WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazil ecological concepts

  1. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  2. The context and concept of ecological networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the development of concepts of ecological networks in general and the European approach to ecological networks in particular. It shows trends in decline of landscapes and the diversity of approaches to biodiversity conservation and nature conservation planning

  3. Healthcare regulatory concepts in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Robson Rocha de; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon

    2012-06-01

    The healthcare regulatory concepts used in Brazilian scientific publications on healthcare management were reviewed. A typo-logical classification for regulatory concepts was developed from the most current ideas in five disciplines: life sciences, law, economics, sociology and political science. Four ideas stood out: control, balance, adaptation and direction, with greatest emphasis on the technical nature of regulation. The political nature of regulation was secondary. It was considered that dis-cussion of healthcare regulatory concepts was connected with comprehension of the role that the state plays in this sector. De-finition of the forms of state intervention is the key convergence point between the different ways of conceptualizing healthcare regulation.

  4. Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-01

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

  5. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be expected to increase as Amazonian hydroelectric dams far from consumer centers come on line. Brazil has tremendous wind and solar potential, but these do not have the same priority as dams. At the root of many questionable policies is a decision-making process in need of reform.

  6. [Evolution and discrimination of ecological planning and its related conceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Mao, Hui-ping; Niu, Dong-jie; Bao, Cun-kuan

    2013-08-01

    Ecological planning is one of the most important tools in realizing city's sustainable development. The ecological planning in China was started in the 1980s, and on the basis of assimilating the existing theoretical and practical experiences from western countries, basically formed a theoretical system in accordance with the Chinese characteristics and acquired a series of practical results. This paper reviewed the research and development processes of China' s ecological planning. It is considered that the study of our ecological planning was derived from the geographical principles of land resources ecological utilization, the ecological principles of complex ecological system theory, and the combination of these two principles. The ecological planning has experienced three research stages, i. e., single-disciplinary exploration, multi-disciplinary and multi-perspective study (including landscape ecology, ecology and urban planning), and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration research. The ecological planning and the related conceptions, primary principles, main academic points, and representatives at each research stage were summarized, and through the discrimination of the basic conceptions of ecological planning and other related plans, it was pointed out that ecological planning is an general conception which includes land ecological planning, urban ecological planning, and eco-city planning, and the principles and theories of ecological planning should be integrated into, led and restricted the present planning system to promote the city's and regional sustainable development.

  7. Oral biofilms: emerging concepts in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoche, S; Wong, L; Sissons, C H

    2010-01-01

    Oral biofilms develop under a range of different conditions and different environments. This review will discuss emerging concepts in microbial ecology and how they relate to oral biofilm development and the treatment of oral diseases. Clues to how oral biofilms develop may lie in other complex systems, such as interactions between host and gut microbiota, and even in factors that affect biofilm development on leaf surfaces. Most of the conditions under which oral biofilms develop are tightly linked to the overall health and biology of the host. Advances in molecular techniques have led to a greater appreciation of the diversity of human microbiota, the extent of interactions with the human host, and how that relates to inter-individual variation. As a consequence, plaque development may no longer be thought of as a generic process, but rather as a highly individualized process, which has ramifications for the treatment of the diseases it causes.

  8. The Anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The term 'Anthropocene' was first used in the year 2000 to refer to the current time period in which human impacts are at least as important as natural processes. It is currently being considered as a potential geological epoch, following on from the Holocene. While most environmental scientists accept that many key environmental parameters are now outside their Holocene ranges, there is no agreement on when the Anthropocene started, with plausible dates ranging from the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions to the recent globalization of industrial impacts. In ecology, the Anthropocene concept has focused attention on human-dominated habitats and novel ecosystems, while in conservation biology it has sparked a divisive debate on the continued relevance of the traditional biocentric aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a concept of community artifact ecology in HCI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Korsgaard, Henrik

    or workplaces do. This has implications on understanding how to research and design HCI for communities but also on refining the ecological perspective in HCI. We look in particular at examples from preliminary research on a local self-organised urban community and discuss what existing concepts in the ecology......In this paper we introduce the concept of community artifact ecology. We argue that taking a community perspective on the concept of artifact ecologies is relevant in HCI because communities are also dealing with multitudes of artifacts, in ways di↵erent that individuals, organizations...... literature are relevant to consider and how they change with the community perspective....

  10. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Reed, Daniel C.; Orth, Robert J.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Beck, Michael W.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J.; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; Blaeij, De Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts

  11. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  12. Research on green building design based on ecological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the protection of the ecological environment and the promotion of green building has been recognized and widely promoted.With the rapid development of the construction industry, Architecture design will inevitably require the resentation of its unique form and charm to reflect the ecological concept and ecological culture, because of the unique nature of the art and the particularity of the environment. To establish the ecological concept of green building design and vigorously develop the green green building has a complementary role to alleviate the pressure on resources,and to speed up the eco city planning design, and to realize the sustainable development of the city, and to protect the urban ecological environmental.

  13. Concepts in ecological risk assessment. Professional paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.K.; Seligman, P.F.

    1991-05-01

    Assessing the risk of impact to natural ecosystems from xenobiotic compounds requires an accurate characterization of the threatened ecosystem, direct measures or estimates of environmental exposure, and a comprehensive evaluation of the biological effects from actual and potential contamination. Field and laboratory methods have been developed to obtain direct measures of environmental health. These methods have been implemented in monitoring programs to assess and verify the ecological risks of contamination from past events, such as hazardous waste disposal sites, as well as future scenarios, such as the environmental consequences from the use of biocides in antifouling bottom paints for ships.

  14. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  15. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S; Reed, Daniel C; Orth, Robert J; Kendrick, Gary A; Beck, Michael W; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; de Blaeij, Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science. Bridging these gaps is essential to using restoration as an effective management tool and reversing the decline of marine ecosystems and their services. Ecological restoration should address objectives that include improved ecosystem services, and it therefore should encompass social-ecological elements rather than focusing solely on ecological parameters. We recommend using existing management frameworks to identify clear restoration targets, to apply quantitative tools for assessment, and to make the re-establishment of ecosystem services a criterion for success.

  16. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Reed, Daniel C.; Orth, Robert J.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Beck, Michael W.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J.; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; Blaeij, De Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts an

  17. Thinking about sustainable development: Engaging with societal and ecological concepts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Mario A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available , including business, and has been discussed in the ICT for development (ICT4D) field as well. Resilience thinking is based upon three key concepts: people exist within and depend on social-ecological systems, these systems are complex adaptive systems (CAS...

  18. The relationship between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration and the mainstreaming of the concept of ecosystem services will be critical if global society is to move toward sustainability. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity should help foster support for vastly increased investment in the better management and restoration of natural capital. Large-scale restoration demonstrably improves ecological functioning to sustain both biodiversity and human well-being. However, much progress is needed to improve the effectiveness and cost efficiency of any restoration. The ecosystem services concept provides a framework for identifying the types of restorative interventions needed to target different forms and degrees of degradation, and achieve goals related to both ecosystem health and delivery of services to people. Moreover, it can strengthen the argument for, and planning of, large-scale restoration and conservation of natural capital. We use case studies from four continents to help demonstrate how the interconnection between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept is being utilized in land-use planning and enlightened ecosystem management. We offer ways in which this relationship can be better understood and communicated to support the scaling up of restoration activities to the landscape and regional scales across the full spectrum of land uses and ecosystem types.

  19. Marine and terrestrial ecology: unifying concepts, revealing differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    The extent to which similar ecological processes operate on land and in the sea has been much debated, with apparently 'fundamental' differences often disappearing when appropriate comparisons are made. However, marine and terrestrial ecology have developed as largely separate intellectual endeavours, which has hampered the search for general patterns and mechanisms. Here, I argue that marine-terrestrial comparative studies can be extremely useful at uncovering mechanisms when they explicitly consider those facets of the environment that are important to a particular hypothesis. Furthermore, the binary 'marine-terrestrial' division misses many opportunities for more interesting comparisons, several of which I highlight here. Increasing the flow of concepts, hypotheses, and data between marine and terrestrial ecologists is essential to reveal those differences that really are important.

  20. Ecosystem Services as a Boundary Concept: Arguments from Social Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schleyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are defined as the interdependencies between society and nature. Despite several years of conceptual discussions, some challenges of the ES concept are far from being resolved. In particular, the usefulness of the concept for nature protection is questioned, and a strong critique is expressed concerning its contribution towards the neoliberal commodification of nature. This paper argues that these challenges can be addressed by dealing more carefully with ES as a boundary concept between different disciplines and between science and society. ES are neither about nature nor about human wellbeing, but about the mutual dependencies between nature and human wellbeing. These mutual interdependencies, however, create tensions and contradictions that manifest themselves in the boundary negotiations between different scientific disciplines and between science and society. This paper shows that approaches from Social Ecology can address these boundary negotiations and the power relations involved more explicitly. Finally, this implies the urgent need for more inter- and transdisciplinary collaboration in ES research. We conclude (1 that the social–ecological nature of ES must be elaborated more carefully while explicitly focussing on the interdependencies between nature and society; (2 to better implement inter- and transdisciplinary methods into ES research; and (3 that such ES research can—and to some extent already does—substantially enhance international research programmes such as Future Earth.

  1. Attaining Meaningful Learning of Concepts in Genetics and Ecology: An Examination of the Potency of the Concept-Mapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the relationship of concept-mapping by students to the meaningful learning of genetics and ecological concepts. The implications of these results for teacher education in biology are addressed. (KR)

  2. The Concept of Ecologically Oriented Progress and Natural Resource Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, M. A.; Kolotov, K. A.; Demidenko, K. A.; Podgornaya, E. A.; Kadnikova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The most important issue of scientific and technological progress is considering the environment challenges of industrial development. It means that the progress must be ecologically oriented and environmentally friendly. The most adequate concept for the approach to the issue of “man - society - nature” relations is the ontology of the noosphere - the idea of a common space for human beings and nature. It presents an ideal example of an optimistic attitude towards the coordination between accelerating the scientific and technological development and natural resource saving. However, to maintain the balance between human needs and environmental processes determined by this concept, it is essential to include the lean production training into technological development of society.

  3. Landscape ecology: a concept for protecting park resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig; Lissoway, John; Yarborough, Keith

    1990-01-01

    The Southwest Region has been supporting Resource Basic Inventory (RBI) efforts to establish baseline data for comparisons with long-term monitoring results to be conducted in the future. This “pulse taking” is a part of the Servicewide initiative being fostered so that resource managers, scientists, and park managers will be able to track the health of park resources by determining changes and trends. The RBI work is being linked with the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at Bandelier, Big Thicket, Big Bend, Padre Island, and Guadalupe Mountains. Many of the parks in the southwest Region have only partially completed RBIs. This informational shortcoming is a pervasive threat to the parks because without detailed knowledge of the parks’ respective resources the Service cannot protect them adequately. To overcome this deficiency, the SWRO’s Division of Natural Resources Management and Science has fostered at Bandelier a pilot research effort, which started in FY ’87 and utilizes a landscape ecology paradigm. This concept links the RBI, GIS, and research activities in a park to present an overall picture of the park in its regional ecosystem setting. The flowchart diagrams this project’s concept. The results have been encouraging. A final report was recently completed (Allen 1989). This concept may now be applied to other Southwest Region parks.

  4. Applying ecological landscape concepts and metrics in urban landscape management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Magalhães Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Landscape Ecology applied to urban planning may favor the hierarchical classification of vegetation fragments, identifying the most important ones according to the city zones’ land use. We present the case study of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, a town that is going through a deep transformation process due to the iron mining activities in the Iron Quadrangle in the state of Minas Gerais. The methodological process presupposes the classification of RapidEye satellite images and mapping of use and land cover; application of landscape metrics (area, perimeter, distance to nearest neighbor, core area, shape index and NRVI; and the integration of metrics using multi-criteria evaluation. Areas that are appropriate for the application of public policies, which promote the management of the vegetation cover, have been identified. These comprise not only the institutional green areas but also private properties, since the vegetation cover must be understood as a systemic network.

  5. Ecological interactions of sea sponges (Animalia, Porifera according to artisanal fishermen from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Docio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first ethnospongiological study in Brazil, and it aimed at recording artisanal fishermen’s knowledge about sea sponges and their ecological interactions. The study was carried out in the Ilha do Contrato community at Camamu Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. The data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews and projective tests, and followed the usual techniques of ethnographic surveys. The interviewees had knowledge regarding ecological interactions among fish, sea sponges and sponge endofaunal composition. According to the results, there is some congruence between folk wisdom and scientific knowledge. The importance of integrating local knowledge into management and conservation plans designed for the Camamu Bay region, as well as the set of data on ecology of reef communities, should be considered.

  6. Academic and cultural challenges for the absorption of the concept of inclusive education in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeterik, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work searches for answers to the question what are the sociocultural obstacles for the absorption of the concept inclusive education in Brazil? To answer this question, the referred concept is discussed in relation to another concept: Equality. On basis of a theoretical study on the development

  7. Sustainable Agro-Industrial Ecology Concept of the Madura Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaya, Joyce Martha; Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan

    2017-07-01

    Madura as one small island in East Java Province, Indonesia faced many challenges due to limited transportation connectivity, limited water resources and karst geology. Due to this reasons, the Government of Indonesia proposed a strategic plan to improve the development of the island to Surabaya, the largest port for the Eastern of Indonesia. It was started with building the Surabaya - Madura (SuraMadu) Bridge with 5.7 km length in 2003. The bridge was finally completed in 2009, improving the traffic flow into the island and development of Madura Island. Unfortunately, the strategy would not be comprehensive without strategic development of the Madura Island, especially in Bangkalan District (Kabupaten Bangkalan). The Central Government has proposed a Green Industry with zero waste and clean energy concept. This industry and port would process the agriculture products from Madura for the export and Eastern part of Indonesia market. Therefore, an industrial ecology concept was needed to achieve the sustainable green industry for Eastern of Indonesia.

  8. Ecology and conservation of dusky grouper (Epinephelidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus has a broad global distribution and is currently listed as an endangered species at the IUCN Red List. This species has large commercial and ecological importance, but only at the last decade the first studies were carried out on its bioecology at its southernmost distribution limit in Southwestern Atlantic. This region is largely formed by sand bottoms, where the occurrence of reefs and rocks are scarce. Rocky bottoms occur in the neritic region (along 20 to 30 m isobaths and in the jetties in the littoral region, and in both areas the dusky grouper occur frequently. Our studies showed that immature individuals (mean: 4 yrs of dusky groupers inhabiting rocky jetties in the littoral region represents an important economical incoming for artisanal fishermen, whereas adults (mean: 8 yrs are mostly caught at offshore banks 15-25 m deep by coastal fisheries. Microscopic analyses of gonads of littoral and neritic individuals suggest that the littoral region is a growing nursery area and the neritic is a reproductive site. Feeding ecology studies based on stomach content and stable isotopes showed that the species has an important role as top predators in both regions. Future studies on the residence time of immature individuals in the littoral using telemetry are fundamental to further understand the ecology of this endangered species in the Southwestern Atlantic and to help its fishing management and conservation.

  9. Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil sobre alimentación saludable Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ell

    2012-04-01

    ón saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, Southern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of

  10. Raymond lindeman and the trophic-dynamic concept in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R E

    1977-10-01

    Lindeman's classic paper on energy flow in ecosystems was initially rejected for publication in Ecology. Reviewers felt there were insufficient data to support the theoretical model and that theoretical essays were inappropriate for Ecology. The paper was subsequently accepted by Thomas Park, the zoological editor, after correspondence with G. Evelyn Hutchinson who indicated the importance of theory in the development of ecology.

  11. Integrating Ecological and Engineering Concepts of Resilience in Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Renslow, Ryan S; Fredrickson, Jim K; Lindemann, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Many definitions of resilience have been proffered for natural and engineered ecosystems, but a conceptual consensus on resilience in microbial communities is still lacking. We argue that the disconnect largely results from the wide variance in microbial community complexity, which range from compositionally simple synthetic consortia to complex natural communities, and divergence between the typical practical outcomes emphasized by ecologists and engineers. Viewing microbial communities as elasto-plastic systems that undergo both recoverable and unrecoverable transitions, we argue that this gap between the engineering and ecological definitions of resilience stems from their respective emphases on elastic and plastic deformation, respectively. We propose that the two concepts may be fundamentally united around the resilience of function rather than state in microbial communities and the regularity in the relationship between environmental variation and a community's functional response. Furthermore, we posit that functional resilience is an intrinsic property of microbial communities and suggest that state changes in response to environmental variation may be a key mechanism driving functional resilience in microbial communities.

  12. Concept Model of Ecological Civilization Regulated by Nature,Society and Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretic development of ecological civilization,and put forward the concept model of ecological civilization regulated by nature,society and government.In the construction of ecological civilization,the nature,society and government play different roles and have respective functions.Therefore,we should build a self-regulating network of ecological civilization through natural law,social law,as well as scientific outlook on development.

  13. Identity and the concept of the West: the case of Brazil and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide insights about how Brazil and India view and relate to the concept of the West, and how this affects their identity and foreign policy. Both countries' notions about the West are the subject of lively domestic discussion both in academia and the media, reflecting the struggle these countries find themselves in to define their identity as they rise. I argue that the concept of the West serves, in both Brazil and India, as a crucial concept to articulate their own identity-by a complex combination of criticizing, distancing itself from, or attempting to emulate the West.

  14. Population ecology of hantavirus rodent hosts in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H B V; Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S

    2014-08-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts.

  15. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  16. Revisiting life strategy concepts in environmental microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Di Lonardo, D Paolo; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2017-03-01

    Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and plants, there is an unprecedented diversity and intractable metabolic versatility among bacteria, making classification or grouping these microorganisms based on their functional traits as has been done in animal and plant ecology challenging. Nevertheless, based on representative pure cultures, microbial traits distinguishing different life strategies had been proposed, and had been the focus of previous reviews. In the environment, however, the vast majority of naturally occurring microorganisms have yet to be isolated, restricting the association of life strategies to broad phylogenetic groups and/or physiological characteristics. Here, we reviewed the literature to determine how microbial life strategy concepts (i.e. copio- and oligotrophic strategists, and competitor-stress tolerator-ruderals framework) are applied in complex microbial communities. Because of the scarcity of direct empirical evidence elucidating the associated life strategies in complex communities, we rely heavily on observational studies determining the response of microorganisms to (a)biotic cues (e.g. resource availability) to infer microbial life strategies. Although our focus is on the life strategies of bacteria, parallels were drawn from the fungal community. Our literature search showed inconsistency in the community response of proposed copiotrophic- and oligotrophic-associated microorganisms (phyla level) to changing environmental conditions. This suggests that tracking microorganisms at finer phylogenetic and taxonomic resolution (e.g. family level or lower) may be more effective to capture changes in community response and/or that edaphic factors exert a stronger effect in community response

  17. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E

  18. A unifying concept of coccolithophore sensitivity to changing carbonate chemistry embedded in an ecological framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Lennart T.; Riebesell, Ulf; Magdalena A Gutowska; Federwisch, Luisa; Schulz, Kai G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Calcification rates are stimulated by CO2 and HCO3− and inhibited by H+. • This novel substrate–inhibitor concept is tested with experimental data. • The concept enables us to reconcile conflicting results among laboratory studies. • We illustrate how this physiological concept can be included in ecological theory. • We apply the concept to discuss coccolithophore dispersal in the oceans. Abstract Coccolithophores are a group of unicellular ...

  19. Conceptions of Environment in a Continuing Education Course for Science Teachers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Matos, Mauricio; Barbosa, Paulo; Coelho-Matos, Myrna Elisa Chagas

    2012-01-01

    Studies focusing on environmental education and continuing education of science teachers play an important role in the science education area. This research analyzed conceptions of environment in a continuing education course for science teachers developed at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The analysis of the material was made using a…

  20. Molecular Probes in Marine Ecology: Concepts, Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-12

    dynamics of benthic marine invertebrates, focusing specifically on scleractinian corals and gorgonian soft corals . I have initiated a study of genetic...Ecological Aspects Tom Chen, Center of Marino Biotechnology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, ND July 1 10330 A Translational Regulatory Mechanism for...alaae, coral . covepods. microflaaellates. dinoflacellates) (Rob Rovan). Isolate organisms and prepare DNA. Amplify rDNA usina universal (or zooxanthella

  1. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  2. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  3. The Concept of “Peak Ecological Water” in a Changing Climate. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    In a paper prepared in 2008, Meena Palaniappan and Peter Gleick proposed the concept of "peak ecological water" as a way to characterize vulnerable watersheds in the context of human withdrawals and water use. The value that humans obtain from water produced through incremental increases in supply (e.g., drinking water, irrigation) can be compared with the declining value of the ecological services (e.g., water for plants and animals) that were being satisfied with this water. As more water is appropriated from watersheds the pace or severity of ecological disruptions increases. At a certain theoretical point, the value of ecological services provided by water is equivalent to the value of human services provided by water. After this point, increasing appropriation of water leads to ecological disruptions beyond the value that this increased water provides to humans (the slope of the decline in ecological services is greater than the slope of the increase in value to humans). At the point of "peak ecological water," society will maximize the ecological and human benefits provided by water. This concept will be presented here as a way to identify water resources at risks of overabstraction and overuse. Conversely, the concept can also help in identifying strategies to adapt to changing water availability due to climate change. A key challenge remains coming up with quantitative measures of peak ecological water and using those measures to develop policies to maintain ecological health under variable conditions Palaniappan, M. and P.H. Gleick. 2008. “Peak Water.” In The World’s Water 2008-2009 (P.H. Gleick, editor). Island Press, Washington, D.C. pp. 1-16.

  4. Concepts of keystone species and species importance in ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discussed the keystone species concept and introduced the typical characteristics of keystone species and their identification in communities or ecosystems. Based on the research of the keystone species, the concept of species importance (SI) was first advanced in this paper. The species importance can be simply understood as the important value of species in the ecosystem, which consists of three indexes: species structural important value (SIV), functional important value (FIV) and dynamical important value (DIV). With the indexes, the evaluation was also made on species importance of arbor trees in the Three-Hardwood forests (Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, and Phellodendron amurense) ecosystem.

  5. ECOLOGICAL LIFESTYLE, THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Nikolaevna Tarasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of approaches to the empirical study of the environmental aspects of lifestyle are presented the basic principles that distinguish ecological way of life off the set of environmental practices that need to be taken into account in empirical measurement, namely: systematicity, conceptuality, contextual conformity and processuality. The article provides a theoretical basis and operational definition as an ecological way of life in general and the principles that distinguish it from other concepts of environmental sociology.

  6. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate

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    Ntombi B. Mudenda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD water budget (WB concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 °C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB. Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga, low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.

  7. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudenda, Ntombi B; Malone, John B; Kearney, Michael T; Mischler, Paula D; Nieto, Prixia del Mar; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km) using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD) water budget (WB) concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD) was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 °C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus) conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration) of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB). Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga), low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.

  8. Ecological networks and greenways in Europe: reasoning and concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of approaches towards ecological networks throughout Europe.It does not intend to present a completepicture, but to highlight common developments within countries and regions and show common principles and differences between countries andregions that have to be taken into account when developing a joint European initiative.Countries or regions that have not been included can beactive in the same way, but information was not accessible to the authors for different reasons.This overview shows the comparable trends indecline of landscapes and the diversity in approaches to biodiversity conservation and nature conservation planning.Understanding thedifferences and common issues are of utmost importance to generalise common principles and to understand the way neighbours and otherEuropean partners approach problems.

  9. Family farm in Brazil, concept in construction: trajectory struggle path, mighty history

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Rambo; Maria Aparecida Anselmo Tarsitano; Gilmar Laforga

    2016-01-01

    Having the family farm a high importance in the Brazilian agricultural context, it is beneficial to review and discussion the history and the concept of family farming. From the first agricultural activities in colonial Brazil, there has been the presence of family farms, and through the centuries it has transformed, without losing its main characteristic of food production for family subsistence. Lately, the Brazilian State, which historically had left the family farm in the background, is w...

  10. Food intake and prevalence of obesity in Brazil: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Jackeline Christiane Pinto; Costa, Antonio José Leal; Sichieri, Rosely

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the correlation between the consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats and the prevalence of obesity in the state capitals of Brazil. An ecological evaluation of obesity and dietary risk factors was carried out in twenty-six state capitals of Brazil. Analysis was based on the age-standardized prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m2) among adults aged 20-59 years. Both intake and obesity prevalence were obtained from the last National Family Household Budget Survey (HBS). The survey was conducted from July 2002 to June 2003, based on a probabilistic national sample of 48 470 households. In each household, during seven consecutive days, all monetary and non-monetary expenses for food and beverages for family consumption were transformed into energy. The relative contribution of foods and food groups was expressed as the proportion (%) of total energy. Fruits and vegetables were also measured by the quantity bought in grams. Prevalence of obesity varied from 5.1 % to 13.6 % among women and from 5.2 % to 17.6 % among men. For women, there were statistically significant correlations between obesity and intake of sugar and soft drinks (rS = 0.60; P = 0.001), ready-to-eat meals (rS = 0.39; P = 0.05) and potatoes (rS = 0.40; P = 0.04). For men there were no such associations. Increasing intake of refined carbohydrates, mainly soft drinks, may play a role in the prevalence of obesity among women in Brazil. Effecting changes in family purchase patterns may be a strategy to reduce obesity.

  11. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  12. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

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    Rosely Sichieri

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  13. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

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    Sichieri Rosely

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  14. Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Celeste, Roger Keller; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin

    2009-10-01

    To assess a new impunity index and variables that have been found to predict variation in homicide rates in other geographical levels as predictive of state-level homicide rates in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional ecological study. Data from the mortality information system relating to the 27 Brazilian states for the years 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. The outcome variables were taken to be homicide victim rates in 2005, for the entire population and for men aged 20-29 years. Measurements of economic and social development, economic inequality, demographic structure and life expectancy were analyzed as predictors. An 'impunity index', calculated as the total number of homicides between 1996 and 2005 divided by the number of individuals in prison in 2007, was constructed. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear regression and negative binomial regression. In 2005, state-level crude total homicide rates ranged from 11 to 51 per 100,000; for young men, they ranged from 39 to 241. The impunity index ranged from 0.4 to 3.5 and was the most important predictor of this variability. From negative binomial regression, it was estimated that the homicide victim rate among young males increased by 50% for every increase of one point in this ratio. Classic predictive factors were not associated with homicides in this analysis of state-level variation in Brazil. However, the impunity index indicated that the greater the impunity, the higher the homicide rate.

  15. Concepts of nurses on supervised treatment of tuberculosis in Brazil

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    Roberta Cristina Zago Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the conception of the primary care nurses about the viability of supervised treatment for tuberculosis. Methods: This was an exploratory descriptive study with 11 nurses. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and the data were organized in facilitators and hindering for supervised treatment. The Ethics Committee on Research in Human Beings, opinion No. 112.520, approved the study. Results: The nurses considered the small number of professionals, the lack of community healthcare agents, lack of in-service education and communication problems with the reference center as complicating the viability of supervised treatment and identify that the bond facilitates the adherence to treatment as well as the flexibilization in time of taking the medicine, the care incentives such as basic food, vouchers, milk donation in addition to medication availability. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that high demand and diversity of actions on the responsibility of the nurse, associated with reduced number of professionals, hamper the attention to supervised treatment, and suggest adjustments to increase their effectiveness, as more training and space for professionals to exchange experiences, acknowledge the effectiveness of a treatment modality for tuberculosis.

  16. Ecophysiological, ecological, and soil processes in terrestrial ecosystems: a primer on general concepts and relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Bullock, P.; Evans, J.R.; Goulding, K.; Jarvis, P.G.; Noble, I.R.; Rounsevell, M.; Sharkey, T.D.; Austin, M.P.; Brookes, P.; Brown, S.; Bugmann, H.K.M.; Cramer, W.P.; Diaz, S.; Gitay, H.; Hamburg, S.P.; Harris, J.

    1996-01-01

    This ecophysiological primer serves as an introductory chapter on the concepts applied in subsequent chapters reviewing the state of knowledge concerning the effects of climate change on ecological processes that affect impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and some socio-economic systems. Because many

  17. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  18. Ditch the niche - is the niche a useful concept in ecology or species distribution modelling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerny, Greg J.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    In this first of three papers we examine the use of niche concepts in ecology and especially in species distribution modelling (SDM). This paper deliberately focuses on the lack of clarity found in the term niche. Because its meanings are so diverse, the term niche tends to create confusion and

  19. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised.

  20. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy – critical ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-O'Leary, Kara A.; Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Johnston, Dave S.; Abella, Scott R.; Tanner, Karen E.; Swanson, Amanda C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists – including those from academia, industry, and government agencies – have only recently begun to quantify trade-offs in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  1. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil.This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR.A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 -an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93-with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24-20.92, inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51-3.15, Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55-4.67 and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71-15.36, low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72-44.55 and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14-4.74 were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90, as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase. Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year and low birth weight (-1.43% decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year.Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care

  2. Concept of scale in marine ecology: linking the words or the worlds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Azovsky

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of scale (in sensu lato is considered to be very promising as the integrative basis for modern ecology. Nowadays it is not a full-blown theory but rather a flexible and progressively developing methodology to outline future unifying theories. It provides a powerful conceptual framework for generating testable hypotheses and studying a wide range of ecological phenomena related with such themes as heterogeneity, hierarchy and size. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity, organizational hierarchies and body size are the main scaling factors for ecological patterns and processes. Broad comparison of patterns for these three different but interrelated dimensions can reveal some new regularities ("scaling laws" of ecological systems. It also allows us to look at the worlds of different organisms "through their own eyes". Some examples of applying the cross-scaling approach in marine ecology are considered: — Patterns and scales of spatial heterogeneity; — Species-area curves and body size; — Co-occurrence of congeners as scale-dependent phenomenon; — Spatio-temporal ranges of ecological hierarchies.

  3. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae) in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and...

  4. Family farm in Brazil, concept in construction: trajectory struggle path, mighty history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Rambo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Having the family farm a high importance in the Brazilian agricultural context, it is beneficial to review and discussion the history and the concept of family farming. From the first agricultural activities in colonial Brazil, there has been the presence of family farms, and through the centuries it has transformed, without losing its main characteristic of food production for family subsistence. Lately, the Brazilian State, which historically had left the family farm in the background, is what it in scrict area of access to public policies, as a result of its contest and its social, economic, environmental and productive importance for the country.

  5. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flora de Novaes Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in the study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species and Polypodiaceae (22 species. The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species and Thelypteris (9 species. Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  6. Feeding ecology of three juvenile mojarras (Gerreidae in a tropical estuary of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Limeira Felinto de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Distributions and feeding ecology of mojarra species from shallow water of a tropical estuary in Northeastern Brazil were observed aiming to investigate differences in distribution and resource partitioning among juveniles of three species of mojarras. Fishes were collected with a beach seine across four sites along a salinity gradient from January to December of 2011. Highest abundances were recorded during the rainy season in the upper and middle estuary. Microcrustaceans, mainly copepods, were the preferential prey items of all mojarras, irrespective of size or hydrological season, suggesting these areas may be important nursery habitats. Juveniles of mojarra used two important mechanisms for exploitation of resources: (1 spatial segregation along the salinity and temperature gradient, such as abundance of Eucinostomus melanopterus increased from downstream to upstream estuary, while Eugerres brasilianus displayed an opposite pattern; (2 differences related to the volumetric proportion of the main prey items, with indications that E. melanopterus and Diapterus rhombeus fed predominantly on Calanoida and Cyclopoida, while the diet of E. brasilianus was dominated by items of infauna. Such strategies were important for resource partitioning, favouring the coexistence of these three species in the estuary.

  7. Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality.

  8. Ecological and social determinants of leishmaniasis in the Legal Amazon, Brazil

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    Kamila Mendes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a reemerging disease of worldwide distribution and has a public health importance. It is an infectious disease, parasitical and clinical severity ranging from a healthy appearance to a severe stage. Features two major forms, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis (cutaneous and mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. This form can be deadly for reaching the organs. The four main protozoa that cause such clinical manifestations are Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania guyanensis. Environment, social and demographic factors are key for the transmission of leishmaniasis, due to its vector being a sand fly - insect with hematophagous habits - and its main reservoir are dogs. In Brazil, leishmaniasis is endemic and widely distributed. 80% of reported cases are in children under 10 years. The Legal Amazon region is an area of study of public health, having suffered anthropogenic actions that undermine the ecological balance of the site. In this area, visceral leishmaniasis is increasing in western Pará state due to its economic development, which involves the public health. This study aims to relate environmental and health factors with the incidence of leishmaniasis in the Legal Amazon and this relationship will be used secondary data from publications in the National Health Information System (NHIS.

  9. Ecological interactions of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Italo A Sherlock

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory and field observations summarized in this paper on visceral leishmaniasis ecology in the State of Bahia, Brazil are based on the author's observations over the past 35 years in a number of state's foci, public health records and literature citations. The disease is endemic with epidemic outbreaks occurring every ten years and its geographical distribution is expanding rapidly in the last years. Leishmania chagasi is the main ethiologic agent of the visceral leishmaniasis but Le. amazonensis s. lato was the only leishmania isolated by other authors from some visceral leishmaniasis human cases in the state. Lutzomyia longipalpis (with one or two spots on tergites III and IV and two sized different populations was epidemiologically incriminated as the main vector. It was found naturally infected with promastigotes, and it was infected with four species of leishmanias in the laboratory. Although the experimental transmission of Le. amazonensis by the bite of Lu. longipalpis to hamsters was performed, the author was not successful in transmitting Le. chagasi in the same way. The dog is the most important domestic source for infection of the vector, however it is not a primary reservoir. The opossum Didelphis albiventris was found naturally infected with Le. chagasi but its role as reservoir is unknown. Foxes and rodents were not found infected with leishmanias in Bahia.

