degradation is high, despite the inhabitants’ knowledge and appreciation of this resource. To reverse degradation, we defined and established rehabilitation practices with the involvement of inhabitants. These comprised agroforestry systems (AFSs and plantations (PLs on community lands, using 18 native TDF species selected on the basis of local preferences. Our ongoing assessment indicates that after more than a decade, the AFSs and PLs are maintained and managed by the people, as reflected in the current size of plants whose inputs contribute to improve physical and chemical soil characteristics, such as soil aggregate formation, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content. However, we concluded that we need to confirm whether the ecosystem processes and environmental services are recovered and maintained over time, in addition to determining how they have influenced and will continue to influence the socioeconomic factors involved in maintaining rehabilitation practices.

  19. Ecological, social and biological risk factors for continued Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala.

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    Dulce M Bustamante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease transmission by Triatoma dimidiata persists in Guatemala and elsewhere in Central America under undefined ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social conditions. METHODOLOGY: Eco-bio-social risk factors associated with persistent domiciliary infestation were identified by a cross-sectional survey and qualitative participatory methods. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated regarding Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs and triatomine hosts. Blood meal analysis and infection of insects, dogs and rodents were determined. Based on these data, multimodel inference was used to identify risk factors for domestic infestation with the greatest relative importance (>0.75. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood meal analysis showed that 64% of 36 bugs fed on chickens, 50% on humans, 17% on dogs; 24% of 34 bugs fed on Rattus rattus and 21% on Mus musculus. Seroprevalence among 80 dogs was 37%. Eight (17% of 46 M. musculus and three (43% of seven R. rattus from households with infected triatomines were infected with T. cruzi Distinct Typing Unit I. Results from interviews and participatory meetings indicated that vector control personnel and some householders perceived chickens roosting and laying eggs in the house as bug infestation risk factors. House construction practices were seen as a risk factor for bug and rodent infestation, with rodents being perceived as a pest by study participants. Multimodel inference showed that house infestation risk factors of high relative importance are dog density, mouse presence, interior wall plaster condition, dirt floor, tile roofing and coffee tree presence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Persistent house infestation is closely related to eco-bio-social factors that maintain productive T. dimidiata habitats associated with dogs, chickens and rodents. Triatomine, dog and rodent infections indicate active T. cruzi transmission. Integrated vector control methods should include actions that consider the

  20. [Environmental and social determinants in schistosomiasis mansoni in Ravena, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

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    Coura-Filho, P; Farah, M W; Rezende, D F; Lamartine, S S; Carvalho, O S; Katz, N

    1995-01-01

    This study identified the role of biological and social determinants in the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ravena, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1980. This data was used to characterize the clinical and epidemiological profiles of the endemic desease in the population, allowing for the determination of the efficacy of the potable water supply and the specific treatment of those infected with S. mansoni. The district contains three locations, Ravenopolis, Ravena and Lavapes, where the prevalence of the endemic disease was, 20.1%, 42.6% and 63.9%, respectively. The prevalence in the district was statistically higher in men. The age brackets that displayed differences by gender were 10-14 and 15-19 years. Severity of infection was statistically different among individuals within the 10-14 year bracket in ali three locations, and in the 15-19 year bracket among individuals from Ravenopolis and Ravena. The hepatointestinal form was associated with age, and individuals under 15 years of age presented risk of infection 8.85 times higher than adults. Multivariable analysis of the factors involved in transmission of the disease showed that Lavapes was independently associated with infection. In that area, poor sanitary conditions and the proximity of houses to streams infested with S. marsoni cercariae facilitated infection of neighborhood women while performing domestic activities, as well as men digging sand from the streams for construction. These results show the focal nature of transmission of the endemic requiring specific intervention for effective control of disease.

  1. Impacts of nomad sedentarization on social and ecological systems at multiple scales in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingming; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Lanhai

    2014-09-01

    China's government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the project's sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSP's impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas.

  2. Os sertões e os (descaminhos da mudança social no Brasil Os sertões and the (misdirection of social change in Brazil

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    Maria José de Rezende

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A obra Os sertões tem sido amplamente discutida em vários campos de interpretação do Brasil, ou seja, na literatura, na sociologia, na antropologia e na história. Este artigo visa demonstrar que o modo de caracterização da existência social do sertanejo fez deste trabalho de Euclides da Cunha um marco na formação das ciências sociais no país. Ao buscar compreender, a partir do evolucionismo spenceriano, os (descaminhos da mudança social no país o autor contribuiu com a fundação dos primeiros pilares de uma reflexão acerca das singularidades socioculturais brasileiras.Os sertões has been amply discussed in various fields of interpretation in Brazil, be it in literature, sociology, anthropology or history. This article aims to demonstrate that the means of characterization of the social existence of the peasant from the arid countryside has turned this work of Euclides da Cunha's into a landmark in the formation of the social sciences in Brazil. Based on Spencerian evolutionism, the author analyzes the (misdirection of social change in the country, as a means to contribute towards the reflection on Brazilian socio-cultural singularities.

  3. From the child to the neighbourhood: Longitudinal ecological correlates of young adolescents' emotional, social, conduct, and academic difficulties.

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    Rowe, Susan L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Hood, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Guided by Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological framework, we investigated the correlates of changes in early adolescents' emotional, conduct, social and academic difficulties over a 2-year period of time. A representative sample of Australian early adolescents (N = 3797, 51% boys) completed questionnaires and interviews when they were age 10 (T1) and two years later at age 12 (T2). Parents also participated. Adolescents' difficulties increased over time, but there was no difference in academic difficulties between T1 and T2. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that temperamental factors of persistence and reactivity accounted for the most unique variance in adolescents' difficulties. Factors at each ecological level, including neighbourhood advantage, school connection, and family factors, were also uniquely associated with adolescents' change in difficulties over time. Although ecological effects were small, the study highlights the significant unique roles that proximal and distal social contexts play in the development of difficulties.

  4. Exposure to Violence across the Social Ecosystem and the Development of Aggression: A Test of Ecological Theory in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave…

  5. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

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    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  6. Synthesis of Household Yard Area Dynamics in the City of San Juan Using Multi-Scalar Social-Ecological Perspectives

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    Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability discourse promotes the increased use of green infrastructure (GI because of its contribution of important ecosystem services to city dwellers. Under this vision, all urban green spaces, including those at the household scale, are valued for their potential contributions to a city’s social-ecological functioning and associated benefits for human well-being. Understanding how urban residential green spaces have evolved can help improve sustainable urban planning and design, but it requires examining urban processes occurring at multiple scales. The interaction between social structures and ecological structures within the subtropical city of San Juan, the capital and the largest city of Puerto Rico, has been an important focus of study of the San Juan ULTRA (Urban Long-Term Research Area network, advancing understanding of the city’s vulnerabilities and potential adaptive capacity. Here we provide a synthesis of several social-ecological processes driving residential yard dynamics in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, through the evaluation of empirical findings related to yard management decisions, yard area, and yard services. We emphasize the role of factors occurring at the household scale. Results are discussed within the context of shrinking cities using an integrated, multi-scalar, social-ecological systems framework, and consider the implications of household green infrastructure for advancing urban sustainability theory.

  7. Social-ecological dynamics of change and restoration attempts in the Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands of Janos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

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    Shrub encroachment and grassland loss are widespread throughout the US-Mexico borderlands with negative consequences for production of livestock and ecosystem services. In this paper we detail the complex social and ecological phenomena associated with this pattern of degradation in a large area in ...

  8. Social Ecological Approaches to Individuals and Their Contexts: Twenty Years of "Health Education & Behavior" Health Promotion Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Social ecological models that describe the interactive characteristics of individuals and environments that underlie health outcomes have long been recommended to guide public health practice. The extent to which such recommendations have been applied in health promotion interventions, however, is unclear. The authors developed a coding system to…

  9. Social Marketing for Women's Health Campaigns: An Analysis in the Abc Region, Greater São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Edson Coutinho da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and evaluate the Social Marketing principles (and practices in women’s health programme in the ABC Region, located in the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. The Social Marketing orientation seeks to potentialise public health campaigns using five principles: customer focus; focus on the benefits to customers; endeavour to create value; involving the whole organisation in the process; being aware that customers are different. In methodological terms, this research is exploratory and descriptive through a single case study, the ABC region; nine interviews have been carried out with health managers of women's health programmes in the three cities of the region. The qualitative methods were used to report the results. The authors of this study verified that Social Marketing strategies are present in women's health campaigns, but, not all processes and in the expected way, by the proposed the Social Marketing plan. 

  10. Social assistance and disability in Brazil: the reflection of the international debate of the rights of people with disability

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    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the debate on the social model of disability has influenced conceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001 and adopted in Brazil in 2007, through the law of the Continuous Cash Benefit. The BPC is a major social policy of income transfer to poor disabled people, affecting over one million and half disabled people in the country. Since 2009, the evaluation of persons with disabilities for the BPC will make by medical and social skills targeted by ICF. Will be demonstrated that, although the adoption of the ICF maybe to represent regard to how to understand disability as social inequality, the adoption of the ICF by the law of the BPC will face challenges in ensuring the right to dignity of disabled people.

  11. Practitioners' impressions of patients with Parkinson's disease: the social ecology of the expressive mask.

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    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle

    2004-02-01

    The expressive mask of Parkinson's disease, a reduced spontaneity, intensity, and fluidity of facial, bodily, and vocal expression, jeopardizes interpersonal interaction and quality of life. Observers have difficulty perceiving the "real" person behind the mask, leading to failed communication and misunderstanding. A social ecological explanation of this difficulty is that observers have learned in their daily social lives, and quite appropriately so, that expressive behavior reveals meaningful information about character. The premise of this study was that health practitioners, especially novices, would bring into the clinic their everyday perceptual tendencies related to deciphering character. The study examined novice and expert practitioners' impressions of the personality of patients with Parkinson's disease who were videotaped during a healthcare interview. It was found that practitioners, especially novices, appeared to be overly sensitive to expressive masking when forming impressions about patient extraversion. They incorrectly perceived patients with more masking to be less extraverted than patients with less masking. Novice practitioners were particularly inaccurate in their impressions of neuroticism compared to experts. Novices incorrectly perceived patients with more masking as being more neurotic, whereas experts tended to be sensitive to valid cues of neuroticism. Practitioners' impressions of patient conscientiousness were not sensitive to masking and were highly accurate.

  12. Sharing refuges on arid islands: ecological and social influence on aggregation behaviour of wall geckos

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    Rocha, Sara; Santos, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. Methods After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it. We sampled 48 transects and 40 10 × 10 m quadrats on São Vicente Island to describe the incidence, size and composition of aggregations and to study the effect of gecko and refuge density, plus refuge quality, on refuge sharing. We hypothesize that when density of animals and scarcity of high-quality refuges is higher, lizards have increased probability of aggregating. We also predict a consistent pattern of size and composition of groups (male–female pairs, only one adult male per group) throughout the year if there is a selected behaviour to avoid agonistic interactions, and low thermal advantage to aggregating individuals. Results We present one of the first evidences of aggregation for Phyllodactylidae geckos. We found that T. substituta forms aggregations around 30–40% of the time, and that refuges are almost always shared by a female-male pair, sometimes with a juvenile, probably a mechanism to avoid aggressive interactions. We also observed that refuge sharing is dependent on refuge quality, as medium–large (thermally more stable and positively selected) rocks are shared much more frequently than small ones, but independent of adult sizes. Refuge sharing is also directly related to the density of geckos and inversely related to the density of high-quality refuges. We found no relation between body temperatures of geckos and refuge sharing when controlling the

  13. Social-Ecological Scale Mismatches and the Collapse of the Sea Urchin Fishery in Maine, USA

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    Teresa R. Johnson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale mismatches result in incomplete or ambiguous feedback that impairs the ability to learn and adapt and, ultimately, to sustain natural resources. Our aim is to examine the sea urchin fishery in Maine, USA to better understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that are important for the design of institutions that might be able to sustain the resource. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the Maine sea urchin fishery was a classic gold rush fishery. In the beginning, the fishery was characterized by an abundant resource with little to no harvesting activity, followed by a period of rapid increase in landings and effort that led to a subsequent and persistent decline in the sea urchin population and a significant reduction in effort. We conducted semistructured interviews with scientists and experienced fishermen to understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that influence fishermen's harvesting strategies, and the implications of this for the design of institutions for successful resource management. The current co-management system includes an advisory body made up of industry members and scientists it also includes limited entry, and additional input control mechanisms. Many of these measures are implemented at a very broad scale; however, we find that the ecological conditions relevant to the sustainable processes occur at the scale of individual fishing sites or ledges, which is a much finer scale than current management. Therefore, the co-management system maintains an open access system and leaves few incentives for the development of sustainable harvesting strategies among fishermen. The clear suggestion is that the appropriate management system would be one that directly addresses the fine scale ecological and social dynamics within this fishery and gives fishermen property rights over individual ledges (for example, leases. After having briefly reviewed experiences in Canada and Chile, we found that