  10. Disputes and Dialogues around the Concept of “Affirmative Actions” for Higher Education in Brazil

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    Luanda Sito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I reflect on the controversy generated in the higher education expansion context in Brazil by the quotas measure for black and indigenous students at the University, to see what the discourses reveal about the perceptions of affirmative actions. To do this, I analyze two manifestos delivered to the National Congress in 2006 by Brazilian intellectuals who laid their position publicly in relation to the quota policy. The analysis, guided by a conception of Bakhtinian language, shows that the concept of “affirmative action” appeared in dispute: first it is taken as a racist measure and it is percieved as unequal while on second place it is understood as a measure of racism deconstruction. By characterizing the debate in the Brazilian scenario, I sought to contribute to the construction of a regional overview on race and affirmative actions in the Latin American context.

  11. An MD-PhD program in Brazil: students’ concepts of science and of common sense

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    R.V. Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, a pioneering MD-PhD program was initiated in Brazil for the training of medical scientists in experimental sciences at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The program’s aim was achieved with respect to publication of theses in the form of papers with international visibility and also in terms of fostering the scientific careers of the graduates. The expansion of this type of program is one of the strategies for improving the preparation of biomedical researchers in Brazil. A noteworthy absence of interest in carrying out clinical research limits the ability of young Brazilian physicians to solve biomedical problems. To understand the students’ views of science, we used qualitative and quantitative triangulation methods, as well as participant observation to evaluate the students’ concepts of science and common sense. Subjective aspects were clearly less evident in their concepts of science. There was a strong concern about "methodology", "truth" and "usefulness". "Intuition", "creativity" and "curiosity" were the least mentioned thematic categories. Students recognized the value of intuition when it appeared as an explicit option but they did not refer to it spontaneously. Common sense was associated with "consensus", "opinion" and ideas that "require scientific validation". Such observations indicate that MD-PhD students share with their senior academic colleagues the same reluctance to consider common sense as a valid adjunct for the solution of scientific problems. Overcoming this difficulty may be an important step toward stimulating the interest of physicians in pursuing experimental research.

  12. An MD-PhD program in Brazil: students' concepts of science and of common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R V; Campos, P C C; Mourão, P A S

    2011-11-01

    In 1995, a pioneering MD-PhD program was initiated in Brazil for the training of medical scientists in experimental sciences at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The program's aim was achieved with respect to publication of theses in the form of papers with international visibility and also in terms of fostering the scientific careers of the graduates. The expansion of this type of program is one of the strategies for improving the preparation of biomedical researchers in Brazil. A noteworthy absence of interest in carrying out clinical research limits the ability of young Brazilian physicians to solve biomedical problems. To understand the students' views of science, we used qualitative and quantitative triangulation methods, as well as participant observation to evaluate the students' concepts of science and common sense. Subjective aspects were clearly less evident in their concepts of science. There was a strong concern about "methodology", "truth" and "usefulness". "Intuition", "creativity" and "curiosity" were the least mentioned thematic categories. Students recognized the value of intuition when it appeared as an explicit option but they did not refer to it spontaneously. Common sense was associated with "consensus", "opinion" and ideas that "require scientific validation". Such observations indicate that MD-PhD students share with their senior academic colleagues the same reluctance to consider common sense as a valid adjunct for the solution of scientific problems. Overcoming this difficulty may be an important step toward stimulating the interest of physicians in pursuing experimental research.

  13. Metacognition and the facilitation of conceptual and status change in students' concepts of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lisa M.

    Over a decade ago the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) was introduced as an explanation of the science learning process. Central to this model is the assertion that knowledge is constructed when students restructure or replace existing conceptions. The model predicts that conceptual change will not occur without corresponding changes in the status of new and existing conceptions. While the CCM is extensively cited in the literature, little work has been done on clarifying whether a teaching strategy which requires students to reveal and reflect upon the status of their conceptions significantly impacts the nature and process of science learning. In response, this study explored the relationship between metacognitive teaching strategies, status, and conceptual change during a three month unit on ecology. Working collaboratively, the researcher and a seventh grade classroom teacher developed an ecology unit designed to facilitate conceptual change and reveal status-related interactions. Case studies of two classrooms were developed. Both classrooms received instruction based on the conceptual change model, but only one classroom's instructional format included a metacognitive element in which the student was encouraged to reveal and reflect upon the status of his or her conceptions--how they know what they know. Three significant findings were revealed in the results. One, the quality of classroom discourse in the metacognitive class was altered. By developing in students the ability to explicitly consider and talk about the condition of their own conceptions, students began to understand the value of critically investigating ideas before incorporating them into their knowledge structures. Two, while there was no statistically significant difference observed in the level of conceptual understanding across treatment groups, there was a significant difference observed on the scores of the delayed ecology post-assessment. While the students in the metacognitive class did

  14. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H. [Ag. Nucleo Universitario, Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  15. Ecosystem-based fishery management: a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet

      An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower t...... trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models relating to ecosystem-based fishery management.......  An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower...

  16. Addressing geographic access barriers to emergency care services: a national ecologic study of hospitals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thumé, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-08-22

    Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. The present work can be classified as a cross-sectional ecological study. To carry out the present study, data of all 5843 Brazilian hospitals were categorized among high complexity centers and small hospitals. The geographical access barriers were identified through the use of two-step floating catchment area method. Once concluded the previous step an evaluation using the Getis-Ord-Gi method was performed to identify spatial clusters of municipalities with limited access to high complexity centers but well covered by well-equipped small hospitals. The analysis of accessibility index of high complexity centers highlighted large portions of the country with nearly zero hospital beds by inhabitant. In contrast, it was possible observe a group of 1595 municipalities with high accessibility to small hospitals, simultaneously with a low coverage of high complexity centers. Among the 1595 municipalities with good accessibility to small hospitals, 74% (1183) were covered by small hospitals with at least 60% of minimum emergency service requirements. The spatial clusters analysis aggregated 589 municipalities with high values related to minimum emergency service requirements. Small hospitals in these 589 cities could promote the equity in access to emergency services benefiting more than eight million people. There is a spatial disequilibrium within the country with prominent gaps in the health care network for emergency services. Taking this challenge into consideration, small hospitals could be a possible solution and foster equity in access

  17. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kharrazi; Fath, Brian D.; Harald Katzmair

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i) panarchy; (ii) ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii) statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (...

  18. [Concepts in women trafficking for sexual exploitation: a survey with institutional representatives in Brazil and Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúquete, Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-10-20

    This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries. There is no consensus among the institutions on the profile of trafficking victims, marked by stereotypes, and the definition is influenced by legislation and border controls. Greater conceptual precision would minimize the role of moral values, orient more adequate and efficient public policies, and facilitate staff action in assisting victims.

  19. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  20. Systematic review study on the use of the concept of daily life in the field of occupational therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Simões Matsukura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the concept of daily life has increased in the field of occupational therapy, with studies referring to daily life as a tool that is both theoretic-conceptual and practical, providing support for both research and care. In this study, we aimed to identify and systematize the knowledge production about the daily life concept in occupational therapy in Brazil. A systematic review of the Brazilian literature of the past ten years on the concept of daily life in occupational therapy was used as our methodological approach. Twelve articles were selected to compose this research. The concept of daily life as considered in studies of occupational therapists, is established in the relationship between what is singular to the individual and what is collective and social. This concept defines a theoretical position in occupational therapy, departing from a medical and positivist interpretation of health care, giving attention to the subjectivity of individuals, their day-to-day activities and their social inclusion. The concept of daily life was also used in the reflection about how illnesses change people’s daily lives, to support the description and analysis of the daily lives of the studied subjects and to discuss the concept of daily life in occupational therapy practice. There is a wide range of possibilities for the use of the concept of daily life in the research and practice of occupational therapy. The present study shows that this concept adds to the basis of contemporary occupational therapy knowledge produced in Brazil.

  1. Ecological literacy and concepts formation in childhood education through playful activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia de Brito Miranda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the concept formation involved in the study of food chain by utilizing the vygotskian referential and playful activities. The teacher-researcher planned the activities that were experienced by a group of children in an elementary school aged 4 to 5. The topic chosen intended to support ecological literacy and the construction of scientific concepts in children. For the data collect, the study employed diverse instruments of a playful nature, such as theatre, games, drawings, and video-recorded interviews. The study showed a generally positive influence of playful activities to develop a perception of belonging to the food chain and becoming aware of the importance of caring for animals in order to preserve life, as well as an evolution inside the phases proposed by Vygotsky.

  2. A Concept-Map Integrated Dynamic Assessment System for Improving Ecology Observation Competences in Mobile Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, I-Hsiang; Lin, I-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Observation competence plays a fundamental role in outdoor scientific investigation. The computerized concept mapping technique as a Mindtool has shown the potential for enhancing meaningful learning in science education. The purposes of the present study are to develop a concept map integrated mobile learning design for ecology observation and to…

  3. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied

  4. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.Foram avaliadas a dieta e a ecologia alimentar da cioba Lutjanus analis no Banco dos Abrolhos, Leste do Brasil. O Banco dos Abrolhos abrange os maiores e mais diversos recifes de corais do Atlântico Sul, onde cerca de 270 espécies de peixes recifais e costeiros ocorrem. Para a avaliação das variações sazonais e ontogênicas na dieta, exemplares de L. analis foram obtidos através de um programa de monitoramento em quatro cidades do extremo sul da Bahia, entre junho de 2005 e março de 2007. Estômagos de 85 exemplares com comprimento total variando entre 18,1 e 74,0 cm foram examinados. Os itens alimentares foram identificados at

  5. Thermoeconomic analysis incorporating the concept of ecological efficiency; Analise termoeconomica incorporando o conceito de eficiencia ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [University of Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Environment Science ], Email: iraides@debas.eel.usp.br; Silveira, J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Energy], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the pollution resulting from the natural gas combustion for a thermoelectric power plant (230 MW) by utilizing the combined cycle (CC) and recovering kettle, with no burning and with fuel complementary burning. Initially the CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and Particulate Matter emission levels are determined. Later, the thermoelectric power plant environmental impact is evaluated through the utilization of a methodology based on the ecological efficiency ({epsilon}), parameter that integrates in a single coefficient the aspects that define the environmental impact intensity, with basis on the fuel utilized, combustion technology, pollution index and power plant thermodynamic efficiency. The objective is to apply the concept of ecological efficiency in a thermoeconomic analysis method which utilizes function diagram and allows the estimation of the electricity production cost. It is concluded that the use of a system with no complementary burning is better than the one with complementary burning, both from the ecological and the economical points of view. (author)

  6. A new approach to homeostatic regulation: towards a unified view of physiological and ecological concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric L Meunier

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric homeostasis is the ability of an organism to keep its body chemical composition constant, despite varying inputs. Stoichiometric homeostasis therefore constrains the metabolic needs of consumers which in turn often feed on resources not matching these requirements. In a broader context, homeostasis also relates to the capacity of an organism to maintain other biological parameters (e.g. body temperature at a constant level over ambient environmental variations. Unfortunately, there are discrepancies in the literature and ecological and physiological definitions of homeostasis are disparate and partly contradictory. Here, we address this matter by reviewing the existing knowledge considering two distinct groups, regulators and conformers and, based on examples of thermo- and osmoregulation, we propose a new approach to stoichiometric homeostasis, unifying ecological and physiological concepts. We suggest a simple and precise graphical way to identify regulators and conformers: for any given biological parameter (e.g. nutrient stoichiometry, temperature, a sigmoidal relation between internal and external conditions can be observed for conformers while an inverse sigmoidal response is characteristic of regulators. This new definition and method, based on well-studied physiological mechanisms, unifies ecological and physiological approaches and is a useful tool for understanding how organisms are affected by and affect their environment.

  7. [Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; de Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health.

  8. Resource degradation, marginalization, and poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to social-ecological resilience in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep K. Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In assessing why "fishery may rhyme with poverty", Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes, which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation, and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelerate poverty. We extend his analysis by exploring these four mechanisms further and by intertwining them with processes of environmental change and degradation. Our goal is to understand poverty in local fisheries as a process rooted in social and institutional factors as influenced by ecological dynamics. We argue that understanding poverty will require a focus on the social-ecological system (SES as a whole, and addressing poverty will mean rebuilding not only collapsed stocks but the entire social-ecological system, including restoring relationships between resources and people. Information from two cases, the Chilika Lagoon on the Bay of Bengal in India, and the Paraty region on the southeastern coast of Brazil, is used to understand how fishery social-ecological systems come under pressure from drivers at multiple levels, resulting in a range of impacts and pushing the system to a breaking point or collapse. We analyze elements of what it takes for the whole system to break down or collapse and push fishers into poverty and marginalization. The Chilika SES has already broken down, and the Paraty SES is under pressure from multiple drivers of change. The two cases help contrast key dynamics in the social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental spheres, for lessons on system collapse and recovery. Rebuilding fisheries may be examined as a process of building and strengthening resilience. The challenge is to make the fishery social-ecological system more resilient, with more flexibility and options, not only within fishing activities but also within a range of other sectors.

  9. Fire regime: history and definition of a key concept in disturbance ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Patrik; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Talbot, Lee M; Conedera, Marco

    2010-06-01

    "Fire regime" has become, in recent decades, a key concept in many scientific domains. In spite of its wide spread use, the concept still lacks a clear and wide established definition. Many believe that it was first discussed in a famous report on national park management in the United States, and that it may be simply defined as a selection of a few measurable parameters that summarize the fire occurrence patterns in an area. This view has been uncritically perpetuated in the scientific community in the last decades. In this paper we attempt a historical reconstruction of the origin, the evolution and the current meaning of "fire regime" as a concept. Its roots go back to the 19th century in France and to the first half of the 20th century in French African colonies. The "fire regime" concept took time to evolve and pass from French into English usage and thus to the whole scientific community. This coincided with a paradigm shift in the early 1960s in the United States, where a favourable cultural, social and scientific climate led to the natural role of fires as a major disturbance in ecosystem dynamics becoming fully acknowledged. Today the concept of "fire regime" refers to a collection of several fire-related parameters that may be organized, assembled and used in different ways according to the needs of the users. A structure for the most relevant categories of parameters is proposed, aiming to contribute to a unified concept of "fire regime" that can reconcile the physical nature of fire with the socio-ecological context within which it occurs.

  10. GEOEPIDERM – AN ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT THAT INTEGRATES SOIL COVER WITH ASSOCIATED LAND SURFACE COMPONENTS

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    I. Munteanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new concept of the “Epiderm of the Earth” introduced by the 2006 edition of the WRB-SR, the idea of “geoepiderm” has been developed. Besides its holistic meaning, by including both soil and non-soil materials found in the first 2 meters of the land surface, the term “geoepiderm” has a strong ecological sense, by suggesting similarity with the skin of the living organisms, as such, this concept is fully concordant with that of “Gaia” (Living Earth developed by James Lovelock. According to the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the soil and not soil coverings from the earth surface, ten kinds (classes of ‘geoepiderms” have been identified:1 – Protoderma (Entiderma– the primitive (emerging geoepiderm (mainly non-soil materials; five main subtypes: a Regoderma, b Leptoderma, c Areniderma, d Fluviderma and e Gleyoderma, were identified;2 – Cryoderma (Geliderma – geoepiderm of cold, mainly artic and subartic, regions with mean annual soil temperature <00C (often with perennial frozen subsoil - permafrost:3 – Arididerma – geoepiderm of arid regions and salt affected lands with limited or scarce available moisture; two subtypes: a Desertiderma, b Saliderma4 – Inceptiderma (or Juvenilederma – with 2 subtypes: a Cambiderma – a young (incipiently developed geoepiderm and b Andiderma, geoepiderm developed in volcanic materials;5 – Euderma – nutrient rich geoepiderm with two main subtypes: a Cherniderma (or Molliderma and b Luviderma (or Alfiderma;6 – Oligoderma – geoepiderm with low macro-nutrient and weatherable minerals content with 2 subtypes: a Podziderma (or Spodiderma and b Acriderma (or Ultiderma;7 – Ferriderma (Oxiderma or Senilederma – geoepiderm strongly weathered and with iron and aluminium hydroxides enrichment and low weatherable minerals reserve;8 – Vertiderma (Contractilederma – Contractile geoepiderm, developed from swelling clays;9 – Histoderma (Organiderma

  11. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  12. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a transitional forest in Maranhao, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Jivanildo P.; Andréa Ricci-Lobão; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate), but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing th...

  13. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

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    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  14. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  15. First attempts towards an integrative concept for the ecological assessment of groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steube, Christian; Richter, Simone; Griebler, Christian

    2009-02-01

    Healthy aquifers deliver important ecosystem services, e.g. the purification of infiltrating water and the storage of high-quality water over decades in significant quantities. The functioning of terrestrial and surface aquatic ecosystems directly depends on groundwater and vice versa. Nowadays, legislation has started to consider groundwater not only as a resource but as a living ecosystem. The assessment of ecosystems requires consideration of ecological criteria, which, so far, are not available for groundwater systems. In the framework of a project supported by the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), a first concept for the ecological assessment of groundwater ecosystems is developed. Steps to be taken are introduced, with a strong focus on microbes as potential bioindicators. These include (1) the typology of groundwater ecosystems, (2) the derivation of natural background values, (3) the identification of potential bioindicators, and (4) the development of an assessment model. First successes and difficulties associated with these challenges, e.g. the lack of simple correlations between abiotic and biotic variables, are discussed on the basis of a data set from a local and regional aquifer in NE Germany. The need for collaboration between ecologists, hydrogeologists and geochemists, as well as the application of modern approaches such as multivariate statistics, is emphasized.

  16. Mentoring Entrepreneurial Networks: mapping conceptions of participants in technological-based business incubators in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Regis, Helder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent entrepreneurship research agenda includes the analysis of cognitive structures of successful entrepreneurs, revealing an important tool for the examination of an entrepreneurial career. Using techniques of cognitive maps, this study explores the concepts of a successful career and the network itself, as a whole, for career development. Fifty-three entrepreneurs were studied, in seven technological incubators in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Specifically, this study aimed to map the shared meanings of the incubated entrepreneurs regarding informal support networks. Such networks support the entrepreneurial career and the present study explores the characteristics and the conceptual model that underlies the networks. The data collection was achieved through interviews through a free evocation technique. The shared meanings indicate the existence of inherent thought categories that support network context in the incubator environment, mainly the mentoring networks. The results endorse the interpretation of an informal mentoring model emerging from the dominant evocations concerning a successful career and of the network itself as promoter of career development.

  17. Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae in central Brazil.

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    Reuber A. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on diet, activity, habitat use, and anti-predator behavior are presented for a population of Pseudis bolbodactyla in central Brazil. The most common diet items were diurnal plant-associated insects. Pseudis bolbodactyla shows both diurnal and nocturnal activity and uses mainly areas with aquatic vegetation (submerged and emergent. Individuals detect predators Visually and through vibrations in the water.

  18. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil

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    T. N. Thel

    Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  19. Termite Communities in Sugarcane Plantations in Southeastern Brazil: an Ecological Approach

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    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Termites are key components of soil fauna, playing an essential role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, they can cause significant economic losses in commercial plantations, such as sugar cane. Therefore, the correct identification of termite species is critical for pest control. Here, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups of termites in sugarcane plantations in 53 cities throughout the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. We also analyzed the influence of macroclimatic variables on termite species distribution and functional groups. We found 22 taxa of two families, of which the most frequent species were Termitidae (96.51%. Within this family, Apicotermitinae had the highest frequency of occurrence (37.12%, followed by Termitinae (30.57%, Syntermitinae (27.95%, and Nasutitermitinae (0.8 %. The other family, Rhinotermitidae, had the lowest frequency (3.5%, being represented only by Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. We classified Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29.26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24.89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13.10%, and Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6.99% as common taxa. The remaining 18 species were classified as rare. The most common functional group was humus-feeders (37%, followed by wood-feeders (34%, grass-litter feeders (25%, and intermediate feeders (4%. Climate influenced the distribution of common species, humus-feeders and grass-litter feeders. Regarding the pest status of termites in sugar cane plantations, we suggest that the exasperated use of pesticide in the last decades has reduced the abundance of species considered pests (e.g. Heterotermes and reinforce the importance of ecological approaches for determining the best pest control methods. Comunidades de Cupins em Cultivos de Cana-de-Açúcar no Estado de São Paulo: Uma Abordagem Ecológica Resumo. Os cupins são importantes componentes da fauna de solo, atuando na decomposição da mat

  20. Ecologically sustainable weed management: How do we get from proof-of-concept to adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Matt; Baraibar, Bàrbara; Buckley, Yvonne; Childs, Dylan; Christensen, Svend; Cousens, Roger; Eizenberg, Hanan; Heijting, Sanne; Loddo, Donato; Merotto, Aldo; Renton, Michael; Riemens, Marleen

    2016-07-01

    Weed management is a critically important activity on both agricultural and non-agricultural lands, but it is faced with a daunting set of challenges: environmental damage caused by control practices, weed resistance to herbicides, accelerated rates of weed dispersal through global trade, and greater weed impacts due to changes in climate and land use. Broad-scale use of new approaches is needed if weed management is to be successful in the coming era. We examine three approaches likely to prove useful for addressing current and future challenges from weeds: diversifying weed management strategies with multiple complementary tactics, developing crop genotypes for enhanced weed suppression, and tailoring management strategies to better accommodate variability in weed spatial distributions. In all three cases, proof-of-concept has long been demonstrated and considerable scientific innovations have been made, but uptake by farmers and land managers has been extremely limited. Impediments to employing these and other ecologically based approaches include inadequate or inappropriate government policy instruments, a lack of market mechanisms, and a paucity of social infrastructure with which to influence learning, decision-making, and actions by farmers and land managers. We offer examples of how these impediments are being addressed in different parts of the world, but note that there is no clear formula for determining which sets of policies, market mechanisms, and educational activities will be effective in various locations. Implementing new approaches for weed management will require multidisciplinary teams comprised of scientists, engineers, economists, sociologists, educators, farmers, land managers, industry personnel, policy makers, and others willing to focus on weeds within whole farming systems and land management units. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Ecological aspects of the vectorial control of Chagas' disease in Brazil

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    Dias João Carlos P.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility and most important ecological aspects of vectorial Chagas' disease control are discussed. The spread and maintenance of this disease involve multiple ecological and sociopolitical factors that must be taken into account when control programs are planned, executed and evaluated. In spite of its complexity, Chagas disease can be controlled using methods that target specific mechanisms of transmission, the most important being vectorial and transfusional. Major ecological problems in Chagas' disease control do not exist, even in the case of the chemical control of triatomine vectors. The main challenges for the Brazilian Control Program at this moment are: its maintenance as a political priority; the threat of peridomestic vectors; and the consolidation of permanent horizontal and participative epidemiological surveillance systems against the vector.

  2. Social-Ecological Changes in a Quilombola Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Through a combined adaptive cycle and political ecology approach, this article explores how the Afro-Brazilian Quilombolas of Bombas, living inside the protected area of PETAR, respond to and shape social-ecological changes in the Atlantic Forest. Field data reveal that both environmental restrictions and social policies of state transfer payments and food packages have contributed to decreased engagement in agricultural practices, loss of traditional knowledge, and reduced agro-biodiversity. The claim to land rights based on a Quilombola identity and recent negotiations with forest authorities insinuate a shift of this trend. Contrary to dominant conservation narratives, the findings indicate that small-scale shifting cultivation practices by the Quilombolas have the potential to increase structural ecological complexity of the Atlantic Forest. The article therefore argues that legalization of settlement and subsistence activities is important not only for livelihood security and social cohesion of Bombas inhabitants, but also possibly for biodiversity conservation.

  3. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  4. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Raddi (Lacertilia, Scincidae at the restinga of Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the ecology of the skink Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 at the restinga habitat of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are studied. Most of the lizards were first sighted on the ground, though a few were using perches (mainly cacti up to 30 cm high. Mean body temperature in activity was 33.1 ± 2.4ºC and was significantly correlated to air temperature. There was sexual dimorphism in size (snout-vent length - SVL, with females growing larger than males. Frequency of broken tails was high overall (83% and did not differ between sexes. Females and males are sexually mature at 49 mm and 47 mm SVL, respectively. Brood size averaged 3.2 ± 1.0 (range 1-5 and was positively and significantly related to female SVL (r = 0.65, p = 0.001. Relative clutch mass (RCM of seven gravid females averaged 0.250 ± 0.042, being relatively low compared to those of other congeners. The diet of M. agilis was composed basically of arthropods, with relatively large and soft-bodied arthropods such as spiders, caterpillars and homopterans being the most important prey. The results of our work confirm and expand the knowledge of ecological tendencies previously observed for M. agilis in other areas.

  5. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  6. The Diatom Anorthoneis dulcis Hein from Southern Brazil: Morphology and Ecology

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    Garcia Marinês

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new geographic locality for Anorthoneis dulcis is reported. The paper describes the distribution and relative abundance of A. dulcis in Lagoa dos Patos lagoon (a lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil from samples collected between 2004 and 2005, and shows that this rare species is present all year round. This study extends the species distribution to South America indicating that the species can thrive on sand grains in lentic estuarine, and freshwater areas. It widens the range of tolerance to environmental parameters. The valve fine structure, morphology, and dimensions are in agreement with the original diagnosis.

  7. Monitoring the condition of the Canadian forest environment: The relevance of the concept of 'ecological indicators'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmins, J P

    1990-11-01

    The Canadian forest environment is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, especially in the west. Our forests vary according to climate, landform, and surficial geology, and according to the type, intensity, extent of, and the time since the last disturbance. Most Canadian forests have had a history of repeated acute, episodic disturbance from fire, insects, wind, diseases and/or logging, with a frequency of disturbance varying from a few decades to many centuries. These sources of variability have resulted in a complex and continually changing mosaic of forest conditions and stages of successional development.Monitoring the 'quality' of this dynamic forested landscape mosaic is extremely difficult, and in most cases the concept of a relatively simple index of forest ecosystem quality or condition (i.e. an 'ecological indicator') is probably inappropriate. Such ecological indicators are better suited for monitoring chronic anthropogenically induced disturbances that are continuous in their effect (e.g. 'acid rain', heavy metal pollution, air pollution, and the 'greenhouse effect') in ecosystems that, in the absence of such chronic disturbance, exhibit very slow directional change (e.g. lakes, higher order streams and rivers). Monitoring the effects of a chronic anthropogenic disturbance to forest ecosystems to determine if it is resulting in a sustained, directional alteration of environmental 'quality' will require a definition of the expected pattern of episodic disturbance and recovery therefrom (i.e. patterns of secondary succession in the absence of the chronic disturbance). Only when we have such a 'temporal fingerprint' of forest ecosystem condition for 'normal' patterns of disturbance and recovery can we determine if the ecosystem condition is being degraded by chronic human-induced alteration of the environment. Thus, degradation is assessed in terms of deviations from the expected temporal pattern of conditions rather than in terms of an

  8. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  9. Quaternary ecological and geomorphic changes associated with rainfall events in presently semi-arid northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auler, Augusto S.; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Cristalli, Patrícia S.; Smart, Peter L.; Richards, David A.

    2004-10-01

    Several geomorphic features and palaeobiotic remains in now semi-arid northeastern Brazil indicate major palaeoenvironmental changes during past periods of increased rainfall. 230Th mass spectrometric ages of speleothems and travertines have allowed the determination of the timing and duration of wetter than present conditions. The data demonstrate that wet events have occurred throughout much of the Pleistocene, present dry conditions having been established at the end of the Younger Dryas. A markedly different fauna comprising megafaunal elements not adapted to the present low arboreal scrubland caatinga vegetation existed in the area. Palaeobotanical remains embedded in travertine indicate forested vegetation at these wetter intervals, suggesting that the caatinga was then replaced or mixed with a semi-deciduous forest. Due to the abundance of travertine sites containing fossil botanical remains in northeastern Brazil, it is believed that forest expansion occurred over large areas of the now semi-arid zone, showing that the long hypothesised forested links between biodiversity-rich Amazon and Atlantic rainforests may indeed have existed during these moister phases. Copyright

  10. 景观生态学——概念与理论%Landscape Ecology -Concepts and Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬建国

    2000-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field that has been rapidly developing in the past few decades. New ideas and perspectives that emphasize spatial heterogeneity, hierarchical linkages, and interactions between pattern, process, and scale have given the field an unique and significant identity. This paper is intended to review and synthesize the recent advances in landscape ecology, presenting a set of core concepts and theories, which include scale, pattern - process, spatial heterogeneity, edge effect, hierarchy theory, patch dynamics, patch - corridor - matrix model, island biogeographic theory, metapepulation theory, landscape connectivity, neutral models, and percolation theory.

  11. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ALESSI, Claudia Álvares Calvo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; José Roberto ALVES; CORBETT, Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST) and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD). AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incrimi...

  13. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil/Ecologia trofica de Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 de um riacho costeiro do sudeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazzoni, R; Rezende, C.F; Manna, L.R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes...

  14. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

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    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  15. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

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    Sérgio de Faria Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species and Myrtaceae (20 species were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which Siparuna guianensis was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.

  16. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlaine A Menezes; Monique Van Sluys; Angélica F. Fontes; Carlos F. D Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used ...

  17. Local ecological knowledge and the interaction of porpoises with fishing on the coast of the state of Para, Brazil

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    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishing has a great importance to the socioeconomic development of the Amazonian riparian communities, which have a local knowledge on the environment, its fauna and flora. This knowledge is of paramount importance for the management and conservation of fish stocks and species that interact with the fishing activity, such as the populations of gray porpoises (Sotalia sp. and pink porpoises (Inia geoffrensis. Therefore, to register local ecological knowledge and the interaction of porpoises with fishing on the coast of the state of Para, Brazil, 82 semi-structured interviews were carried out in 3 different colonies of fishermen: colony Z-1 (Soure, colony Z-7 (Maracana, and colony Z-23 (Colares. The species Sotalia sp. had a strong social structure, it can be observed in the region both during the dry and rainy seasons, while the species I. geoffrensis didn’t present a social structure, it’s observed in the region especially during the rainy season. The pink porpoise showed a larger interaction with fishing than the gray porpoise, however, this interaction was particularly detrimental to the activity, while the gray porpoise showed both a beneficial and a harmful interaction with fishing. The incidental capture of porpoises primarily occurred through nets and trawls, harming their populations. Captured animals were mostly released, however, there were records of consumption for food, use as bait, and selling of the animal’s eyes. This information will constitute the basis for further studies on the biology, ecology, and estimate of the mortality of porpoises on the Amazon coast. Management measures should be adopted, along with the communities studied, for the conservation of these animals in the region.

  18. Ecological risks of trace metals in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: An index analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Aguiar, Valquiria Maria; de Lima, Michelle Nunes; Abuchacra, Rodrigo Coutinho; Abuchacra, Paula Ferreira Falheiro; Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Borges, Heloísa Vargas; de Oliveira, Vitor Calôr

    2016-11-01

    Total concentrations of Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in surface sediments from 30 stations in Guanabara Bay in 1999 and 2008. An approach using various environmental indices was used to assess contamination status of metals. This approach allowed the comparison with different coastal areas. Background Enrichment Index, Contamination index and Ecological Risk index (Pollution Load Index; Sediment Quality Guideline Quotient and Ecological Risk Index) were calculated for the metals. Results revealed a great load of organic matter and significant increases in Cu and Pb levels between 1999 and 2008. The concentrations of Cr and Zn were of great concern, surpassing the values of Probable Effect Level reference values. In spite of the differences of each index, results effectively revealed the striking contamination in Guanabara Bay concerning trace metals, and also suggested potential risk to local biota. The contamination of the northwest area was notably higher than the rest of the bay. In comparison with some other coastal bays around the world, Guanabara Bay stood out as a remarkably contaminated environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  20. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  1. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.

  2. Unpacking Changes in Mangrove Social-Ecological Systems: Lessons from Brazil, Zanzibar, and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H. Quinn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves provide multiple benefits, from carbon storage and shoreline protection to food and energy for natural resource-dependent coastal communities. However, they are coming under increasing pressure from climate change, coastal development, and aquaculture. There is increasing need to better understand the changes mangroves face and whether these changes differ or are similar in different parts of the world. Using a multiple case study approach, focused on Vietnam, Zanzibar, and Brazil, this research analyzed the drivers, pressures, states, impacts, and responses (DPSIR of mangrove systems. A qualitative content analysis was used on a purposively sampled document set for each country to identify and collate evidence under each of the DPSIR categories. Population growth and changing political and economic processes were key drivers across the three countries, leading to land use change and declining states of mangroves. This had an impact on the delivery of regulatory and provisioning ecosystem services from mangroves and on the welfare of coastal communities. Responses have been predominantly regulatory and aim to improve mangrove states, but without always considering ecosystem services or the consequences for welfare. The issue of scale emerged as a critical factor with drivers, pressures, impacts, and responses operating at different levels (from international to local, with consequences for response effectiveness.

  3. Ecology of a tick-borne spotted fever in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Binder, Lina C; Oliveira, Caroline S; Costa, Francisco B; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Gregori, Fábio; Polo, Gina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state of Brazil, bordering Uruguay. Clinical cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis were recently reported in Rio Grande do Sul. None of these cases was lethal, and all were confirmed by seroconversion to R. rickettsii antigens. Because serological cross-reactions are well known to occur between different SFG agents, the SFG agent responsible for the clinical cases remains unknown in Rio Grande do Sul, where no rickettsial agent is known to infect ticks. During 2013-2014, ticks and blood sera samples were collected from domestic dogs and wild small mammals, and from the vegetation in a SFG-endemic area of Rio Grande do Sul. Dogs were infested by Amblyomma ovale adult ticks, whereas small mammals were infested by immature stages of A. ovale, Ixodes loricatus, and adults of I. loricatus. Ticks collected on vegetation were adults of A. ovale, and immature stages of A. ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, and Amblyomma longirostre. Three Rickettsia species were detected: Rickettsia bellii in I. loricatus, Rickettsia amblyommii in A. longirostre, and a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) in A. ovale. Seroreactivity to SFG antigens were detected in 19.7 % (27/137) canine and 37.5 % (15/40) small mammal sera, with highest titers to R. parkeri. Results indicate that the R. parkeri-like agent, strain Atlantic rainforest, is circulating between A. ovale ticks, dogs and small mammals in the study area, suggesting that this SFG pathogen could be one of the etiological agents of SFG clinical cases in Rio Grande do Sul.

  4. Concept of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems applied for the implementation of PETROBRAS punctual and linear projects: case study of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Conceito de corredores ecologicos e sistemas agroflorestais aplicados a implantacao de empreendimentos pontuais e lineares em ambito PETROBRAS: estudo de caso do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secron, Marcelo B.; Mesquita, Ivan D.; Soares, Luiz Felipe R.; Almeida, Ronaldo Bento G. de; Fernandes, Renato; Dellamea, Giovani S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Rodrigo T.; Pereira Junior, Edson Rodrigues [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The land use and human occupation realized with an indiscriminate form across many parts of the world, including Brazil, have been causing destruction of great amount of forest mass and green areas. These actions results an isolation of a forest reminder fragment, and in such case, along the time, these fragments become weak and debilitated, characterizing general biodiversity loss or its extinction, in a worse case. This study presents basic concepts of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems, showing the case study that will be implemented in COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex), pointing the aspects that can be applied for PETROBRAS to offset impacts (biodiversity offsets concept) of punctual and linear projects. (author)

  5. Integrated ecological risk assessment of pesticides in tropical ecosystems: a case study with carbofuran in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, Sónia; Lopes, Isabel; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Domene, Xaxier; Nunes, Maria Edna Tenorio; Espíndola, Evaldo L G; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, Jose P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to contribute an ecologically relevant assessment of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticide applications in agricultural areas in the tropics, using an integrated approach with information gathered from soil and aquatic compartments. Carbofuran, an insecticide/nematicide used widely on sugarcane crops, was selected as a model substance. To evaluate the toxic effects of pesticide spraying for soil biota, as well as the potential indirect effects on aquatic biota resulting from surface runoff and/or leaching, field and laboratory (using a cost-effective simulator of pesticide applications) trials were performed. Standard ecotoxicological tests were performed with soil (Eisenia andrei, Folsomia candida, and Enchytraeus crypticus) and aquatic (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii) organisms, using serial dilutions of soil, eluate, leachate, and runoff samples. Among soil organisms, sensitivity was found to be E. crypticus bioassays performed with samples from the field trial, indicating the need for improvements in the laboratory simulator. However, the tool developed proved to be valuable in evaluating the toxic effects of pesticide spraying in soils and the potential risks for aquatic compartments.

  6. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling Characidae (Osteichthyes: Characiformes from the upper Tocantins River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we studied the trophic ecology of four Characidae species from the Cavalo Stream, upper Tocantins River, considering diet overlap and trophic niche breadth. The diet of the four species was composed of adult and immature insects, both autochthonous and allochthonous in origin. Autochthonous items dominated the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858, Bryconamericus sp., and Creagrutus atrisignum Myers, 1917. By contrast, allochthonous items were dominant in the diet of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758. Trophic niche breadth varied among species, with the highest value recorded for M. dichroura (0.48, followed by Bryconamericus sp. (0.39, A. bimaculatus (0.33 and C. atrisignum (0.29. Similarity analysis revealed two groups with different patterns of food preference. The first group was composed of insectivorous and the second by omnivorous species. The overlap in food items consumed by the four species studied was high. We suggest that resources are not limited in this stream and that competition might not be regulating these populations. This is one more case corroborating the general pattern registered for Tropical environments, where resource partitioning and specialization are responsible by the organization of fish communities.

  7. Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Design Quality in Brazil: Concepts, Approaches and an Example of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Waber Ornstein; Rosaria Ono

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to describe the origins and evolution of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) activities in Brazil. This methodology was consolidated in the Brazilian academic field in the mid-1990s. Whenever possible, parallels between activities carried out in this country and abroad are pointed out. Emphasis is given to the possibility of using POE to improve design quality, especially in architecture, and its use in the management of designing processes. In this sense, the article shows the ...

  8. The fiscal outcome of artificial conception in Brazil--creating citizens in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, G B; Ejzenberg, D

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue, but only a small fraction of the affected population receives treatment in Brazil, because it is not covered by the government or private health insurance plans. We developed a generational accounting-based mathematical model to assess the direct economic result of creating a citizen through IVF in different economic scenarios, and the potential economic benefit generated by the individual and his/her future offspring. A mathematical model analyzes the revenues and expenses of an IVF-conceived individual over his lifetime. We calculated the net present value (NPV) of an IVF-conceived citizen, and this value corresponds to the fiscal contribution to the government by an individual, from birth through his predicted life expectancy. The calculation used discount rates of 4.0 and 7.0% to depreciate the money value by time. A 4.0% discount rate represents the most favorable economic scenario in Brazil, and it results in an NPV of US$ 61 428. A 7.0% discount rate represents a less favorable economic reality, and it results in a debit of U$ 563, but this debt may be compensated by his/her future offspring. The fiscal contribution generated by each IVF-conceived citizen can justify an initial government investment in infertility treatment. Poor economic times in Brazil can sometimes result in a fiscal debt from each new IVF-conceived child, but this initial expenditure may be compensated by the fiscal contribution in the next generation.

  9. A workshop on asthma management programs and centers in Brazil: reviewing and explaining concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Stelmach

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the results of a workshop regarding asthma management programs and centers (AMPCs in Brazil, so that they can be used as a tool for the improvement and advancement of current and future AMPCs. Methods: The workshop consisted of five presentations and the corresponding group discussions. The working groups discussed the following themes: implementation of asthma management strategies; human resources needed for AMPCs; financial resources needed for AMPCs; and operational maintenance of AMPCs. Results: The workshop involved 39 participants, from all regions of the country, representing associations of asthma patients (n = 3, universities (n = 7, and AMPCs (n = 29. We found a direct relationship between a lack of planning and the failure of AMPCs. Based on the experiences reported during the workshop, the common assumptions about AMPCs in Brazil were the importance of raising awareness of managers; greater community participation; interdependence between primary care and specialized care; awareness of regionalization; and use of medications available in the public health system. Conclusions: Brazil already has a core of experience in the area of asthma management programs. The implementation of strategies for the management of chronic respiratory disease and their incorporation into health care system protocols would seem to be a natural progression. However, there is minimal experience in this area. Joint efforts by individuals with expertise in AMPCs could promote the implementation of asthma management strategies, thus speeding the creation of treatment networks, which might have a multiplier effect, precluding the need for isolated centers to start from zero.

  10. A workshop on asthma management programs and centers in Brazil: reviewing and explaining concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Rafael; Neto, Alcindo Cerci; Fonseca, Ana Cristina de Carvalho Fernandez; Ponte, Eduardo Vieira; Alves, Gerardo; Araujo-Costa, Ildely Niedia; Lasmar, Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury; de Castro, Luci Keiko Kuromoto; Lenz, Maria Lucia Medeiros; Silva, Paulo; Cukier, Alberto; Alves, Alexssandra Maia; Lima-Matos, Aline Silva; Cardoso, Amanda da Rocha Oliveira; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de São-José, Bruno Piassi; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Schor, Deborah; Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Brandenburg, Diego Djones; Camillo, Elineide Gomes dos Santos; Serpa, Faradiba Sarquis; Brandão, Heli Vieira; Lima, João Antonio Bonfadini; Pio, Jorge Eduardo; Fiterman, Jussara; Anderson, Maria de Fátima; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro de Lucena; Rodrigues, Marcelo Tadday; Pereira, Marilyn Nilda Esther Urrutia; Antila, Marti; Martins, Sonia Maria; Guimarães, Vanessa Gonzaga Tavares; Mello, Yara Arruda Marques; de Andrade, Wenderson Clay Correia; Salibe-Filho, William; Caldeira, Zelina Maria da Rocha; da Cruz-Filho, Álvaro Augusto Souza; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the results of a workshop regarding asthma management programs and centers (AMPCs) in Brazil, so that they can be used as a tool for the improvement and advancement of current and future AMPCs. Methods: The workshop consisted of five presentations and the corresponding group discussions. The working groups discussed the following themes: implementation of asthma management strategies; human resources needed for AMPCs; financial resources needed for AMPCs; and operational maintenance of AMPCs. Results: The workshop involved 39 participants, from all regions of the country, representing associations of asthma patients (n = 3), universities (n = 7), and AMPCs (n = 29). We found a direct relationship between a lack of planning and the failure of AMPCs. Based on the experiences reported during the workshop, the common assumptions about AMPCs in Brazil were the importance of raising awareness of managers; greater community participation; interdependence between primary care and specialized care; awareness of regionalization; and use of medications available in the public health system. Conclusions: Brazil already has a core of experience in the area of asthma management programs. The implementation of strategies for the management of chronic respiratory disease and their incorporation into health care system protocols would seem to be a natural progression. However, there is minimal experience in this area. Joint efforts by individuals with expertise in AMPCs could promote the implementation of asthma management strategies, thus speeding the creation of treatment networks, which might have a multiplier effect, precluding the need for isolated centers to start from zero. PMID:25750669

  11. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  12. Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fahning Ferreira Caló

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Local Ecological and Taxonomic Knowledge (LEK of fish held by fishermen in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, known as the snapper ("vermelho" was examined from August 2005 to November 2006. Semi-structured interviews and tests were made with fishermen selected under the criteria of "specialists". The data analysis followed the union model of the different individual competences. Grouping analysis was performed on data referring to the localities of the occurrence of these fish, depth, coloration, and morphological characteristics of the species using the Pearson correlation coefficient (UPGMA. A total of 19 species were named within the snapper group, although three of them could not be scientifically identified. The Lutjanidae family presented the greatest numbers of species (n = 9. Other families mentioned were: the Serranidae (n = 3, Holocentridae (n = 2, Priacanthidae (n = 1, Mullidae (n = 1. The 1:1 correspondence between fishermen's local names and scientific species observed in this study indicates the richness of local fishermen knowledge. Analysis of the LEK related to the feeding habits of these fish and indicated that most were considered as being carnivorous, which agrees with the specialized literature consulted. In terms of their spatial distribution, two categories were detected: locality of occurrence (rivers/sea, coast, and offshore and depth (surface, mid-depth, mid-depth/deep, deep. The fish were considered locally to be "winter fish", based on harvested yields. Most of the interviewees knew little about the reproductive aspects of these fish. The main criteria used to identify, name, and classify the species were based on color and morphological aspects. Much of the information gathered in this study agreed with the published literature, which strengthens the importance of including LEK in planning and decision-making processes.

  13. Ecological time-series analysis through structural modelling with latent constructs: concepts, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz, Pablo

    2005-04-01

    Time-series analyses in ecology usually involve the use of autoregressive modelling through direct and/or delayed difference equations, which severely restricts the ability of the modeler to structure complex causal relationships within a multivariate frame. This is especially problematic in the field of population regulation, where the proximate and ultimate causes of fluctuations in population size have been hotly debated for decades. Here it is shown that this debate can benefit from the implementation of structural modelling with latent constructs (SEM) to time-series analysis in ecology. A nonparametric bootstrap scheme illustrates how this modelling approach can circumvent some problems posed by the climate-ecology interface. Stochastic Monte Carlo simulation is further used to assess the effects of increasing time-series length and different parameter estimation methods on the performance of several model fit indexes. Throughout, the advantages and limitations of the SEM method are highlighted.

  14. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists–concepts, limitations, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Functional ecology is a subdiscipline that aims to enable a mechanistic understanding of patterns and processes from the organismic to the ecosystem level. This paper addresses some main aspects of the process-oriented current knowledge on phagotrophic, i.e. heterotrophic and mixotrophic, protist...

  15. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    GC. Rezende; P. Baldassin; H. Gallo; RJ Silva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contra...

  16. [Concept of system productivity and its significance in ecological reconstruction of pasture and agriculture transitional zone in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Mao, Liuxi

    2003-12-01

    In recent years, the debate on the strategies of developing Loess Plateau has been ended with a consensus, i.e., instead of traditional grain production, grass/livestock industries together with some other specific industries such as fruits and forests ought to be the "polar" industries in this area. However, such a new pattern has not appeared. Enlightened by the basic principles of ecology, the intrinsic contradiction between output and maintenance/repair of agro-ecosystem, in terms of energy requirement, could not be well coordinated and resolved just by raising the primary productivity or secondary productivity, which is particularly the case for such a ecologically fragile area as Loess Plateau. In this paper, a new concept of system productivity was proposed as a possible way that could use pluses and bypass minuses in ingeniously fitting the natural conditions and fully and rationally utilizing natural resources, especially the superiorities of climate resources, and centered on the selection and utilization of plant germplasms with higher water use efficiency, better coverage effect, and maximum biomass potential for fodder, i.e., cultivating fodder/feed-oriented plants for new livestock industry, thus finding an unprecedented approach that can harmonize the ecological reconstruction and development of vital industries.

  17. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  18. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  19. Taking stock after a decade: Does the ‘thresholds of potential concern’ concept need a socio-ecological revamp?

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    Harry Biggs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of thresholds of potential concern (TPCs as implemented for the last decade in strategic adaptive management in South African National Parks (SANParks, has proved workable in practice in a number of instances, but in others appears beset by conceptual and practical limitations or barriers. Three common challenges relate to (1 situations where there is uncertainty about whether and where real thresholds exist, (2 whether and how preferences and other social constructs, as opposed to what were seen as objective biophysical variables only, can be used for TPCs and (3 whether it is admissible to adjust TPCs to allow for variations in societal behaviour, in particular rate of management response. All three challenges arise in the face of TPC objectivity implied by the original definition, and in the light of the original view that TPCs be set some distance prior to a presumed ecological threshold. This paper suggests that the three challenges can be partly or largely dealt with by the use of a wider socio-ecological view, rather than seeing TPCs in isolation or as being only biophysical. Also, while detection of abrupt changes is helpful, it makes little practical difference if some TPCs happen to describe linear processes. The very decision to intervene can induce an abrupt change. Once a wider socio-ecological approach is employed, it becomes necessary for the user to specify the particular usage envisaged for the TPC, for instance, whether it is considered a preference and whether that preference is believed in any way to be related to an ecological threshold. In all cases, it is recommended that some form of explicit representation of the socio- ecological view is constructed – we suggest a cause-and-effect diagram (and give an example generated through a thought experiment which describes presumed relationships in the subsystem of interest. This provides a broader systemic context and a shared understanding, and has implications

  20. How the Social-Ecological Systems Concept Can Guide Transdisciplinary Research and Implementation: Addressing Water Challenges in Central Northern Namibia

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    Stefan Liehr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at contributing to the further development of integrated water resources management needs to tackle complex challenges at the interface of nature and society. A case study in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia has shown how semi-arid conditions coinciding with high population density and urbanisation present a risk to people’s livelihoods and ecosystem health. In order to increase water security and promote sustainable water management, there is a requirement for problem-oriented research approaches combined with a new way of thinking about water in order to generate evidence-based, adapted solutions. Transdisciplinary research in particular addresses this issue by focusing on the problems that arise when society interacts with nature. This article presents the implementation of a transdisciplinary research approach in the above-mentioned case study. The concept of social-ecological systems (SES plays a key role in operationalising the transdisciplinary research process. Application of the SES concept helps to outline the problem by defining the epistemic object, as well as structure the research process itself in terms of formulating research questions and developing the research design. It is argued here that the SES concept is not merely useful, but also necessary for guiding transdisciplinary sustainability research and implementation. The study from Namibia clearly demonstrates that the introduction of technological innovations such as rainwater and floodwater harvesting plants requires a social-ecological perspective. In particular this means considering questions around knowledge, practices and institutions related to water resources management and includes various societal innovations alongside technologies on the agenda.

  1. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  2. Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Design Quality in Brazil: Concepts, Approaches and an Example of Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Waber Ornstein

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the origins and evolution of post-occupancy evaluation (POE activities in Brazil. This methodology was consolidated in the Brazilian academic field in the mid-1990s. Whenever possible, parallels between activities carried out in this country and abroad are pointed out. Emphasis is given to the possibility of using POE to improve design quality, especially in architecture, and its use in the management of designing processes. In this sense, the article shows the benefits of POE studies applied in different types of occupancies. Specifically, a case study of school building is presented. Finally, a number of conclusions are drawn regarding prognoses as to the limits of its use in the professional practice of architects, urban planners and designers. The POE's potential to provide feedback for positive design practices, benchmarks, and for updating building codes and standards is also discussed. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2009.0102 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 6, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 48-67(20

  3. The Azteca Chess experience: learning how to share concepts of ecological complexity with small coffee farmers

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    Luís García-Barrios

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale coffee farmers understand certain complex ecological processes, and successfully navigate some of the challenges emerging from the ecological complexity on their farms. It is generally thought that scientific knowledge is able to complement farmers' knowledge. However, for this collaboration to be fruitful, the gap between the knowledge frameworks of both farmers and scientists will need to be closed. We report on the learning results of 14 workshops held in Chiapas, Mexico during 2015 in which 117 small-scale coffee farmers of all genders (30% women and ages who had little schooling were exposed by researchers to a natural history narrative, a multispecies network representation, a board game, and a series of graphical quizzes, all related to a nine-species complex ecological network with potential for autonomous control of the ongoing and devastating coffee rust epidemic that was affecting them. Farmers' retention and understanding of direct and indirect bilateral interactions among organisms was assessed with different methods to elucidate the effect of adding Azteca Chess gaming sessions to a detailed and very graphical lecture. Evaluation methods that were better adapted to farmers' conditions improved learning scores and showed statistically significant age effect (players older than 40 had lower retention scores and gaming effect (lower retention of interactions included in the lecture but not in the game. The combination of lecture and game sessions helped participants better understand cascades of trait-mediated interactions. Participants' debriefings confirmed qualitatively that they learned that beneficial organisms and interactions occur on their farms, and that gaming was enjoyable, motivating, and critical to grasp complex interactions. Many of the farmers concluded that the outcome of these interactions is not unique and not always in favor of rust control but is context dependent. Many concluded that there are

  4. Use of the ecosystem services concept in ecological risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Calow, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The reason for expressing ecological protection goals in terms of ecosystem services is to make a connection between ecosystems and what people get out of them in terms of marketed goods and nonmarketed welfare. Here our focus will be on how the ecosystem services framework is and can be applied to the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals. We provide 2 contrasting examples of how the ecosystem services framework is currently being applied in regulatory risk assessment, and we discuss the challenges and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed if such a framework is to substantially improve ERAs and their ability to inform management decisions. We make the point that formulating protection goals in terms of ecosystem services only makes sense if they can be used in managing environmental impacts and if they are useful in informing the risk assessments behind these. Ecosystem services can make a contribution to management by connecting ecosystem structure and process to what is valued, and analyzing risk in this context is a way of making risk assessment more policy- and value-relevant. Using an ecosystem services framework to its fullest potential to support ERA will require the successful development of a suite of coupled Valuation Methods, Ecological Production Functions, and Mechanistic Effect Models that will require the establishment of strong multidisciplinary collaborations among ecologists, computer scientists, social scientists, and possibly others. In addition, buy-in from environmental decision makers and other stakeholders will be crucial. Some progress is being made on the research front, and the implementation of new legislation is providing incentives for developing risk assessment outputs that are much more directly related to environmental protection goals than those used currently. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. Ecological Rationality in Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment across Samples from Cyprus and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin Thomas Lumsden; Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher conceptions of assessment are influential mediators of how assessment policy initiatives are implemented in schools. Four hierarchical, intercorrelated factors (i.e., assessment for improvement, school accountability, and student accountability, and assessment as irrelevant) of how teachers' conceive of assessment have been reported.…

  6. O valor da marca: conceitos, abordagens e estudos no Brasil Brand equity: concepts, approaches and studies in Brazil

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    Marta Olivia Rovedder de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O valor da marca é um importante construto a ser estudado porque é associado a benefícios-chave tanto para os consumidores quanto para as empresas, de forma que existe um crescente reconhecimento de que as marcas são recursos capazes de melhorar o valor ao acionista. O presente estudo visa verificar os estudos relativos ao valor da marca realizados no Brasil. Para tanto, primeiramente revisa conceitos e construtos existentes. Após, aponta alguns modelos de mensuração e, por fim, realiza um levantamento, dentre algumas das principais publicações brasileiras de administração, sobre os trabalhos realizados atinentes a esse tema. O levantamento dos estudos demonstrou que, nos últimos anos 2007 e principalmente 2006 , ocorreu um crescimento dessas pesquisas, mas ainda há um amplo caminho para esses estudos no Brasil. Muitos estudos são de caráter teórico-conceitual, existindo espaço para avanços em pesquisas de caráter empírico. Crê-se que ainda haja espaço para pesquisas que relacionem o desempenho da marca ao desempenho empresarial, seja lucratividade ou valor ao acionista. Também existe uma carência de estudos que observem concomitantemente a perspectiva de valor dos consumidores e das empresas. Dentre as contribuições que essa pesquisa buscou oferecer destacam-se, além dos conceitos, modelos e estudos levantados, a indicação de futuras pesquisas no Brasil.Brand equity is an important construct to be studied because it is associated to key benefits for both customers and companies, as it is increasingly acknowledged that brands are resources able to improve the stockholder value. This study seeks to review the studies related to brand equity performed in Brazil. As such, it first reviews existing concepts and constructs. Then it points out some measuring models, and finally performs a survey of the papers published on this theme in the main Brazilian administration publications. The survey of the studies has shown that

  7. Transforming "Ecosystem" from a Scientific Concept into a Teachable Topic: Philosophy and History of Ecology Informs Science Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Efimia; Stamou, George

    2017-04-01

    This study conducts a textbook analysis in the frame of the following working hypothesis: The transformation of scientific knowledge into school knowledge is expected to reproduce the problems encountered with the scientific knowledge itself or generate additional problems, which may both induce misconceptions in textbook users. Specifically, we describe four epistemological problems associated with how the concept of "ecosystem" is elaborated within ecological science and we examine how each problem is reproduced in the biology textbook utilized by Greek students in the 12th grade and the resulting teacher and student misunderstandings that may occur. Our research demonstrates that the authors of the textbook address these problems by appealing simultaneously to holistic and reductionist ideas. This results in a meaningless and confused depiction of "ecosystem" and may provoke many serious misconceptions on the part of textbook users, for example, that an ecosystem is a system that can be applied to every set of interrelated ecological objects irrespective of the organizational level to which these entities belong or how these entities are related to each other. The implications of these phenomena for science education research are discussed from a perspective that stresses the role of background assumptions in the understanding of declarative knowledge.

  8. The substantive concept of african slavery in Brazil: use and appropriations of textbook narratives by teacher and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Terezinha Ferrarini Gevaerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on authors who have been discussing the History textbook issue, especially Jörn Rüsen (1997, 2010, 2012, I seek to present in this work some of the results of the research that is being developed in my postdoctoral studies within the Postgraduate Programme in Education from the Federal University of Parana, more specifically within the Center for Research in Educational Publications, under the supervision of Professor Tânia Maria Braga Garcia. The results here presented focus more specifically on the use and appropriations, by students and teacher, of the historical narratives present in the textbook regarding the substantive concept of african slavery in Brazil. The target audience in question involved primary education, seventh grade students (11 to 13 years of age from a school belonging to the Municipal Education System of Curitiba. Some considerations can be pointed out, one of which is that the textbook has been used by the teacher in a way it becomes the “visible text of the disciplinary code of school History” (CUESTA FERNANDEZ, 1997, 1998, one of the ways to teach and learn History. As to the appropriations of the textbook narratives by the students, it can be stated that they were explicit in their narratives, inasmuch as the students incorporated to their texts the ideas present in the textbook after the didactic intervention.

  9. Taxonomic identification of algae (morphological and molecular): species concepts, methodologies, and their implications for ecological bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoylov, Kalina M

    2014-06-01

    Algal taxonomy is a key discipline in phycology and is critical for algal genetics, physiology, ecology, applied phycology, and particularly bioassessment. Taxonomic identification is the most common analysis and hypothesis-testing endeavor in science. Errors of identification are often related to the inherent problem of small organisms with morphologies that are difficult to distinguish without research-grade microscopes and taxonomic expertise in phycology. Proposed molecular approaches for taxonomic identification from environmental samples promise rapid, potentially inexpensive, and more thorough culture-independent identification of all algal species present in a sample of interest. Molecular identification has been used in biodiversity and conservation, but it also has great potential for applications in bioassessment. Comparisons of morphological and molecular identification of benthic algal communities are improved by the identification of more taxa; however, automated identification technology does not allow for the simultaneous analysis of thousands of samples. Currently, morphological identification is used to verify molecular taxonomic identities, but with the increased number of taxa verified in algal gene libraries, molecular identification will become a universal tool in biological studies. Thus, in this report, successful application of molecular techniques related to algal bioassessment is discussed.

  10. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  11. Correlative and dynamic species distribution modelling for ecological predictions in the Antarctic: a cross-disciplinary concept

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    Thomas Saucède

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developments of future scenarios of Antarctic ecosystems are still in their infancy, whilst predictions of the physical environment are recognized as being of global relevance and corresponding models are under continuous development. However, in the context of environmental change simulations of the future of the Antarctic biosphere are increasingly demanded by decision makers and the public, and are of fundamental scientific interest. This paper briefly reviews existing predictive models applied to Antarctic ecosystems before providing a conceptual framework for the further development of spatially and temporally explicit ecosystem models. The concept suggests how to improve approaches to relating species’ habitat description to the physical environment, for which a case study on sea urchins is presented. In addition, the concept integrates existing and new ideas to consider dynamic components, particularly information on the natural history of key species, from physiological experiments and biomolecular analyses. Thereby, we identify and critically discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. These refer to process understanding of biological complexity, the need for high spatial resolution oceanographic data from the entire water column, and the use of data from biomolecular analyses in support of such ecological approaches. Our goal is to motivate the research community to contribute data and knowledge to a holistic, Antarctic-specific, macroecological framework. Such a framework will facilitate the integration of theoretical and empirical work in Antarctica, improving our mechanistic understanding of this globally influential ecoregion, and supporting actions to secure this biodiversity hotspot and its ecosystem services.

  12. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  13. Assessment of water quality in areas of ecological economic zoning of the Guapiaçu-Macacu basin, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilio Fernandes Baptista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems have often been significantly altered by multiple impacts. The Guapiaçu-Macacu Hydrographic Complex is an important basin in Rio de Janeiro characterized by distinct ecological zones that make up an Ecological Economic Zoning. This research evaluated ecological upright in segments of this Complex located in Wildlife Conservation Zone (WCZ and the Agricultural Use Zone (AUZ using the Protocol Visual Assessment (PVA and physical, chemicals and microbiology methods. The results showed a significant difference between the points of lowest contamination degree in WCZ and stretches with a greater impact degree in AUZ. The PVA was more sensible than the conventional parameters in the resolution between segments impacted environmentally and impacted middle located in AUZ. This type of evaluation proved to be more effective in environmental monitoring the water quality for watersheds that have their Ecological Economic Zoning Plan. Therefore, the use of physical, chemical and microbiological methods must be complemented by the PVA.

  14. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  15. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae, living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higer number of prey (but in lower volume when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  16. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae), living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Anjos, L A

    2007-08-01

    We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higher number of prey (but in lower volume) when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  17. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  18. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  19. The application of lichens as ecological surrogates of air pollution in the subtropics: a case study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Natália M; Branquinho, Cristina; Matos, Paula; Pinho, Pedro; Lucheta, Fabiane; Martins, Suzana M A; Vargas, Vera M F

    2016-10-01

    The use of lichens as ecological surrogates has been an important tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution in both ecosystem and human health but remains underused in the subtropics due to lack of knowledge. Aiming to support the application of lichen as ecological surrogates of the effects of air pollution in the subtropics, we hypothesized that urbanization was an important driver of changes on lichen diversity, composition, and vitality. For that, we quantified several lichen diversity metrics (richness, cover, and community composition) and photobiont vitality in relation to atmospheric pollution or its surrogates (modeled pollutant gases, pollutants in lichen thallus, and land cover). We confirmed that air pollution was a key driver for lichen diversity. Changes in lichen community composition and vitality were very significantly related to air pollution and integrated the effect of multiple stressors (particulate matter, NOx, and Cu), thus being powerful ecological indicators of air pollution in the subtropics.

  20. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

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    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  1. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  2. Contextualization of the superior courses of environment in Brazil: environmental engineering, sanitary engineering, ecology, technicians and sequences

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    Gerson Araújo de Medeiros,

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of superior courses related to the environmental area has increased surprisingly in Brazil in the last decade and in the beginning of the 21st century, situation possibly stimulated by the policy of increase of the superior education, courses, and offered vacancies propagated by the Education Ministry in the last years as well as by the increasing environmental preoccupation and the consequent addition in the search for qualified professionals in this area. In this context, new undergraduation courses in Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management have emerged to form professionals with similar habilitation to other already established professions such as the sanitary engineer and the ecologist as well as the other traditional professionals (engineers, geologists, biologists, geographers, chemist. Because of that, there is, currently, a very offensive discussion in the organs of the class, at the education institutes, and in the general society about the area of actuation of the professionals that works in the environmental area. In the present article it is shown a data survey about superior courses (graduation, technology or sequences of environment in Brazil as well as the norms and legislations that regulate the performance of these professionals. The aim is to analyze the basic questions related to each course, and to work as subsidy to further analyses and discussions.

  3. Ecology of endoparasites of the fluvial stingray Potamotrygon falkneri (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    ACF. Lacerda

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the ecological relationships between endoparasites and the host Potamotrygon falkneri from the upper Paraná River by using as indicators the host's relative condition factor (Kn, sex and hepatosomatic relation (HSR. Forty-seven specimens of P. falkneri were analyzed between March 2005 and September 2006. Statistical analysis showed that the Kn was positively correlated with the abundance of Acanthobothrium regoi and Rhinebothrium paratrygoni; only the abundance of A. regoi was positively correlated to the HSR, whereas R. paratrygoni did not present correlation and there was no influence of the host's sex on the abundance and prevalence of parasites. This is the first study concerning the ecology of parasites of potamotrygonids.

  4. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo,Alfredo C. R.; Sérgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurício L. Vilela; Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1993-01-01

    In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species...

  5. Rational Use of Natural Potential State Dendropark "Аlexandria" of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the Concept of Ecological Network in Ukraine

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    Galkin, S.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides information about scientific research and technological activities undertaken to create a socionatural structure – nature trail in the State deontological park «Alexandria» NAS in the concept of development of ecological network in Ukraine. Its purpose and method of research, objectives and purpose, criteria for the building of the trail, the length and the number of constituent elements of ecological trails in the deontological park “Alexandria” are presented. The data on the history of the building of nature trails in Ukraine and the deontological park “Alexandria”, information about objects or parts of the trail, the species composition of introduction collections is given. List of new species in the deontological park that are planted for optimization of introduction and natural plant communities, rare and endangered species of plants and animals, permanent collection sites and a list of technical measures for resettlement ecological trail is presented.

  6. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  7. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Heitor de Oliveira; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen's ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen's profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach's Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = -0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H = 8.33; p = 0

  8. Developing a concept of social-ecological-technological systems to characterize resilience of urban areas and infrastructure to extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Grimm, N. B.; Redman, C.; Miller, T.; McPherson, T.; Munoz-Erickson, T.; Chandler, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is widely considered one of the greatest challenges to global sustainability, with extreme events being the most immediate way that people experience this phenomenon. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to these events given their location, concentration of people, and increasingly complex and interdependent infrastructure. We are developing a conceptual framework for urban social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) that will allow researchers and practitioners to assess how infrastructure can be resilient, provide ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit urban populations. The framework integrates the three domains of social and equity issues, environmental quality and protection, and technical/engineering aspects, to form a concept of infrastructure that occurs at the intersection of the domains. Examples show how the more common socioecological systems and socially sensitive engineering approaches that fail to incorporate the third dimension may elevate vulnerability to climate-related disaster. The SETS conceptual framework bridges currently siloed social science, environmental science, and engineering approaches to significantly advance research into the structure, function, and emergent properties of SETS. Extreme events like heat waves in Phoenix; coastal and urban flooding in the wake of superstorm Sandy and following hurricanes in Miami, FL; drought in Mexico; and urban flooding in Baltimore, Portland, San Juan PR, Syracuse, and Valdivia, Chile provide examples of the impacts of and vulnerability to extreme events that demand a new approach. The infrastructure of the future must be resilient, leverage ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit all segments of urban populations and are appropriate to the particular urban contexts. These contexts are defined not only by the biophysical environment but also by culture and

  9. Energy balance in the Cerrado of Ecological Station of Assis – Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Edson Xavier Fernandes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the net radiation partitioning (Rn between latent heat (LE and sensible heat fluxes (H and its relationship with water availability (rain in an area with Cerrado vegetation in the state São Paulo, Brazil. Heat fluxes follow the energy standard available in the environment, with higher values during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. However, in the dry season, increased sensible heat flux over the latent heat flux was observed, which could be due to the lower water availability in the environment. Similar studies that have examined the dynamics of natural systems can contribute to the development of public policies for preservation and conservation of natural resources in a context in which the man-nature relationship is marked by imbalances in view of the form of use of natural resources based on predatory model adopted by society over the past 200 years.