  14. Sharing refuges on arid islands: ecological and social influence on aggregation behaviour of wall geckos

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    Raquel Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. Methods After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it. We sampled 48 transects and 40 10 × 10 m quadrats on São Vicente Island to describe the incidence, size and composition of aggregations and to study the effect of gecko and refuge density, plus refuge quality, on refuge sharing. We hypothesize that when density of animals and scarcity of high-quality refuges is higher, lizards have increased probability of aggregating. We also predict a consistent pattern of size and composition of groups (male–female pairs, only one adult male per group throughout the year if there is a selected behaviour to avoid agonistic interactions, and low thermal advantage to aggregating individuals. Results We present one of the first evidences of aggregation for Phyllodactylidae geckos. We found that T. substituta forms aggregations around 30–40% of the time, and that refuges are almost always shared by a female-male pair, sometimes with a juvenile, probably a mechanism to avoid aggressive interactions. We also observed that refuge sharing is dependent on refuge quality, as medium–large (thermally more stable and positively selected rocks are shared much more frequently than small ones, but independent of adult sizes. Refuge sharing is also directly related to the density of geckos and inversely related to the density of high-quality refuges. We found no relation between body temperatures of geckos and refuge sharing when

  15. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

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    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  16. Participatory Social-Ecological Modeling in Eutrophication Management: the Case of Himmerfjärden, Sweden

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    Frida Franzén

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is increasingly seen as central in natural resource management. It is also required by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which identifies three levels of participation; information, consultation, and active involvement. In this paper we discuss the active involvement of stakeholders, using our experience from a case study in the Himmerfjärden region, which is a coastal area southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Our study used the systems approach proposed by the European Union research project called Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA, in which local stakeholders and a study site team constructed an integrated simulation model of a crucial coastal management issue. In this case the issue was nitrogen enrichment. We showed how stakeholder participation in the modeling process helped identify interesting and currently relevant management scenarios, and how the modeling process facilitated communication of the likely ecological, economic, and social effects of these scenarios to the stakeholders. In addition, stakeholders also reported social gains in terms of network building. We managed to actively involve local stakeholders in water issues, and the research process clearly strengthened the social capital in the Himmerfjärden region, and created a basis for future collaboration regarding water management. Our experience indicates that the approach we tried is a useful tool for promoting active stakeholder involvement in water management projects. Also, the results of our science and policy integration approach indicated that the study site team assumed a leadership role, which is a commonly recognized factor in successful natural resource management.

  17. The social structure and strategies of delphinids: predictions based on an ecological framework.

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    Gowans, Shannon; Würsig, Bernd; Karczmarski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Dolphins live in complex social groupings with a wide variety of social strategies. In this chapter we investigate the role that differing habitats and ecological conditions have played in the evolution of delphinid social strategies. We propose a conceptual framework for understanding natural patterns of delphinid social structure in which the spatial and temporal predictability of resources influences the ranging patterns of individuals and communities. The framework predicts that when resources are spatially and temporally predictable, dolphins should remain resident in relatively small areas. Predictable resources are often found in complex inshore environments where dolphins may hide from predators or avoid areas with high predator density. Additionally, available food resources may limit group size. Thus, we predict that there are few benefits to forming large groups and potentially many benefits to being solitary or in small groups. Males may be able to sequester solitary females, controlling mating opportunities. Observations of inshore populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) and island-associated spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) seem to fit this pattern well, along with forest-dwelling African antelope and primates such as vervets (Cercopithicus aethiops), baboons (Papio sp.), macaques (Macaca sp.) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In contrast, the framework predicts that when resources such as food are unpredictable, individuals must range further to find the necessary resources. Forming groups may be the only strategy available to avoid predation, especially in the open ocean. Larger home ranges are likely to support a greater number of individuals; however, prey is often sparsely distributed, which may act to reduce foraging competition. Cooperative foraging and herding of prey schools may be advantageous, potentially facilitating the formation of long-term bonds. Alternately, individuals may display many short-term affiliations

  18. Development of Vulnerability Indicators for Deltaic Social-Ecological Systems Facing Multiple Environmental and Anthropogenic Hazards

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    Sebesvari, Z.; Hagenlocher, M.; Haas, S.; Renaud, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas are low-lying coastal areas that form where rivers flow into the ocean. Hosting dense populations, featuring rich biodiversity and being hot spots of both agricultural and industrial production, they are considered of great economic and ecological importance. Long-term sustainability of deltas is increasingly under threat due to the consequences of natural and man-made hazards, including large-scale human interventions such as dam construction and extraction of underground resources. Understanding prevailing vulnerabilities in these deltaic systems is becoming increasingly important for the development of spatially-targeted adaptation options at the sub-delta scale (coastal regions, floodplains etc.) which is imperative for the sustainability and in some cases even for the survival of deltaic social-ecological systems (SES). We developed an inclusive SES-centered framework for vulnerability assessments, allowing for different sets of vulnerability indicators to be identified which can then be combined for deltas globally in a modular way. The modular structure allows being responsive to the specific multi-hazard settings of a given delta SES while also considering the interactions between the hazards in one given location. It therefore represents a departure from the usual fixed set of indicators used in existing vulnerability assessments. We present (1) the methods applied for indicator development, including local stakeholder consultations and a systematic literature review, as well as (2) the resulting modular set of indicators to be used in future spatially explicit vulnerability assessments. The approach aims to provide a ʾblueprintʿ for delta vulnerability assessments worldwide. Due to its modular structure it fosters both transferability and reproducibility. This work is part of a global project on 'Catalyzing action towards sustainability of deltaic systems (DELTAS)' funded by the Belmont Forum and the 2015 Sustainable Deltas Initiative, endorsed

  19. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia.

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    Forbes, Bruce C; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina

    2009-12-29

    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience.

  20. Adapting to Climate Change: Social-Ecological Resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community

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    Fikret Berkes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adaptation remains an insufficiently studied part of the subject of climate change. This paper examines the questions of adaptation and change in terms of social-ecological resilience using lessons from a place-specific case study. The Inuvialuit people of the small community of Sachs Harbour in Canada's western Arctic have been tracking climate change throughout the 1990s. We analyze the adaptive capacity of this community to deal with climate change. Short-term responses to changes in land-based activities, which are identified as coping mechanisms, are one component of this adaptive capacity. The second component is related to cultural and ecological adaptations of the Inuvialuit for life in a highly variable and uncertain environment; these represent long-term adaptive strategies. These two types of strategies are, in fact, on a continuum in space and time. This study suggests new ways in which theory and practice can be combined by showing how societies may adapt to climate change at multiple scales. Switching species and adjusting the "where, when, and how" of hunting are examples of shorter-term responses. On the other hand, adaptations such as flexibility in seasonal hunting patterns, traditional knowledge that allows the community to diversity hunting activities, networks for sharing food and other resources, and intercommunity trade are longer-term, culturally ingrained mechanisms. Individuals, households, and the community as a whole also provide feedback on their responses to change. Newly developing co-management institutions create additional linkages for feedback across different levels, enhancing the capacity for learning and self-organization of the local inhabitants and making it possible for them to transmit community concerns to regional, national, and international levels.

  1. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

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    Wilking Hendrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants ( Conclusions Neighbourhoods with a high unemployment rate and high day care attendance rate appear to be particularly affected by Rotavirus in the population of Berlin. Public health promotion programs should be developed for the affected areas. Due to the ecological study

  2. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

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    Davide Rasella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective: To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design: This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results: Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions: Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.

  3. Assessment of water quality in areas of ecological economic zoning of the Guapiaçu-Macacu basin, RJ, Brazil

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    Darcilio Fernandes Baptista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems have often been significantly altered by multiple impacts. The Guapiaçu-Macacu Hydrographic Complex is an important basin in Rio de Janeiro characterized by distinct ecological zones that make up an Ecological Economic Zoning. This research evaluated ecological upright in segments of this Complex located in Wildlife Conservation Zone (WCZ and the Agricultural Use Zone (AUZ using the Protocol Visual Assessment (PVA and physical, chemicals and microbiology methods. The results showed a significant difference between the points of lowest contamination degree in WCZ and stretches with a greater impact degree in AUZ. The PVA was more sensible than the conventional parameters in the resolution between segments impacted environmentally and impacted middle located in AUZ. This type of evaluation proved to be more effective in environmental monitoring the water quality for watersheds that have their Ecological Economic Zoning Plan. Therefore, the use of physical, chemical and microbiological methods must be complemented by the PVA.

  4. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults:A social-ecological perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangren Yi; Rui Wang; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao; Shumei Wang; Fang Pan; Jingpeng Yan; Meng Liu; Peipei Wu; Jingjing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods: Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n=1580, aged 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results: Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, and education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, and social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults’ participation in HPA. Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active. © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  5. Social impacts of technological diffusion: prenatal diagnosis and induced abortion in Brazil.

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    Novaes, H M

    2000-01-01

    Scientific and technological development plays an essential part in shaping contemporary societies, and medicine and health care are considered to be particularly receptive to the incorporation of new concepts, techniques and products, producing impacts not only on the health problems for which they were originally intended, but also varied 'side-effects', less frequently recognised and studied. In this study the point of departure was the hypothesis that the intensive diffusion in Brazil of prenatal ultrasound would create new problems for individuals (pregnant women, their families and health professionals) and society in coping with foetal malformations, due to the existence of a very restrictive induced abortion legislation. The objective of the research was to study the social visibility of these problems, in the written mass media. The period under analysis went from 1991 to 1996. The four most important daily newspapers and two medical council journals were studied, with a criteria oriented selection of articles, and their macrotextual thematic analysis. The results indicate that the basic elements in the relationships between medical technology, prenatal diagnosis, foetal malformations and induced abortions stayed the same along the period - a restrictive Penal Code, the public recognition of the disseminated and usually tolerated practice of induced abortion, done in risky conditions for the majority of women, with very evident consequences on maternal health, a divided Congress, a divided 'public opinion', religious opposition and new scientific and technological practices in health care. Nevertheless, tension between these 'contradictory' factors increases, so much so, that new elements are introduced which make an accommodation possible, without implying in major changes of position. This is achieved through the development of new alliances between Science, the judiciary and obstetrical leaders, which benefit individual initiatives, instead of leading

  6. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae), living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil.

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    Rocha, C F D; Anjos, L A

    2007-08-01

    We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higher number of prey (but in lower volume) when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  7. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  8. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae, living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil

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    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higer number of prey (but in lower volume when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  9. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  10. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  11. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

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    Cláudia Silva Dias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma.

  12. Linking Bayesian and agent-based models to simulate complex social-ecological systems in semi-arid regions

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    Aloah J Pope

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interdependencies of ecologic, hydrologic, and social systems challenge traditional approaches to natural resource management in semi-arid regions. As a complex social-ecological system, water demands in the Sonoran Desert from agricultural and urban users often conflicts with water needs for its ecologically-significant riparian corridors. To explore this system, we developed an agent-based model to simulate complex feedbacks between human decisions and environmental conditions in the Rio Sonora Watershed. Cognitive mapping in conjunction with stakeholder participation produced a Bayesian model of conditional probabilities of local human decision-making processes resulting to changes in water demand. Probabilities created in the Bayesian model were incorporated into the agent-based model, so that each agent had a unique probability to make a positive decision based on its perceived environment at each point in time and space. By using a Bayesian approach, uncertainty in the human decision-making process could be incorporated. The spatially-explicit agent-based model simulated changes in depth-to-groundwater by well pumping based on an agent’s water demand. Changes in depth-to-groundwater feedback to influence agent behavior, as well as determine unique vegetation classes within the riparian corridor. Each vegetation class then provides varying stakeholder-defined quality values of ecosystem services. Using this modeling approach allowed us to examine effects on both the ecological and social system of semi-arid riparian corridors under various scenarios. The insight provided by the model contributes to understanding how specific interventions may alter the complex social-ecological system in the future.