  10. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

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    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  11. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado da Silva, Alba Valéria; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  12. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  13. The Ecosystem Concept and Linking Models of Physical-Chemical Processes to Ecological Responses: Introduction and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    fields called variously “ ecological engineering ,” “ecosystems modeling,” and “systems ecology” (White et al. 1992). Rapid advances in computing...The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist 54: 421-431. Levins, R. 1968. Ecological engineering : theory and technology

  14. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

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    Alfredo C. R. de Azevedo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species captured of man forming 60.30% of the total catch. L. richarwardi was the most frequent at ground level (29.9%, while L. umbratilis predominated in the canopy (48.5%.

  15. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  16. 环境艺术设计中的生态理念问题%Research on Ecological Concept in Environmental Art Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 陈文福

    2013-01-01

    21世纪,工业文明在带给人们方便、舒适的同时,也带来了严重的水污染、大气污染、硫酸雨、资源枯竭等环境、生态问题。生态危机逐步引发了人们有关生活方式、生存空间和价值观念的反思,于是导致了环境艺术设计的快速发展。遗憾的是,人们关注更多的是环境艺术设计中的生态理念以及生态理念在环境艺术设计中的应用。为解决相关问题,重点介绍了环境艺术设计的概念和内容,以及环境艺术设计中所运用的生态理念的基本特征与基本原则,从而进一步探讨了生态理念在环境艺术设计中具体的应用及其实践内容。%In the 21st century, the industrial civilization brings humans not only comfort and convenience but serious environmental problems, such as water and air pollution, sulfur acid rain, resource depletion, etc. Ecological crisis has gradually sparked human relfection on their lifestyle, living space and values, which is a stepping stone for the development of environmental art design as well. On the contrary, people pay more attention to the ecological concept in the environmental art design and the application of ecological concept in the environmental art design. This paper mainly introduces the concept and contents of environmental art design. Besides, the essential features and basic principles of the ecological concept in the environmental art design are also concerned, which are made to further expound the concrete application and practice in the process of ecological concept in the environmental art design.

  17. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, G C; Baldassin, P; Gallo, H; Silva, R J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species), found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species), both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species.

  18. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  19. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  20. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  1. At risk of population decline? An ecological and genetic approach to the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha (Arecaceae) of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Maurício S

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the risk of population decline for the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha, we investigated the patterns of demography, natural regeneration, herbivory, and the levels of genetic diversity using 9 microsatellite loci from both adults and seedlings sampled from 4 populations in Southern Brazil (n = 330). Our results indicate that cattle grazing in B. eriospatha population areas severely affect their demographic structure. Three B. eriospatha populations showed a bimodal age structure made up of adult plants and seedlings and high rates (>77%) of livestock herbivory. For 1 population, we describe and quantify for the first time the occurrence of 6 ontogenetic stages for this threatened palm species. Populations of B. eriospatha showed high levels of genetic differentiation (F ST adult plants = 0.287, F ST seedlings = 0.175). The amount of observed heterozygosity differed significantly between small (H O = 0.329) and large populations (H O = 0.461), indicating that small populations can be more susceptible to genetic drift. With no recruitment and a mortality rate of 2.0%, we show that the populations investigated in this study would be at an extremely high risk of local extinction, with a greater than 50% reduction in the effective population size, in the next 40 years. Although this study highlights the importance of analyzing both population ecology parameters and genetic data to better understand the level of risk facing threatened species, we emphasize that policy actions are urgently needed for effective conservation of this vulnerable biological resource.

  2. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  3. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. III - daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence

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    Guimarães Anthony Érico

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae was studied in areas of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. Sabethini species were captured exclusively during daylight periods, with the exception of Trichoprosopon digitatum, while members of Anophelinae predominated during nocturnal hours. Members of the subfamily Culicinae that were collected primary during nocturnal periods included Culex nigripalpus, Coquillettidia chrysonotum and Cq. venezuelensis while daytime catches included Psorophora ferox and Ps. albipes. Others members of culicines mosquitoes that were collected during both day and night included: Aedes serratus, Ae. scapularis and Ae. fulvus. Lunar cycles did not appear to influence the daily biting rhythms of most mosquito species in the area, but larger numbers of mosquitoes were collected during the new moon. Ae. scapularis were captured mainly during the full moon.

  4. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Casanova, Cláudio; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  5. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

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    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  6. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Eliza M. X. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be linked to different thermal needs between age groups owing to differences in body size. Body temperatures were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Most teiid species have elevated body temperatures, usually above 37oC, and are active during the hottest times of day, as was observed for A. ameiva in this study. Seasonality influenced habitat use and daily activity periods of adults, but not body temperatures. We verified annual fluctuations in adult abundance, with a decline of active lizards in the dry season; this phenomenon may be related to aestivation and/or increased mortality rate during the driest months.

  7. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  8. Body size, reproduction and feeding ecology of Pleurodema diplolister (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae from Caatinga, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil

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    José Guilherme G. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data about body size, sexual dimorphism, reproductive traits and diet ecology of Pleurodoma diplolister. This species is sexually dimorphic with females larger than males, corroborating others Leiuperidae species. The number of eggs varied from 62 to 1241 and we found a positive relationship between SVL of females and number of mature ovarian eggs but there is no relationship between SVL and volume of eggs. The diet of P. diplolister was composed by 11 categories of which Formicidae, Coleoptera and Orthopterans were the most important items and showed generalist and oportunistic predator habits. Data presented here should be considered in the development of future conservation strategies of anurans from Caatinga biome and other semiarid/arid environments.

  9. Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: a case study of jaguars (Panthera onca in Emas National Park, Central Brazil

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    Thannya Nascimento Soares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed for domestic cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother's genotypes for some of the loci, 10000 values of W were derived by simulation procedures. The male that killed the two cubs was assigned as the true sire. Although the reasons for this behavior remain obscure, it shows, in principle, a low recognition of paternity and kinship in the species. Since the two cubs were not very young, one possibility is that the adult male did not recognize the cubs and killed them for simple territorial reasons. Thus, ecological stress in this local population becomes a very plausible explanation for this infanticide, without further sociobiological implications.

  10. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830) feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2015-01-01

    Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil), and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food resources abundance and diversity at the Miranda river gallery forest (Southern Pantanal). I also analyzed the relationships between Chaco chachalacas feeding activity and food resources abundance. This parameter (flowers and fruits) exhibited significant seasonal differences of abundance in which flowers were plentiful at the end of the dry, while fruits were abundant during the early wet season. However, food resources diversity to Chaco chachalacas exhibited no seasonal difference. Their feeding activity paralleled the availability of food resources, so that when some items were massively available an enhanced number of Chaco chachalacas foraged in the gallery forest, particularly during the prolonged dry season when they extensively used flowers and Genipa americana fruits. In fact, the Chaco chachalaca feeding niche breadth value presented low values in this period, while high values were common in the rest of the year. The flexible diet of this cracid, potentially favors their year round presence in the gallery forest, mainly during the prolonged dry season when the propensity for famine might be high. Since the Chaco chachalaca is among the largest and most abundant canopy frugivores in the gallery forest, it may contribute to forest regeneration, an underscored role due to the impact of annual floods and meandering dynamics on tree loss.

  11. Feeding habits of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus 1766, in the Ecological Reserve of Taim (ESEC - Taim - south of Brazil

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    Lucélia do Valle Borges

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine feeding habitats of capybaras in the ESEC-Taim (RS, Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Data were analyzed seasonally. In 172 samples analyzed, 17 species were identified, with predominance of Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis was the most frequent species in winter (38%, spring (32% and summer (26.5% and Paspalum disthichum in fall (31.5%. A observed increase in vegetation consumption during summer might be due to the food quality. Capybaras showed an opportunistic behavior in the winter and summer and a more selective behavior in spring and fall. Capybaras from the ESEC-Taim varied diet according to the season and alimentary availability.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os hábitos alimentares das capivaras na ESEC-Taim baseado na análise microhistologica de suas fezes. Os dados foram analisados sazonalmente. Em 172 amostras analisadas, foram identificadas 17 espécies, com predominância de Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis foi a espécie mais freqüente no inverno (38%, primavera (32% e verão (26,5% e Paspalum disthichum no outono (31,5%. O aumento no consumo da vegetação durante o verão pode ser explicado devido à qualidade da vegetação. As capivaras mostram um comportamento de oportunismo nas estações de inverno e verão e um comportamento mais seletivo na primavera e outono. Concluindo, as capivaras da ESEC-Taim variam sua dieta de acordo com a estação e a disponibilidade de comida.

  12. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBTIDAL MACROALGAL ASSEMBLAGES AT THE TAMOIOS ECOLOGICAL STATION, A THREATENED CONSERVATION UNIT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Victor de Souza Koutsoukos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of subtidal rocky bottom communities at Tamoios Ecological Station (TES, situated in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, as well as in other Brazilian marine protected areas, is insufficiently characterized. The present study describes the macroalgal assemblages of shallow subtidal rocky bottoms on two islands of the TES-Imboassica (IM and Búzios Pequena (BPadopting species and genera as observational units. Two sites were surveyed on each island in summer 2011. Random 30x30 cm quadrats (n=3 were scraped to collect all macroalgae except crustose species. The subtidal assemblages, in which 58 macroalgal species occurred, were characterized by the high frequency and percent cover of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh (56.8±8.4%. The sites differed significantly in total number of species and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (PERMANOVA, p5% were Sargassum, Laurencia, Wrangelia, Canistrocarpus, Asparagopsis, Hypnea, Ceratodictyon, Gayliella, Spyridia and Chondria.Dissimilarities within and between the islands, as shown by nMDS of the cover data, suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in monitoring the rocky bottom communities of Ilha Grande Bay.

  13. Ecological water quality assessment in the Guapiaçu-Macacu hydrographic complex (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using multiple indicators

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    Priscilla S. Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quick diagnosis of the ecological quality of five sections of the Macacu-Guapiaçu hydrographic complex was performed using visual assessment protocol (VAP, conventional analysis, composition and structure of ciliates and the occurrence of benthic macro invertebrates. Water samples were collected from five sampling stations (A-E in July of 2010. Protists were sampled with aid of artificial substrates, and macro invertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method. A total of 22 taxa of protozoa and 51 taxa of macro invertebrates was registered at the five stations. Reference station (A showed greater protist diversity and higher values of BMWP-CETEC and IBE-IOC indices relating to macro invertebrates. The impacted stations (B and E presented lower diversity and higher abundance of protozoa, as well as the lowest values for the rates. The four methods used were convergent to diagnose reference station (A, the impacted stations (B and E and those in intermediate conditions (C and D. Thus, the methods were complementary, as the conventional parameters and ciliate assembly were more sensitive to detecting the increase in organic pollution and VAP and macro invertebrate assembly detected changes in geomorphology and habitat degradation.

  14. LANDSCAPE VALUATION BASED ON THE ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF TAYASSU PECARI AND TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS – FOREST WITH ARAUCARIA, PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL

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    Gisley Paula Vidolin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the landscape of ‘Lageado Grande’ farm (LGF, an area of 3,136.32 ha, located in General Carneiro, Palmas, and Bituruna, in Paraná state. The assessment was based on an integral analysis of the ecological requirements of Tayassu pecari and Tapirus terrestris and the functional aspects of the landscape in ‘Lajeado Grande’. Land use and land cover were mapped, and the map was divided into 335 grids of 10 ha each, which were scored with pre-defined criteria. The scores of each aspect were integrated by multiplying the values and calculating the standard deviation and the mean to establish the classification intervals of the general quality of the landscape. The class gradient for the survival and preservation of the analyzed species generated was: extremely important, very important, important, and of little importance. It was observed that 61.2% of the farm has relevant environments for the preservation of the species, composed of forest with the predominance of pine, broadleaves, lowlands, and some riparian forest patches on ‘Iratim’ river. The results show that LGF comprises a mosaic of environments suitable for the occurrence and maintenance of these ungulates.

  15. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  16. Ecological Ethical Implications of Xunzi’s Concept of Heaven and Man%荀子天人观的生态伦理意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文慧

    2013-01-01

    荀子作为先秦时期儒家思想的集大成者,解百家之蔽,取诸子之长,其天人观所蕴含之深切的生态伦理关怀,映照今日生态文明建设之显题,启示我们在处理天人关系时,应明于天人之分,依循天道而行;在生态文明建设过程中,当制天命而用之,凸显人之主体;而达于天人合一,促进生态和谐当成为人与自然共处之要义。%Xunzi, as the Pre-Qin Dynasty Confucianism synthesizer, overcomes defects of schools of various thoughts, and absorbs their advantages. The deep ecological ethical concern of his concept of heaven and man, cor-responding to the theme of ecological civilization construction today, reveals to us that we should distinguish the dif-ference between heaven and man when dealing with their relationship and abide by the law of heaven. In ecologi-cal civilization construction process, we should take advantage of the laws of nature to highlight the dominant posi-tion of the human beings, to reach the union of heaven and man and to promote ecological harmony, which should be the essence of the principles of coexistence between man and nature.

  17. The ecological dynamics of Barra Bonita (Tietê River, SP, Brazil reservoir: implications for its biodiversity

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    JG. Tundisi

    the main tributaries as an effort to control eutrophication and particulate material load. Hydrology, climatic forcing and retention time are major forcing functions that promote the circulation (vertical and horizontal in the reservoir and probably have a strong effect on dissolved and particulate material distribution. The 114 tributaries are systems that enhance spatial heterogeneity promoting diversity throughout ecological niches. Switches of control systems of this artificial ecosystem seems to be related with physical - physical forces; physical - biological forces during short periods of time, and biological - biological interactions at varying degrees during the seasonal cycle.

  18. The ecological dynamics of Barra Bonita (Tietê River, SP, Brazil) reservoir: implications for its biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Abe, D S

    2008-11-01

    in the main tributaries as an effort to control eutrophication and particulate material load. Hydrology, climatic forcing and retention time are major forcing functions that promote the circulation (vertical and horizontal) in the reservoir and probably have a strong effect on dissolved and particulate material distribution. The 114 tributaries are systems that enhance spatial heterogeneity promoting diversity throughout ecological niches. Switches of control systems of this artificial ecosystem seems to be related with physical - physical forces; physical - biological forces during short periods of time, and biological - biological interactions at varying degrees during the seasonal cycle.

  19. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  20. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  1. The Ecological Meaning on the Concept of“Benevolence”%论“仁”之概念的生态意涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国文; 杨欣澳

    2015-01-01

    面对日益严峻的环境形势,学者们试图从传统的生态伦理中寻求解决之道。传统儒家“仁民爱物”“天人合一”的伦理思想,主张人类应善待自然、爱护万物,为当前我们解决人与自然的关系提供了启迪性的处世原则,对当代中国生态文明建设尤为可贵。本文主要从“仁者爱人”和“仁之性善论”两个方面对儒家“仁”的概念进行解读,并剖析“仁”之思想中所蕴含的生态伦理观,从而为我国生态文明建设提供理论支撑和经验启示。%Faced with today's increasingly severe environmental situation, Many scholars began trying to find a solution from traditional ecological ethics. The traditional Confucian scholars,“Jen love thing”,“Harmony”ethi-cal feelings advocate that we should treat nature, love of all things, provides enlightening principles for us to re-solve the relationship between man and nature, these ideas of contemporary China construction of ecological civi-lization are particularly valuable. Therefore, we should seriously study Confucianism, refining ecological ethics, to learn the essence of them combined with practice for the construction of ecological civilization provide theoretical support. This article from the “benevolent, loving”and “benevolence of goodness”Two aspects of the Confucian“Benevolence”concept interpretation, and analysis of ecological ethics thought of“benevolence”of thought inherent in learning Confucian ecological wisdom, drawn Lessons for social construction of ecological civilization in China.

  2. Population ecology of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea, Sergestoidea, Luciferidae of the southeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah de Souza Alves Teodoro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Luciferid shrimps have short life spans and a rapid turnover of generations, engage in sequential spawning, and protect their eggs during incubation. This study investigates the ecology of Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 in the littoral zone, Ubatuba region, São Paulo. Sampling was conducted monthly from July 2005 to December 2006 using a Renfro net trawled over a distance of 50 m for a total sampling effort of 50 m² at each station. Nine stations were sampled, ranging from 1 to 15 m deep. Three stations each were grouped into zones 1, 2 and 3 (Z1, Z2 and Z3. Monthly values of salinity, temperature and rainfall were recorded at each station. The pre-buccal somite length (SL of each specimen was measured. The results showed that in shallower zones (Z1 and Z2, 6306 individuals were captured, whereas in the deeper zone (Z3, 3808 specimens were captured, but no significant differences in SL was detected between the specimens from Z1 and Z2 and those from Z3 (ANOVA, p=0.25. The abundance of shrimps did not differ significantly between seasons (Tukey's test, p=0.02 except in the spring. The sex ratio differed significantly over the seasons (χ², pEste estudo analisa a ecologia de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 em Ubatuba, São Paulo. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente de julho de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, com uma rede de Renfro, arrastada por uma distância de 50 m, totalizando um esforço amostral de 50 m² em cada ponto de coleta. Nove pontos foram amostrados, variando de 1 a 15 m de profundidade. Cada 3 pontos foram agrupados em 3 zonas (Z1, Z2 e Z3. Os valores de salinidade, temperatura e pluviosidade foram registrados mensalmente em cada transecto. Os espécimes foram medidos quanto ao comprimento do somito pré-bucal (SL. Os resultados mostram que nas zonas mais rasas (Z1 e Z2 foram coletados 6306 indivíduos, enquanto que na mais profunda (Z3 obteve-se 3808 espécimes, não havendo diferença estatística entre as zonas (ANOVA, p=0

  3. Application of ecological concept in garden city construction%园林城市建设中生态理念的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席茹阳; 李东徽; 王犇

    2016-01-01

    基于生态理念的内涵,从因地制宜、再生水循环、废弃设施利用、可再生材料利用、驳岸设计五方面,阐述了生态学理念在园林景观设计中的应用,有利于建立和谐的、多功能的、可持续发展的园林生态城市。%Based on the connotation of ecological concePt,starting from five asPects of local condition-oriented,recycled water recycling,waste equiPment recycling,renewable material utilization and revetment design,the PaPer elaborates the aPPlication of ecological concePt in garden landscaPe design,which will be good for establishing harmonious,multi-functional and sustainable develoPment Park ecology city.

  4. 新型城镇化建设管理的水生态文明路径%Water Ecological Civilization Concept of New Urbanization Construction and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建明; 周萍

    2015-01-01

    笔者分析了城镇化过程对水生态系统纵向、横向与垂向连通性及时间维度上自然动态性的干扰破坏作用,提出了基于水生态文明理念的城镇化建设管理新路径。城镇发展决策源头要注重预防,守住红线,城镇发展过程要注重补偿严格监管,城镇发展成果要注意科学评价、加大奖惩力度。%Based on the four-dimensional nature of water ecological system, which refers to the longitudinal, transverse and vertical connectivity as well as the natural dynamics in the time dimension, impacts of rapid urbanization on water ecological system were analyzed. Some urbanization management countermeasures, based on the concept of water ecological civilization, were put forward. Urban development decisions should pay attention to eco-damage prevention measures and hold the red line. Urban development process should focus on the adoption of effective compensation measures and the implementation of strict supervision. Urban development results should be given a scientific evaluation and set up a strict system of rewards and penalties.

  5. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have

  6. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS) are discussed. A detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation is provided followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system.

  7. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).

  8. PERSPECTIVAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DO TURISMO EM XINGÓ, SE/AL / TOURISM ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVES IN XINGÓ, SERGIPE AND ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Braghini

    2009-06-01

    was exploratory and descriptive with the aim to prepare diagrams causal loops in order to produce and select sustainability indicators. The assessment systemic tourist of sustainable showed that Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, Pitu (Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850 were the typical fishes of the region that sold more, but the surubim and tubarana now are dependents extern on distributors. There is positive pressure to fish of the shrimp Pitu, which is greatly to tourism. The ecological dimension showed that the fish reduction could be due the dam of UHE-Xingó and overfishing. The select environmental indicators aimed necessity of the establish information system concerning the fishing production and consumption in the restaurants. Key-words: Sustainability; Tourism; Xingó; Canyon of San Francisco River-Brazil; Caatinga

  9. Christ-centred ethical behaviour and ecological crisis: What resources do the concepts of order in creation and eschatological hope offer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinus P. de Wit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecological crisis, as well as a limited ethical response, forces a reflection on the transformative potential of Christian ethics on an idolatrous society largely shaped by a dominant economic culture. The aim of the article was to explore how the concepts of creation order and eschatological hope may be helpful in the understanding and formulation of a Christ-centred ethical response to the ecological crisis. A review of the relevant literature was presented, limited to insights from Reformational philosophy and eco-theology into the concepts of creation order and eschatology. The main internal tensions of using the concepts of creation order and eschatological hope as resources in Christ-centred eco-ethics were highlighted and discussed. Some implications for the further explanation and development of Christ-centred eco-ethics are outlined.Christosentriese etiese gedrag en ekologiese krisis: Watter hulpbronne bied die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologiese hoop? Die ekologiese krisis, asook ’n beperkte etiese antwoord hierop, dwing ’n besinning oor die vernuwende potensiaal van Christelike etiek vir ’n afgodiese samelewing wat grootliks gevorm is deur ’n dominante ekonomiese kultuur. Die doel van hierdie artikel was om te ondersoek hoe die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologiese hoop nuttig kan wees in die verstaan en die formulering van ’n Christus- gesentreerde etiese antwoord op die ekologiese krisis. ’n Oorsig van die relevante literatuur, beperk tot insigte uit die Reformatoriese filosofie en ekoteologie oor die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologie, is aangebied. Die belangrikste interne spanningsvelde in die gebruik van die konsepte skeppingsorde en eskatologiese hoop in ’n Christus-gesentreerde eko-etiek is uitgelig en bespreek. Sekere implikasies vir die verdere verduideliking en die ontwikkeling van ’n Christus-gesentreerde eko-etiek is beskryf.

  10. Distribuição espacial da leptospirose no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: recuperando a ecologia dos estudos ecológicos Spatial distribution of leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: recovering the ecology of ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovam Barcellos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirose apresenta no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul uma grande diversidade de situações de exposição, reservatórios, agentes etiológicos e quadros clínicos. O principal objetivo desse trabalho é identificar áreas de maior risco e possíveis componentes ecológicos da transmissão da leptospirose por meio da agregação de dados epidemiológicos em unidades espaciais que representem a diversidade sócio-ambiental do Estado. Os 1.274 casos confirmados de leptospirose ocorridos em 2001 foram georreferenciados por município de residência. Os mapas de municípios foram sobrepostos aos de caracterização de uso do solo, relevo e bacias hidrográficas. Com as operações de SIG, foram calculadas as taxas de incidência para cada categoria e sua significância estatística. As maiores taxas de incidência foram verificadas em áreas sedimentares litorâneas, de baixa altitude e uso do solo predominantemente agrícola. Nessas áreas, a maior parte dos casos está associada à lavoura irrigada. Os resultados sugerem a existência de características ecológicas favoráveis à transmissão da leptospirose em locais de proliferação de roedores sinantrópicos e de produção agrícola intensiva. São discutidos os efeitos da agregação de dados em unidades ambientais na análise de dados epidemiológicos e estratégias de controle da endemia no Estado.Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and presents a broad diversity of exposure routes, reservoirs, etiological agents, and clinical features. The main objective of this work is to identify transmission areas and possible ecological components of leptospirosis transmission. This was accomplished through the aggregation of epidemiological data into spatial units that represent the State's socio-environmental diversity. The 1,274 confirmed leptospirosis cases that occurred in 2001 were georeferenced in the counties of residence. The county maps were

  11. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...

  12. Feeding ecology of juvenile dog snapper Lutjanus jocu (Bloch and Shneider, 1801 (Lutjanidae in intertidal mangrove creeks in Curuçá estuary (Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijane Pantoja Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet and feeding ecology of juvenile dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu were investigated in 92 specimens collected in four intertidal mangrove creeks of Curuçá estuary, Northern Brazil, between September 2003 and July 2004. No significant differences in total length were found between the sampling months. Feeding intensity was high as indicated by high stomach fullness index and low vacuity index. The most important prey was Penaeidae, followed by Grapsidae and Porcellanidae. The diet of juvenile dog snapper showed clear seasonal differences. Specimens from dry season (September and November and dry / wet season transition (January, were specialists feeding exclusively on Penaeidae. However, the specimens from wet season (March and May and wet /dry season transition (July that consumed mainly Grapsidae, Penaeidae and Porcellanidae were generalist. These seasonal changes in diet could be related to variations in food availability.A dieta e a ecologia alimentar de juvenis de Lutjanus jocu foram verificadas em 92 espécimes coletados em quatro canais de maré do estuário do rio Curuçá, Norte do Brasil, entre setembro de 2003 e julho de 2004. O comprimento total dos peixes coletados não apresentou diferenças significativas entre os meses amostrados. A intensidade alimentar foi elevada conforme indicado pelos altos valores do índice de repleção estomacal e os baixos valores do índice de vacuidade. A presa mais importante foi Penaeidae, seguida por Grapsidae e Porcellanidae. A dieta de juvenis de L. jocu apresentou diferenças sazonais evidentes. Os espécimes da estação seca (setembro e novembro e transição seca/chuvosa (janeiro foram considerados especialistas alimentando-se exclusivamente de Penaeidae. No entanto, os espécimes da estação chuvosa (março e maio e da transição chuvosa/seca (julho, que alimentaram-se principalmente de Grapsidae, Penaeidae e Porcellanidae, foram considerados generalistas. Esta mudança sazonal na dieta

  13. The conception of administrators regarding the formation of a healthcare consortium in Pernambuco, Brazil: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Keila S Brito; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola B

    2011-01-01

    The formation of healthcare consortia is a management strategy adopted by a number of cities in Brazil in order to minimize the difficulties the population has in access to services of greater technological complexity. As administrators are the main governmental actors in the promotion of this strategy, the aim of the present study was to identify the motives, expectations and difficulties faced by the mayors, and secretaries of health that make up a healthcare consortium undergoing a formation process in the rural, coastal zone of the state of Pernambuco. A descriptive, qualitative, case study was conducted. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews held with mayors and secretaries of health of the municipalities participating in the consortium. Data were analyzed by means of content analysis, using the NVivo 2.0 software program. The administrators cited difficulty in access to specialized services and the high cost of transporting patients to distant locations for treatment as motives for the formation of the consortium. With the implantation of this healthcare strategy, the expectations are a reduction in costs regarding patient transportation, an increase in access to services of greater complexity, and negotiations with other spheres of government. The main difficulties faced are political-partisan conflicts and excessive bureaucracy. Although there were no considerable divergences in the administrators' perceptions, it was evident that those who initiated the formation of the consortium offered a deeper, more detailed discourse, thereby demonstrating greater involvement when compared to those who offered continuity to the process.

  14. Estrutura populacional de capivaras na Estação Ecológica do Taim, Brasil, RS Capybaras population structure in the Taim Ecological Station, Brazil, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Maia Garcias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Uma população de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris foi monitorada na região limítrofe entre a Estação Ecológica do Taim e áreas de cultivo de arroz no extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O objetivo foi caracterizar a estrutura populacional, a densidade e os períodos reprodutivos da capivara na Estação Ecológica do Taim, RS, e em seu entorno. De agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2005, foram realizados 25 censos de contagem direta, em um transecto de 4.000 metros de comprimento, às margens da Lagoa Mangueira. Foi obtida a abundância de animais segundo seu sexo e classe etária. A abundância foi de 608,6±27,9 indivíduos e a densidade média foi de 5,1±0,2ind. ha-1. Houve variação no número de animais do primeiro para o segundo ano de amostragem, sendo significativamente maior no último. Foram identificados, em média, 22,0±0,8 grupos na área, constituídos predominantemente de fêmeas adultas (47,5%, seguidas de juvenis (24,8%, filhotes (17% e machos adultos (7,7%. A abundância de animais variou segundo a distribuição espacial, sendo maior no interior da Estação Ecológica do Taim (9,5ind. ha-1. Houve flutuações sazonais no recrutamento da população, tendo suas maiores densidades de filhotes no outono.A capybara population (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris was monitored in a borderline region between Taim Ecological Station and southernmost areas of rice cultivation located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure, density, and reproductive periods of this population. A total of 25 censuses, obtained through direct count technique, were performed from August 2003 to August 2005. The samplings were performed in a 4000-meter length transect on the margins of Mangueira lagoon. The abundance was obtained considering the sex and age class of the animals. The abundance registered was of 608.6±27.9 individuals, and the average density was 5.1±0.2ind. ha-1. A

  15. Major Sports events in Brazil: from the expression of brazilian sports policy to the urban neodevelopmentalist planning concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Castellani Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We will seek some considerations about the major sports events in the Brazilian  territory as  the main expression of a particular logic of urban development and less of a sports policy itself, focusing on its impact in South America. In particular, we will focus on the paradox of the official discourse centered on the recognition of the Sport as Social Right and of a practice committed to the neodevelopmentalist conception of urban planning, ratifying its apprehension as a product likely to be commercialized having high appeal in the field of business.

  16. Conceitos de Vigotski no Brasil: produção divulgada nos Cadernos de Pesquisa Vygotsky's concepts in Brazil: the production published in Cadernos de Pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gonçalves da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é identificar como os conceitos de Vigotski foram apropriados por autores vinculados à área da Psicologia da Educação que divulgaram seus trabalhos no Brasil, bem como suas metas e o momento em que tais idéias foram aqui utilizadas. Serviram de base para a pesquisa os artigos publicados nos Cadernos de Pesquisa - revista da Fundação Carlos Chagas -, que citavam, nas referências bibliográficas, alguma obra de Vigotski. Foram encontrados 37 artigos, entre 1971 e 2000. A produção foi organizada por década e analisada por meio de categorias construídas a posteriori. Os resultados mostram que os trabalhos que fizeram uso dos conceitos de Vigotski não avançaram suficientemente do ponto de vista teórico, ficando restritos aos processos de desenvolvimento e aprendizagem, bem como à relação entre pensamento e linguagem.The purpose of this article is to identify how Vygotsky's concepts were appropriated by authors related to Education Psychology in Brazil, as well as their aims and the moment in which such ideas were here employed. The basis for this research was the whole of articles published in Cadernos de Pesquisa, journal of Fundação Carlos Chagas, which mentioned, in their bibliographical references, any work of Vygotsky. Since 1971 up to 2000, 37 articles were found. The production was organized by decade and analysed through categories built a posteriori. The results have shown that works based on Vygotsky concepts not only did not advance sufficiently from the theoretical point of view, but were also restricted to development and learning processes and to the relationship between thought and language.

  17. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  18. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braga, Heitor de Oliveira; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    ... the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen's ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch...

  19. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L.; Logan, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901–1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that “mere survival is not enough”. He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via “missing exposures”. With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces—financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise—that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as “grey space”; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics. PMID:27827896

  20. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Logan, Alan C

    2016-11-03

    The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901-1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that "mere survival is not enough". He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via "missing exposures". With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces-financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise-that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as "grey space"; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics.

  1. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901–1982 conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that “mere survival is not enough”. He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them; thus modernity could interfere with health via “missing exposures”. With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces—financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise—that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as “grey space”; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics.

  2. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  3. Adaptable User Interface Based on the Ecological Interface Design Concept for Multiple Robots Operating Works with Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Furukawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: When supervising a team of semi-autonomous robots, the operator’s task is not only the manipulation of each robot but also achievement of the top goal that is assigned to the entire team of humans and robots. The operators are demanded to comprehend highly complex states and make appropriate decisions in dynamic environment using the limited cognitive resources. The Ecological Interface Design (EID is a design approach based on visualization of constraints in study environment onto the interface to reduce the cognitive workload. Our research question was “How should we design Human-Robot Interface (HRI that allows operators to understand states of multiple robots systems working in environment with uncertainty?” Approach: Our proposed method was Adaptable User Interface (AUI with EID. The interface is a framework that allowed the operators to take selectable use of displays indicating different types of functional information. Two types of expressions of functions were defined for indicating states of functions: indication of functional disposition and of effectiveness. Three cognitive experiments were conducted to reveal potential efficacy of the method using an experimental test-bed simulation. Results: The results of the first and second experiments showed that usefulness of functional indications is different from different works, tasks and operators. The third experiment demonstrated that operators could select and use appropriate information among a set of indicators with different types and levels of functional information, which are adaptive for tasks, their strategies, their skills and available information and knowledge about the tasks. Conclusion: From the remarks, it can be concluded that the proposed method (AUI+EID is a useful and feasible HRI method for multiple robot operations, even knowledge about the work is not sufficient to build a set of dedicated indicators each has only necessary information for a

  4. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  5. The concept of Dessak: development of environmental decision support for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaibar, B.; Jakes, J. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait); Semioshkina, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA))

    2014-07-01

    The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is implementing the 'Nuclear Program for Peaceful Applications (NPPA)', a research program focused on supporting the promotion of applications in nuclear techniques and methods in various sectors and industries of Kuwait. One of the components of this program is the establishment of research and training facilities to support the protection of the population and the environment and to reduce the risk of harmful exposures. One major component of the NPPA it the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait (DESSAK). The aim of this project is to be able to integrate information in a spatial and temporal resolution which will then be combined with radioecological transfer models. This allows for the identification of critical pathways to protect the environment and humans from unexpectedly elevated and routine releases of radioactivity during the operation of a nuclear power plant, research reactor or any other nuclear application. The sensitivity of the Arabian Gulf region, with its very special marine and terrestrial environmental conditions, is a driving force to keep balance between the industrial use and the preservation of nature for a sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. This specifically applies to regions where in the past no nuclear activities have been conducted e.g. Kuwait, and which are now considered for any activity involving the nuclear fuel cycle. The situation in Kuwait specifically is to be considered as challenging: with the introduction of nuclear activities which might include the building of a Neutron Generating Facility (NGF), the necessary measures need to be established e.g. the legal and administrative formalities for nuclear safety and security, the human and administrative capabilities and capacities, and so on. In addition, a number of neighbouring or regional countries have already

  6. 五个变--经济适用房的生态设计构想%Five Transformations---Ecological Design Conception of Economically Affordable Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史洪; 刘仁富

    2013-01-01

    As the national affordable housing, economically affordable housing is very important in housing construction in China.This paper puts forward five ideas of transformation including perception, planning,energy-saving technology,design of apartments and the decoration of the housing,which are based on the concept of ecological design idea.A case study of affordable housing in Changzhou is made to explore the sustainable developed approach to the affordable housing construction.%作为国家保障性住房,经济适用房在我国住宅建设中具有非常重要的意义。文章基于生态设计的理念提出观念转变、规划转变、节能技术转变、户型设计转变和家装转变五个变的思想,以常州已建经济适用房为例,探讨在变化中持续发展的经济适用房建设之路。

  7. Ecology and Disease Transmission Potential in the Colombian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRAZIL, *DISEASE VECTORS, *PARASITIC DISEASES, COLOMBIA, ECOLOGY, COLOMBIA, COLOMBIA, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DIPTERA, HUMANS, EQUINES, BOVINES, REPTILES, TICKS, ANNELIDA, NEMATODA, PLATYHELMINTHES , FILARIAE.

  8. Ecological distribution of the shrimp camarao serrinha Artemesia longinaris (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in Fortaleza bay, Ubatuba, Brazil, in relation to abiotic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fransozo, A.; Costa, R.C.; Castilho, A.L.; Mantelatto, F.L.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of the shrimp Artemesia longinaris in Fortaleza Bay, northern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in relation to abiotic factors, was studied. Shrimp samples were obtained on a monthly basis from November 1988 through October 1989 at seven pre-delimited transects on board of a fishing vessel supplied with double otter trawl nets. Depth was recorded at the midpoint of each transect; water and sediment samples were taken to measure salinity, temperature, text...

  9. Ecologia da ictiofauna de um córrego de cabeceira da bacia do alto rio Paraná, Brasil Ecology of the ichthyofauna of a headwater stream of the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Mara Lemes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies were conducted in the ichthyofauna of Cedro, a small headwater stream located in a degraded area of State of São Paulo, Brazil, situated in the upper Paraná River basin. These are the results of two non-consecutive years observations and collections in two biotopes of that stream: a pool and a rapid. The ecological characteristics studied change in space and time. The present richness of species is high (21 species, nine of which are constant, six accessory and six accidental. The diversity is low (0.69 to 2.38, and the numeric predominance, from one to three species, occurred in both biotopes. The most frequent species are Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859 (28.1%, Corydoras cf. aeneus (Gill, 1858 (20.3% and Hypostomus cf. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911 (19.8%. The density ranges from 0.7 to 19.8 specimens/m³. The similarity index indicates high similarity between the ichthyofauna (45.0% to 95.0% inside the same or contiguous biotopes. The evenness (0.46 to 1.0 is comparable to those found in similar studies carried out in other streams.

  10. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engineering: from Concepts to Application” organized by the Ecological Engineering Applications Group GAIE. This paper presents the results of the workshop related to three key questions: (1) what are t...

  11. Feeding ecology of the lizard Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues 1987 (Tropiduridae) at Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CFD. Rocha; CC Siqueira

    2008-01-01

    Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae) is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL) and jaw width (JW) were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All l...

  12. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  13. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  14. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  15. Water System Planning of Nanhai District Based on the Ecological Civilization Conception%基于水生态文明理念的南海区水系规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟东; 杨聪辉

    2014-01-01

    The current situation of water system planning is analyzed in the paper , the background and present situation of Nanhai water system planning on the basis of the conception of ecological civilization are also described .According to the planning of Nanhai District, the overall layout of the water system has been adjusted , and the river and lake water system , water environment , ecologi-cal revetment have been planned .%分析水系规划的研究现状,根据水生态文明的理念,简述南海区水系规划的背景、水系现状,结合南海区分区规划,调整水系总体布局,并对河湖水系、水环境、生态护岸等进行规划,为类似的水系规划提供借鉴。

  16. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  17. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  18. Ecology and conservation of the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi in “restinga” habitats of the north coast of Bahia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Vieira Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Restingas” are herbaceous/ shrubby coastal sand-dune habitats that cover great areas of Brazil, particularly along the Bahia state coast. The restingas are disturbed and are under strong pressure, mainly in northeastern Brazil. Fragmentation of the landscape and habitat loss within natural ecosystems are the factors which are mainly responsible for reduction of species diversity by extinction events. The goal of thepresent study was elucidate whether the conservation status of restinga habitats on the northern coast of Bahia state was interfering with microhabitat use by the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi. The results showed that the use of microhabitat resources by T. hygomi did not have any signifi cant differences in the four areas we chose for study. However, diverse factors of degradation were found to contribute indirectly to its habitat loss. The T. hygomi lizard is a generalist in its use of restinga microhabitats, and probably due the endemic condition, its conservation status is linked directly to conservation of the restinga habitats on the northern coast of Bahia state.

  19. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  20. Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae), of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanelli, G C; Takemoto, R M

    2000-11-01

    One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78%) were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935). The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.

  1. 生态文明理念融入大学生思想政治教育的价值%Value of Integrating the Ecological Civilization Concept into the Ideological and Political Education for Undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新满

    2014-01-01

    T he integration of the ecological civilization concept into the ideological and political education for the undergraduates has its value for both educational subject and educational object .In terms of the educa-tional subject ,the integration of the ecological civilization concept into the ideological and political education for the undergraduates can enrich the knowledge content of the ideological and political education and help the educatees realize the significance of keeping paces with the times that the harmonious development of man and nature ,man and society possesses .It is the value for w hich the educational subject implements educational policy and goals .In terms of the educational object ,their promotion in ecological civilization quality is the em-bodiment of the new scene of the time .And they are the practical subject to carry out the ecological civiliza-tion concept .%生态文明理念融入大学生思想政治教育,对教育主体和受教育主体两个层面上均有其价值所在。在教育主体层面,生态文明理念融入大学生思想政治教育能够充实思想政治教育的知识内容,并使受教育者认识人与自然、人与社会和谐发展的与时俱进的时代意义,是教育主体贯彻教育方针、教育目的的价值所在。在受教育主体层面,其生态文明素质的提升,是时代新风貌的展现,也是真正落实生态文明理念的实践主体。

  2. To the bottom of carbon processing at the seafloor: towards integration of geological, geochemical and ecological concepts (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelburg, Jack J.

    2017-04-01

    Marine sediments are a habitat for organisms, govern the partitioning of material being buried or recycled, and act as filter for the paleorecord. Processes in the surface sediment layer determine whether carbon is recycled within the biosphere (short-term cycle) or transferred to the geosphere (long-term cycle) and as such it function as key interface in the System Earth. Scientists from various disciplines with their own interests, paradigms and techniques have studied this pivotal role of the seafloor in processing material deposited. Marine geologists and paleoceanographers study sediments with the primary aim to extract information on past environmental conditions using down-core measurements of substances delivered to the seafloor and that have survived the processing at the seafloor. Biogeochemists quantify the fate of material delivered, in particular how much of the material is eventually buried and when and in what form is the remaining recycled to the water column, because recycling of key nutrients (e.g. N, P, Si, Fe) sustain primary production. Organic geochemists investigate how organic matter delivered to the seafloor is degraded, transformed or preserved using changes in the composition at the molecular level. Ecologists focus on the organisms, i.e. the actors consuming, producing and transporting the material deposited. Although these disciplines often study the same material, e.g. organic matter delivered to the seafloor, they focus on different aspect ignoring key concepts, findings and approaches from other disciplines. For example, ecologists and biogeochemist studying carbon flow at the seafloor normally ignore detailed molecular information available from organic geochemistry. Bioturbation, particle transport and mixing at the seafloor, is often ignored by paleocanographers, and biogeochemists have developed advanced transport-reaction models in which the actors, the animals, mix the particles but do so without consuming organic matter, their

  3. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Vandick S; Lima, Liane G

    2010-06-03

    The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp.) are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.

  4. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Liane G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp. are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.

  5. ECOLOGICAL MARKETING – THE MAIN ELEMENT OF ENTERPRISES ECOLOGICAL POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Oganesyan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern market conditions ecological marketing becomes more significant for formation and realization of functions of an ecological policy of the industrial enterprise. It is caused by increasing responsibility of manufacturers before consumers and society. In this article authors consider a role of ecological marketing, and also the factors influence forming and developing in the general administrative structure of the enterprise. Distinctions between principles of the general and ecological marketing, and also features of ecological marketing in the enterprise general system of marketing concepts are highlighted in this article. Here is specified the role of ecological marketing in reproduction process.

  6. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  7. Impacto de alterações ambientais na ecologia de flebotomíneos no sul do Brasil Impact of environmental changes on sand fly ecology in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se que a abertura de uma clareira ao redor de um galinheiro e aplicações periódicas de inseticidas refletiram na ecologia das espécies de flebotomíneos na Fazenda Palmital, município de Terra Boa, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. A espécie dominante (51,6% antes do desmatamento e das aplicações de inseticidas era Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920. Após estas medidas, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 passou a predominar (89,8%. A diferença de proporções de L. whitmani nesta investigação (89,8 % em relação à outra (32,6%, realizada antes da abertura da clareira e das aplicações de inseticidas, foi altamente significativa.Tree felling around a chicken coop and periodic insecticide spraying at the Palmital farm in the county of Terra Boa in southern Brazil impacted the ecology of sand fly species. The most prevalent species (51.6% before clearing the trees and insecticide spraying was Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920, and it is now Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 (89.8%. There was a highly significant difference between the proportions of L. whitmani reported by this paper (89.8% and another publication before the tree felling and insecticide spraying (32.6%.

  8. Musgos pleurocárpicos das matas de galeria da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, RECOR, Distrito Federal, Brasil Pleurocarpous mosses from the gallery forests at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, RECOR, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, localizada a 35 km ao sul do centro da cidade de Brasília é possuidora de área representativa do bioma cerrado sendo uma das Áreas Núcleo da Reserva da Biosfera do Cerrado, criada em 1993, pela UNESCO. Neste trabalho são apresentados os musgos pleurocárpicos que ocorrem na reserva e que estão representados por nove famílias e 15 espécies. A família com maior número de especies encontrada é Sematophyllaceae (quatro. Foram encontradas cinco novas ocorrências para o Distrito Federal e seis para a região CentroOeste. São apresentadas chaves e diagnoses.IBGE's Ecological Reserve is located 35 km from downtown Brasilia. It contains an important area of the cerrado biome and is a core area of the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve created by UNESCO in 1993. Here we present the pleurocarpous mosses found in the reserve, with nine families and 15 species. The family with most species is Sematophyllaceae (four. We found six new occurrences for Midwest Brazil and five for the Federal District. Keys and descriptions are provided.

  9. Ecological analysis of the ichthyofaunal community ten years after a diesel oil spill at Serra do Mar, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Horodesky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In February 2001, an accidental spill dumped 52,000 litres of diesel oil in Serra do Mar, Paraná state, Brazil, contaminating streams. This study aimed to evaluate if fish communities currently inhabiting environments exposed to the oil spill still showing evidence of spill-related impacts. Ichthyofauna communities were monitored in five rivers located in the region of the spill. Two sites exposed to oil (Meio and Sagrado rivers were considered treatment sites, and three unexposed sites with environmental characteristics similar to the treatment sites (Pinto, Passa Sete and Marumbi rivers were considered control sites. Analysis of water quality parameters indicated that sites within rivers were more similar than sites among rivers. The diversity and species composition of fish communities differed between the treatment and control groups and among the rivers. The distribution and species composition of ichthyofaunal communities likely reflect the environmental characteristics of each river and not related to the environmental contamination resulting from the oil spill.

  10. Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae II: trophic resources and ecological observations of five populations collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Carlos Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma rubrovaria has become the most frequently captured triatomine species after the control of T. infestans in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. Isoenzymatic and chromatic studies indicate the existence of, at least, two distinct phenotypic patterns of T. rubrovaria in RS. The geographic variation noted through molecular tools may also result in distinct profiles of vectorial potentiality. In order to enhance our understanding of the bionomic knowledge of T. rubrovaria separate batches of the species were collected from different municipalities of RS distant from 72 to 332 km: Santana do Livramento (natural ecotope, Santana do Livramento (artificial ecotope, Santiago (natural ecotope, Canguçu (peridomicile and Encruzilhada do Sul (natural ecotope. A total of 285 specimens were collected, 85 specimens kept sufficient fecal material in their guts for the precipitin analysis. The results indicated the food eclecticism for this species and the anti-rodent serum showed the highest positivity in most localities. From the total of analyzed samples, only 1.3% of unique positivity for human blood was registered, all of them for Santiago population. This reactivity to human blood may be associated to pastures activities in the field.

  11. Diel Variations and Ecological Aspects in Fish Assemblages of a Sandy Beach in the Semi-Arid Region of Northeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Carla Fernandes Medeiros Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For the demersal fish that inhabit sandy beaches, the variation between day and night periods represents a determinant factor in their behavior, especially for species that live in shallow waters. This research aims at determining whether there are differences in the fish assemblage structure of the sandy beach of São Cristóvão, RN, Brazil, between diurnal and nocturnal periods. Samplings were carried out in 2011, during spring high tide period, with an otter trawl net. Dissimilarity between diurnal and nocturnal fish assemblages was confirmed by PERMANOVA results. No statistical differences were observed for richness and diversity of fish assemblage between day and night periods. The first and third order carnivores were the significantly more representative trophic categories during night and day periods, respectively. Only four species presented significant differences regarding total length of fish between the periods. The demersal fish assemblage of São Cristóvão beach presented variations in the density of individuals between day and night periods. Dissimilarities were also recorded in trophic categories and in total lengths of individuals; however this occurred as a result of the high density of some species. The low depth of the beach may prevent the establishment of larger size adult fish, thus becoming a favourable environment for juveniles and small-sized fish species.

  12. Feeding ecology of Erythrolamprus jaegeri jaegeri (Günter, 1858) and Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860) in the coastal zone of Subtropical Brazil (Serpentes, Dipsadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Daniele N; Quintela, Fernando M; Loebmann, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The snakes Erythrolamprus jaegeri jaegeri and Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus are sympatric and syntopic in the coastal region of southern Brazil. Herein, we analyzed the diet composition to evaluate the niche breadth and the prey selection by both species. We examined 192 specimens, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that both species predominantly consume anurans. However, the diet of E. j. jaegeri consists mainly of fish and amphibians, whereas that of E. p. sublineatus is broader, including fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The Standardized Levins Index presented lower values for E. j. jaegeri (BA = 0.17) than for E. p. sublineatus (BA = 0.61), evidencing specialist and generalist strategies for each species, respectively. Regarding prey selection, E. p. sublineatus presented a larger snout-vent length, head, mouth and lower jaw than E. j. jaegeri and fed on larger prey. In addition, positive correlations between the size and weight of predators and prey were confirmed in both species. The results show the development of different mechanisms for co-occurrence of the two species, such as prey selection by size, such that the size of the predator is related to the size of their prey, or by developing different strategies to decrease niche overlap between species.

  13. Phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Hydroelectric System Affected Area from Northern Amazonian Brazil: Further Insights into the Effects of Environmental Changes on Vector Ecology

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    Furtado, Nercy Virginia Rabelo; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Galardo, Clicia Denis; Firmino, Viviane Caetano

    2016-01-01

    During 2012–2015, an entomological survey was conducted as part of a phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) monitoring program in an area influenced by the Santo Antônio do Jari hydroelectric system (Amapá State, Brazil). The purpose was to study aspects of Amazon/Guianan American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) vectors subjected to stresses by anthropogenic environmental changes. For sampling, CDC light traps were positioned 0.5, 1, and 20 m above ground at five capture locations along the Jari River Basin. Fluctuations in phlebotomine numbers were analyzed to determine any correlation with rainfall, dam waterlogging, and/or ACL cases, from May 2012 to March 2015. We captured 2,800 individuals, and among 45 species identified, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Nyssomyia umbratilis, and Psychodopygus squamiventris s.l. were determined to be the main putative vectors, based on current knowledge of the Amazon/Guianan ACL scenario. Rainfall, but not complete flooding, was relatively correlated with phlebotomine fluctuation, mainly observed for Ps. squamiventris s.l., as were ACL cases with Ny. umbratilis. Behavioral changes were observed in the unexpected high frequency of Bi. flaviscutellata among CDC captures and the noncanopy dominance of Ny. umbratilis, possibly attributable to environmental stress in the sampled ecotopes. Continuous entomological surveillance is necessary to monitor the outcomes of these findings. PMID:28042300

  14. Feeding ecology of Erythrolamprus jaegeri jaegeri (Günter, 1858 and Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860 in the coastal zone of Subtropical Brazil (Serpentes, Dipsadidae

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    DANIELE N. CORRÊA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The snakes Erythrolamprus jaegeri jaegeri and Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus are sympatric and syntopic in the coastal region of southern Brazil. Herein, we analyzed the diet composition to evaluate the niche breadth and the prey selection by both species. We examined 192 specimens, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that both species predominantly consume anurans. However, the diet of E. j. jaegeri consists mainly of fish and amphibians, whereas that of E. p. sublineatus is broader, including fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The Standardized Levins Index presented lower values for E. j. jaegeri (BA = 0.17 than for E. p. sublineatus (BA = 0.61, evidencing specialist and generalist strategies for each species, respectively. Regarding prey selection, E. p. sublineatus presented a larger snout-vent length, head, mouth and lower jaw than E. j. jaegeri and fed on larger prey. In addition, positive correlations between the size and weight of predators and prey were confirmed in both species. The results show the development of different mechanisms for co-occurrence of the two species, such as prey selection by size, such that the size of the predator is related to the size of their prey, or by developing different strategies to decrease niche overlap between species.

  15. Reproductive ecology of the blue crab, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in the Conceição Lagoon system, Santa Catarina Isle, Brazil.

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    Branco, J O; Masunari, S

    2000-02-01

    Abundance of ovigerous females, size of the first gonadal maturation and the possible migration, route of the blue crab Callinectes danae from the Conceição Lagoon system, Santa Catarina Isle, Brazil, are described. This lagoon is connected with the coastal area through a canal. A total of 1,124 crabs was caught during a 19 month sampling period. The reproduction and recruitment of juveniles occurred all year-round, with two peaks of abundance (February and September), correlated with the presence of ovigerous females (June and January). The mean carapace width at which the crabs attained gonadal maturity for the first time was 9.4 cm in males and 8.4 cm in females. The Conceição Lagoon is a growth, reproduction, and spawning area for the species. However, egg eclosion occurs outside the lagoon following migration of ovigerous females to the open sea. After hatching the eggs, some females return to the lagoon, but males stay there for most of their life cycle.

  16. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RUSTIC SPECIES IN DISTURBED ECOSYSTEMS IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST, PIRAÍ, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE – BRAZIL

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    Hiram Feijó Baylão Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810542 Disturbed ecosystems do not present original floristic composition. Their soils are depleted, shallow, stony, with low infiltration and present erosion with different levels of Geodynamics. The region has areas of pasture with sparse herbaceous vegetation which is weakened in every rain and fire, covering less ground. The individuals that colonized and settled in these environments were considered rustic species. This study raised and identified by census, the rustic species and their structure in the most degraded part (lower third of the watershed of Cacaria’s river at the base of the Serra do Mar, Piraí, Rio de Janeiro state, and evaluated the influence of ecological exposure, slope, elevation, topography and rock outcrops in the establishment and growth of these species. For the vegetation survey it was conducted census in an area of 22 hectares, where it was measured, geo-referenced and identified all spontaneous tree species that were isolated in a pasture area. Ecological factors exposure, elevation and slope were determined with a compass, altimeter and clinometer, respectively. We identified 131 individuals, representing 14 species, grouped into nine families. Tabernaemontana laeta Mart., Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell. Schum., Machaerium hirtum (Vell. Stellfeld, Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Stan., Cecropia pachystachya Trec., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer, Acacia polyphylla DC. and Psidium guajava L.were present in portions of the slope with exposure to the north, with altitudes from 60m to 80m and with slope strongly corrugated (20-45%, indicating a preference of these species for microhabitats with those characteristics. 

  17. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts; Bioethanol aus Lignozellulose. Eine oekologische und oekonomische Bewertung ausgewaehlter Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-08-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  18. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  19. Landscape ecology in North America: past, present, and future

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    Monica G. Turner

    2005-01-01

    Landscape ecology offers a spatially explicit perspective on the relationships between ecological patterns and processes that can be applied across a range of scales. Concepts derived from landscape ecology now permeate ecological research across most levels of ecological organization and many scales. Landscape ecology developed rapidly after ideas that originated in...

  20. Feeding ecology in the small neotropical amphisbaenid Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae in southern Brazil Ecologia alimentar da pequena anfisbaena neotropical Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae no sul do Brasil

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    Jorge S. Bernardo-Silva

    Full Text Available We analyzed the alimentary tract of 66 specimens of Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 from the Serra do Sudeste, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Forty specimens (60.6% had prey items in their gut. The diet consisted mainly of small invertebrate prey, such as termites, insect larvae and ants. The most abundant prey item was termites, found in 62.5% of the non empty stomachs. The high number of individual prey items in the majority of stomachs, the small size of the regular prey items, and the absence of gut content in specimens of A. munoai kept alive for about two days, indicate that this species forages very frequently. The predominance of fossorial prey items and the occasional records of nomadic ants lead us to suggest that A. munoai usually feeds underground, and occasionally forages on the surface.Analisamos o trato digestório de 66 exemplares de Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 procedentes da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Quarenta espécimes (60,6% possuíam presas. A dieta é composta basicamente de pequenos invertebrados, como térmitas, larvas de insetos e formigas. As presas mais abundantes foram térmitas, encontradas em 62,5% dos estômagos não vazios. O elevado número de presas em cada indivíduo na maioria dos estômagos, o tamanho pequeno de presas regulares e a ausência de itens alimentares em espécimes de A. munoai mantidas vivas por aproximadamente dois dias, indicam que está espécie é forrageadora freqüente. A predominância de itens alimentares fossórios e o encontro ocasional de formigas nômades nos permitem sugerir que A. munoai usualmente se alimenta abaixo da terra e ocasionalmente na superfície.

  1. Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the gallery forest of Brasilia National Park, Brazil, with an emphasis on potential vectors of yellow fever

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    Ana Raquel Lira-Vieira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (YF. Methods Between September 2010 and August 2011, mosquitoes were captured on the ground and in the canopy of the forest for five consecutive days per month, from nine to 15 hours. The mosquitoes were examined to verify natural infection with flaviviruses by isolation in Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1864 cells followed by indirect immunofluorescence. Results We identified 2,677 culicids distributed in 29 species. Most of the mosquitoes were captured at ground level (69% during the rainy season (86%. The most abundant species were Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald, 1903; Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901; Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, 1924; Haemagogus (Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar, 1921; Aedes (Ochlerotatus scapularis Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma ferox Von Humboldt, 1819; and Aedes (Ochlerotatus serratus Theobald, 1901. Limatus durhamii, Limatus durhamii, Psorophora ferox, Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus showed significant differences (p<0.05 in their habitat use. Limatus durhamii was found more often in the canopy, unlike the other species. During the rainy season, the most abundant species were Sa. albiprivus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Limatus durhamii. During the dry season, the potential YF vectors exhibited a very low frequency and abundance, except Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus. No flavivirus was detected in the 2,677 examined mosquitoes. Conclusions We recommend continued and systematic entomological monitoring in areas vulnerable to the transmission of YF in the Federal District of Brazil.

  2. Feeding ecology of the lizard Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues 1987 (Tropiduridae at Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, northern Brazil

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    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL and jaw width (JW were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All lizards analyzed contained food in their stomachs. The diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás was characterized by the consumption of a relative wide spectrum of food item categories (21 types of items, consisting of arthropods, part of one vertebrate and plant material, which characterizes the diet of a generalist predator. Volumetrically, the most important items in the diet of both sexes of T. oreadicus were flowers (M = 61.7%; F = 33% and orthopterans (M = 1.7%; F = 3.5%. Ants were the most frequently consumed (100% for both sexes and the most numerous (M = 94.5%; F = 89.4% food item. Flowers also were frequently consumed (M = 91.7%; F = 54.5%, with their relative consumption differing significantly between sexes. There was not a significant sexual difference in prey volume, neither in number of preys per stomach, nor in type of prey ingested. There was no relationship between lizard jaw width and the mean volume of prey. The data showed that T. oreadicus is a relatively generalist lizard in terms of diet and that consumes large volumes of plant material, especially flowers of one species of genus Cassia.

  3. Feeding ecology of the lizard Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues 1987 (Tropiduridae) at Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C

    2008-02-01

    Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae) is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL) and jaw width (JW) were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All lizards analyzed contained food in their stomachs. The diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás was characterized by the consumption of a relative wide spectrum of food item categories (21 types of items), consisting of arthropods, part of one vertebrate and plant material, which characterizes the diet of a generalist predator. Volumetrically, the most important items in the diet of both sexes of T. oreadicus were flowers (M = 61.7%; F = 33%) and orthopterans (M = 1.7%; F = 3.5%). Ants were the most frequently consumed (100% for both sexes) and the most numerous (M = 94.5%; F = 89.4%) food item. Flowers also were frequently consumed (M = 91.7%; F = 54.5%), with their relative consumption differing significantly between sexes. There was not a significant sexual difference in prey volume, neither in number of preys per stomach, nor in type of prey ingested. There was no relationship between lizard jaw width and the mean volume of prey. The data showed that T. oreadicus is a relatively generalist lizard in terms of diet and that consumes large volumes of plant material, especially flowers of one species of genus Cassia.

  4. Nesting ecology of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812 and Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Brazil

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    PD. Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Nest site has influence on incubation duration and hatching success of two Neotropical turtles, the Giant Amazon River Turtle (Podocnemis expansa and Yellow-Spotted Side-Neck Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis - "Tracajá". The 2000 and 2001 nesting seasons have been monitored at the Javaés River in Bananal Island, Brazil. Although they nest on the same beaches, there is a separation of the nesting areas of P unifilis and P. expansa nests on the upper parts of the beach. The incubation duration for P. expansa is influenced by the nesting period, the height of the nest from the river, the clutch size, and the grain size in the site of the nest. Nests of Podocnemis expansa placed in coarse sediments have shorter incubation duration than those placed in finer sediments. The hatching success in P. expansa is influenced by grain size, incubation duration, and nesting period. The grain size is negatively correlated with hatching success, indicating that the nests situated in finer-grained sand have better chances of successful egg hatching than those in coarser-grained sand. Nests of the end of the reproductive season have lower hatching success and incubation duration than those at the start of the season. For P. unifilis, the nesting period and nest depth influence the incubation duration; moreover, the river dynamics significantly affect the hatching success. The oscillation of the river level and the moment of initial increase, the height of the nest from the river level, and the nesting period are all decisive components for hatching success. The results of this research show the importance of protecting areas with great geological diversity, wherein the features of the environment can affect the microenvironment of nests, with consequences on incubation duration and hatching success.

  5. Administrative Ecology

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    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  6. Ecology of parasites of Metynnis lippincottianus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae from the eastern Amazon region, Macapá, State of Amapá, Brazil

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    Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first investigation on the ecological aspects of the parasites M. lippincottianusfrom the Amazonian basin, as well as the parasite-host relationship. 76 out of the examined fish (98.7% were parasitized by at least one species of parasites. A total of 8,774 parasites were collected, being Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Anacanthorus jegui, Dadayius pacupeva, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus sp., Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. larvae, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, followed by A. jegui. Among the endoparasites, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva were predominant. The mean diversity of parasites was HB = 0.96 ± 0.32 and there was aggregate distribution pattern. A positive correlation of body weight with the abundance of I. multifiliis and S. Oxydoras was observed, whereas a negative correlation of body weight with abundance of the Contracaecum sp. larvae was found. The relative condition factor (Kn was not negatively affected by parasites, and a positive correlation between Kn and abundance of I. multifiliis, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva was found. This study is the first one to record I. multifiliis, D. longicauda and A. jegui parasitizing M. lippincottianus, as well as the first record of D. pacupeva and S. oxydoras in the Amazonas river system.

  7. One more piece in the VACV ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil?

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    Jônatas S Abrahão

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that smallpox eradication was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980, other poxviruses have emerged and re-emerged, with significant public health and economic impacts. Vaccinia virus (VACV, a poxvirus used during the WHO smallpox vaccination campaign, has been involved in zoonotic infections in Brazilian rural areas (Bovine Vaccinia outbreaks - BV, affecting dairy cattle and milkers. Little is known about VACV's natural hosts and its epidemiological and ecological characteristics. Although VACV was isolated and/or serologically detected in Brazilian wild animals, the link between wildlife and farms has not yet been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge, the isolation of a VACV (Mariana virus - MARV from a mouse during a BV outbreak. Genetic data, in association with biological assays, showed that this isolate was the same etiological agent causing exanthematic lesions observed in the cattle and human inhabitants of a particular BV-affected area. Phylogenetic analysis grouped MARV with other VACV isolated during BV outbreaks. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide new biological and epidemiological information on VACV and lead to an interesting question: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and BV outbreaks?

  8. Local ecological knowledge of fishers about the life cycle and temporal patterns in the migration of mullet (Mugil liza in Southern Brazil

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    Dannieli Firme Herbst

    Full Text Available This research investigates local ecological knowledge of fishers in communities along a latitudinal gradient in the coast of the Santa Catarina State, regarding the life cycle of mullets Mugil liza (migration, feeding, and reproductive behavior. Our sampling encompassed eight Santa Catarina coastal cities (nine artisanal fishing sites and engaged 45 key informants (28- 86 years of age through semi-structured interviews from August/2011 to March/2012. This fish species feeds and grows in lagoon and estuarine systems, migrating to the sea for reproduction, and spawning. Fishers acknowledged the Patos Lagoon and the Plata River as the main source of mullet schools. Migration occurs from South to North and the routes vary according to climatic and oceanographic conditions (e.g., low temperatures, south winds, rainfall, currents, salinity. These conditions influence the abundance of mullets (and therefore fisheries success, their migration and stops in locations such as beaches, rocky shores, and islands. According to fishers, mullet spawning occurs throughout the coast of the Santa Catarina State and they feed in lagoons and riverine systems but also out at sea during migration. In conclusion, fishers possess a detailed knowledge about mullet life cycle and they identify intra and interannual variations in migration routes, a pattern that should be considered in managing the fishery.

  9. Estudo ecológico sobre o desenvolvimento da saúde no Brasil Ecological study on the development of health in Brazil

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    Maria Meimei Brevidelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar o nível de saúde das Unidades da Federação (UF do Brasil, por meio de um indicador sintético - Índice de Desenvolvimento da Saúde (IDS. O IDS foi composto pelas dimensões: (1 Recursos de saúde: disponibilidade e qualidade dos recursos de saúde; (2 Cobertura por atenção básica e saneamento; (3 Eficácia das políticas de saúde. Cada dimensão englobou um conjunto de indicadores obtidos em bases de dados nacionais. Em 2005, o Brasil apresentava nível intermediário de desenvolvimento da saúde, tendo progredido de patamares inferiores, desde 1999. A maioria das UF apresentava déficits em "recursos" e "cobertura". A dimensão da "eficácia" mostrou-se altamente desenvolvida em todo Brasil. Conclusões: A construção do indicador sintético IDS possibilitou constatar deficiências e disparidades significativas na disponibilidade e qualidade dos recursos de saúde, em grande parte do território nacional. Esses resultados podem auxiliar gestores de saúde no desafio de tornar a saúde pública universal.The scope of this paper was to assess the health level in Brazilian states using the Health Development Index (HDI. The HDI consisted of the following dimensions: (1 Health resources: Availability and quality of health resources; (2 Primary Healthcare coverage and sanitation; (3 Effectiveness of health policies. Each dimension was composed of a set of indicators obtained from national databases. In 2005, Brazil had an intermediate level of development of health, having progressed from a low level in 1999. Most states had medium and low development, with deficits in resources and coverage. The dimension of effectiveness was highly developed nationwide. With the construction of a synthetic indicator (HDI it was possible to detect that in most of the country there are severe deficiencies in the availability and quality of health resources. These results can help health managers to tackle the challenge of making public health

  10. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  11. Influences of sex, ontogeny and body size on the thermal ecology of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata, Liolaemidae) in a restinga remnant in Southeastern Brazil.

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    Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Variations in body temperature (Tb) of lizards can be partially explained by intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size. Liolaemus lutzae is a lizard species restricted to restingas in the Brazilian coast in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Herein, we studied sexual dimorphism and influences of sex, ontogeny, and body size to the Tb of L. lutzae. Adult males were larger than adult females, probably due to both intersexual selection and intra-sexual selection. There was intersexual difference in lizards' Tb (males hotter than females), but Tb did not differ after factored out for the effects of body size. The mean Tb of juvenile lizards was higher than that of adults after factored out for the effect of body mass. It is possible that adults may have excluded juveniles from microhabitats with better thermal regimes. Also, this might have occurred due to requirements of juveniles to maintain high growth rates. Forage searching for prey by juveniles also exposes them to high environmental temperatures. Juveniles also may have higher Tb than co-specific adults (relative to body mass) to favor prey capture. In absolute values, adult lizards tended to use microhabitats with lower temperatures than that used by juveniles, possibly to avoid risks of overheating and death. Body temperature and snout-vent length were positively related, as well as body temperature and body mass, presumably caused by the thermal inertia of the bodies (trend of a body to resist to changes in its temperature). Intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size can affect the thermal ecology of L. lutzae, despite coastal habitat features to which they are exposed also influences the body temperature of active lizards in restinga habitats.