  13. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: highlighting the social disparities

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    Andrade Ana Lucia SS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents among youth are a public health issue worldwide. Studies of the complex network of cause and effect on this topic point to both poverty and health inequalities. Different investigational approaches to intentional and unintentional deaths combined with socioeconomic variables can help create a better understanding of the association between violence and socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzed the spatial distribution and potential clusters of risk for intentional and unintentional deaths among youths aged 15-24 years in Goiânia, a newly urbanized city in central Brazil. Methods Death data and residential addresses were extracted from the national Mortality Information System and validated by household visits. To detect all potential cases, we prospectively investigated every death classified as a transport accident, assault, legal intervention, intentional self-harm, unknown underlying cause, and undetermined intent according to the ICD-10. The Geographical Information System was used to plot residential addresses, and cases were interactively geocoded to the residential address level using a digital map of the municipality. Spatial scan statistic was applied (Poisson model to identify clusters of census tracts with high mortality due to intentional injuries and traffic accidents. The socioeconomic variables obtained using census data were compared between the most likely cluster and other areas of the municipality. Results The most violent deaths among young people were due to intentional injuries. Between August 2005 and August 2006, 145 addresses for cases of intentional injuries and traffic accidents were located and geocoded. No significant clusters for deaths due to traffic accidents were found within the municipality. One significant cluster (RR = 4.65; p = 0.029 composed of 14 cases of intentional deaths, mostly homicides, was detected in an emergent, populated, and

  14. [Common mental disorders and social support in a rural community in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albanita Gomes da; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders and the association with social support in a community located in the Zona da Mata, a sugar cane plantation area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A household survey was carried out and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Medical Outcomes Study, and socioeconomic questions were administered to all residents over 19 years of age. Total prevalence of common mental disorders was 36.0%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with low social support had twice the probability of suffering from common mental disorders (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.35-3.24) as compared to those with greater support, even after adjusting for age, schooling, and work force participation. The results show the importance of investments in social support networks to promote interactions between individuals and increase individuals' self-confidence and power to deal with problems.

  15. Crisis of the urban development process and the ecological, economic and social sustainability

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    Lopez Estrada, Raul Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse theoretical efforts have been made in order to understand the urban problematic related to sustainability. Among them is an analysis that highlight an inadequacy about the sustainability concept which is only limited to an ecological matter and it not considers that the most important issue is political and social. This has explained the failure of several international meetings about the matter, when the contradiction has not been considered in the capitalist system where the economic interest and interest in sustainability contrasts. Then, in the political and social field is where many efforts should be channeled as urban regional research priorities for the next decade. In this regard, most of the academic analysis have been focused on two main aspects: on the one hand, those who consider that the solution to the sustainability problem lies in the change of the relations of production, without clearly specifying what this means; and on the other hand, the analyses that estimate the relevance of making changes inside of the capitalist system where the State would play an important role. In both cases a mental change is required to dealing with the problem of sustainability and new forms of population participation to perform it. Muchos esfuerzos teóricos se han realizado para comprender la problemática urbana vinculada con la sustentabilidad. Entre ellos hay análisis que destacan la insuficiencia de la definición del concepto sustentabilidad cuando éste es reducido únicamente al aspecto de la ecología sin considerar que el problema más importante es político y social. Esto ha explicado el fracaso de muchas reuniones internacionales sobre el tema, cuando no se ha considerado la contradicción en el sistema capitalista donde se contrapone el interés económico y el interés por la sustentabilidad. Es entonces en el terreno político y social donde muchos esfuerzos deben canalizarse como prioridades de investigación urbano

  16. Social capital and political culture in Brazil: prospectives and constrains Capital social y cultura política en brasil: posibilidades y límites

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    Cesar Marcelo BAQUERO JACOME

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between political culture and social capital in Brazil. It emphasizes the importance of constructing a political system founded in the interpersonal or reciprocal trust, as well as the confidence in the political institutions. After examining the main controversies about the definition of social capital, this article defends the idea of reterritorializing this concept, giving a strategic value insofar as the instrumental dimension is concerned, which is, the empowerment of the citizens so as to help to construct and institutionalize a participant political culture. After examining surveys carried out in Porto Alegre, Brazil, the main conclusion is that the levels of social capital in this city, and probably extensive to the country, are very low compromising, in the short run, the possibility of gerating a critical and participative citizenship.El presente artículo examina la relación entre cultura política y capital social en Brasil. Se enfatiza la importancia de construir un sistema político fundamentado en la confianza recíproca o interpersonal así como la confianza con relación a las instituciones políticas. Después de examinar las controversias sobre la conceptualización de capital social, este trabajo defiende la idea de la reterritorialización de ese concepto, valorizando su dimensión instrumental, es decir, el empoderamiento de los ciudadanos objetivando el desarrollo e institucionalización de una cultura política participativa. Tras desarrollar un análisis de encuestas llevadas a cabo en Porto Alegre, Brasil, se llega a la conclusión de que los niveles de capital social en el país son muy bajos comprometiendo, a corto plazo la posibilidad de generar una ciudadanía crítica y participativa.

  17. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

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    Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of community-based natural resource management in Latin American social-ecological systems exist in which communities control the management of common-pool resources. Understanding community perceptions of the performance of these systems is essential to involve communities in sustainable management strategies. In this analysis of three areas in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina, we analyzed the local perceptions of the social and environmental challenges faced by these social-ecological systems and how these challenges and drivers affect their resilience. To do this, we combined prospective structural analysis to unravel stakeholders' perceptions of each system's functioning along with network analysis to assess resilience. We identified external variables as the most influential variables in the Colombian and Argentine cases. In the Mexican case, larger influence is exerted by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers with medium or strong influence but low dependence. The use of ancestral knowledge (Colombia, the history of land use (Mexico, and the history of the artisanal fishery (Argentina were all perceived as common challenges to community-based natural resource management. In terms of social-ecological resilience, framed within the three-dimensional model of the adaptive cycle, all three social-ecological systems were considered to be highly connected and resilient but with different degrees of capacity or cumulative potential.

  18. Alcohol consumption among university students: applying a social ecological approach for multi-level preventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Somphol

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates factors affecting alcohol consumption among university students through a social ecological approach as a theoretical framework. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 1,200 university students in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of statistical significance were used to analyze the data. The results showed that all 22 independent variables can copredict alcohol consumption among university students at 41.2% (Adjusted = 40.1%). However, there were only 13 variables that affected alcohol consumption significantly: gender, age, monthly income, living arrangement, attitude toward alcohol use, perceived susceptibility of alcohol use, perceived self-efficacy, peer drinking, relatives drinking, accessibility of alcohol around university, accessibility of alcohol around community, exposure to anti-alcohol campaign, and exposure to alcohol advertising. The findings suggested that alcohol consumption was not only affected by the individual-level factor, but it was also affected by multi-level environmental factors, including interpersonal-level, institutional-level, community-level, and societal-level factors. Consequently, multi-level preventions should be urgently considered to prevent alcohol use among university students in Thailand.

  19. Environmental Entitlements: Institutional Influence on Mangrove Social-Ecological Systems in Northern Vietnam

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    Steven E. Orchard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Environment and development issues are complex and interdependent. Institutions underpinning state, private sector and civil society actions at various levels must address complexity to ensure social-ecological system integrity. However, responses often operate at only one governance level, with limited interactions with other levels, restricting their ability to support communities who depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. This paper explores institutional factors influencing household entitlements to mangrove system provisioning goods on Vietnam’s northern coast. The environmental entitlements framework is used to identify: (1 current formal and informal institutional structures relating to mangrove systems; (2 the influence of state, private sector and non-governmental organisation actors at various levels; and (3 how actions occurring at and among various levels of governance shape mangrove system entitlements at the local level. Employing a case study approach, this research utilises qualitative methods and a multi-level governance approach to understand prevailing institutional contexts. Results indicate that reforms occurring within weak regulatory frameworks led to the concentration of power at the meso level, reducing the endowments of marginalized households. Market forces facilitated inequality and environmental degradation, negatively impacting household entitlements. Finally, a lack of formally recognised civil society constrained household capabilities to participate in mangrove planning. Mangrove dependent households must be integrated into mangrove planning at the local level, as processes at higher institutional levels affect household environmental entitlements and threaten sustainable outcomes. Ensuring views from the local level feed into the multi-level governance process is vital.

  20. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  1. Ecological modernization of socio-economic development of the region in the context of social transformations: theoretical and methodological bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Shkarupa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the theoretical and methodological bases of ecological modernization of socio-economic development of the region. The results of the analysis. This paper studies scientific basis of transformation processes for sustainable development, which is important at this time. Considering direction of the history of sustainable development concept, the author emphasizes that if to follow the basic guidelines to upgrade social and economic systems to «green» economy, then it can expected results of ecological modernization. It will save funds due to forewarned of economic damage from pollution and environmental cost savings compensation «rehabilitation» resources and territories. Moreover, prevention of anthropogenic pressure increases the chances of social systems to improve the quality of life and improve the health of the nation. From economic point of view, clean production is more competitive. This study considered the theoretical and methodological bases of ecological modernization of process of socio-economic systems in a region that involves making special reference points of development. Ecological modernization is a prerequisite for ecologically transformation based on quality eco-oriented reforms in social and economic systems. Ecologically safe transformation of socio-economic development means certain progressive changes (intersystem, and intersystem synergistic and transformations that are strategic in view of eco-focused goal-setting. Such understanding provides for: 1 understanding of transformation as a process which is already identified in environmental trend of socio-economic system; 2 spatial certainty of eco-oriented reforms in connection with certainty qualities of the future development of the system. Arguably, it can and should lead to the structural changes in innovation for sustainable development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. It is shown that

  2. Trayectorias juveniles e intervenciones sociales: repercusiones en las prácticas sociales y en la salud (Río de Janeiro, Brasil Juvenile trajectories and social interventions: repercussions for social practices and health (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Monteiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la percepción de un grupo de jóvenes de las capas populares de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, sobre las repercusiones de programas sociales en sus trayectorias afectivo/sexual y escolar/profesional. Desde una perspectiva comparativa, examinamos las visiones, las prácticas y las condiciones de vida de 42 chicos y chicas, entre 18 y 24 años, con y sin participación en proyectos sociales dirigidos a la profesionalización y promoción de la ciudadanía. Son discutidos, particularmente, los impactos de las intervenciones en las concepciones de salud y SIDA, en los indicadores de movilidad social y profesionalización y en la formación de redes sociales, incluyendo la dimensión de género. Buscamos reflexionar sobre los efectos de organizaciones civiles en la población juvenil de baja renta, en un contexto de crisis socioeconómica y de pocos avances en términos de políticas sociales. Destacamos que, a pesar de las limitaciones de tales intervenciones en el contexto macro social, la experiencia de apoyo social promovida por los proyectos contribuye a la ampliación de la perspectiva de vida y del capital simbólico de este grupo social, con impactos positivos para la esfera de la salud.This article analyzes the perceptions of a group of youth from the lower economic levels of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, about the repercussions of social programs on their affective/sexual and educational/professional trajectories. From a comparative perspective, we examined the perspectives, practices, and conditions of life of 42 boys and girls, between 18 and 24 years of age, who did and did not participate in social projects directed at professionalizing and promoting the population. In particular, we discuss the impacts of interventions on concepts of health and AIDS, on indicators of social mobility and professionalization, and on the formation of social networks, including the dimension of gender. We sought to address the effects of civic

  3. The application of lichens as ecological surrogates of air pollution in the subtropics: a case study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Natália M; Branquinho, Cristina; Matos, Paula; Pinho, Pedro; Lucheta, Fabiane; Martins, Suzana M A; Vargas, Vera M F

    2016-10-01

    The use of lichens as ecological surrogates has been an important tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution in both ecosystem and human health but remains underused in the subtropics due to lack of knowledge. Aiming to support the application of lichen as ecological surrogates of the effects of air pollution in the subtropics, we hypothesized that urbanization was an important driver of changes on lichen diversity, composition, and vitality. For that, we quantified several lichen diversity metrics (richness, cover, and community composition) and photobiont vitality in relation to atmospheric pollution or its surrogates (modeled pollutant gases, pollutants in lichen thallus, and land cover). We confirmed that air pollution was a key driver for lichen diversity. Changes in lichen community composition and vitality were very significantly related to air pollution and integrated the effect of multiple stressors (particulate matter, NOx, and Cu), thus being powerful ecological indicators of air pollution in the subtropics.

  4. El desafío de la salud en las ciencias sociales: el caso de Brasil The Challenge of Health Social Sciences: The Brazil Study Case

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    Madel Terezinha Luz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    La presencia de disciplinas de las ciencias sociales, como la Antropología y la Sociología, es reciente en el área de la salud, no sólo en Brasil y América Latina, sino de manera más general en Europa. En la segunda mitad del siglo XX las ciencias del campo de las humanidades como la filosofía, la política y la Antropología, así como la Sociología, comenzaron a ocuparse de las cuestiones relacionadas con la vida, la salud y la enfermedad y la muerte, de una forma diferente a las primeras aproximaciones históricas. En América Latina, a finales de los setenta, se desarrolló un importante movimiento social, teórico, político y profesional, denominado en Brasil salud colectiva, formado por médicos sanitarios, activistas políticas del área de la salud, incluidos sindicalistas, e investigadores que trabajan en el campo de las ciencias sociales de la salud. En este momento, les corresponde a los científicos sociales que han estudiado y enseñado en el complejo campo de la salud, quienes deben diseñar caminos políticos, teóricos y enfoques metodológicos que logren el reconocimiento de este trabajo, tanto institucional como académico, en los campos de las ciencias de la vida y de las ciencias sociales.

    The presence of social science disciplines such as anthropology and sociology is recent in the health field, not only in Brazil and Latin America, but more generally in Europe. In the second half of the twentieth century science of the humanities such as philosophy, politics and anthropology and sociology, began to address issues related to life, health and disease and death, differently to the first historical approaches. In Latin America, in the late seventies, was a lot of social movement theory, political and professional, called collective health in Brazil, consisting of medical doctors, political activists in Elath field, including trade unionists, and researchers working in the social sciences of health. At

  5. Landowners' Perspectives on Coordinated, Landscape-Level Invasive Species Control: The Role of Social and Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Pech, Roger P.; Norbury, Grant L.; Byrom, Andrea E.

    2017-03-01

    To achieve biodiversity gains, landowner engagement in coordinated invasive species control programs across private lands is needed. Understanding landowners' perspectives toward such coordinated control efforts is crucial to facilitating engagement. We conducted in person and mail surveys of 68 landowners in and adjacent to the area of a proposed invasive predator control program in New Zealand. We find that, similar to previous studies, landowners consider the potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits of invasive species control and express a strong desire to enhance native biodiversity. However, we also find that landowners take into account the complexity of the local social and ecological context in which a program will unfold in three ways: they consider (1) the level of contribution by other landowners and urban residents who are benefiting from collective control efforts; (2) the potential for the program to upset the local "ecological balance", leading to increases in other pests; and (3) the probability that the program will be successful given the likelihood of others participating and control tactics being effective. We suggest that managers of coordinated invasive species control efforts may benefit from devoting time and resources toward addressing beliefs about social and ecological context, rather than solely providing financial subsidies and information about control tactics or the impacts of invasive species.

  6. Aldo Leopold's land health from a resilience point of view: self-renewal capacity of social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Fikret; Doubleday, Nancy C; Cumming, Graeme S

    2012-09-01

    Health approaches to ecology have a strong basis in Aldo Leopold's thinking, and contemporary ecohealth in turn has a strong philosophical basis in Leopold. To commemorate the 125th anniversary of Leopold's birth (1887-1948), we revisit his ideas, specifically the notions of stewardship (land ethic), productive use of ecosystems (land), and ecosystem renewal. We focus on Leopold's perspective on the self-renewal capacity of the land, as understood in terms of integrity and land health, from the contemporary perspective of resilience theory and ecological theory more generally. Using a broad range of literature, we explore insights and implications of Leopold's work for today's human-environment relationships (integrated social-ecological systems), concerns for biodiversity, the development of agency with respect to stewardship, and key challenges of his time and of ours. Leopold's seminal concept of land health can be seen as a triangulation of productive use, self-renewal, and stewardship, and it can be reinterpreted through the resilience lens as the health of social-ecological systems. In contemporary language, this involves the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the ability to exercise agency both for conservation and for environmental justice.

  7. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Serrano, Maria del Mar; Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Vanwildemeersch, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers...... with medium or strong influence but low dependence. The use of ancestral knowledge (Colombia), the history of land use (Mexico), and the history of the artisanal fishery (Argentina) were all perceived as common challenges to community-based natural resource management. In terms of social-ecological resilience......, framed within the three-dimensional model of the adaptive cycle, all three social-ecological systems were considered to be highly connected and resilient but with different degrees of capacity or cumulative potential....

  8. Theorizing benefits and constraints in collaborative environmental governance: a transdisciplinary social-ecological network approach for empirical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Bodin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When environmental processes cut across socioeconomic boundaries, traditional top-down government approaches struggle to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems. In such cases, governance arrangements that foster multiactor collaboration are needed. The effectiveness of such arrangements, however, depends on how well any ecological interdependencies across governed ecosystems are aligned with patterns of collaboration. This inherent interdisciplinary and complex problem has impeded progress in developing a better understanding of how to govern ecosystems for conservation in an increasingly interconnected world. We argue for the development of empirically informed theories, which are not only able to transcend disciplinary boundaries, but are also explicit in taking these complex social-ecological interdependences into account. We show how this emerging research frontier can be significantly improved by incorporating recent advances in stochastic modeling of multilevel social networks. An empirical case study from an agricultural landscape in Madagascar is reanalyzed to demonstrate these improvements.

  9. Civil society actors as drivers of socio-ecological transition?: Green spaces in European cities as laboratories of social innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Schicklinski, Judith

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 102, 81 pages Why are civil society dynamics concerning green spaces across European cities so interesting for socio-ecological transition? All over Europe self-organized civil society movements are emerging to tackle local challenges, becoming active players in local governance processes. These social experiments have even been intensified as a result of tight public local budgets. Their activities contribute to the functioning and well-being of a European soci...

  10. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  11. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

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    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  12. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations.

  13. Exploring Dimensions, Scales, and Cross-scale Dynamics from the Perspectives of Change Agents in Social-ecological Systems.

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    Joost M. Vervoort

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of scale play a crucial role in the governance of social-ecological systems. Yet, attempts to bridge interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of scale have thus far largely been limited to the science arena. This study has extended the scale vocabulary to allow for the inclusion of practice-based perspectives on scale. We introduced "dimensions," used to describe the bare aspects of phenomena, such as time, space, and power, structured by scales and levels. We argued that this extension allows for a clearer understanding of the diversity of dimensions and scales that can be used to explore social-ecological systems. We used this scale vocabulary in a practical case study to elicit perspectives on dimensions, scales, and cross-dimensional dynamics from change agents in Dutch social-ecological systems. Through a visual interview method based in the extended scale vocabulary, our participants identified a large diversity of dimensions they saw as instrumental to understanding insights and lessons about effecting systems change. These dimensions were framed by a large number of scales to describe cross-dimensional interactions. The results illustrate the value of practice-based perspectives for the development of scale theory. We also argue that the introduction of dimensions in the scale vocabulary is useful for clarifying scale theory aimed at linking different disciplines and sectors, and that the framework and methods based on it can also provide clarity for practical scale challenges.

  14. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  15. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  16. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nykiforuk, Candace

    2013-10-01

    This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social) and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  17. Climate-induced community relocations: using integrated social-ecological assessments to foster adaptation and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bronen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events coupled with sea level rise and erosion will cause coastal and riverine areas where people live and maintain livelihoods to disappear permanently. Adaptation to these environmental changes, including the permanent relocation of millions of people, requires new governance tools. In the USA, local governments, often with state-level and national-level support, will be primarily responsible for protecting residents from climate-change impacts and implementing policies needed to protect their welfare. Government agencies have a variety of tools to facilitate protection in place and managed coastal retreat but have very limited tools to facilitate community relocation. In addition, no institutional mechanism currently exists to determine whether and when preventive relocation needs to occur to protect people from climate change impacts. Based on research involving four Alaska Native communities threatened by climate-induced environmental impacts, I propose the design and implementation of an adaptive governance framework to respond to the need to relocate populations. In this context, adaptive governance means the ability of institutions to dynamically respond to climate change impacts. A component of this adaptive governance framework is a social-ecological monitoring and assessment tool that can facilitate collaborative knowledge production by community residents and governance institutions to guide sustainable adaptation strategies and determine whether and when relocation needs to occur. The framework, including the monitoring and assessment tool, has not been systematically tested. However, the potential use of this tool is discussed by drawing on empirical examples of Alaskan communities faced with accelerating rates of erosion.

  18. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

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    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  19. Political ecology in Latin America: nature’s social reapropriation and the reinvention of territories

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    Carlos Walter Porto-Gonçalves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American environmental thinking/action has been growing with/against the fundamentals from the Eurocentric rationality matrix. This tradition has in the present geopolitics the sustainable development as its new colonization/exploration form. With/against it, a creative and critical series of answers corresponds to this matrix, with the protagonism of peasants, indigenous peoples and African Americans, based in their local/regional struggles. In the post 1960 geopolitical context, these peoples obtain conditions to express themselves in an international scale, including the ecological and technological vectors. In the climate-botanical natural domains that, formed since the end of the last glaciation, evolved to our present geographies, the original populations developed a rich estate of knowledge, built in one with and not against the nature relationship that, like the biological megadiversity, is a patrimony of Latin America and mankind that must be taken into account in the public policies. In their new political/theoretical lexicon they speak about decolonization, interculturality, transmodernity; a juristic pluralism that respects the rights of the peoples, consuetudinary, not more only the law based on individual liberal principles and the private property. Besides the struggles involving water, mining and big development projects, a series of rich and original sustainability experiences emerge: Extractive Reservations, the Yasuny National Park; the constitutional Rights of Nature in Bolivia and Ecuador; the Plurinational State; the Buen Vivir, Suma Qamaña and Suma Kausay: ideas for a new political agenda, a rich natural and cultural estate that serve to us as landmarks for the reinvention of our existence. Accordingly, the Territory, Territorialities and Territorialization concepts allow to understand the relationships between nature and society, the kernel of the environmental problematic, revealing that it is the Nature

  20. Resilience Management in Social-ecological Systems: a Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach

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    Jon Norberg

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The ability to do this is termed “resilience.” This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders. It begins with a stakeholder-led development of a conceptual model of the system, including its historical profile (how it got to be what it is and preliminary assessments of the drivers of the supply of key ecosystem goods and services. Step 2 deals with identifying the range of unpredictable and uncontrollable drivers, stakeholder visions for the future, and contrasting possible future policies, weaving these three factors into a limited set of future scenarios. Step 3 uses the outputs from steps 1 and 2 to explore the SES for resilience in an iterative way. It generally includes the development of simple models of the system’s dynamics for exploring attributes that affect resilience. Step 4 is a stakeholder evaluation of the process and outcomes in terms of policy and management implications. This approach to resilience analysis is illustrated using two stylized examples.

  1. A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases

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    Jochen Hinkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS and resource units (RU, which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however, remains a challenge. Reasons for this are that case studies examine other types of RS than those for which the framework has been developed or consider RS for which different actors obtain different kinds of RU. We explore these difficulties and relate them to antecedent work on common-pool resources and public goods. We propose a diagnostic procedure which resolves some of these difficulties by establishing a sequence of questions that facilitate the step-wise and unambiguous application of the SES framework to a given case. The questions relate to the actors benefiting from the SES, the collective goods involved in the generation of those benefits, and the action situations in which the collective goods are provided and appropriated. We illustrate the diagnostic procedure for four case studies in the context of irrigated agriculture in New Mexico, common property meadows in the Swiss Alps, recreational fishery in Germany, and energy regions in Austria. We conclude that the current SES framework has limitations when applied to complex, multiuse SES, because it does not sufficiently capture the actor interdependencies introduced through RS and RU characteristics and dynamics.