  12. Epidemiological and ecological aspects related to malaria in the area of influence of the lake at Porto Primavera dam, in western São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério de C; Paula, Marcia B de; Duarte, Ana Maria R de C; Lima, Maura A; Malafronte, Rosely dos S; Mucci, Luis F; Gotlieb, Sabina Lea D; Natal, Delsio

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out in the area of influence of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Station, in western São Paulo State, to investigate ecological and epidemiological aspects of malaria in the area and monitor the profile of the anopheline populations following the environmental changes brought about by the construction of the lake. Mosquitoes captured were analyzed by standardized indicator species analysis (ISA) before and during different flooding phases (253 m and 257 m elevations). The local human population was studied by means of parasitological (thin/thick blood smears), molecular (PCR) and serological tests. Serological tests consisted of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with synthetic peptides of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from classic Plasmodium vivax, P. vivax variants (VK247 and "vivax-like"), P. malariae and P. falciparum and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) with asexual forms of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. The results of the entomological survey indicated that, although the Anopheles darlingi population increased after the flooding, the population density remained very low. No malaria, parasite infection or DNA was detected in the inhabitants of the study area. However, there was a low frequency of antibodies against asexual forms and a significant prevalence of antibodies against P. vivax, P. vivax variants, P. falciparum and P. malariae; the presence of these antibodies may result from recent or less recent contact with human or simian Plasmodium (a parallel study in the same area revealed the existence of a sylvatic cycle). Nevertheless, these results suggest that, as in other places where malaria is present and potential vectors circulate, the local epidemiological conditions observed could potentially support the transmission of malaria in Porto Primavera Lake if infected individuals are introduced in sufficient numbers. Further studies are required to elucidate the phenomena described in this paper.

  13. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  14. On the Ecological Concepts in Jonathan Weiner ’ s The Beak of the Finch%论乔纳森·韦纳《雀鸟之喙》的生态意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Weiner is a renowned American science writer , and his The Beak of the Finch, em-bodying abundant ecological consciousness , is an excellent work of green science writing .By representing the basic ideas of evolutionary ecology , the work defends Darwin ’ s theory of evolution , decomposing anthropocen-trism once more;it reveals the severe consequences of both the ignorance of and the abuse of the knowledge of evolutionary ecology , and criticizes the transgressions of nature by humans;it highlights the“evolution” of the ecological consciousness of evolutionary ecologists , leading the public to cherish the ecological environment and “the partners in the evolutionary process”.All those concepts have significant implications to China ’ s current efforts to promote ecological progress: on the one hand , we ought to affirm fully the positive roles of science and technology in humans ’ understanding of natural laws and protection of ecological environment;on the other hand , we ought to eradicate completely the abuses of the power of humans as well as of science and technology .%乔纳森·韦纳是美国当代著名的科学散文作家,其《雀鸟之喙》蕴含着丰富的生态意识,是一部优秀的绿色科学散文作品。它展演了进化生态学的基本理念,捍卫了达尔文的进化论,重新消解了人类中心主义;揭示了人类对进化生态知识的无知和滥用的严重后果,批判人类对大自然的僭越行为;彰显了进化生态学者生态意识的“进化”,引领大众呵护生态环境及人类“进化过程的伙伴”。这些生态意蕴对我国的生态文明建设具有重要启示意义:我们既要充分肯定科学技术对人类认识自然规律和保护生态环境的积极作用,又要坚决杜绝滥用科技和人类能力的行为。

  15. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where ar...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....

  16. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John;

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  17. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long

    2006-01-01

    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  18. Floristic and phytosociological description of a riparian forest and the relationship with the edaphic environment in Caiuá Ecological Station - Paraná - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysias Vellozo da Costa Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationship in soil physical and chemical properties of soil, floristic and phytosociological association of semi-deciduous riparian forest of the Paranapanema River (R and Rosana Reservoir (Re in the Caiuá Ecological Station were evaluated. Aerial photography and satellite image were used to determine the forest cover and to locate 15 transects 50 x 30m (1500m²,which were used to sample trees with diameters at breast height (DBH>15 cm. R contained 1487 individuals from 33 families, 64 genders and 73 species. The Shannon-weaver index (H' was 3.318. Re contained 1146 individuals from 35 families, 72 genders and 85 species and the H' was 3.755. There was a statistically significant difference (PDas análises das propriedades física e química dos solos, da florística e da fítossociológica da vegetação arbórea de fragmentos da floresta estacional semidecidual localizados às margens do Rio Paranapanema (R e do Reservatório de Rosana (Re na Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (22°41'S e 52°55'W, verificou-se as correlações vegetação x solo. Utilizou-se fotografias aéreas e imagens de satélite para determinar a similaridade da cobertura florestal e alocar 15 transectos de 50m x 30m (1500m² cada, amostrou-se os indivíduos com perímetro a altura do peito (PAP 15 cm. No R amostrou-se 1487 indivíduos, de 33 famílias, 64 gêneros e 73 espécies e índice de Shannon-weaver (H' de 3,318. No Re registrou-se 1146 indivíduos de 35 famílias, 72 gêneros e 85 espécies e H' de 3,755. Os resultados mostraram ambientes estatisticamente diferentes e efetiva correlação entre os atributos físicos do solo e os Valores de Importância (VI ordenados pela Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA.

  19. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  20. Seasonal variations in water quality of an oxbow lake in response to multiple short-time pulses of flooding (Jataí Ecological Station--Mogi-Guaçu River, Luiz Antonio, SP-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, A V; Mozeto, A A

    1999-01-01

    Mogi-Guaçu River is a six-order floodplain river in the upper Paraná River Basin, Southern Brazil. Its yearly discharge varies from a minimum of 100 m3.s-1 to a maximum of 600 m3.s-1. Diogo Lake is a shallow lake located at its floodplain within the Jataí Ecological Station (Luiz Antonio, São Paulo State) and is connected throughout the year to the river through a narrow and shallow channel. The main finding of this study is that the river hidrology controls the annual variations in lake hydrochemistry through a series of hydraulic effects related to oscillations in river discharge. Lake water quality is a resultant of differential contribution from local and regional watersheds. During the low water period, lake water quality is determined by inputs from Cafundó Creek, which drains the local watershed into the lake. Raising the river level during the rain season results in the damming of lake and culminates with the entrance of river waters into the plain. The geochemistry of waters in this system is determined by weathering of sandstones with basalt intrusions. Waters are acidic (river pH = 6.00 to 7.02 and stream-lake pH = 5.15 to 6.7) and dominant cations are Na+ and K+. Major anions are almost exclusively represented by bicarbonate and an unknown concentration of organic acid anions. The overall ionic load of these soft waters in the system is therefore very low.

  1. Ecological protection analysis of cascade hydropower development and concept and principle for definition of ecological water head%梯级水电开发中生态保护分析与生态水头理念及确定原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛芳; 王超; 侯俊; 钱进; 饶磊; 刘佳佳; 王洵

    2016-01-01

    在分析水电开发对生态环境影响及原因的基础上,归纳了近年来水电站建设运行中生态保护措施的研究进展,包括过鱼设施的建设、鱼类增殖放流站的构建、大坝下游河道断面生态流量的确定和梯级水电站水库生态调度,并阐释了这些措施在河流梯级水电开发生态保护中的不足,提出了河流梯级水电开发水头与生态水头协同确定的理念,界定了基于河流自然生境和原生生态及物种保护的生态水头的概念、内涵与确定原则,给出了生态水头规划的综合优化方法。%Based on an analysis of impacts of hydropower development on the ecological environment, research progress in ecological protection measures during hydropower station construction and operation is summarized, including construction of fish passage facilities, establishment of fish proliferation and release stations, methods for determination of ecological flow downstream of dams, and ecological operation of cascade reservoirs, and the disadvantages of the ecological protection measures in cascade hydropower development are illustrated. Accordingly, the ideas of cooperative determination of the water head in river cascade hydropower development and the ecological water head are discussed. Furthermore, the concept, implications, and principle for definition of the ecological water head are presented based on natural river habitats, natural ecosystems, and species protection, and a comprehensive optimization method is proposed for ecological water head planning.

  2. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  3. DNA-Based Taxonomy in Ecologically Versatile Microalgae: A Re-Evaluation of the Species Concept within the Coccoid Green Algal Genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Veronica; Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio; Tempesta, Sabrina; Paoletti, Michela; Pasqualetti, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Coccomyxa is a genus of unicellular green algae of the class Trebouxiophyceae, well known for its cosmopolitan distribution and great ecological amplitude. The taxonomy of this genus has long been problematic, due to reliance on badly-defined and environmentally variable morphological characters. In this study, based on the discovery of a new species from an extreme habitat, we reassess species circumscription in Coccomyxa, a unicellular genus of the class Trebouxiophyceae, using a combination of ecological and DNA sequence data (analyzed with three different methods of algorithmic species delineation). Our results are compared with those of a recent integrative study of Darienko and colleagues that reassessed the taxonomy of Coccomyxa, recognizing 7 species in the genus. Expanding the dataset from 43 to 61 sequences (SSU + ITS rDNA) resulted in a different delimitation, supporting the recognition of a higher number of species (24 to 27 depending on the analysis used, with the 27-species scenario receiving the strongest support). Among these, C. melkonianii sp. nov. is described from material isolated from a river highly polluted by heavy metals (Rio Irvi, Sardinia, Italy). Analyses performed on ecological characters detected a significant phylogenetic signal in six different characters. We conclude that the 27-species scenario is presently the most realistic for Coccomyxa and we suggest that well-supported lineages distinguishable by ecological preferences should be recognized as different species in this genus. We also recommend that for microbial lineages in which the overall diversity is unknown and taxon sampling is sparse, as is often the case for green microalgae, the results of analyses for algorithmic DNA-based species delimitation should be interpreted with extreme caution.

  4. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel,Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  5. 美国大环保理念对长江水生态环境保护的启示%Inspiration of US great environment protection concept to water ecology and environment protection of Yangtze River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳院平; 刘先锋

    2015-01-01

    长江经济带发展战略部署将长江流域建设成为生态文明建设的先行示范带,但沿线脆弱的生态环境已成为长江经济带建设的重要制约因素。依据对美国生态环境保护制度框架与实践的研究,重点从环境立法、公众参与、大数据集成及科学研究等方面阐述了美国大环境理念及其实践经验。由此得到启发,从法制建设、公众参与、资金保障方面提出了长江流域水生态环境保护与修复的建议。%According to the development strategy of Yangtze River economic belt, the Yangtze River Basin would be construc-ted to a pilot demonstration zone for ecological civilization construction, however the fragile ecology environment along Yangtze River has become a limiting factor. On the basis of the researches on US institutional frame and practices of environment protec-tion, we illustrate the US great environment protection concept and its practical experiences in terms of environmental legislation, public participation, integration of big data as well as relative scientific researches. Enlightened by this new concept, we put for-ward several suggestions for protection and restoration of water ecology and environment in Yangtze River Basin in terms of legal system construction, public participation and financing guarantee.

  6. Contribuição da fauna silvestre em projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil Contribution of the wildlife in ecological restoration projects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanuza Helena Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso no processo de restauração e manutenção da dinâmica de um ecossistema é extremamente dependente da capacidade das espécies em promover interações interespecíficas entre as diversas formas de vida. Estas interações criam um cenário favorável à restauração ecológica de ecossistemas degradados. Assim, por meio de revisão de literatura, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a contribuição e utilização dos diferentes grupos de animais na execução de projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil. As aves e mamíferos frugívoros e também outros animais, como os répteis, peixes e insetos, têm se destacado como ferramentas de auxílio aos projetos de restauração ecológica. As técnicas para atração de animais e consequente chegada de propágulos em um ecossistema degradado compreende a utilização de poleiros, que servem de pouso e abrigo para a avifauna e morcegos, e a utilização de abrigos artificiais, que servem para fuga de predadores, descanso e reprodução dos animais. De modo geral, estes estudos são excelentes ferramentas para gerir ações de manejo ambiental em ecossistemas degradados, possibilitando a recuperação da biodiversidade destes ambientes. The success in the process of restoration and maintenance of the dynamics of an ecosystem is highly dependent on the capacity of species to promote interspecific interactions among the various life forms. These interactions create a favorable environment for the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. Thus, by review the literature, the objective of this study is to report the contribution and use of different animal groups in carrying out ecological restoration projects in Brazil. The fruit-eating birds and mammals and also other animals such as reptiles, fish and insects have been highlighted as tools to aid environmental ecological restoration projects. Techniques for attracting animals and consequent arrival of seedlings in a degraded

  7. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  8. The main characteristics of qualitative studies carried out by doctors in Brazil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms.

  9. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture and the promotion of food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Renato Sergio; Burlandy, Luciene; Santarelli, Mariana; Schottz, Vanessa; Speranza, Juliana Simões

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms.

  10. [Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc.), overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.). However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro for the adoption of a sustainable economic development model and a society free of poverty and hunger.

  11. Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors Incidência de câncer de estômago no Brasil: estudo ecológico com fatores de risco selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Koifman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-based cancer registries in Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém, and Goiânia; and data from a Brazilian national survey on family expenditures (several diet consumption items and availability of home refrigerators carried out in 1974-75. The results suggested that past availability of a home refrigerator, i.e. food preservation, may have played an important role in currently observed differences in stomach cancer incidence among the various populations studied in Brazil. Differences in living standards among populations in these cities also appear to have played an important role in the observed incidence differences.De forma distinta daquela verificada em muitos países industrializados onde se vem observando um marcado declínio das taxas de incidência de câncer de estômago, o Brasil ainda apresenta taxas consideradas intermediárias ou elevadas desta doença. Visando realizar um estudo exploratório das possíveis razões para estas diferenças, se realizou um estudo ecológico através de análise de agrupamento (cluster, análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial. Foram incluídos nestas análises as taxas de incidência de câncer de estômago no início da década de 90 - determinadas pelos registros de câncer de base populacional no país (Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém e Goiânia -, bem como aqueles obtidos através de inquérito nacional de despesas familiares (ENDEF realizado em 1974-75. Este levantou dados

  12. 从现代性视角看绿色发展理念对生态危机的突破%The Breakthrough of Green-development Concept from Ecological Crisis in Perspective of Modernity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明亮

    2016-01-01

    生态危机是现代性问题的重要方面,认识与克服生态危机需要借助现代性的视角。由于漠视资本是造成生态危机的根本原因,不触动资本主义制度的现代性,内部的突破路径注定无法成功。由于没有深刻认识到当代社会的根本特征,以生态马克思主义为代表的现代性外部的突破路径必然沦为绿色乌托邦。我国在长期的发展过程中形成了在当代进行社会主义建设的独特优势。绿色发展理念切中了生态危机和时代的本质,依托中国特色社会主义的根本特点和独特优势,科学地回答了如何在现阶段进行社会主义生态文明建设的问题。%Ecological crisis, an important constituent of modernity, can be understood and overcome in the prospect of modernity. Mo-dernity is relative to capitalism essentially. The breakthrough methods which do not change the capitalist system will go nowhere as capitalism is the root cause of ecological crisis. Not realizing the quintessential features of modern society, the breakthrough paths re-presented by ecological Marxism will turn out to be a green Utopia. China has the unique advantages of constructing socialism in the contemporary era. Aware of the essence of the modern society and ecological crisis and based on the fundamental characteristics and u-nique advantage of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the green development concept scientifically answers the question as to how to construct socialist ecological civilization in the contemporary era.

  13. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study Dieta e mortalidade para os tipos mais freqüentes de câncer no Brasil: um estudo ecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (pRealizou-se um estudo ecológico com base em dados de 10 capitais brasileiras e, através de análise de regressão linear, examinou-se a associação entre dieta e as taxas de mortalidade para as principais localizações de câncer, entre adultos com 30 anos ou mais. As taxas de mortalidade ajustadas por idade variavam de 2,4 a 3,3 vezes entre as capitais. Consumo de energia associou-se positivamente com câncer de colon, pulmão e esôfago (p<=0,02 em cada associação. Mortalidade por câncer de colon associou-se positivamente com o consumo de gordura, ovos, álcool, mate, cereais e vegetais (p<=0,01; câncer de pulmão associou-se ao consumo de mate e cereais (p<0,05; câncer de estômago associou-se positivamente com ovos (p=0,04 e, negativamente, com o consumo de fibras, frutas e vitaminas A e C (p<=0,05. Câncer de esôfago foi positivamente associado com consumo de gordura e mate (p<=0,05 e, negativamente, com vitamina A (p=0,02; câncer de próstata associou-se negativamente com vitamina C (p=0,007. Câncer de mama não se associou a nenhum dos fatores estudados. A importante variação nas taxas de mortalidade por câncer no Brasil podem ser parcialmente associadas as variações em componentes da dieta ou a fatores a ela associados.

  14. Mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis no Brasil: um estudo ecológico no período 2000-2002 Infant mortality from preventable causes in Brazil: an ecological study in 2000-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Boing

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi testar as associações entre a mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis no Brasil com indicadores sócio-econômicos e de serviços e investimentos em saúde. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, cujas unidades de análise foram os 296 municípios brasileiros com população superior a 80 mil habitantes. Realizaram-se os testes de Kruskall-Wallis e ANOVA para identificar diferenças significativas entre os quartis de mortalidade infantil segundo as variáveis independentes, e foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson e de Spearman para testar as associações entre todas as variáveis. Os municípios que compuseram os quartis com maior mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis apresentaram também menor Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal, Produto Interno Bruto per capita, pessoas que vivem em domicílios com banheiro e água encanada, despesa total com saúde por habitante e médicos por mil habitantes; e maior coeficiente de Gini. A compreensão do papel protagonista das condições sócio-econômicas e de investimentos em saúde sobre a mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis deve permear as ações que visem à minimização da magnitude e da desigualdade desses óbitos.This study aims to test the associations between infant mortality from preventable causes in Brazil and socioeconomic factors, including those pertaining to health services and investments. This was an ecological study using 296 Brazilian counties (municipalities with more than 80,000 inhabitants each as the analytical units. Kruskall-Wallis and ANOVA tests were performed to compare independent variables according to infant mortality quartile, and Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients were computed to test the associations. As the infant mortality quartile from preventable causes increases, there is a gradual decrease in the municipal human development index, per capita gross domestic product, households with

  15. Ecological Civilization:Something Inherent in the Concept of Socialism--Theoretical thoughts on the socialist ecological civilization in the new era%生态文明是社会主义的题中应有之义--走向社会主义生态文明新时代的理论思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓明; 刘亚男

    2016-01-01

    环境和生态问题已成为人类社会发展的巨大难题,资本主义条件下人与自然的对抗关系并没有消除,前苏联在保护环境方面也鲜有成就,任何社会制度都要面对来自环境和生态的压力和困扰。资本追逐利润的本性决定资本主义制度与生态环境的关系不可调和。社会主义能解决生态问题吗?马克思主义一系列的命题和论断表明生态文明是社会主义的题中应有之义。在全面深化改革的进程中,积极探索解决生态问题的最佳方案,建设美丽中国是中国特色社会主义的未来和方向。%The environmental and ecological problem has become a big problem in the development of hu⁃man society. The adversarial relationship of human and the nature under capitalism does not eliminate, and the former Soviet Union had few achievements in environmental protection. Any social system had to face the pres⁃sure and obsession from environment and ecology. The nature of the profit-pursuit decides the irreconcilable of the relationship between ecological environment and capitalism system. Can Socialism solve the ecological prob⁃lems? A series of proposition of Marxism and judgment suggests that ecological civilization is something inher⁃ent in the concept of socialism. Trying to actively explore the best way to solve the ecological problems and con⁃struct beautiful China is the future direction of Chinese socialism.

  16. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  17. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  18. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  19. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  20. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lívia B. Santos; Nelio R. dos Reis; Mário L. Orsi

    2012-01-01

    ...) environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats...

  1. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and...

  2. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  3. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  4. Northern Shanxi study on energy-saving concept of ecological houses%晋北民居的生态节能理念初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文娟

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the concept of building energy efficiency in Shanxi province from the Northern Shanxi regional residential,construction materials used,energy-saving insulation measures,lighting and ventilation and other aspects,so as to provide a new sustainable development building energy-saving ideas for regional characteristics.%从晋北民居的地域性、建筑材料使用、节能保温措施、采光通风等几个方面介绍了山西晋北民居中的建筑节能理念,从而为地区特色的可持续发展的建筑提供新的建筑节能思想。

  5. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  6. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  7. Ecologia humana e antropometria nutricional de adultos Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil Human ecology and nutritional anthropometry of adult Xavánte Indians in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia A. Gugelmin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa analisar comparativamente o perfil ecológico-humano e o antropométrico de duas comunidades indígenas Xavánte - Etéñitépa (ou Pimentel Barbosa e São José - de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados respectivamente em 1994 e 1998/1999. A pesquisa envolveu caracterização dos padrões de alocação de tempo e de antropometria de adultos acima de 20 anos de idade. Os Xavánte de Etéñitépa despendem mais tempo em atividades ligadas à horticultura, pesca, caça e coleta; os de São José exercem mais funções remuneradas e extra-aldeia, em que há, em geral, menor atividade física. Os valores médios de estatura das duas comunidades são próximos, mas há diferenças marcantes quanto à massa corporal e ao IMC (Índice de Massa Corporal. O grupo de São José exibiu valores de IMC superiores aos de Etéñitépa em quase todas as faixas etárias. Em São José há prevalência de obesidade em homens (24,6% e mulheres (41,3%; em Etéñitépa, os valores foram respectivamente de 2,5% e 4,8%. Sugere-se que o perfil nutricional diferenciado resulta, em muito, de diferentes trajetórias de interação social, política e econômica com a sociedade nacional envolvente.This study compares anthropometric and ecological profiles of two Xavánte indigenous communities in Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. The research describes time allocation patterns and involves an anthropometric survey (including body mass, stature, and BMI in adults over 20 years of age. Data from Etéñitépa (also known as Pimentel Barbosa were collected in 1994. Field work at São José was conducted in 1998 and 1999. Compared with the São José group, Xavánte in Etéñitépa do more subsistence activities like farming, fishing, hunting, and gathering. The São José Xavánte do more paid work and generally engage in less physical activity. Average stature in the two communities is similar, but there are major differences in mean body mass and BMI

  8. Ecology of colonizing populations of the figfly Zaprionus indianus (Diptera, Drosophilidae in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil Ecologia de populações colonizadoras da mosca-do-figo Zaprionus indianus (Diptera, Drosophilidae em Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Machado da Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological parameters such as trophic niche overlap and niche breadth were computed from the frequency of all drosophilid species collected in 2001 and 2002, in the urban area of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. Independently of place, drosophilids community composition and components breeding or feeding sites, the highest frequencies of Zaprionus indianus (Gupta, 1970 were obtained during seasons with higher average temperatures, especially during summer. From a total of the 19,146 individuals of Z. indianus sampled, 80% were found in this season. The data of trophic niche breadth suggest a higher opportunism of adult flies in feeding substrate use, but the females are still selective in oviposition substrate choice. For the values of niche overlap, only for some species, did we find any correlation between these and species richness and/or number of resources, and the most of the correlation values considering breeding and feeding sites were positive. The colonization of Z. indianus in Porto Alegre could be leading to adjustments in the survival strategies of the resident species, but it is possible that many species have conditions for coexisting with the invader.Parâmetros ecológicos tais como sobreposição e amplitude de nicho trófico foram aplicados a partir da freqüência de todas as espécies de drosofilídeos coletados em 2001 e 2002 na área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Independentemente do local, da composição da comunidade de drosofilídeos e dos componentes sítios de ovoposição e alimentação, as maiores freqüências de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta, 1970 foram obtidas durante as estações com médias de temperatura maiores, especialmente durante o verão. De um total de 19.146 indivíduos de Z. indianus amostrados, 80 % foram coletados nesta estação. Os dados de amplitude de nicho trófico sugerem um maior oportunismo de moscas adultas no uso de substratos para alimentação, mas as fêmeas permanecem seletivas na

  9. Ecological Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Gremmen, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the concept of biomimicry. On the basis of an analysis of the concept of biomimicry in the literature and its philosophical origin, we distinguish between a strong and a weaker concept of biomimicry. The strength of the strong concept of biomimicry is

  10. Ecological Modernization and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Tomiello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of social and environmental enterprises revealed in the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and analyzed in the light of Ecological Modernization Theory (TME.The overall objective of this study is to understand CSR from the perspectiveof TME through more detailed research of a CSR program called  Clube dos Produtores [Producers Club].This program aims to influence the supply chain to adopt responsible and sustainable practices, and seeks to strengthen the small and medium producers through structured actions, such as training, qualification, and inspection, stimulating quality, innovation and productivity growth. It is conducted in parallel, in Portugal, by the Rede Sonae de Distribuição and, in Brazil, by Walmart Company. The data collection included both Countries. In Portugal, the Clube dos Produtores has emerged to combine the synergy between distribution and production and promote the development of domestic production. It takes the environment as the genesis for its creation, maintains a nationalist approach by encouraging the consumption of domestic products, and recognizes consumer pressure as the force for continuous innovation of products and services. In addition, it reconciles tradition and modernity through products supported by different generations. In Brazil, the Club is founded on the sustainability discourse; the customer awareness about environmental issues was not captured in the research; the producers innovations result from their own initiatives to participate in fairs or from direct contact with consumers; the dialogue between tradition and modernity occurs primarily through the entrepreneurial capacity of the producers and less direct intervention by Walmart.

  11. Initiatives of Ecological Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Sergeevich Volodin; Igor Valeryevich Moshkin; Veronika Vasilyevna Khubulova

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of environment is one of the global problems for the mankind. The concept of sustainable development presented at the governmental level in 1987 urged to fix at the interstate level the basic principles of development of humanity in harmony with the nature. The Charter signed in 1991 “Business and sustainable development” proclaimed a new stage of development of world entrepreneurship – business had to become ecologicallyoriented and to form the ecologically-oriented demand. In r...

  12. Industrial Design and Ecological Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Horia Chinda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the direct link between the Industrial Production process of prodfucts ad the Ecological disaster we are witnessing today. The main contribution is the definition of the industrial designer's role in this process and the multiple ways the designer can influence and avoid the ecological imbalance. From the design concept to materials and processing, from packing and recycling to transportation, the author clearly defines the designer's complex involvement and offers solutions.

  13. Ecological Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  14. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  15. New Concepts of Nursing Ethics in the Ecological Medical Model in the Clinical Nursing%生态医学模式视角下护理伦理新观念在临床护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 孙俐; 王坤; 王利群

    2015-01-01

    目的:对临床工作的护士进行护理伦理新观念的培训,提高职业道德,增加患者满意度。方法采用自制调查问卷法,选取2014年10月—2015年3月期间在吉林省某三甲医院住院的患者413名,并将其随机分为两组,其中实验组207人,对照组206人。结果印象层面中,对护理人员人文知识素养,对于护理人员的服务态度方面;心理层面中,对护理人员体贴照顾,有足够的沟通交流以及服务温馨方面;知识层面中,了解患病原因和机制、促进健康生活理念满意度方面;总体评价层面中,总体满意率方面,两组之间的差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。结论通过对临床护理工作者进行护理伦理新观念的培训,可以提升护理工作者的综合素养,增加患者满意度。%Objective To improve the clinical nurses’professional ethics and increase the patients’satisfaction by training the clinical nurses in new concepts of nursing ethics in the ecological medical mode. Methods A self-designed question-naire was used to investigate 413 patients in a grade three A hospital in Jilin province from October 2014 to March 2015. 413 patients were divided into two groups randomly. 207 patients were in the experimental group, and 206 were in the con-trol group. Results The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). in humanities knowledge and service attitude (impression level);nursing care, enough communication and service (psychological level);understanding the causes and mechanisms of the disease ,and promoting the healthy life concept satisfaction (knowledge level); the overall satisfaction rate (overall evaluation). Conclusion Training the clinical nurses in new concepts of nursing ethics in the eco-logical medical mode has a positive effect on improving the comprehensive quality and increasing the patients ’ satisfaction.

  16. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  17. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  18. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  19. Globalization and sustainable development: a political ecology strategy to realize ecological justice

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2006-01-01

    Organic agriculture is, like mainstream agriculture, faced with the challenges of globalization and sustainable development. Ecological justice, the fair distribution of livelihoods and environments, has emerged as a key concept in efforts, on the one hand, to resist negative consequences of globalization and ecological modernization and, on the other to propose new agenda and institutional arrangements. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice as a political ecology strateg...

  20. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp (Rosaceae em Timbó-SC, Brasil Pollination ecology of blackberry (Rubus sp. (Rosaceae in Timbo (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas João de Mello Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou experimentalmente a ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp.. Objetivou-se confirmar a síndrome de polinização de Rubus sp., por meio de análise de seu sistema reprodutivo, quantificação da produção diária de néctar, levantamento da entomofauna que visita as flores da amoreira na área de estudo e análise do seu comportamento polinizador. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma área de cultivo de amoreira-preta, no mês de dezembro de 2005, município de Timbó (SC. Constatou-se que a maior taxa de frutificação (48,3 % ± 3,2 ocorreu via polinização livre, onde os insetos não foram excluídos. Foi verificada a ocorrência de autopolinização, porém com taxa inferior de frutificação (12,2% ± 4,9. A anemofilia não foi constatada na espécie. A avaliação da produção de néctar em Rubus sp. resultou em valores compatíveis com a síndrome de melitofilia. Os visitantes florais coletados e observados sobre as flores de Rubus sp. foram predominantemente abelhas da ordem Hymenoptera (97%, que iniciam, em menor número, a atividade de forrageamento às 8h, com pico de atividade às 12h e declinando até às 16h. As coletas resultaram numa amostragem de 1.360 abelhas, divididas em quatro famílias e 13 espécies. A família com maior riqueza de espécies (N = 7 foi Halictidae e a mais abundante foi Apidae, com 1.288 indivíduos. Em Apidae, houve o predomínio da espécie exótica Apis mellifera, cuja representação na amostra foi de 1.246 indivíduos. Os dados da abundância e as observações naturalísticas do seu comportamento da flor apontaram A. mellifera como o principal polinizador de Rubus sp., mas confirmam que as demais espécies de abelhas também participam na polinização de Rubus sp.The pollination ecology of the blackberry (Rubus sp. was studied by means of determining its reproductive system, the analysis of flower's nectar production. Sampling the insects that visit

  2. 生态学视角下的图书馆用户需求管理--理念与模式%Library Users Demand Management in Ecology Perspective--- Concepts and Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛刚; 张秀娥; 李贺

    2016-01-01

    Library users demand management has been researched from the ecological perspective .Based on the analysis of the library users demand management status , library users demand management changes on the view of research and management has been expounded .Concept of users demand will be more rich ,and viewpoint of user demand management starting point ,user demand resources and user demand system negative entropy .The library users demand management mode in ecological perspective has been build in the end .This paper studied and developped of user demand , especially to user demand as the starting point to explore the library's management which has positive significance to the development of library work in future and library service supply side structural adjustment .%本文从生态学理论出发,对图书馆用户需求管理开展研究。在分析图书馆用户需求管理现状的基础上,阐述了生态学视角下图书馆用户需求管理在研究角度、管理角度上的转变。丰富并拓展了用户需求管理理念,提出了用户需求的管理起点观、用户需求资源观、用户需求的系统负熵观等观点。最后,构建了生态学视角下的图书馆用户需求管理模式。本文是对用户需求的深入研究和拓展,尤其是以用户需求为出发点,探究图书馆相关管理工作,对今后图书馆工作的开展、图书馆服务供给侧结构性调整具有积极的借鉴意义。

  3. PRIORITIES OF THE CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushko O. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the approaches to the legal definition of "priority" in the concept of environmental security, as well as the kinds of priorities the concept of ecological security. The given provisions give us the chance to formulate the concept of "priority of the concept of ecological safety" as a prime activity (situation of subjects of an administrative legal regime of ecological safety on ensuring normal functioning of ecological system of the country, i.e. all objects of live and inanimate nature, the developed ecological state and the happening changes of an ecological state. We have highlighted the problem of the legal regulation of the concept of environmental security. The extensive studied system of political and legal program acts allows considering all the variety of approaches to the problem of priorities of the Russian concept of ensuring ecological safety. The system of priorities of the concept of ensuring ecological safety given in article most fully reflects prime activities of subjects of an administrative legal regime of ensuring ecological safety

  4. Book Reviews Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and nutrient cycling by herbivores' . ... 'Coral reef energetics' by W.J. Wiebe follows 'The cycling of essential elements in ... ties, rather than by external imposition. Oscillations .... respiration, suffer by this lack of explanation to the extent that the ...

  5. Ecological epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  6. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  7. Ecological Group Work Applied to Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyne, Robert K.; Mazza, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This article underscores the value of school counselors connecting their group work practice with ecological concepts of context, collaboration, interconnection, social system maintenance, meaning-making, and sustainability (Conyne & Cook, 2004; Conyne, Crowell, & Newmeyer, in press). The authors elaborate ecological group work (Bemak & Conyne,…

  8. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    of the ``network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  9. Summarization on Evaluation of Ecological Value of Artificial Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUTao; ZHANGHuaxing

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a summarization on evaluation of value of artificial forest. The main contents include:(i) the difference in concepts between ecological function, ecological efficiency and ecological benefits of artificial forest; (ii) the motive and several taches of economic feedback or compensation for ecological benefit; (iii)the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the main correlative factors which includes the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the main correlation factors infecting the ecological efficiency;(iv) the basic math correlations between ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the related factors; (v)service range of the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest; and (vi) the basic principle of measurement of ecological efficiencies of artificial forest. At the end, the basic methods of main ecological efficiencies of artificial forest are expatiated.