  2. Environmental education model for the resistance reef and social-ecological system in Thousand Islands, Jakarta

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    Samadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the environmental education model that fit the needs of the implementation of environmental education in the context of environmental sustainability and social and ecological systems of coral reefs in Kepulauan Seribu DKI Jakarta, and to develop learning tools that are relevant. The experiment was conducted in Pari Island, District of Kepulauan Seribu Selatan, Administrative District of Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta Province. The study was conducted over 16 months, since the month of March to July in 2012, and continued in the month of February-December 2013.This study used a qualitative approach through the development of research methods. Characteristics of the study objectives include students' knowledge of environmental issues, strategies student action in the form of understanding and positive attitudes towards the environment. Samples were students in Grades IV Elementary School of Satu Atap in Pari Island, through purposive sampling technique. Based on the expert assessment, syllabus and teaching materials in this research is considered feasible. Validity of the research instruments is valid. Reliability of the instrument is based Cronsbach’s Alpha of 0.05 produces highly reliable data (instrument reliability of 0.951.The results showed that the condition of coral reefs is still relatively good. However, the presence of a growing population and increasing tourists feared further lead to damage and environmental pollution around the coast, especially the low education and environmental awareness of local residents. In the trials of teaching materials to small groups of students obtained the result that the readiness to accept an otherwise good lesson, but when students answer questions related to the subject matter teachers and the student activity was relatively still asking less. In trials to large groups, excellent student readiness, ability students are able to also excellent. This increase is

  3. Successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil: social and environmental context, policies, interventions, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Teixeira, M Gloria; Bastos, Francisco I; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Barata, Rita B; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2011-05-28

    Despite pronounced reductions in the number of deaths due to infectious diseases over the past six decades, infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. In this report, we discuss the major successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil, and identify research needs and policies to further improve control or interrupt transmission. Control of diseases such as cholera, Chagas disease, and those preventable by vaccination has been successful through efficient public policies and concerted efforts from different levels of government and civil society. For these diseases, policies dealt with key determinants (eg, the quality of water and basic sanitation, vector control), provided access to preventive resources (such as vaccines), and successfully integrated health policies with broader social policies. Diseases for which control has failed (such as dengue fever and visceral leishmaniasis) are vector-borne diseases with changing epidemiological profiles and major difficulties in treatment (in the case of dengue fever, no treatment is available). Diseases for which control has been partly successful have complex transmission patterns related to adverse environmental, social, economic, or unknown determinants; are sometimes transmitted by insect vectors that are difficult to control; and are mostly chronic diseases with long infectious periods that require lengthy periods of treatment.

  4. The role of social resource of indigenous people in local ecological resource management in China: A preliminary case in Zhangye, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Social resources of indigenous people are valuable wealth, including the social norms, the relational network, belief, attitude as well as the social system which is accumulated from generation to generation. Those social resources are very important for local ecological resource management, which can help diffuseness and communion of skills and traditional conservation techniques for conserving and restoring the ecological sites. Social capital is one indicator of social resources, which is accepted widely. In order to investigate the role of social resources of indigenous people in local ecological resource management, the authors studied the relation between social capital of indigenous people and local ecological resource management, taking Zhangye City as an exam-ple. In this paper, social capital of indigenous people is quantified by constructing social capital index, composed of structural so-cial capital and cognitive social capital; local ecological resource management is quantified by constructing "Grain for Green Pro-ject" performance index. Based on correlation analysis approach and logistic regression analysis approach, the authors analyzed the relation between social capital and "Grain for Green Project" performance index, as well as the relations between "Grain for Green Project" performance index and other factors such as per capita net income, medical treatment and so on. Results showed that the correlation between social capital and "Grain for Green Project" performance index was positive, the coefficient was 0.761, with P<0.01. An increase of 1 unit in social capital is associated with an increase of 1.550 units in "Grain for Green Project" per-formance. With factor, such as faction, per capita net income, medical treatment, increasing 1 unit, the "Grain for Green Project" performance index will increase 3.912, 1.039 and 1.005 units, respectively.

  5. Contextualization of the superior courses of environment in Brazil: environmental engineering, sanitary engineering, ecology, technicians and sequences

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    Gerson Araújo de Medeiros,

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of superior courses related to the environmental area has increased surprisingly in Brazil in the last decade and in the beginning of the 21st century, situation possibly stimulated by the policy of increase of the superior education, courses, and offered vacancies propagated by the Education Ministry in the last years as well as by the increasing environmental preoccupation and the consequent addition in the search for qualified professionals in this area. In this context, new undergraduation courses in Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management have emerged to form professionals with similar habilitation to other already established professions such as the sanitary engineer and the ecologist as well as the other traditional professionals (engineers, geologists, biologists, geographers, chemist. Because of that, there is, currently, a very offensive discussion in the organs of the class, at the education institutes, and in the general society about the area of actuation of the professionals that works in the environmental area. In the present article it is shown a data survey about superior courses (graduation, technology or sequences of environment in Brazil as well as the norms and legislations that regulate the performance of these professionals. The aim is to analyze the basic questions related to each course, and to work as subsidy to further analyses and discussions.

  6. Wicked Social-Ecological Problems Forcing Unprecedented Change on the Latitudinal Margins of Coral Reefs: the Case of Southwest Madagascar

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    J. Henrich. Bruggemann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude coral reefs may be a refuge and area of reef expansion under climate change. As these locations are expected to become dryer and as livestock and agricultural yields decline, coastal populations may become increasingly dependent on marine resources. To evaluate this social-ecological conundrum, we examined the Grand Récif of Toliara (GRT, southwest Madagascar, which was intensively studied in the 1960s and has been highly degraded since the 1980s. We analyzed the social and ecological published and unpublished literature on this region and provide new data to assess the magnitude of the changes and evaluate the causes of reef degradation. Top-down controls were identified as the major drivers: human population growth and migrations, overfishing, and climate change, specifically decreased rainfall and rising temperature. Water quality has not changed since originally studied, and bottom-up control was ruled out. The identified network of social-ecological processes acting at different scales implies that decision makers will face complex problems that are linked to broader social, economic, and policy issues. This characterizes wicked problems, which are often dealt with by partial solutions that are exploratory and include inputs from various stakeholders along with information sharing, knowledge synthesis, and trust building. A hybrid approach based on classical fishery management options and preferences, along with monitoring, feedback and forums for searching solutions, could move the process of adaptation forward once an adaptive and appropriately scaled governance system is functioning. This approach has broad implications for resources management given the emerging climate change and multiple social and environmental stresses.

  7. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  8. Ecology of endoparasites of the fluvial stingray Potamotrygon falkneri (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    ACF. Lacerda

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the ecological relationships between endoparasites and the host Potamotrygon falkneri from the upper Paraná River by using as indicators the host's relative condition factor (Kn, sex and hepatosomatic relation (HSR. Forty-seven specimens of P. falkneri were analyzed between March 2005 and September 2006. Statistical analysis showed that the Kn was positively correlated with the abundance of Acanthobothrium regoi and Rhinebothrium paratrygoni; only the abundance of A. regoi was positively correlated to the HSR, whereas R. paratrygoni did not present correlation and there was no influence of the host's sex on the abundance and prevalence of parasites. This is the first study concerning the ecology of parasites of potamotrygonids.

  9. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo,Alfredo C. R.; Sérgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurício L. Vilela; Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1993-01-01

    In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species...

  10. Social attention with real versus reel stimuli: toward an empirical approach to concerns about ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Laidlaw, Kaitlin; Freeth, Megan; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists often study social cognition by using simple but socially relevant stimuli, such as schematic faces or images of other people. Whilst this research is valuable, important aspects of genuine social encounters are absent from these studies, a fact that has recently drawn criticism. In the present review we argue for an empirical approach to the determination of the equivalence of different social stimuli. This approach involves the systematic comparison of different types of social stimuli ranging in their approximation to a real social interaction. In garnering support for this cognitive ethological approach, we focus on recent research in social attention that has involved stimuli ranging from simple schematic faces to real social interactions. We highlight both meaningful similarities and differences in various social attentional phenomena across these different types of social stimuli thus validating the utility of the research initiative. Furthermore, we argue that exploring these similarities and differences will provide new insights into social cognition and social neuroscience.

  11. Linking Bayesian and Agent-Based Models to Simulate Complex Social-Ecological Systems in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Gimblett, R.

    2013-12-01

    Interdependencies of ecologic, hydrologic, and social systems challenge traditional approaches to natural resource management in semi-arid regions. As a complex social-ecological system, water demands in the Sonoran Desert from agricultural and urban users often conflicts with water needs for its ecologically-significant riparian corridors. To explore this system, we developed an agent-based model to simulate complex feedbacks between human decisions and environmental conditions. Cognitive mapping in conjunction with stakeholder participation produced a Bayesian model of conditional probabilities of local human decision-making processes resulting to changes in water demand. Probabilities created in the Bayesian model were incorporated into the agent-based model, so that each agent had a unique probability to make a positive decision based on its perceived environment at each point in time and space. By using a Bayesian approach, uncertainty in the human decision-making process could be incorporated. The spatially-explicit agent-based model simulated changes in depth-to-groundwater by well pumping based on an agent's water demand. Depth-to-groundwater was then used as an indicator of unique vegetation guilds within the riparian corridor. Each vegetation guild provides varying levels of ecosystem services, the changes of which, along with changes in depth-to-groundwater, feedback to influence agent behavior. Using this modeling approach allowed us to examine resilience of semi-arid riparian corridors and agent behavior under various scenarios. The insight provided by the model contributes to understanding how specific interventions may alter the complex social-ecological system in the future.

  12. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  13. Social media and the transformation of activist communication: exploring the social media ecology of the 2010 Toronto G20 protests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Poell

    2013-01-01

    How does the massive use of social media in contemporary protests affect the character of activist communication? Moving away from the conceptualization of social media as tools, this research explores how activist social media communication is entangled with and shaped by heterogeneous techno-cultu

  14. Social media and the transformation of activist communication: exploring the social media ecology of the 2010 Toronto G20 protests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.

    2014-01-01

    How does the massive use of social media in contemporary protests affect the character of activist communication? Moving away from the conceptualization of social media as tools, this research explores how activist social media communication is entangled with and shaped by heterogeneous techno-cultu

  15. A social ecological approach to investigating relationships between housing and adaptive functioning for persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Bret; Shah, Seema

    2009-12-01

    This paper seeks to advance mental health-housing research regarding which factors of housing and neighborhood environments are critical for adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Housing and neighborhood environments are particularly important for persons with SMI because of the prevalence of poor housing conditions among this population. Most mental health-housing research has been limited by a focus on problems in environments and functioning. The paper seeks to expand the mental health-housing research agenda to consider protective factors that promote community integration and adaptive functioning. We provide an account of how social ecology theory transformed a research program, from examining individual risk factors to investigating the functioning of persons in the contexts of their housing and neighborhood experiences. The resulting housing environment framework-physical aspects of housing and neighborhoods, social environment of neighborhoods, and interpersonal relationships tied to housing-allows for identification of opportunities for health promotion and facilitation of participation in community-based settings. This program of research draws upon several methods to understand the social experience of persons with SMI living in community settings-survey research, qualitative interviews, Geographic Information Systems, participatory research, and visual ethnography. In this paper, we present how social ecology theory was instrumental in the development of new housing environment measures, the selection of appropriate research methods, and framing research questions that are building a new empirical base of knowledge about promoting adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with SMI living in community settings.

  16. Inpatient care of the elderly in Brazil and India: assessing social inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Andrew Amos; Andrade, Monica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya; Leone, Tiziana; Dilip, T R

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly growing older adult populations in Brazil and India present major challenges for health systems in these countries, especially with regard to the equitable provision of inpatient care. The objective of this study was to contrast inequalities in both the receipt of inpatient care and the length of time that care was received among adults aged over 60 in two large countries with different modes of health service delivery. Using the Brazilian National Household Survey from 2003 and the Indian National Sample Survey Organisation survey from 2004 inequalities by wealth (measured by income in Brazil and consumption in India) were assessed using concentration curves and indices. Inequalities were also examined through the use of zero-truncated negative binomial models, studying differences in receipt of care and length of stay by region, health insurance, education and reported health status. Results indicated that there was no evidence of inequality in Brazil for both receipt and length of stay by income per capita. However, in India there was a pro-rich bias in the receipt of care, although once care was received there was no difference by consumption per capita for the length of stay. In both countries the higher educated and those with health insurance were more likely to receive care, while the higher educated had longer stays in hospital in Brazil. The health system reforms that have been undertaken in Brazil could be credited as a driver for reducing healthcare inequalities amongst the elderly, while the significant differences by wealth in India shows that reform is still needed to ensure the poor have access to inpatient care. Health reforms that move towards a more public funding model of service delivery in India may reduce inequality in elderly inpatient care in the country.

  17. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  18. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado da Silva, Alba Valéria; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  19. Energy balance in the Cerrado of Ecological Station of Assis – Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Xavier Fernandes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the net radiation partitioning (Rn between latent heat (LE and sensible heat fluxes (H and its relationship with water availability (rain in an area with Cerrado vegetation in the state São Paulo, Brazil. Heat fluxes follow the energy standard available in the environment, with higher values during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. However, in the dry season, increased sensible heat flux over the latent heat flux was observed, which could be due to the lower water availability in the environment. Similar studies that have examined the dynamics of natural systems can contribute to the development of public policies for preservation and conservation of natural resources in a context in which the man-nature relationship is marked by imbalances in view of the form of use of natural resources based on predatory model adopted by society over the past 200 years.

  20. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  1. Social-Ecological, Motivational and Volitional Factors for Initiating and Maintaining Physical Activity in the Context of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Clemens; Barrio, María Rato; Leach, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Sport and exercise can have several health benefits for people living with HIV. These benefits can be achieved through different types of physical activity, adapting to disease progression, motivation and social-ecological options. However, physical activity levels and adherence to exercise are generally low in people living with HIV. At the same time, high drop-out rates in intervention studies are prevalent; even though they often entail more favourable conditions than interventions in the natural settings. Thus, in the framework of an intervention study, the present study aims to explore social-ecological, motivational and volitional correlates of South African women living with HIV with regard to physical activity and participation in a sport and exercise health promotion programme. The qualitative data was produced in the framework of a non-randomised pre-post intervention study that evaluated structure, processes and outcomes of a 10-week sport and exercise programme. All 25 participants of the programme were included in this analysis, independent of compliance. Data was produced through questionnaires, participatory group discussions, body image pictures, research diaries and individual semi-structured interviews. All participants lived in a low socioeconomic, disadvantaged setting. Hence, the psychological correlates are contextualised and social-ecological influences on perception and behaviour are discussed. The results show the importance of considering social-cultural and environmental influences on individual motives, perceptions and expectancies, the fear of disclosure and stigmatisation, sport and exercise-specific group dynamics and self-supporting processes. Opportunities and strategies to augment physical activity and participation in sport and exercise programmes in the context of HIV are discussed.

  2. Social deprivation index and lymphatic filariasis: a tool for mapping urban areas at risk in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Cristine; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Pedroza, Dinilson; Costa, Tadeu Rodrigues; Portugal, José Luiz; Oliveira, Conceição; Medeiros, Zulma

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of a social deprivation index that was created to explore the relationship between lymphatic filariasis and socioenvironmental variables in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil, thereby contributing towards identifying priority areas for interventions. This indicator was obtained from principal-component factor analysis. Variables available from the national census representing socioenvironmental conditions, household characteristics and urban services were used. Epidemiological data came from a parasitological survey on lymphatic filariasis. 23 673 individuals were examined and 323 were positive (1.4%). Two factors that together explained 80.61% of the total variance were selected. The social deprivation strata were capable of indicating a risk gradient, with 74.9% of the microfilaremia cases situated in the high-risk stratum. Principal-component factor analysis was shown to be sensitive for selecting indicators associated with the risk of lymphatic filariasis transmission and for detecting areas potentially at risk. The capacity of the social deprivation index for picking up social inequalities qualifies it as a new tool for use in planning interventions aimed at controlling lymphatic filariasis in urban spaces.

  3. Outras famílias: a construção social da conjugalidade homossexual no Brasil Different families: the social construction of homosexual conjugality in Brazil

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    Luiz Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre a construção social da conjugalidade homossexual no Brasil contemporâneo, especialmente no âmbito do Poder Legislativo, espaço privilegiado de discussão acerca do projeto de lei que institui a parceria civil entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. A análise dos elementos estruturantes nos embates ideológicos decorrentes das disputas em torno do reconhecimento social e jurídico das uniões homossexuais como entidades familiares, também é perpassada por discursos originários da Igreja Católica e de representantes da população homossexual.This article presents some reflections on the social construction of homosexual conjugality in contemporary Brazil, particularly concerning the Legislative sphere - where most of the debate on the law project for civil partnership between people of the same sex has taken place. The main objective is to analyze the structuring elements of the ideological struggles stemming from the disputes around the social and juridical recognition of homosexual unions as familial entities. The discourses that come from the Catholic Church and those of homosexual representatives are also given priority in the analysis.

  4. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

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    Alfredo C. R. de Azevedo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species captured of man forming 60.30% of the total catch. L. richarwardi was the most frequent at ground level (29.9%, while L. umbratilis predominated in the canopy (48.5%.

  5. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  6. The effect of networked social interactions on the attainability of the safe operating space in a stylized social-ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfuss, Wolfram; Donges, Jonathan; Wiedermann, Marc; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Humanity depends on the resources ecosystems provide. Especially in the last century, human activities have changed the relationship between nature and society at a global scale. Here, we study this interdependent relationship with a generic model of the coevolution of individual resource use and social preference formation. The latter is an adaptive network process based on two social key interactions beyond economic paradigms: imitation and homophily. The individual resources follow a logistically growing stock harvested with either a sustainable (small) or non-sustainable (large) effort. We are able to show that these kinds of social processes can have a profound influence on environmental state, such as determining whether the regional renewable resources collapse from overuse or not. We demonstrate additionally that heterogeneously distributed resource capacities among the nodes of the network shift the critical social parameters where this resource extraction system collapses. We make these points to argue that, in more elaborate and sophisticated implementations, such social phenomena as well as heterogeneities should receive attention in social-ecological systems models as well as Earth system and integrated assessment models. It is a necessary first step to better understand the underlying dynamics and interactions of planetary boundaries and the safe and just operating space for humanity.

  7. Reconfiguring and Remediating Social Media as Alternative Media: Exploring Youth Activists’ Digital Media Ecology in El Salvador

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    Summer Harlow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio de caso etnográfico examinó cómo el grupo de activistas ju- veniles salvadoreños, Activista, incorporó los medios de comunicación so - ciales en su ecología de medios. El análisis reveló cuatro temas principales: los medios de comunicación social como medios alternativos; la relación entre Facebook y la visibilidad, la legitimidad y la comunidad; una brecha de los medios de comunicación social; y los desafíos de la brecha digital y una falta de estrategia de medios sociales. Este estudio mostró cómo, a pe- sar de las desigualdades digitales, Activista reconfiguró y remedió las herra - mientas digitales y analógicas y las tácticas, reconfigurando y remediando así su relación con los periodistas y los usuarios de los medios sociales en general. Finalmente, Activista logró utilizar los medios sociales como un modelo de comunicación multidimensional, hibridizado y mediado, con- tribuyendo a nuestra comprensión de la hipermediación y la forma en la que lo digital y lo analógico trabajan juntos en una cultura de medios del movimiento social en un país dividido digitalmente.

  8. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Casanova, Cláudio; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  9. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  10. At risk of population decline? An ecological and genetic approach to the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha (Arecaceae) of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Maurício S

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the risk of population decline for the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha, we investigated the patterns of demography, natural regeneration, herbivory, and the levels of genetic diversity using 9 microsatellite loci from both adults and seedlings sampled from 4 populations in Southern Brazil (n = 330). Our results indicate that cattle grazing in B. eriospatha population areas severely affect their demographic structure. Three B. eriospatha populations showed a bimodal age structure made up of adult plants and seedlings and high rates (>77%) of livestock herbivory. For 1 population, we describe and quantify for the first time the occurrence of 6 ontogenetic stages for this threatened palm species. Populations of B. eriospatha showed high levels of genetic differentiation (F ST adult plants = 0.287, F ST seedlings = 0.175). The amount of observed heterozygosity differed significantly between small (H O = 0.329) and large populations (H O = 0.461), indicating that small populations can be more susceptible to genetic drift. With no recruitment and a mortality rate of 2.0%, we show that the populations investigated in this study would be at an extremely high risk of local extinction, with a greater than 50% reduction in the effective population size, in the next 40 years. Although this study highlights the importance of analyzing both population ecology parameters and genetic data to better understand the level of risk facing threatened species, we emphasize that policy actions are urgently needed for effective conservation of this vulnerable biological resource.

  11. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  12. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, G C; Baldassin, P; Gallo, H; Silva, R J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species), found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species), both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species.

  13. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  14. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  15. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

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    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  16. A method to determine the spatial allocation standard of social ecological compensation%社会生态补偿标准测算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Hongye; ZHANG Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    @@%Ecological compensation is a hot subject in academic studies,and the determination of the spatial allocation of compensation payments is a key point in the research of ecological compensation.There are two kinds of thoughts in the determination of regional spatial allocation at present:"evaluation of ecological construction cost" and "evaluation of ecosystem services value".This paper analyzes the relationships between social ecological compensation and regional socio-economic development,and establishes two econometric models with the data of 2007 from various provinces in China.Through these models,the impacts of geographical endowments on the regional socio-economic development in various provinces are analyzed from the social justice viewpoint and the concept of "equivalent value of geographical endowments" (EGE for short) is proposed.This paper analyzes the application prospect of EGE in the policy making of regional ecological compensation.The results showed that:(1) the implementation of social ecological compensation is not only an effective guarantee for each region to obtain the equal rights of survival,development and decent environment,but also an essential assurance to the coordinated,balanced and sustainable development among various regions; (2) the regional difference in geographical endowments is an important factor affecting the regional spatial variation of socio-economic development.Therefore,geographical endowments are important bases for the determination of the spatial allocation of compensation payments in social ecological compensation; (3) based on the EGE,the government can determine the spatial allocation of social ecological compensation scientifically,and avoid the "sweeping approach" phenomenon in the policy making process of ecological compensation.

  17. Social ecology of asthma: engaging stakeholders in integrating health behavior theories and practice-based evidence through systems mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Emily M; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B; Hernandez, Michelle L; Smith, Timothy W; Lewis, Megan A

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering a systematic approach to bring together stakeholders across multiple domains. In this process we create a diagram using constructs from multiple health behavior theories at all levels of the social ecological framework as variables in causal loop diagrams. The goal of this process is to elucidate the reciprocal relationships between explanatory factors at various levels of the social ecological framework that render so many public health problems intractable. To illustrate, we detail a theory-based, replicable process for creating a qualitative diagram to enrich understanding of caregiver and provider behavior around adherence to pediatric asthma action plans. We describe how such diagramming can serve as the foundation for translating evidence into practice to address real-world challenges. Key insights gained include recognition of the complex, multilevel factors affecting whether, and how effectively, parents/caregivers and medical providers co-create an asthma action plan, and important "feedback" dynamics at play that can support or derail ongoing collaboration. Although this article applies this method to asthma action plan adherence in children, the method and resulting diagrams are applicable and adaptable to other health behaviors requiring continuous, daily action.

  18. [The unbearable lightness of aluminum: the social and environmental impacts of Brazil's insertion in the primary aluminum global market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Alen Batista; Porto, Marcelo Firpo Souza

    2013-11-01

    This article assesses aluminum production in Brazil and its social, environmental and public health impacts. The effects of the aluminum production chain challenge the idea of sustainable growth affirmed by business groups that operate in the sector. This article upholds the theory that the insertion of Brazil in the global aluminum market is part of a new configuration of the International Division of Labor (IDL), the polluting economic and highly energy dependent activities of which - as is the case of aluminum - have been moving to peripheral nations or emerging countries. The laws in such countries are less stringent, and similarly the environmental movements and the claims of the affected populations in the territories prejudiced in their rights to health, a healthy environment and culture are less influential. The competitiveness of this commodity is guaranteed in the international market, from the production of external factors such as environmental damage, deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases and scenarios of environmental injustice. This includes undertakings in the construction of hydroelectric dams that expose traditional communities to situations involving the loss of their territories.

  19. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Eliza M. X. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be linked to different thermal needs between age groups owing to differences in body size. Body temperatures were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Most teiid species have elevated body temperatures, usually above 37oC, and are active during the hottest times of day, as was observed for A. ameiva in this study. Seasonality influenced habitat use and daily activity periods of adults, but not body temperatures. We verified annual fluctuations in adult abundance, with a decline of active lizards in the dry season; this phenomenon may be related to aestivation and/or increased mortality rate during the driest months.

  20. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  1. Body size, reproduction and feeding ecology of Pleurodema diplolister (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae from Caatinga, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil

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    José Guilherme G. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data about body size, sexual dimorphism, reproductive traits and diet ecology of Pleurodoma diplolister. This species is sexually dimorphic with females larger than males, corroborating others Leiuperidae species. The number of eggs varied from 62 to 1241 and we found a positive relationship between SVL of females and number of mature ovarian eggs but there is no relationship between SVL and volume of eggs. The diet of P. diplolister was composed by 11 categories of which Formicidae, Coleoptera and Orthopterans were the most important items and showed generalist and oportunistic predator habits. Data presented here should be considered in the development of future conservation strategies of anurans from Caatinga biome and other semiarid/arid environments.

  2. Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: a case study of jaguars (Panthera onca in Emas National Park, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thannya Nascimento Soares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed for domestic cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother's genotypes for some of the loci, 10000 values of W were derived by simulation procedures. The male that killed the two cubs was assigned as the true sire. Although the reasons for this behavior remain obscure, it shows, in principle, a low recognition of paternity and kinship in the species. Since the two cubs were not very young, one possibility is that the adult male did not recognize the cubs and killed them for simple territorial reasons. Thus, ecological stress in this local population becomes a very plausible explanation for this infanticide, without further sociobiological implications.