  10. Ecological modernization of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine how the contemporary development of sustainable buildings has been influenced by the concept of ecological modernisation. Ecological modernisation is a policy concept describing how environmental considerations are increasingly being integrated into modern society......'s institutions through e.g. new types of co-operation and new applications of economic and market dynamics. The article is based on recent examples from politics and practice in the construction sector in Denmark, where sustainable buildings have gone through great changes - from being primarily isolated cases...... of governance, standardisation and visibility, the conclusion is that in many ways ecological modernisation has penetrated in Danish sustainable buildings and has contributed to a positive development. However, there are aspects of sustainable consumption that this development does not relate to, including...

  11. Ecological ethics and creation faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Körtner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decades a concept of ecological ethics has taken root, which is often equated with environmental ethics. Church and theology have also responded to the environmental crisis. In the last third of the past century an intense discourse about the concerns and extent of a so called creation ethics was conducted. In connection with the question of a creation ethics, and the global responsibility of humans for the biosphere of our planet, the topic of creation has also gained new attention in dogmatics. In this way, ecology has also become a topic of systematic theology. The article focuses on the debate in the German speaking context. Occasionally, a quasi-religious elevation of ecology to the status of a doctrine of salvation is observable. Because theology always also has a function of critique of religion, it must also critically engage the sometimes open and sometimes hidden religious contents and claims of eco-ethical concepts. For this purpose, the first step of the present contribution is to more precisely determine the concepts of creation and nature. Thereafter, the problem of anthropocentrism is analysed. In a further step, the concept of sustainability is analysed. In conclusion, the main features of a responsibility-ethics model of ecological ethics are outlined.

  12. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...

  13. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  14. Visual ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Thomas W; Johnsen, Sönke; Marsahll, N. Justin; Warrant, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ... ecology. . Physiology, Comparative. . Eye- Evolution. I. Title. QP.C  .'- dc British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book...

  15. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  16. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social–ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social–ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social–ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social–ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  17. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, C C; Verboom, J; Opdam, P F; Ter Braak, C J

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of ecologically scaled landscape indices that takes into account this variation. Our approach is based on a combination of field studies of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) and model simulations in artificial landscapes. From these, we seek generalities in the relationship among species features, landscape indices, and metapopulation viability. The concept of ecological species profiles is used to group species according to characteristics that are important in metapopulations' response to landscape change: individual area requirements as the dominant characteristic of extinction risk in landscape patches and dispersal distance as the main determinant of the ability to colonize patches. The ecological profiles and landscape indices are then integrated into two ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLI): average patch carrying capacity and average patch connectivity. The field data show that the fraction of occupied habitat patches is correlated with the two ESLI. To put the ESLI into a perspective of metapopulation persistence, we determine the viability for six ecological profiles at different degrees of habitat fragmentation using a metapopulation model and computer-generated landscapes. The model results show that the fraction of occupied patches is a good indicator for metapopulation viability. We discuss how ecological profiles, ESLI, and the viability threshold can be applied for landscape planning and design in nature conservation.

  18. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle C. G. Fares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4 and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  19. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  20. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  1. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  2. Initiatives of Ecological Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Sergeevich Volodin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of environment is one of the global problems for the mankind. The concept of sustainable development presented at the governmental level in 1987 urged to fix at the interstate level the basic principles of development of humanity in harmony with the nature. The Charter signed in 1991 “Business and sustainable development” proclaimed a new stage of development of world entrepreneurship – business had to become ecologicallyoriented and to form the ecologically-oriented demand. In recent years it is possible to state the huge growth of technologies of effective environmental management, energy saving and energy efficiency. The leading world corporations include reduction of the ecological aspects in priority strategic objectives, as much as possible promoting transition to the use of green technologies. “Green” experience of the Western companies showed that reduction of influence on environment is not only the task of the state, but also the effective instrument to increase competitiveness of the organization. Besides the growth of favorable perception of the company by consumers, it receives considerable decrease in prime cost of the made production or the rendered services due to effective and economical use of natural resources. Russia is among the first countries who accepted the concept of sustainable development at the legislative level, nevertheless, only recently we can note that technologies of rational environmental management, energy saving and energy efficiency became one of priority problems of its development. In the present article the advanced methods of the state and private initiatives in the field of ecological responsibility are considered, and the methods of overcoming the new challenges are offered.

  3. From Civic Conservation to the Age of Ecology: The Rise and Synthesis of Ecological Ideas in the American High School Science Curriculum, 1900-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological ideas have been manifested in diverse ways in American high schools since the early twentieth century. Core scientific concepts in ecology--the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment--include adaptations, plant succession, ecosystem ecology, and population ecology. This dissertation argues, however, that there…

  4. From Civic Conservation to the Age of Ecology: The Rise and Synthesis of Ecological Ideas in the American High School Science Curriculum, 1900-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological ideas have been manifested in diverse ways in American high schools since the early twentieth century. Core scientific concepts in ecology--the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment--include adaptations, plant succession, ecosystem ecology, and population ecology. This dissertation argues, however, that there…

  5. Barriers to adaptive reasoning in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Recent high-profile calls for a more trait-focused approach to community ecology have the potential to open up novel research areas, generate new insights and to transform community ecology into a more predictive science. However, a renewed emphasis on function and phenotype also requires a fundamental shift in approach and research philosophy within community ecology to more fully embrace evolutionary reasoning. Such a subject-wise transformation will be difficult due to at least four factors: (1) the historical development of the academic discipline of ecology and its roots as a descriptive science; (2) the dominating role of the ecosystem concept in the driving of contemporary ecological thought; (3) the practical difficulties associated with defining and identifying (phenotypic) adaptations, and; (4) scaling effects in ecology; the difficulty of teasing apart the overlapping and shifting hierarchical processes that generate the observed environment-trait correlations in nature. We argue that the ability to predict future ecological conditions through a sufficient understanding of ecological processes will not be achieved without the placement of the concept of adaptation at the centre of ecology, with influence radiating outwards through all the related (and rapidly specializing) sub-disciplines. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Quantitative plant ecology:statistical and ecological modelling of plant abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com)The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also mean...

  7. Reproductive ecology of the exotic tree Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae in southeastern Brazil Ecologia reprodutiva da árvore exótica Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Antônio de Figueiredo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The exotic tree Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae, a species native to Central America, is used as fish feed and fiber and cellulose production in Brazil. This study was carried out in urban areas and verified the reproductive biology of this plant species. Flower and fruit morphology, compatibility system, reproductive phenology, pollination and frugivore animals, and germination of disseminated seeds were recorded by standard field and laboratory procedures. This tree is self-compatible and autonomously self-pollinated, with its flowers being mainly visited by bees and its fruits consumed by birds and bats. Germination of its dispersed seeds is fast and occurs at a high rate. The results of this work suggest that M. calabura is very adaptable to cultivated areas,thus being an excellent choice for urban reforestation. However, its reproductive characteristics place this plant as an invasive species with significant potential in southeastern Brazil.A árvore exótica Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae é nativa da América Central e, no Brasil, ela é utilizada para alimentação de peixes e para produção de fibras e celulose. Este estudo, realizado em áreas urbanas, verificou a biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie vegetal. A morfologia de flores e frutos, o sistema de compatibilidade, a fenologia reprodutiva, os animais polinizadores e frugívoros e a germinação das sementes foram estudados através de procedimentos-padrão de campo e laboratório. A árvore é autocompatível e apresenta autopolinização espontânea, com suas flores visitadas por abelhas e frutos consumidos por aves e morcegos. A germinação das sementes é rápida e com elevada taxa. A conclusão é que M. calabura é uma espécie vegetal altamente adaptada à reprodução sob condições de cultivo, sendo uma excelente opção para inclusão em projetos de reflorestamento urbano. Apesar disso, as características reprodutivas colocam essa espécie como importante

  8. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need......The economic decline that began in 2008 opened a window of opportunity for consideration about how to combine macroecononomic and environmental concerns. This discussion is far from new, as evidenced, for instance, by the European Commission’s White Paper from 1993, which explained how a greening...

  9. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  10. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  11. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  12. Um caso de albinismo em tachã (Chauna Torquata, Oken (Aves, Anseniformes ocorrido na estação ecológica do Taím, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil A case of albinism in Southern screamer (Chauna Torquata, Oken (Aves, Anseniformes occurred at the Ecological Station of Taim. Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Veiga

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available It is described herein a case study of albinism in Chauna torquata Oken, 1816 (Southern screamer occurred at the Ecological Station of Taim, Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil. Screamers are birds of marshes, wet grasslands and forest lagoons. The bill is short and curved, the head is small and slender and the neek rather short. The strong wings are armed with two large, sharp spurs on their forward edge. The feet and legs are fleshy, the lower half of the tibia is bare, and the three long front toes show just a trace of webbing between them, They are often seen walking in pairs on the floating masses of vegetation or in large groups for feeding. The albino specimen described herein was observed feeding in the midst of a group of almost fifty birds. Their plumage was white but their legs and bill were normally red pigmented, and also presented a light grey ring on its neek. It did not represent a case of total albinism, in which pigment should be totally absent.

  13. Ecological residence: theory and application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes an overall introduction of ecological residence (ER), a new type of eco-building and studies its origin, definition, status quo and characteristics. Firstly, it shapes like a forest seen from afar and like a garden seen inside; secondly, its environment should be up to the natural level; thirdly, designing, management, green energy utilization and sanitation should be up to environmental standard;fourthly, the green ecology concept is not only applied to building but also rooted in the residents. In this paper, the features of ecological residence are summarized- coziness,health, high-efficiency and beauty, and principles of ecological residence are proposed - ecology-based, human-oriented,local-conditions-based and systematic. Also, techniques, problems and various understandings are discussed for the enhancement of ecological residence.

  14. Ecological aspects of the vectorial control of Chagas' disease in Brazil Aspectos ecológicos do controle de vetores para doença de Chagas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos P. Dias

    Full Text Available The feasibility and most important ecological aspects of vectorial Chagas' disease control are discussed. The spread and maintenance of this disease involve multiple ecological and sociopolitical factors that must be taken into account when control programs are planned, executed and evaluated. In spite of its complexity, Chagas disease can be controlled using methods that target specific mechanisms of transmission, the most important being vectorial and transfusional. Major ecological problems in Chagas' disease control do not exist, even in the case of the chemical control of triatomine vectors. The main challenges for the Brazilian Control Program at this moment are: its maintenance as a political priority; the threat of peridomestic vectors; and the consolidation of permanent horizontal and participative epidemiological surveillance systems against the vector.A importância da doença de Chagas e de seu controle é assinalada para o Brasil e demais países endêmicos da América Latina, enfatizando-se os aspectos ecológicos envolvidos. Os principais insumos e estratégias de combate à doença humana já existem e estão disponíveis, devendo-se priorizar o controle dos vetores domiciliados e das transfusões de sangue. Os programas de controle devem levar em conta os elementos ecológicos e sociais pertinentes, inclusive para se prevenir novas situações epidemiológicas no futuro. Não se assinalam problemas ecológicos de importância quando os programas de controle são planejados e executados com racionalidade. Os maiores desafios ao programa brasileiro, são hoje, a manutenção de sua continuidade a nível nacional, o controle de vetores secundários no peridomicílio e a consolidação de uma vigilância epidemiológica horizontalizada e participativa.

  15. Description and ecological notes on Isoctenus malabaris sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae from southern Brazil Descrição e notas ecológicas de Isoctenus malabaris sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae, do Sul do Brasil

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    Daniele Polotow

    Full Text Available A new species, Isoctenus malabaris, is described from southern Brazil. This spider was abundantly collected with pitfall traps at Araucaria Forests (Mixed Ombrophilous Forest domain. The activity of this species was studied in three distinct habitats (primary and secondary forests and silvicultures during 20 months. A bimodal seasonal activity pattern, of males, was observed. Abundance differences of this species between habitats were not significant.Uma nova espécie, Isoctenus malabaris, é descrita para sul do Brasil. Espécimes desta aranha foram abundantemente coletados com armadilhas de queda em área de domínio da Floresta com Araucária (Floresta Ombrófila Mista. A atividade da espécie foi estudada em três hábitats distintos (florestas primárias e secundárias e silviculturas ao longo 20 meses. Foi observado um padrão bimodal de atividades ao longo do ano, para espécimes machos. A diferença na abundância desta espécie entre os hábitats não foi significativa.

  16. Ecological approach in constructing residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ružica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As a concept sustainable development has evolved over the past two decades from a concept closely associated with the biophysical environment to become much more complex, embracing social, cultural, economic political and esthetic phenomenon, which are invariably in mutual interaction, so they influence sustainability of natural environment. The very notion of "sustainable" we are meeting today in almost all significance areas of human activities. Contemporary planning, projecting and building techniques undoubtedly implied integration of goals of environmental prevention with goals of socio-economic development, all with respecting the esthetic standards. This paper represents experience from foreign praxis. Project defines and resolves objectives from social, economical, morphological and ecological aspects. Most important is aspect of Ecological Optimisation, which consists of main components: energy use optimization, water concept, exemplary waste management concept and ecological soil management.

  17. Organic agriculture and ecological justice: ethics and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Ecological justice is a challenging concept in relation to the current development of agriculture, because it positions social and ecological interests against market liberalism and economic growth. Ecological justice concerns fairness with regard to the common environment based on the idea that environments are fundamen-tally shared. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice may have in relation to the global challenges of organic agriculture. We perform a philoso-phical ana...

  18. 西安地区“泾渭水系”生态廊道建构理念与方法研究%Study on the Conception and Methods of Constructing Ecological Corridors of "Jing-Wei River System" in Xi'an Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定青; 曹象明; 张崇

    2012-01-01

    Jing-Wei river system is the basic frame of the geographical environment in Xi'an area, which played an important role in urban construction and development in history. In the process of accelerated urbanization, the river system's ecological environment has been greatly damaged, which seriously constrains the sustainable development of local area. Aiming at improving regional landscape pattern and urban ecological development, this paper puts forward the conception of constructing Jing-Wei river system ecological corridors in Xi'an area, analyzes its concept and features, proposes the basic principles in construction. The methods of constructing ecological corridors are discussed from macro-view, middle-view and micro-view, and the function and structure of typical corridors are illustrated.%泾渭水系形成西安地区自然地理环境的基本构架,在历代城镇建设与发展中发挥了巨大作用.当代快速城镇化进程中,河流生态系统破坏严重,极大制约了城镇可持续发展.从优化区域景观格局.促进城镇生态化建设出发,提出依托泾渭水系建构生态廊道的理念,分析了泾渭水系生态廊道的基本特征及内涵,提出其建构原则,从宏观、中观及微观3个层面论述了廊道系统结构的建构方法,并对典型廊道功能与结构进行了具体解析.

  19. ORIGINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITY IN THE BASIN%流域水生态承载力研究的起源和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晨; 刘艳芳; 张万顺; 汤弟伟

    2011-01-01

    流域水生态承载力的研究是近几年来从水生态的角度解决流域可持续发展问题的有效手段.通过文献综述的方法,从流域水生态承载力的起源和发展入手,对流域水生态承载力的理论基础,与相关已有研究的区别和联系进行了探讨,并对流域水生态承载力的进一步研究进行了展望.从起源上看,承载力理论、可持续发展和生态足迹理论、流域生态学理论分别是流域水生态承载力研究的基础、落脚点和支撑.从发展上看,水生态承载力是水资源和水环境承载力的有机结合和深化.从测度和评价方法上看,第一生产者的净初级生产力方法,生态足迹法、可持续发展指标法和生态系统健康等生态承载力的测度方法为流域水生态承载力的评价奠定了基础.目前流域水生态承载力的研究尚处于初级阶段,今后不论是在理论探讨还是模型应用中均应进一步体现人类与自然和谐共存的根本目的以及水体质、量辩证统一的规律,通过物质、能量、信息、空间和时间五位一体的研究方法,使流域水生态承载力的研究更具有实践意义.%Research on the watershed ecological carrying capacity is an effective measure of settling sustainable development problem at basin scale from the perspective of water ecology in recent years. Through reviewing on previous literature, the origination and development of aquatic ecological carrying capacity in the basin are discussed;the theoretical foundation and previous related research are investigated;the further research is forecasted. Originally,the theory of carrying capacity is the foundation of the research;the theory of sustainable development and ecological footprint are the objectives; the theory of watershed ecology is the support. In the research progress, water ecological carrying capacity is the dynamic integration and deepening of water resource and environment carrying capacity

  20. H3 internationalization to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics h3 is a Portuguese firm competing in the fast food market with a hamburger gourmet concept. The firm is now a strong player in Portugal (39 stores); Poland, Warsaw (1 store); Spain, Madrid (1 store) and Brazil, São Paulo (2 stores). As a result of their successes in the domestic market, internationalization was a natural step. One o...

  1. Mortalidade por doenças circulatórias e evolução da saúde da família no Brasil: um estudo ecológico Mortality due to circulatory disorders and the evolution of family health in Brazil: an ecological study

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    Jonatas Zeni Klafke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a mortalidade por doenças circulatórias paralelamente à evolução da Estratégia Saúde da Família no Brasil. Estudo ecológico, retrospectivo, baseado na evolução temporal da ESF e nas taxas de mortalidade por doenças circulatórias no Brasil. Foi realizada uma descrição da razão de cobertura habitante x ESF e dos indicadores de saúde relacionados à mortalidade por doenças circulatórias. Para a associação estatística utilizou-se o teste de Correlação de Spearman. Houve aumento populacional no Brasil em 15%, evolução de 761% no número de ESF e 5% de aumento na mortalidade por doenças circulatórias. A razão população x ESF passou de 52.838 (1998 para 7.084 (2006 pessoas assistidas por ESF. As regiões norte e nordeste apresentaram crescimento nas taxas de mortalidade por doenças circulatórias e em 21 (81% estados houve correlação positiva entre mortalidade por doenças circulatórias e ESF (r: > 0,7; p The scope of this study was to analyze deaths due to circulatory disorders in parallel with the evolution of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Brazil. It is an ecological and retrospective study based on the temporal evolution of the FHS and mortality rates due to circulatory disorders in Brazil. A description of the inhabitant x FHS coverage ratio and health indicators related to mortality due to circulatory disorders was carried out. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test was used for the statistical association. There was a population increase of 15% in Brazil, evolution of 761% in the number of FHS units and 5% increase in mortality due to circulatory disorders. The population x FHS ratio rose from 52,838 (1998 to 7,084 (2006 people assisted by FHS units. North and northeast regions showed growth in mortality rates due to circulatory disorders and in 21 states (81% there was a positive correlation between this mortality and FHS units (r: > 0.7; p < 0.01. Finally, the

  2. Creative Ecologies: Developing and Managing New Concepts of Creative Economy Kūrybos ekologijos: naujų kūrybos ekonomikos koncepcijų plėtojimas ir valdymas

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    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of creativity is becoming more and more relevant and is ob­served in various fields, such as contemporary economics, technology and science. This article is based on the creative ecology theory which has emerged from the creative economy theory developed by economist John Howkins. According to him, it is fundamental to understand the current crisis in the natural environment and economy, and the balance of creativity and control required in our response. The article is based on three research questions: 1 what are the fundamental prin­ciples of creativity and the process of sustainable creation; 2 how can one de­velop high quality ideas and turn them into reality; 3 is it possible for the reckless consuming society to share sustainable creative products and how could this be achieved. Creative economy is a rapidly growing sector of world market. Howkins (2010 uses the creative ecologies theory to analyse human creativity and abilities to create. Creative ecology is presented as “a niche where diverse individuals ex­press themselves in a systemic and adaptive way, using ideas to produce new ideas; and where others support this endeavour even if they don’t understand it”. Four as­pects (diversity, change, learning, adaptation of ecological thinking are presented as directly related to creativity and innovations, thus extremely important to any contemporary organisation seeking leadership in the creative economy. Looking into the new concept of creativity, authors of the article came to the conclusion that a sustainable relationship

  3. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

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    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  4. Toward Gleasonian landscape ecology: From communities to species, from patches to pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey S. Evans; Kevin McGarigal; Joseph M. Kiesecker

    2010-01-01

    The fusion of individualistic community ecology with the Hutchinsonian niche concept enabled a broad integration of ecological theory, spanning all the way from the niche characteristics of individual species, to the composition, structure, and dynamics of ecological communities. Landscape ecology has been variously described as the study of the structure, function,...

  5. Natural resources as a value important to the development of ecological consciousness of the polish society

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    Żeber–Dzikowska Ilona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine a very important issue concerning the concept of public consciousness and ecological consciousness of a human. They present ecological consciousness through indicating its level and factors that determine it. They discuss questions connected to shaping ecological consciousness in teachings of Saint John Paul II, sustainable development, eco-philosophy, and pro-ecological attitudes.

  6. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  7. Recent foraminifera of the Sao Francisco river delta, Sergipe, Brazil: a proposal for the ecological and environmental diagnostic model; Foraminiferos recentes do delta do Rio Sao Francisco, Sergipe (Brasil): uma proposta de modelo ecologico e de diagnostico ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Recent foraminifera assemblages were studied to determine an ecological model of species distribution, diversity, equability and confining degree, with implications to environmental diagnosis and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The study area is inserted in a sector from Sao Francisco River delta, with interconnected channels and a lagoon connected to the ocean. Besides the biotic variables, sediment salinity and granulometry was considered. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) was performed and it was recognized three bio facies distributed along the sector: Miliammina/Arenoparrella in the channels, and Ammonia/Elphidium and Quinqueloculina at the lagoon. The diversity and equability values increase from the Miliammina/Arenoparrella biofacies to the Ammonia/Elphidium and Quinqueloculina biofacies. The confining indices show environments ranging from confined (channels) to different degrees of low restricted to marine influence. From the results obtained, it is possible to recognize that environments dominated by textulariines are characterized by low diversity, equability and high confining degree. Environments dominated by rotaliines and miliolines tend to be more diversified, equitable and low restricted to marine influence. The results are similar to other obtained in other Brazilian estuarine environments, differing only on dominance by some species (author)

  8. Dados ecológicos dos quirópteros da Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Catarina, Brasil Ecological data of Chiroptera from Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Cantarina, Brazil

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    Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.

  9. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

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    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. morschi como uma espécie detritófaga.A total of 400 nests of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, in order to verify the substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use vegetable or animal material (excrements of lepidopteran larvae or carcasses of beetles or ants or even not identified material that are used to culture the fungus. Thus, ecologically speaking, C. morschi can be considered a detritiphagous species.

  10. Musgos acrocárpicos das matas de galeria da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, RECOR, Distrito Federal, Brasil Acrocarpous mosses of the gallery forests at IBGE Ecological Reserve, RECOR, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, localizada a 35 km ao sul do centro da cidade de Brasília é uma das Áreas Núcleo da Reserva da Biosfera do Cerrado, criada pela UNESCO. Neste trabalho são apresentados os musgos acrocárpicos que alí ocorrem e que são representados por 12 famílias e 26 espécies sendo Bryaceae (cinco a de maior riqueza específica. Foram encontradas quatro novas ocorrências para o Distrito Federal e duas para a região Centro-Oeste. São apresentadas chaves, cometários, distribuição geográfica e diagnoses.The IBGE Ecological reserve, located 35 km from downtown Brasilia, is one of the core areas of the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve created by UNESCO. This article lists 26 species of acrocarpous mosses representing 12 families. Bryaceae (five was the most species-rich family. Four new occurrences for the Midwestern Region and three for the Distrito Federal are presented. Keys, comments, geographic distribution and diagnoses are provided.

  11. Agro-ecology: beyond food

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, Georges F.; Timmermann, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Some may view indigenous communities as being conservative and backwards. However, the Kabekwa in Costa Rica show that such communities can be adaptable and innovative. In response to changing circumstances, this community has been adapting its farming practices constantly, benefiting from it in multiple ways. In this case study we show some of the additional advantages agro-ecology provides to farmers beside food. Using the concept of meaningful work we explore how knowledge-intensive far...

  12. Conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da Baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil: peixes da família Serranidae e alterações no ambiente marinho = Local ecological knowledge of fishermen from Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil: fishes from the Serranidae family and marine environmental changes

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos aspectos gerais do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL depescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática sobre sete espécies de peixes marinhos da família Serranidae (habitat de ocorrência, tamanho máximo e denominação popular e as principais alterações percebidas no ambiente marinho na Baía Babitonga, Estado de Santa Catarina,Brasil. Em termos gerais, o CEL sobre os peixes corrobora a literatura em ictiologia, trazendo informações originais em escala local. Pescadores de comunidades vizinhas e/ou praticantes de diferentes artes de pesca podem desenvolver denominações e um corpo deCEL diferenciado sobre os recursos pesqueiros de uma mesma área. Verificamos que a legislação que institui a moratória da pesca de Epinephelus itajara desconsidera as denominações locais da espécie, impossibilitando a sua interpretação pelos pescadores locais e gerando conflitos na aplicação da lei. As principais alterações ambientais registradas foram: diminuição da abundância dos recursos pesqueiros em geral (especialmente do Parambijú Rachycentron canadum, e os efeitos da interrupção antrópica do “Canal do Linguado” na hidrologia e sedimentologia da Baía Babitonga (assoreamento e aumento da turbidez da água.General aspects of the Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK of long-line and spear fishermen on seven fish species of the Serranidae family (habitat use, maximum size and popular names and on the main marine environmental changes were investigated in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In general, LEK on fishes corroborates theichthyology literature, bringing original information in a local scale. Neighbor fishermen communities can develop different local species nomenclature and different LEK for fishery resources at the same area. We have verified that the fishing ban legislation on Epinephelus itajara in Brazil does not consider local species denominations, turning impossible its interpretation by local

  13. Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil

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    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.

  14. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  15. Exploring the Diversity and Distribution of Neotropical Avian Malaria Parasites - A Molecular Survey from Southeast Brazil: e57770

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustavo A Lacorte; Gabriel M F Félix; Rafael R B Pinheiro; Anderson V Chaves; Gilberto Almeida-Neto; Frederico S Neves; Lemuel O Leite; Fabrício R Santos; Érika M Braga

    2013-01-01

      Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches...

  16. The social ecology of health: leverage points and linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, J G; Fuqua, J

    2000-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the usefulness of social ecology theory for improving the treatment and prevention of poor health. The social ecology of health, unlike the topics of previous triptychs in Behavioral Medicine, is a field without a clearly defined body of literature. We begin with an overview of the ecological perspective and ecological theory as outlined by Bronfenbrenner and colleagues, provide examples of how ecological concepts have been demonstrated to influence health, and discuss how these concepts can be used by health professionals. We present a heuristic model illustrating leverage points and linkages (i.e., socioeconomic status, family, work, and school), for health, and we conclude with a consideration of the benefits of social ecology to health professionals and a summary of the limitations of the ecological model.

  17. Interim balance: Ecology. Oekologische Zwischenbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-03-01

    The world wide ecology problem is discussed with examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, and water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord is considered. Conservative in our political parties and their views on environmental protection are presented, including alliance between reds and 'greens''. The Rhine initiative is discussed. Lead respects no borders accounts experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life is hearing on environmental protection. Other subjects include: 'Green's in the Bremen Senate; policy in a hard-hearing world psychology of citizens' action groups; critical ecological research and scientific establishment; full productivity and ecology; the deluge to follow/hints on how to build an ark; symbiosis is more than coexistence/ecologists' social theory; throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science; scientific journals; alternative literature; and a teaching model for a teaching subject' ecology'.

  18. The environmental insurance in Brazil and its implantation inside of a context of civil liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Carolina Seibt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this exposition is to approach the questions related to the implantation of the bases for the environmetal insurance in Brazil. With this it is intended to call the attention the professionals of the right, of engineering, industrials and entrepreneurs in relation to the collective right of the environment. A right that belong to all and at the same time to each other, because all the benefit of living in a surrounding way ecological balanced, a habitat, that still is natural, and that it supplies to the human being the best quality of possible life. The right of a healthy half-environment, in Brazil, is consecrated in the Constitution Citizen of 1988, that in its article 225 it guarantees the responsibility of the infractors in repairing the actual damages (§3º, art. 225, CF/88. For in such a way, it is necessary to understand the concepts related to the institute of the responsibility, mainly the civil liability since who is it assures the re-establishment of the previous state to the damage or then, the satisfactory pecuniary repairing to the actual damage, the example of the ambient insurance, that can even though come if become obligator by means of laws, that are in proceeding in the National Congress.

  19. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  20. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  1. Wordsworthian Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文宣

    2014-01-01

    Wordsworth devoted himself to the ideal of a harmonious relation between human and nature, between man and soci-ety, between man and the ego. In this sense, Wordsworth improved the development of ecology. This argument will be support-ed by the approach of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy. And it is supported by the following points.The first part points out that Wordsworth’s love of nature led to his love of man, which was reflected by his care for common people. Part Two shows Wordsworth’s solicitude for dwelling. His notion of dwelling had aspect of poetic dwelling. The harmonious hu-man-nature relationship reveals thee essence of free dwelling. His poetic experiment agreed with Heidegger ’s argument on poet-ic creation. His discussion of free labour was like Heidegger’s interpretation of“merit”. Part Three tells about Wordsworth’s great effort to amend the alienated human nature by treasuring the Child’s nature, imagination and human feelings.In this way, the conclusion can be got:although it would be a huge project to reinterpret Wordsworth with the approaches of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy, it is still worth making the effort.

  2. Moral distress: an innovative and important subject to study in Brazil : commentary on "A reflection on moral distress in nursing together with a current application of the concept" by Andrew Jameton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Valéria Lerch

    2013-10-01

    There have been recurrent reports of fragilities in the Brazilian health system, especially in public institutions. In this commentary, I argue that moral distress in nursing in Brazil can still be considered an innovative and important subject of study. I also highlight the relevance of engaging educational institutions in the development of policies about environmental sustainability. It is relevant to continue studying moral distress in nursing and in health care generally in order to contribute to the transformation of reality by confronting the multiple common situations in the work environment that are recognized by many as morally problematic because they infringe upon the rights of people, patients, and health care professionals and are an affront to environmental health.