  3. Interplay of multiple goods, ecosystem services, and property rights in large social-ecological marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a cornerstone of biodiversity conservation, and increasingly, conservation science is integrating ecological and social considerations in park management. Indeed, both social and ecological factors need to be considered to understand processes that lead to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we use a social-ecological systems lens to examine changes in governance through time in an extensive regional protected area network, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. We studied the peer-reviewed and nonpeer-reviewed literature to develop an understanding of governance of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and its management changes through time. In particular, we examined how interacting and changing property rights, as designated by the evolving marine protected area network and other institutional changes (e.g., fisheries management, defined multiple goods and ecosystem services and altered who could benefit from them. The rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 2004 substantially altered the types and distribution of property rights and associated benefits from ecosystem goods and services. Initially, common-pool resources were enjoyed as common and private benefits at the expense of public goods (overexploited fisheries and reduced biodiversity and ecosystem health. The rezoning redefined the available goods and benefits and who could benefit, prioritizing public goods and benefits (i.e., biodiversity conservation, and inducing private costs (through reduced fishing. We also found that the original conceptualization of the step-wise progression of property rights from user to owner oversimplifies property rights based on its division into operational and collective-choice rule-making levels. Instead, we suggest that a diversity of available management tools implemented simultaneously can result in interactions that are seldom fully captured by the original conceptualization of the bundling of property rights

  4. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: Observing, Understanding, and Predicting Social-Ecological Change in the Far North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kimball, J. S.; Boelman, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the high northern latitudes, climate is warming more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, transforming vulnerable arctic tundra and boreal forest landscapes. These changes are altering the structure and function of energy, water and carbon cycles, producing significant feedbacks to regional and global climate through changes in energy, water and carbon cycles. These changes are also challenging local and global society. At the local level, communities seek to adapt to new social-ecological regimes. At the global level, changing arctic and boreal systems are increasing becoming the focus of policy discussions at all levels of decision-making. National and international scientific efforts associated with a new NASA field campaign, the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABOVE) will advance our ability to observe, understand and predict the complex, multiscale and non-linear processes that are confronting the natural and social systems in this rapidly changing region. Over the next decade, the newly assembled ABOVE Science Team will pursue this overarching question: "How vulnerable or resilient are ecosystems and society to environmental change in the Arctic and boreal region of western North America?" Through integration of remote sensing and in situ observations with modeling of both ecological and social systems, the ABOVE Science Team will advance an interdisciplinary understanding of the Far North. In this presentation, we will discuss the conceptual basis for the ABOVE Field Campaign, describe Science Team composition and timeline, and update the community on activities. In addition, we will reflect on the visionary role of Dr. Diane Wickland, retired NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program Manager and lead of the Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Focus Area, in the development and commencement of ABOVE.

  5. Quality of life, social position and occupational groups in Brazil: evidence from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Sorio Flor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether occupation, variable that reflects social position, is associated with good quality of life among Brazilians. It is a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from a population-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2008. The sample composed of 12,423 Brazilians, older than 20 years. Physical and mental quality of life were both measured by SF-36 and scores were grouped in "above the mean" and "below the mean" to set binary outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to verify the impact of occupational position on the chances of better physical and mental quality of life, controlling it by socio-demographic and health variables. Results showed that Brazilians included on the labour market have better chances of a good physical and mental quality of life, even if controlled by other variables.

  6. The communicative ecology of Web 2.0 @ work : Social networking in the workspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.; Zhao, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Social media have transformed social interactions and now look set to transform workplace communications. In this exploratory study, we investigate how employees use and get value from a variety of social networking technologies. The context of this research is 4 software firms located in China. Not

  7. Building resilience to social-ecological change through farmers' learning practices in semi-arid Makueni County Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe; Kiteme, Boniface; Kimathi Mbae, John; Schmude, Miron

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological change is resulting in various risks and opportunities to farmers, which they address through complex multi-strategies to sustain their agricultural-based livelihoods and agricultural landscapes. This paper examines how various stakeholders such as research and government organisations, local and international non-governmental organisations, private companies, farmer groups, individual actors and farmers draw on scientific, external and localised knowledge to address the needs of farmers in sustainable land management and food production. What is the structure of collaboration between the various actors and how does this influence the potential for learning, not only for the farmers but also for other stakeholders? How does the supplied knowledge meet farmers' knowledge needs and demands for sustainable land management and food production? To what extent and how is knowledge co-produced among the various stakeholders? What different types of learning can be identified and what are their influences on farmers' sustainable land management practices? How does farmer learning foster the resilience of agricultural landscapes? Answers to these questions are sought through a case study in the semi-arid areas of Makueni County, Kenya. Particular environmental risks in the study area relate to recurrent droughts and flooding, soil erosion and general land degradation. Opportunities in the study area arise short-term due to more conducive rainfall conditions for crop and vegetation growth, institutional arrangements that foster sustainable land management such as agroforestry programmes and conservation agriculture projects. While farmers observe changes in their environment, they weigh the various risks and opportunities that arise from their social-ecological context and their own capacity to respond leading to the prioritization of certain adaptations relative to others. This can mean that while certain farmers may have knowledge on sustainable land

  8. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  9. Feeding habits of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus 1766, in the Ecological Reserve of Taim (ESEC - Taim - south of Brazil

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    Lucélia do Valle Borges

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine feeding habitats of capybaras in the ESEC-Taim (RS, Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Data were analyzed seasonally. In 172 samples analyzed, 17 species were identified, with predominance of Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis was the most frequent species in winter (38%, spring (32% and summer (26.5% and Paspalum disthichum in fall (31.5%. A observed increase in vegetation consumption during summer might be due to the food quality. Capybaras showed an opportunistic behavior in the winter and summer and a more selective behavior in spring and fall. Capybaras from the ESEC-Taim varied diet according to the season and alimentary availability.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os hábitos alimentares das capivaras na ESEC-Taim baseado na análise microhistologica de suas fezes. Os dados foram analisados sazonalmente. Em 172 amostras analisadas, foram identificadas 17 espécies, com predominância de Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis foi a espécie mais freqüente no inverno (38%, primavera (32% e verão (26,5% e Paspalum disthichum no outono (31,5%. O aumento no consumo da vegetação durante o verão pode ser explicado devido à qualidade da vegetação. As capivaras mostram um comportamento de oportunismo nas estações de inverno e verão e um comportamento mais seletivo na primavera e outono. Concluindo, as capivaras da ESEC-Taim variam sua dieta de acordo com a estação e a disponibilidade de comida.

  10. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830) feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2015-01-01

    Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil), and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food resources abundance and diversity at the Miranda river gallery forest (Southern Pantanal). I also analyzed the relationships between Chaco chachalacas feeding activity and food resources abundance. This parameter (flowers and fruits) exhibited significant seasonal differences of abundance in which flowers were plentiful at the end of the dry, while fruits were abundant during the early wet season. However, food resources diversity to Chaco chachalacas exhibited no seasonal difference. Their feeding activity paralleled the availability of food resources, so that when some items were massively available an enhanced number of Chaco chachalacas foraged in the gallery forest, particularly during the prolonged dry season when they extensively used flowers and Genipa americana fruits. In fact, the Chaco chachalaca feeding niche breadth value presented low values in this period, while high values were common in the rest of the year. The flexible diet of this cracid, potentially favors their year round presence in the gallery forest, mainly during the prolonged dry season when the propensity for famine might be high. Since the Chaco chachalaca is among the largest and most abundant canopy frugivores in the gallery forest, it may contribute to forest regeneration, an underscored role due to the impact of annual floods and meandering dynamics on tree loss.

  11. A review of bullying prevention and intervention in South Korean schools: an application of the social-ecological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Jungup; Lee, Na Youn; Garbarino, James

    2014-08-01

    School bullying is a serious social problem that results in potentially severe and long lasting consequences for youth, parents, teachers, and school officials. Commensurate with the serious nature and outcomes of bullying, there has been a number of bullying prevention and intervention programs and measures in schools. The current review provides a synthesis and evaluation of the existing research on bullying prevention and intervention strategies in South Korean schools, set within Bronfenbrenner's social-ecological contexts, including the micro- (i.e., family, peer, school), meso- (i.e., family-school), and macro- (i.e., religion, policies) systems. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the research reviewed and provide directions for future research focusing on major empirical gaps in the literature on bullying prevention and intervention strategies in South Korea.

  12. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBTIDAL MACROALGAL ASSEMBLAGES AT THE TAMOIOS ECOLOGICAL STATION, A THREATENED CONSERVATION UNIT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor de Souza Koutsoukos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of subtidal rocky bottom communities at Tamoios Ecological Station (TES, situated in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, as well as in other Brazilian marine protected areas, is insufficiently characterized. The present study describes the macroalgal assemblages of shallow subtidal rocky bottoms on two islands of the TES-Imboassica (IM and Búzios Pequena (BPadopting species and genera as observational units. Two sites were surveyed on each island in summer 2011. Random 30x30 cm quadrats (n=3 were scraped to collect all macroalgae except crustose species. The subtidal assemblages, in which 58 macroalgal species occurred, were characterized by the high frequency and percent cover of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh (56.8±8.4%. The sites differed significantly in total number of species and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (PERMANOVA, p5% were Sargassum, Laurencia, Wrangelia, Canistrocarpus, Asparagopsis, Hypnea, Ceratodictyon, Gayliella, Spyridia and Chondria.Dissimilarities within and between the islands, as shown by nMDS of the cover data, suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in monitoring the rocky bottom communities of Ilha Grande Bay.

  13. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  14. Interactive valuation : the social construction of the value of ecological services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiggins, J.; Röling, N.

    1999-01-01

    Two different perspectives mark the discourse about the valuation of ecological services: (i) a positivist-realist perspective, and (ii) a constructivist perspective. The implications of the constructivist perspective for valuation are presented. First, is analyzed the current dominant practice of e

  15. The Social Ecological Challenges of Rural Victim Advocacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Shelly A.; Johnson, Melencia; Miller, Michelle Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This article re-centers an ecological model traditionally used to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence victims around the perceptions and experiences of victim advocates. We suggest that the development of such a model might shed light on rural-urban differences in the accessibility and availability of support services in rural…

  16. Barriers and Bridges to the Integration of Social-ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a fundamental rift between how ecologists and lawyers view uncertainty. In the study of ecology, uncertainty is a catalyst for exploration. However, uncertainty is antithetical to the rule of law. This issue is particularly troubling in environmental management, where th...

  17. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

  18. Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L. black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad. associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  19. El argumento de responsabilidad social de la industria tabacalera en Brasil Social responsibility argument for the tobacco industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Cavalcante; Aline de Mesquita Carvalho; Erica Cavalcanti Rangel

    2006-01-01

    El tema de la responsabilidad social corporativa ha sido asunto de gran importancia y preocupación en el mundo actual y ha recibido diferentes denominaciones, tales como responsabilidad social, ciudadanía corporativa, desarrollo sustentable o ética corporativa. Hoy más que nunca se hace necesario que órganos gubernamentales, así como las diversas representaciones de la sociedad civil organizada, actúen alineados con el concepto de desarrollo sustentable. Esto implica el entendimiento de que, ...

  20. Bioinvasive species and the preservation of cutthroat trout in the western United States: Ecological, social, and economic issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) was the only endemic salmonid species across most of the western United States, and it has severely declined largely due to introduction and bioinvasion by non-native salmonid species. However, the ecological, social, and economic consequences of cutthroat trout declines and replacement by non-native salmonid species are relatively minor, and measurable affects on ecosystem function are rare. Restoration efforts for cutthroat trout involve removal or control of bioinvasive salmonid species, but such efforts are costly, ongoing, and resisted frequently by segments of society. Cutthroat trout declines are of little concern to much of the public because they are valued similarly to non-native salmonids, and non-native salmonid species frequently have higher recreational values. Due to the low values placed on cutthroat trout relative to non-native salmonid species, net economic benefits of preserving cutthroat trout are equal to or less than those for non-native salmonids. Cutthroat trout provide a classic case of the consequences of biological invasion; however, other native species are faced with similar issues. We suggest that management agencies establish realistic goals to preserve native species within the context of ecological, social, and economic issues. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Typology of Indigenous Engagement in Australian Environmental Management: Implications for Knowledge Integration and Social-ecological System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples now engage with many decentralized approaches to environmental management that offer opportunities for integration of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK and western science to promote cultural diversity in the management of social-ecological system sustainability. Nevertheless, processes of combining IEK with western science are diverse and affected by numerous factors, including the adaptive co-management context, the intrinsic characteristics of the natural resources, and the governance systems. We present a typology of Indigenous engagement in environmental management, derived through comparative analysis of 21 Australian case studies, and consider its implications for the integration of IEK with western science. Sociological and rational choice institutionalism underpin our analytical framework, which differentiates on three axes: (1 power sharing, incorporating decision making, rules definition, resource values and property rights; (2 participation, incorporating participatory processes, organizations engaged, and coordination approaches; (3 intercultural purpose, incorporating purposes of environmental management, Indigenous engagement, Indigenous development and capacity building. Our typology groups engagement into four types: Indigenous governed collaborations; Indigenous-driven co-governance; agency-driven co-governance; and agency governance. From our analysis of manifestations of knowledge integration across the types, we argue that Indigenous governance and Indigenous-driven co-governance provides better prospects for integration of IEK and western science for sustainability of social-ecological systems. Supporting Indigenous governance without, or with only a limited requirement for power sharing with other agencies sustains the distinct Indigenous cultural purposes underpinning IEK, and benefits knowledge integration. We conclude by advocating that the typology be applied to test its general effectiveness in

  2. Marx's Ideas on Social Ecology and Its Theory%论马克思的社会生态原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林安云

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary world ecological crisis is a human survival crisis which is a result of the capital logic defection from the ecological j ustice.People once again ask for Marx concerning how to solve this crisis.Marxism was born in the era of human's second j ustice crisis during which workers did not possess the basic survival resources.Its main theory is about rescuing human from this era. Nowadays,it can also rescue human from the third justice crisis - the ecological crisis.One reason is that this historic task is passed to us (the capitalism and its logic still rule the world),and the other reason is that the philosophy of Marxism has touched the bedrock of anthropology and ecology.The difference between Marx's ecological ideas and the Western ecological thinking is that Marx considers the ecology from the aspect of society.He offered four social ecology principles directly and indirectly. The first principle is the principle of reasonable material transformation between human and nature;the second one is the principle of reasonable material transformation between person and person;the third one is the principle of reasonable material transformation within a person himself;and the last one is the principle of reasonable survival and health development between every one and everybody. These four principles are the cornerstone of Marx's ideas of social ecology and have laid the theoretical basis for solving the ecological crisis from a social standpoint and opening up a new era of ecological civilization,because the root causes of the ecological crisis people are facing today is not in nature but in human society.%当代世界的生态危机,是资本逻辑违背生态正义而导致的人类生存危机。如何解决这一危机,人们再次求教于马克思。马克思主义产生于人类第二次正义危机即劳动者不拥有基本生存资料的经济生态危机时代,它的主要理论是把人类从第二次正义危机中解救出来的理论

  3. Eco-HAB as a fully automated and ecologically relevant assessment of social impairments in mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puścian, Alicja; Łęski, Szymon; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Winiarski, Maciej; Borowska, Joanna; Nikolaev, Tomasz; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Knapska, Ewelina

    2016-10-12

    Eco-HAB is an open source, RFID-based system for automated measurement and analysis of social preference and in-cohort sociability in mice. The system closely follows murine ethology. It requires no contact between a human experimenter and tested animals, overcoming the confounding factors that lead to irreproducible assessment of murine social behavior between laboratories. In Eco-HAB, group-housed animals live in a spacious, four-compartment apparatus with shadowed areas and narrow tunnels, resembling natural burrows. Eco-HAB allows for assessment of the tendency of mice to voluntarily spend time together in ethologically relevant mouse group sizes. Custom-made software for automated tracking, data extraction, and analysis enables quick evaluation of social impairments. The developed protocols and standardized behavioral measures demonstrate high replicability. Unlike classic three-chambered sociability tests, Eco-HAB provides measurements of spontaneous, ecologically relevant social behaviors in group-housed animals. Results are obtained faster, with less manpower, and without confounding factors.

  4. Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Pereira (Laura); T. Karpouzoglou (Timothy); S. Doshi (Samir); N. Frantzeskaki (Niki)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe need for developing socially just living conditions for the world’s growing population whilst keeping human societies within a ‘safe operating space’ has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and manageme

  5. Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Doshi, S.; Frantzeskaki, N.

    2015-01-01

    The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world’s growing population whilst keeping human societies within a ‘safe operating space’ has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes t

  6. Different perceptions of company leaders: Corporate social responsibility in Brazil and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cavalcanti Sá de Abreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates corporate social responsibility strategies and efforts to implement them in a Brazilian oil and gas multinational and an Indian steel multinational. Qualitative research was conducted through interviews with executives of both companies, and a content analysis and comparison of approaches to corporate social responsibility and engagement with stakeholders were made. The evidence from this research shows that the type of corporate social responsibility adopted by each company depends on the ethical values, socio-economic environment, legal and institutional framework of the country in which the firm operates.

  7. Waterborne diseases classification and relationship with social-environmental factors in Florianópolis city - Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, M; Fongaro, G; Barardi, C R M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate and classify the occurrence of waterborne diseases in Florianópolis city, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil and to correlate these diseases with the following social-environmental indicators of the local population: type of water supply, adequate collection and sewage treatment, areas of flooding and domestic water tank cleaning. Reports of outpatients were analyzed for surveillance of waterborne diseases during the period of 2002 to 2009. Waterborne diseases were classified into four groups: Group A: diarrheal diseases; Group B: parasitological diseases; Group C: skin diseases and Group D: eye diseases. The diarrheal, parasitological and skin diseases were the most frequently reported. Waterborne diseases belonging to Group A in all sites were correlated with other waterborne diseases groups, which can be an indicator of the circulation of other waterborne diseases. Regarding the social-environmental indicators assessed, the most correlated with waterborne diseases were the origin and quality of the water supply, followed by inadequate collection and treatment of sewage, frequent flooding, and finally the lack of cleanliness of the water reservoir. The results highlight the need for policies aiming for improvement of the sanitation service in the maintenance of human, animal and environmental health.

  8. Reclaiming the social in community movements: perspectives from the USA and Brazil/South America: 25 years after Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina; Mendes, Rosilda; Minkler, Meredith; Akerman, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Since the Ottawa Charter 25 years ago, community participation has been adopted worldwide by nation states and communities as a core health promotion strategy. Rising inequities since that time, however, have been largely unchecked in the Americas and globally, and have presented us with an acutely paradoxical time for community participation and action. On the one hand, transnational globalized markets and accompanying economic and environmental devastation have challenged the effectiveness of community action to create health. On the other hand, hopeful signs of local through national and international activism and of new mechanisms for community engagement continue to surface as meaningful and effective democratic acts. This article presents a dialogue on these issues between colleagues in the United States and Brazil, and considers the broader applicability to Latin America and worldwide. We begin by discussing how community participation and community organizing grew out of our respective histories. We consider the catalytic role of the Ottawa Charter in spurring a reorientation of health promotion and the genesis of healthy city and community initiatives, as well as other current community organizing strategies and the growth of participatory research/CBPR. We unpack the potential for co-optation of both community and social participation and end with recommendations for what we can do to maintain our integrity of belief in democratic social participation to promote improved health and health equity.

  9. Developing a concept of social-ecological-technological systems to characterize resilience of urban areas and infrastructure to extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Grimm, N. B.; Redman, C.; Miller, T.; McPherson, T.; Munoz-Erickson, T.; Chandler, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is widely considered one of the greatest challenges to global sustainability, with extreme events being the most immediate way that people experience this phenomenon. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to these events given their location, concentration of people, and increasingly complex and interdependent infrastructure. We are developing a conceptual framework for urban social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) that will allow researchers and practitioners to assess how infrastructure can be resilient, provide ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit urban populations. The framework integrates the three domains of social and equity issues, environmental quality and protection, and technical/engineering aspects, to form a concept of infrastructure that occurs at the intersection of the domains. Examples show how the more common socioecological systems and socially sensitive engineering approaches that fail to incorporate the third dimension may elevate vulnerability to climate-related disaster. The SETS conceptual framework bridges currently siloed social science, environmental science, and engineering approaches to significantly advance research into the structure, function, and emergent properties of SETS. Extreme events like heat waves in Phoenix; coastal and urban flooding in the wake of superstorm Sandy and following hurricanes in Miami, FL; drought in Mexico; and urban flooding in Baltimore, Portland, San Juan PR, Syracuse, and Valdivia, Chile provide examples of the impacts of and vulnerability to extreme events that demand a new approach. The infrastructure of the future must be resilient, leverage ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit all segments of urban populations and are appropriate to the particular urban contexts. These contexts are defined not only by the biophysical environment but also by culture and

  10. The ecological dynamics of Barra Bonita (Tietê River, SP, Brazil) reservoir: implications for its biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Abe, D S

    2008-11-01

    in the main tributaries as an effort to control eutrophication and particulate material load. Hydrology, climatic forcing and retention time are major forcing functions that promote the circulation (vertical and horizontal) in the reservoir and probably have a strong effect on dissolved and particulate material distribution. The 114 tributaries are systems that enhance spatial heterogeneity promoting diversity throughout ecological niches. Switches of control systems of this artificial ecosystem seems to be related with physical - physical forces; physical - biological forces during short periods of time, and biological - biological interactions at varying degrees during the seasonal cycle.

  11. The ecological dynamics of Barra Bonita (Tietê River, SP, Brazil reservoir: implications for its biodiversity

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    JG. Tundisi

    the main tributaries as an effort to control eutrophication and particulate material load. Hydrology, climatic forcing and retention time are major forcing functions that promote the circulation (vertical and horizontal in the reservoir and probably have a strong effect on dissolved and particulate material distribution. The 114 tributaries are systems that enhance spatial heterogeneity promoting diversity throughout ecological niches. Switches of control systems of this artificial ecosystem seems to be related with physical - physical forces; physical - biological forces during short periods of time, and biological - biological interactions at varying degrees during the seasonal cycle.

  12. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  13. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  14. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  15. Re-Turning Feminist Methodologies: From a Social to an Ecological Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christina; Lury, Celia

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an ecological methodology in order to re-think the concept of situatedness in ways that can take into account that we live in relation to, and are of, a more-and-other-than-human world. In doing so, the paper proposes that situatedness should be understood in terms of processes of co-invention that, fractally and recursively,…

  16. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

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    Geraldo José de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  17. THE HISTORY BEHIND THE RECENT PROSPERITY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN BRAZIL

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    Karl E. Scheibe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A psicologia social está atualmente prosperando no Brasil. No entanto, há 45 anos, a psicologia social foi praticamente ausente como uma disciplina viável em universidades brasileiras e na vida pública. Este artigo apresenta um breve comentário sobre o desenvolvimento da psicologia social no Brasil na história recente. Existem exemplos de cursos relevantes ministrados no Brasil antes desse período por médicos, antropólogos e sociólogos mas nenhum por psicólogos sociais. A influência de jornalistas e escritores é citada, bem como o fornecimento de bases para a psicologia social no Brasil. Os primeiros programas de pós graduação em psicologia social foram estabelecidos no início dos anos 1970. A Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social foi fundada em 1980, e sua principal revista no mesmo período. A agitação política em torno da ditadura militar (1964-1985 e a audaciosa fundação de Brasília em 1960 forneceram condições para o desenvolvimento de análises psicológicas de uma nação importante em processo de transformação.

  18. Social and environmental advantages of palm oil biodiesel in Brazil; Vantagens socioambientais do biodiesel de palma no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucas Rueda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The production of biodiesel has seen a fast growth in Brazil during the last years, making the country one of the top producers in the world. This growth is explained by the mandatory blendings of biodiesel in conventional diesel. This article is about how the biodiesel industry developed having soy oil as the main feedstock and how the big oilseed crushers have taken the main role in the industry, with family farmers, the original beneficiaries of the program, having a marginal role. If the scenario of B10 or B20 in 2020 is verified, then it is going to use so much soy oil that it will interfere in another uses of soy, like exportation. Besides that, the article criticizes the failure of the social aspect of the program, arguing that the objective of integration of family farmers has failed, and that the numbers are not worse only because the action of the government, through PETROBRAS. Then it is presented the palm oil as a alternative to share the role of main feedstock with the soy oil, because palm has a bigger production of vegetal oil per hectare than most oilseeds, is capable of a bigger reduction in green house gas emissions than soy oil, the fact that Brazil has plenty of land available to plant palm, without the necessity of deforestation and that this process can bring development to family farmers in the north of the country. The article ends with the summary of the main projects of palm production for biodiesel, like the ones from PETROBRAS, Vale and Oleoplan, and how these are going to be the main determinants of the success or failure of the palm oil as an alternative to the biodiesel sector. (author)