  3. Levantamento do meio físico das Estações Ecológica e Experimental de Itirapina, São Paulo, Brasil. Physical environment of Itirapina Ecological and Experimental Stations, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Antonio da SILVA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos realizaro levantamento do meio físico das EstaçõesEcológica e Experimental de Itirapina, apresentarmapas temáticos e propor recomendações de uso daterra, visando à elaboração do plano de manejo.Foi efetuado com base em pesquisas bibliográficase cartográficas, fotointerpretação de fotografiasaéreas e trabalhos de campo. A área de estudoapresenta temperatura do ar e precipitação médiasanuais, respectivamente, de 21,9ºC e 1.458,9 mm.Destacam-se dois compartimentos morfológicos:colinas amplas e planícies fluviais. O primeiro,coberto por cerrado e reflorestamentos homogêneosde Pinus spp. e Eucalyptus spp. é sustentado,predominantemente, por arenitos da FormaçãoBotucatu sobre os quais se desenvolvem NeossolosQuartzarênicos. Os setores das encostas poucomais íngremes são frágeis à erosão por sulcos,ravinas e voçorocas. O segundo caracteriza-se porterrenos planos, formados por sedimentos recentes,que dão origem aos Gleissolos e Organossolos.Sua vegetação original é o banhado. As várzeasestão sujeitas a inundações, recalques, solapamentodas margens dos rios e assoreamento. A rede dedrenagem é formada pelos ribeirões Itaqueri e doLobo, principalmente, que deságuam na represado Lobo. Concluiu-se que os setores das colinas eplanícies fluviais com maior grau de conservaçãoda vegetação e susceptíveis, respectivamente,à erosão linear e à dinâmica fluvial devem integraras zonas de uso mais restritivo. Por outro lado,as áreas alteradas podem compor as zonas derecuperação ou as zonas de maior intensidade de uso,observando-se as medidas de conservação dos solos.This study aimed to carry on a physicalenvironment survey of both Itirapina Ecologicaland Experimental Stations (São Paulo State,Brazil, presenting thematic maps and suggestingsoil use, with the purpose of designing themanagement planning. The research wasdeveloped based on literature and cartographicreviews

  4. Ecologia de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani em área urbana do município de Maringá, Paraná Ecology of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani in an urban area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar a fauna, a freqüência horária e a sazonalidade de flebotomíneos em abrigos de animais silvestres, perímetro urbano.. MÉTODOS: No Parque do Ingá, perímetro urbano do município de Maringá, PR, foram coletados flebotomíneos com armadilha de Shannon (AS e com armadilhas de Falcão (AF. As coletas com AS foram feitas na margem do córrego Moscados, das 18h às 6h. As coletas com AF foram realizadas em abrigos de aves, mamíferos e répteis silvestres, das 20h às 24h. Com ambos os métodos as coletas foram feitas duas noites ao mês, de outubro de 1998 a setembro de 2000. RESULTADOS: Nas As coletaram-se 13.656 flebotomíneos, com predomínio de Lutzomyia whitmani (98,7%. Coletaram-se 4.040 flebotomíneos, prevalecendo novamente L. whitmani (96,3%. Nas AS L. whitmani foi mais freqüente entre 0h e 2h. Nas AS, esta espécie foi mais freqüente no mês de agosto (55,1%, e nas AF em março (19,2% e novembro (15,9% de 1999, e em agosto (20,6% de 2000. Coletaram-se mais flebotomíneos nas AF instaladas nos abrigos de mamíferos (84,0%. CONCLUSÕES: Foi nítido o predomínio de L. whitmani no Parque do Ingá; o pico maior de freqüência de L. whitmani em AS é no mês de agosto e nas AF, em março e novembro; o pico de atividade de L. whitmani ocorre entre 0h e 2h.OBJECTIVES: To study the fauna, hours of activity and seasonality of phlebotomines in forest animal habitats in the Ingá Park, on the urban perimeter of the municipality of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. METHODS: Phlebotomines were collected on the urban perimeter using Shannon traps from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. and Falcão traps from 8:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight, on two nights per month from October 1998 to September 2000. The Shannon traps were installed close to forest animal habitats and on the banks of the Moscados stream; the Falcão traps were placed in shelters for captive birds, forest mammals and reptiles. RESULTS: The Shannon traps yielded 13

  5. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes

  6. 基于生态伦理的湿地建筑设计理念及方法探究%EXPLORATION OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CONCEPT AND METHOD OF WETLANDS BASED ON ECOLOGICAL ETHICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝赤彪; 杨凯

    2016-01-01

    Taking ecological ethics value orientation as the core and regarding the dynamic evolution process of the relation between man and nature as the theoretical research clues, shape it was moulded the ecological ethics moral values for the mediation of human with nature, man and society, to form new ecological ethics view of nature and the cognition of natural wetland.On this basis to explore the construction properties, comprehensive benefit and feasibility of wetland buildings were explored and it was proposed the design priciples of wetland buildings based on ecological ethics values, which were verified by the engineering practice of the Weishan Lake Wetland water quality observatory station of south-to-north water transfer project.%以生态伦理学价值观取向为核心,以人与自然关系的动态演进过程作为理论研究线索,塑造以自然为中介的人与人、人与社会的生态伦理道德观,从而形成全新的生态伦理自然观和对自然湿地的认知;在此基础上探讨湿地建筑的营建属性、综合效益、可行性,初步构建以生态伦理学价值观引导的湿地建筑营造的设计原则;并结合南水北调微山湖湿地水质观测站项目的工程实践来加以佐证。

  7. Ocorrência de ixodidae parasitos de capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris linnaeus, 1766 na estação ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande - RS, Brasil Occurence of ixodidae parasites of capybara (Hydrochoeurus hydrochaeris linnaeus, 1766 in the ecologic area of Taim, Rio Grande - RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de carrapatos observadas sobre capivaras na Estação Ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande- RS, Brasil. Foram examinadas 27 capivaras encontradas mortas por atropelamento na BR 471, em seu trecho que corta a Estação, sendo cole lados 497 carrapatos das espécies Amblyomma cooperi (=A. lutzi; = A. ypisilophorum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma tigrinum e ninfas do gênero Amblyomma. A. cooperi representou 68,41% dos carrapatos identificados, com uma freqüência de parasitismo de 92,60% dos hospedeiros, enquanto A. triste representou 24,75% dos carrapatos em 44,43% dos hospedeiros e A. tigrinum foi coletado em 14,81% dos hospedeiros, totalizando 1,21% dos carrapatos. As ninfas de Amblyomma sp. foram cotetadas em 18,51% dos hospedeiros apresentando um percentual de 5,63% do total de carrapatos. A relação macho : fêmea apresentou valores de 2,3 : 1 e 2 : l para o A. cooperi e A. triste, respectivamente. Todos hospedeiros apresentavam-se parasitados, com uma média de 18,4 carrapatos, variando de 1 a 64 carrapatos coletados por hospedeiro.The aim of this article was the identification ofthe tick species observed on capybara in wildlife in the Ecologic Area of Taim, Rio Grande - RS; Brazil. Twenly seven capybaras found dead by trample in the road BR 471 in the Ecologic Area, wereexamined ticks coilected of the species Amblyomma cooperi (= A. lutzi and = A. ypisilophorum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma tigrinum and ninphs of the Genus Amblyomma. Amblyomma cooperi represented 68.41% of the ticks with a frequency of parasitism of 92.60% of the hosts; Amblyomma triste species represented 24.75% of the collected ticks m 44.43% of the hosts; Amblyomma tigrinum species were coilected m 14.81% of the hosts from a total of 1.21% of the found ticks and, the nimphs of Amblyomma were coilected in 18.51% of the hosts per forming 5.63% of the ali ticks coilected. The relation mate .female showed values of 2.3:1 and 2

  8. Ecological aspects and molecular detection of Leishmania DNA Ross (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the Middle Solimões Region, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula; de Souza Rodrigues, Moreno; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2015-03-25

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to the role that some species play in the transmission of leishmaniasis. This work aimed to study some ecological aspects among sand flies fauna inhabiting two different environments: the várzea (lowland Amazonian forest) and terra firme (upland Amazonian forest), both located in Tefé Municipality, Amazonas State, Braziland to detect Leishmania infection in those phlebotomine populations. Sand flies were collected using HP light traps. Collection took place over the course of six months: January, February, April, August, September, and October of 2013. To detect natural infection by Leishmania, DNA samples were extracted from female sand flies and submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the kDNA gene; Leishmania species were identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the hsp70 gene and genetic sequencing. In all, 5,716 individuals were collected, and 46 species were identified. Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (3,330 - 58.26%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (661 - 11.26%) were the most abundant species. Species richness was greater in terra firme environments (42 species) than in the várzea environments (22 species), and forests ecotopes (43 species) were richer than peridomiciles (28 species). DNA of Leishmania was found in Th. ubiquitalis and Psychodopygus davisi, both of which inhabit the terra firme environment and sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni DNA in Th. ubiquitalis in Tefé Municipality. The high abundance of Th. ubiquitalis and Ps. davisi and detection of DNA of Leishmania sp. may indicate that both species could be putative vectors for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in the terra firme environment of Tefé. The sand fly fauna found in várzea is rich and diverse, exhibiting several species, nevertheless the seasonal hydric stress during part of the year that could influence the local diversity, if compared with other studies

  9. Ecological succession of a stretch of Dense Rain Forest in the Lowlands, Carauari, Amazonas, Brazil Sucessão ecológica de um trecho de Floresta Ombrófila Densa de Terras Baixas, Carauari, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosival Barros de Andrade Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This work was carried out in a stretch of Dense Rain Forest in the lowland county of Carauari, Amazonas, aiming to estimate the species composition of tree layer and classify the species in their ecological groups in order to obtain information about the current situation of the forest fragment, to be the basis for strategies for conservation and preservation as well as the basis for formulating research aimed at the dissemination of knowledge and its application to sustainable production. The forest inventory was conducted in an area of 275 ha, crossed by three transects (822 m, 1,265 m and 2,349 m, totaling 4.436 m. Plots were installed in 20 m x 25 m, 50 m equidistant, merged to the right and left of the line transect, totaling 66 sampling units. All tree individuals trees that had a circumference of 1,30 m above the ground (CAP ≥ 25 cm were identified and measured. There were 3,050 individuals distributed in 133 species, 93 genera and 49 families. It was observed that the species of early succession (pioneer + early secondary were more numerous, showing characteristics of a forest in early successional stage.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.161

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em um trecho de Floresta Ombrofila Densa de Terras Baixas no Municipio de Carauari, Amazonas, tendo como objetivo estimar a composicao floristica do estrato arboreo e classificar as especies nos respectivos grupos ecologicos, a fim de se obter informacoes sobre a atual situacao do fragmento florestal, para embasar estrategias de conservacao e preservacao, bem como embasar a formulacao de pesquisas que visem a disseminacao do conhecimento e sua aplicacao na producao sustentavel. O inventario florestal foi realizado em uma area de 275 ha, cortada por tres transectos (822 m, 1.265 m e 2.349 m, totalizando 4.436 m. Foram instaladas parcelas de 20 m x 25 m, equidistantes a cada 50 m e intercaladas a direita e a esquerda da linha do

  10. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  11. 河北和谐社会建设中的生态责任与生态整体观%An Analysis on Ecological Responsibility and the Conception of Eco-holism in the Building of Harmonious Society in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖

    2014-01-01

    生态批评在文艺美学研究中属于比较前沿的领域。生态责任与生态整体观是生态批评的重要原则。生态批评对现实的介入性,使得将这两个概念引入“河北和谐社会建设”这一论题成为可能。建设和谐社会从根本上说是建立一种生态文明型的社会。河北和谐社会建设,应在生态整体观的指导下认真履行生态责任。这种责任就政府而言,体现为决策层应转变发展理念并落实在相关的制度与管理层面,使其具备可操作性;就公民个体而言,应逐步建立起生态伦理意识,在日常生活中养成环保生活习惯。%Ecological criticism belongs to the frontier research on the field of aesthetics of literature and art. Ecological responsibility and the conception of eco-holism are the important principles of eco-criticism. It is possible that we can use them to analyze the question of building of harmonious society construction in Hebei province because of the intervention of eco-criticism. Building a harmonious society fundamentally establish an ecological civilization of the society. The construction of Hebei's harmonious society should earnestly implement the ecological responsibility under the guidance of ecological holistic. In terms of government, this responsibility embodied that policy makers should change development idea and implement on the related system and management level, make its have operability. In terms of individual citizens, we should gradually set up ecological and ethical consciousness, cultivate the environmental protection life habits in daily life.

  12. Ecological Disturbance and Its Effects on Ecological Health%生态干扰及其对生态健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎志强

    2012-01-01

    The concept and ecological significance of ecological disturbance were elaborated ,the distinguish among ecological disturbance, ecological management and ecological stress were analyzed, the nature of ecological disturbance and the human disturbance types affecting ecological health were summarized.%阐述了生态干扰的概念及生态学意义,分析了生态干扰、生态管理与生态胁迫的区别,总结了干扰的性质及影响生态健康的人类干扰类型。

  13. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... of existing oil and waste today. A methodological discussion was also necessary to include sustainable dimensions on the scenario methods. Therefore, the environment, economics, technology, social, territorial, national and international institutional, cultural and political aspects were considered....... In order to carry on this work, it was necessary to develop a cross-disciplinary research, since sustainability requires a long run vision and a comprehensive approach. Brazil is a large country (851 Mha), with soil and weather conditions that are suitable to produce oilseeds, and available land...

  14. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  15. Plant Landscape Design in Special Space of Ecological Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyong; ZHANG; Xiaogang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discussed the application of plant landscape design in special space of ecological buildings. From the concept of special space of ecological buildings,it elaborated social and ecological benefits of greening projects in special space. It proposed the classification method for special space of ecological building with habitat as the major part and combined with characteristics of building form. On the basis of such classification,it discussed green design method and plant selection principle,in the hope of providing certain reference for garden designers in green design of ecological buildings.

  16. [Ecological stoichiometry and its application to medicinal plant resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry is a study of the balance of biological system's energy and the balance of multiple chemical elements. It focuses on the relationship of the element ratio in ecological processes. In this paper, the concept and main theoretical basis of ecological stoichiometry were introduced, and the status of stoichiometry in medicinal plant resources was reviewed. According to the recent development of ecological stoichiometry, the future directions of ecological stoichiometry of medicinal plants could be the study of the relationship between stoichiometric characteristic and growth and secondary metabolism of medicinal plants, and the influence of biotic (or abiotic) factors on the stoichiometric characteristic of medicinal plants.

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects Leishmaniose cutânea americana no Pontal do Paranapanema, SP, Brasil: aspectos ecológicos e entomológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Álvares Calvo Alessi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD. AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incriminated as vectors of ACL, as well as their seasonality, hourly frequency and data of the behavior. M&M: The captures were undertaken with CDC light and Shannon traps from 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm, monthly from May 2000 to December 2001. The temperature and relative humidity data were registered at hourly intervals. RESULTS: The captured species were: Brumptomyia brumpti, Nyssomyia neivai, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri and Pintomyia pessoai. The P. pessoai predominated (34.39% and N. neivai was less found (0.74%, only being captured in CDC traps. Shannon trap captured more sandflies (63.01% than the CDC traps (36.99%. Despite the environmental degradation anthropophilic species, indicates favorable bioecological conditions for persistence of vectors and potential transmission of leishmaniasis.LCA ocorre em surtos epidêmicos e casos esporádicos com pequena variação anual no Pontal do Paranapanema, SP. Há pouca pesquisa sobre a fauna flebotomínea na região. Os últimos surtos estão relacionados ao MST e turismo ecológico na floresta do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD. OBJETIVO: identificar a fauna flebotomínea no PEMD, principalmente as espécies antropofílicas já incriminadas como vetores da LCA, também, sua sazonalidade, horários e dados de comportamento. M&M: As capturas foram feitas com armadilhas CDC e Shannon das 18 às 22h, mensalmente de maio de 2000 a dezembro de 2001. Dados de temperatura e umidade relativa foram registrados com

  18. Ecologia da polinização de Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart. Schauer (Lamiaceae em Petrolina, PE, Brasil Pollination ecology of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart. Schauer (Lamiaceae in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tatiana de Vasconcelos Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphiodon echinus é uma espécie de hábito rasteiro, que ocorre espontaneamente em áreas de caatinga. No presente trabalho foram observados a biologia reprodutiva desta espécie com o objetivo de contribuir com informações sobre sua ecologia da polinização. As observações foram feitas em áreas de caatinga da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina, PE. Para os experimentos de autopolinização espontânea, autopolinização manual, apomixia, geitonogamia, xenogamia, botões foram ensacados, emasculados e polinizados, quando necessário. Flores foram marcadas para estimar a polinização em condições naturais. Os visitantes florais foram observados das 7h30 min às 16h00, totalizando 45 horas de observações. As flores de R. echinus são infundibuliformes, de coloração violeta, exalam odor adocicado e estão reunidas em glomérulos. A antese é diurna, assincrônica, sendo mais freqüente no período da manhã, por volta das 07h00. A duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas e cada inflorescência apresenta número variado de flores/dia. As flores são visitadas por abelhas e borboletas. Centris hyptidis foi responsável por 26% do total das visitas e, de acordo com o comportamento e freqüência de visitas, foi considerada como polinizador efetivo desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, R. echinus é autógama facultativa, produzindo frutos por autopolinização manual (70%, geitonogamia (63% e xenogamia (40%.Raphiodon echinus is a prostrate weedy species that occurs in the Caatinga. In this work, floral biology and reproductive system were observed in order to understand the pollination ecology of this species. Observations were made at Embrapa Semi-Árido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco. For the self-pollination, apomixis, geitonogamy and xenogamy experiments, buds were protected, emasculated, and pollinated when necessary. Flowers were tagged to estimate pollination success under natural conditions. Floral visitors

  19. An ecological hydraulic radius approach to estimate the instream ecological water requirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changming; MEN Baohui

    2007-01-01

    This essay defines the concepts of ecological flow velocity as well as ecological hydraulic radius (EHR) and proposes an ecological hydraulic radius approach (EHRA) which considers both the watercourse information (including hydraulic radius, roughness coefficient and hydraulic gradient) and the required stream velocity necessary for maintenance of certain ecological functions all together. The key parameter of EHRA is to fix the watercourse cross-sectional flow area corresponding to EHR, by which the relation between parabola shaped cross-sectional flow area and hydraulic radius is deduced. The EHRA not only meets the requirement of flow velocity for adequate fish spawning migration, but also is applicable to the ecological flows in regard with other ecological issues (such as the calculation of the instream flow requirements for transporting sediment and for pollution self-purification, etc. ). This essay has illuminated the computational process taking the estimation of ecological water requirement of Zhuba Hydrologyical Station watercourse in Niqu branch of the Yalong River as an example. Additionally, we compare EHRA with Tennant approach. The result shows that the Zhuba Hydrological Station ecological water requirement calculated by EHRA lies between the minimum and favorable ecological water requirement calculated by the Tennant approach. This is due to the fact that the ecological flow velocity (such as the fish spawning migration flow velocity) was taken into consideration, producing results applicable to the practical situation.

  20. [Economic development axis and socioenvironmental conflicts generation in Brazil: challenges to sustainability and environmental justice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The 1st National Environmental Health Conference, in December 2009, presents countless challenges to the field of Public Health. It debates key concepts as development, sustainability, production and consumption processes, democracy and public policies; advocating for innovative, interdisciplinary and intersectorial aspects of Environmental Health. The Conference recovers and articulates important themes for the Public Health, and also indicates the need of reflecting the socio-environmental determinants of health at the present time, in order to provide progresses in the construction of guidelines and actions to health surveillance and promotion. This article discusses the characteristics of the Brazilian model of development, its impacts and conflicts within social, environmental and health fields. We use theoretical and empirical contributions from the fields of Ecological Economy and Political Ecology, as well as, experiences of cooperation with the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice and several social movements. Two cases are discussed in more detail: the first related to agribusiness and the use of pesticides, and the other about the expansion of the iron and steel industry in Brazil. We conclude proposing some elements that could be incorporated by a research agenda committed to the debate about the 'socioenvironmental crisis'.

  1. 论科学发展观视阈下生态文明与区域经济的协调发展——以滇池污染及其治理为例%The concert development of ecological civilization and regional economic under the view of scientific concept of development——Take the Dianchi lake pollution and comprehensive treatment as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡牧

    2012-01-01

    In face of the a series of development dilemma like as environmental pollution and environment destroy,the scientific concept of development bases itself upon the main meaning of "development"and the concept of sustainable development,it contains the reasonable path of ecological civilization construction,it points to the right direction for the concert development of ecological civilization and regional economic.We observe the concert development of ecological civilization and regional economic under the view of scientific concept of development,it helps to unify the ordered ecology of scientific development,beneficial cycle and the values of the true,good,pretty,benefit,fitting.It helps to concert the ecological civilization and regional economic sustainable development.%面临环境污染和破坏等人类现实的发展困境,科学发展观立足于"发展"这个要义和可持续发展的理念,内含着生态文明建设的合理路径,为生态文明与区域经济协调发展指明了正确方向。用科学发展观观照生态文明与区域经济发展的关系,有利于把科学发展的生态有序性、良性循环性和真、善、美、益、宜的功利价值有机统合起来,形成生态文明与区域经济发展的可持续性和协调性。

  2. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  3. Microturbellarians (Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha in Brazil: invisible organisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. L. Braccini

    Full Text Available Abstract Microturbellarians typically belong to the benthos and may occur in a wide variety of environments. They are abundant in freshwater and marine ecosystems and may occur in moist terrestrial habitats. However, turbellarians are seldom taken into account in studies of biodiversity. Most studies on Brazilian microturbellarians had taxonomical purposes and were done in the years 1940-1950. Thus, information on their occurrence and ecological aspects are dispersed throughout several papers. We intend here to summarize the biogeographical distribution and ecological aspects of microturbellarians recorded for Brazil, indicating the main gaps in their knowledge and possible actions to enhance studies on this group. There are 239 species of microturbellarians registered for Brazil, with records distributed in 12 states. However, just three states located in southern Brazil have records of 94% of microturbellarian species. Thus, knowledge on the systematics and geographical distribution of Brazilian microturbellarians clearly reflect the scientific activity over many years or decades in two states of southeastern and southern Brazil. Considering the scant information on this group in Brazil, which is also the situation of the Neotropical microturbellarians in general, some actions should be proposed. First, it would be necessary to sample in the diverse biomes, as well as in the various river and sea basins, based on standardized sampling protocols. Second, it would be necessary to encourage diverse research groups to include microturbellarians and/or turbellarians in general into biodiversity inventories and studies on community structure of invertebrates. Third, it is necessary to increase the number of research groups on microturbellarians, in order to augment the studies on their morphology, systematics, and ecology. Considering their abundance, species richness and ecological importance in aquatic environments, despite some peculiarities

  4. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  5. Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, N. R.; Quick, J.; Claro, I. M.; Thézé, J.; de Jesus, J. G.; Giovanetti, M.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Hill, S. C.; Black, A.; da Costa, A. C.; Franco, L. C.; Silva, S. P.; Wu, C.-H.; Raghwani, J.; Cauchemez, S.; Du Plessis, L.; Verotti, M. P.; de Oliveira, W. K.; Carmo, E. H.; Coelho, G. E.; Santelli, A. C. F. S.; Vinhal, L. C.; Henriques, C. M.; Simpson, J. T.; Loose, M.; Andersen, K. G.; Grubaugh, N. D.; Somasekar, S.; Chiu, C. Y.; Muñoz-Medina, J. E.; Gonzalez-Bonilla, C. R.; Arias, C. F.; Lewis-Ximenez, L. L.; Baylis, S. A.; Chieppe, A. O.; Aguiar, S. F.; Fernandes, C. A.; Lemos, P. S.; Nascimento, B. L. S.; Monteiro, H. A. O.; Siqueira, I. C.; de Queiroz, M. G.; de Souza, T. R.; Bezerra, J. F.; Lemos, M. R.; Pereira, G. F.; Loudal, D.; Moura, L. C.; Dhalia, R.; França, R. F.; Magalhães, T.; Marques, E. T.; Jaenisch, T.; Wallau, G. L.; de Lima, M. C.; Nascimento, V.; de Cerqueira, E. M.; de Lima, M. M.; Mascarenhas, D. L.; Neto, J. P. Moura; Levin, A. S.; Tozetto-Mendoza, T. R.; Fonseca, S. N.; Mendes-Correa, M. C.; Milagres, F. P.; Segurado, A.; Holmes, E. C.; Rambaut, A.; Bedford, T.; Nunes, M. R. T.; Sabino, E. C.; Alcantara, L. C. J.; Loman, N. J.; Pybus, O. G.

    2017-06-01

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly. Here we address this issue by generating 54 complete or partial ZIKV genomes, mostly from Brazil, and reporting data generated by a mobile genomics laboratory that travelled across northeast Brazil in 2016. One sequence represents the earliest confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Analyses of viral genomes with ecological and epidemiological data yield an estimate that ZIKV was present in northeast Brazil by February 2014 and is likely to have disseminated from there, nationally and internationally, before the first detection of ZIKV in the Americas. Estimated dates for the international spread of ZIKV from Brazil indicate the duration of pre-detection cryptic transmission in recipient regions. The role of northeast Brazil in the establishment of ZIKV in the Americas is further supported by geographic analysis of ZIKV transmission potential and by estimates of the basic reproduction number of the virus.

  6. Genomics and marine microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allowed the discovery of novel functions, an appreciation of the great diversity of microorganisms, and the introduction of controversial ideas regarding the concepts of species, genome, and niche. Nevertheless, thorough knowledge of the traditional disciplines of biology is necessary to explore the possibilities arising from these new insights. This work reviews the different genomic techniques that can be applied to marine microbial ecology, including both sequencing of the complete genomes of microorganisms and metagenomics, which, in turn, can be complemented with the study of mRNAs (transcriptomics) and proteins (proteomics). The example of proteorhodopsin illustrates the type of information that can be gained from these approaches. A genomics perspective constitutes a map that will allow microbiologists to focus their research on potentially more productive aspects.

  7. Ecological Literacy in Design Education - A Theoretical Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Boehnert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability educators developed the concept of ecological literacy to provide a basis for understanding environmental problems and developing new capacities and critical skills to respond effectively. This paper presents a theoretical introduction to ecological literacy for design education. It starts with a philosophical overview of why ecological literacy is neces­sary, including details of some of the planet’s vital signs. The paper then describes six ecologi­cal principles (networks, nested systems, cycles, flows, development and dynamic balance along with associated design concepts (resilience, epistemological awareness, a circular econ­omy, energy literacy, emergence and the ecological footprint. The final section explains why critical ecological literacy is necessary to make the work of transforming unsustainable condi­tions and designing sustainable ways of living possible. Cover image: Principles, Ecolabs, 2014  

  8. The Relationship between Ecological Consumption and Happiness-Critique of the Happiness Concept of Consumerism%生态消费:幸福的生活方式--对消费主义幸福观的批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金小燕

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, consumerism has penetrated into every field of society. Wealth is happiness, and consumption is regarded as the highest purpose of life. The alienated consumption results in the ecological deterioration, pulls people into nothingness and deprives them of freedom. The essence of personal happiness is the enjoyment of spirit rather than material enjoyment. We had better eliminate dissimilation factors, find the unity of consumption and happiness, and establish healthy patterns of consumption, with ecological consumption as the core. Thus, the happiness would become closer and closer.%现代社会,消费主义的理念已经渗透到社会的各个领域,财富、消费的档次逐渐成为幸福观念的内涵,消费被视为人生的最高目的。消费主义把消费异化,造成资源的浪费和生态的恶化,并把人拉入虚无的境地,束缚了心灵的自由。个人幸福的实质境界不在于物欲享受,从一定意义上说,它是一种可以由主体自我把握的东西。寻找消费和幸福的统一结合点,剔除异化消费因素,建立以生态消费为核心辐射的健康消费方式,这样我们会离幸福越来越近。

  9. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  10. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  11. The Ecology of the Gym: Reconceptualized and Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Tischler, Amy; Flory, Sara B.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological paradigm has become a powerful framework for understanding how teachers and students negotiate the learning environment. This article articulates the ecological paradigm into a more cohesive framework and expands it using influential work from the sociology of physical education. First, we explain several core concepts of ecological…

  12. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  13. Ecologia global contra diversidade cultural? Conservação da natureza e povos indígenas no Brasil: O Monte Roraima entre Parque Nacional e terra indígena Raposa-Serra do Sol Global ecology versus cultural diversity? Conservation of nature and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Roraima Mount: National Park vs. Raposa-Serra do Sol Indigenous Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Lauriola

    2003-01-01

    . Adotar a perspectiva cultural indígena para entender e esclarecer suas regras efetivas de uso e manejo dos recursos naturais pode representar o ponto de partida para desenvolver e implementar planos de manejo ecologicamente eficazes e socialmente benéficos. Redirecionar a disponibilidade ecológica global a pagar na direção dos povos indígenas representaria uma contribuição nesta direção.Nature conservation policies in different countries are increasingly linked to global ecological decision making. Examples of such linkages abound, and range from priorities and policy objectives defined in international forums and institutions to the action of global environmentally concerned NGOs, to global environmental and sustainable development funds and programmes, and new economic opportunities represented by emerging markets for global ecological services and environmental commodities. These policies often clash with the needs and rights of different populations, since the implementation of man-excluding protected areas is given priority over other models of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Brazil is no exception to this rule: today, nature conservation policies are entering in direct conflict with policies preserving indigenous people’s rights to cultural difference. This is happening at different levels, and in several different local contexts, from the Atlantic to the Amazon and the Guyana Shield regions. Global policy priorities and funding can contribute to explain these conflicts, as the global ecological link contributes to redefine national and local political relations. The case of Mount Roraima National Park, overlapping with the Raposa-Serra do Sol Indigenous Land, illustrates how conservation policies based on man exclusion, such as National Parks, conceived and implemented in a top-down fashion, stimulate pre-existing political and land rights conflicts. Approached through a different angle, this case also indicates a possible way to viable

  14. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  15. Ecological modernisation in the public catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use the concept of ecological modernisation as frame to understand the relationship between two parallel developments in the public catering sector, namely the sustainability discourse and the rationalisation discourse. We argue that the two tendencies are increasingly merging. T...

  16. Quantifying Ecology: Constructing Life History Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Ode, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In the biology community there has been a call for integrating lessons on population growth rate and the human population crisis into biology classrooms. Ecologists fear that students do not understand the relationship between the magnitude of the human population growth and Earth's carrying capacity, as well as some basic ecological concepts. The…

  17. Ecological modernisation in the public catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use the concept of ecological modernisation as frame to understand the relationship between two parallel developments in the public catering sector, namely the sustainability discourse and the rationalisation discourse. We argue that the two tendencies are increasingly merging. T...

  18. Challenges in writing ecological site descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) adopted the Ecological Site Description (ESD) concept in 1997. The State and Transition Model (STM) is used to describe vegetation dynamics and is an integral component of ESDs that meet users needs. NRCS is currently developing ESDs for much of the ...

  19. Quantifying Ecology: Constructing Life History Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Ode, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In the biology community there has been a call for integrating lessons on population growth rate and the human population crisis into biology classrooms. Ecologists fear that students do not understand the relationship between the magnitude of the human population growth and Earth's carrying capacity, as well as some basic ecological concepts. The…

  20. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  1. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  2. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...... studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many...

  3. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.;

    2012-01-01

    studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many......Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...

  4. Trophic ecology and the use of shelters and latrines by the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Taquari Valley, Southern Brazil Ecologia trófica e o uso de abrigos e latrinas pela lontra Neotropical (Lontra longicaudis no Vale do Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents information about the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 in the Taquari Valley, State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas located in the Forquetinha Creek and in the Forqueta River from January to December 2003. The otters are specialist feeders (Bsta = 0.24, with a diet based mostly on fish, especially those of the families Loricariidae and Cichlidae. Most shelters used by the species were excavated burrows underneath tree roots, while shelters within rocks were used less frequently. The burrows showed great variation in size, being found on average 3.5 m (sd = 3.6 m away from the margin and 2.5 m (sd = 1.2 m above the water level. Scent marks were made preferentially on rocks and fallen tree trunks at the edge of the water. There was a tendency to increase the reutilization of latrines in detriment of using new sites throughout the sample period.O presente estudo apresenta dados sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 no Vale do Taquari, sul do Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em duas áreas localizadas no arroio Forquetinha e rio Forqueta, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003. A população apresentou hábito alimentar especialista (Bsta = 0,24, baseado em peixes das famílias Loricariidae e Cichlidae. Os abrigos utilizados pela espécie foram formados em sua maioria, por escavações sob raízes de árvores e, com menor freqüência, entre rochas. Os abrigos escavados apresentaram dimensões bastante variáveis, sendo que estiveram em média a 3,5 m (s = 3,6 m de distância da margem e 2,5 m (s = 1,2 m de altura em relação ao nível da água. A utilização de marcas odoríferas se deu preferencialmente sobre rochas e troncos caídos na margem, sendo que houve uma tendência de aumento na reutilização de latrinas, em detrimento de novos pontos de deposição de fezes, no decorrer do período amostrado.

  5. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  6. Patterns and Scales in Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The body surfaces of humans and other animals are colonized at birth by microorganisms. The majority of microbial residents on the human body exist within gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities, where they contribute to many aspects of host biology and pathobiology. Recent technological advances have expanded our ability to perceive the membership and physiologic traits of microbial communities along the GI tract. To translate this information into a mechanistic and practical understanding of host-microbe and microbe-microbe relationships, it is necessary to recast our conceptualization of the GI tract and its resident microbial communities in ecological terms. This review depicts GI microbial ecology in the context of 2 fundamental ecological concepts: (1) the patterns of biodiversity within the GI tract and (2) the scales of time, space, and environment within which we perceive those patterns. We show how this conceptual framework can be used to integrate our existing knowledge and identify important open questions in GI microbial ecology. PMID:19457423

  7. 生态和谐之虹——论劳伦斯小说《虹》中的生态和谐思想%The "Rainbow" of Ecological Harmony --On the Concept of Ecological Harmony in D. H. Lawrence Novel The Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席战强

    2011-01-01

    生态整体主义认为自然界是一个相互依赖的系统,一个有机统一的整体。人类和其他物种一样,都是这个相互依赖的系统中的有机构成要素。在这个系统中,每一个生命的生存及其生存的质量。都不仅依赖于它所生存的环境的物理条件,还依赖于它与其他生命之间的关系。劳伦斯小说《虹》描写人与自然和谐共生共存的关系,探索两性关系中的“星际平衡”及灵与肉统一,蕴含着深刻的生态整体主义思想,对于解决当今生态危机具有深刻的启示和借鉴意义。%Ecological Holism shows that nature is an interdependent system, an organic and unified entirety. Human beings, like other species, are the organic element of the interdependent system, in which the survival and the survival quality of each life not only depend on the physical environmental conditions, but also on the relationship between this very life and the others. Lawrence' s novel The Rainbow describes the harmonious coexistence between man and nature, and explores the "interplanetary balance" as well as the unity of body and soul between the two sexes. Since it contains a profound ecological holism thought, it has profound enlightenment and reference significance for solving today's ecological crisis.

  8. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Silva de Almeida; Andrey José de Andrade; Alan Sciamarelli; Josué Raizer; Jaqueline Aparecida Menegatti; Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira Hermes; Maria do Socorro Laurentino de Carvalho; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In a...

  9. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard F

    1974-01-01

    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  10. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  11. Ecological analogies between estuarine bottom trawl fish assemblages from Patos Lagoon, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and York River, Virginia, USA Analogias ecológicas entre as assembléias de peixes de fundo dos estuários da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e York River, Virginia, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of estuarine fish assemblages at temperate latitudes in Patos Lagoon (32º05'S, 52º04'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and York River (37º17'N, 76º33'W, Virginia, USA was compared using mid and late 1970's data from bottom trawl collection to investigate whether geographically isolated fish assemblages have similar ecological structure given similar latitudinal positions on the warmtemperate southwestern and northwestern Atlantic regions, respectively. Since estuarine species often exhibit an ontogenetic shift in habitat requirements or preferences we examined Capture per Unity of Effort by size class (CPUE-SC and split species into "size ecological taxa" (SET for analysis. The use of CPUE-SC also allowed the abundance of a SET to be computed by summing the mean CPUE of each size class within that SET and use this information to follows SET's temporal and or spatial abundance. A total of 65 and 63 species was collected during a year of bottom trawling in the Patos Lagoon and York River estuaries, respectively. In both localities the strongest modal size class was A estrutura das assembléias de peixes de dois estuários temperados - Lagoa dos Patos, Brasil e York River, Estados Unidos - foi comparada usando dados de rede de arrasto de fundo, da década de 70, em ambas as regiões. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de investigar se a fauna de peixes de dois estuários, localizados em duas regiões temperadas-quente do Atlântico, embora isolados geograficamente (Hemisfério Sul e Norte, apresentavam a mesma estrutura ecológica. Considerando a ontogenia das espécies utilizou-se o método da Captura por Unidade de Esforço por Classe de Tamanho (CPUE-CT para separar as espécies dominantes em Unidades Ecológicas de Tamanho (UET. O uso da técnica do CPUE-CT permite que a abundância das UET seja computada através da soma da abundância de cada uma das classes de tamanho que incorporam estas UET e desta forma usar o CPUE das UET para

  12. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  13. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  14. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    demographic dynamics which entail new problems to be faced, but also new and more favorable conditions for overcoming some old problems. Most planners retain a conception of Brazil's population as very young, rapidly growing, and with a constant age distribution. Some promising areas for social investment are health, nutrition, and preschool education for small children; improvement and expansion of the public educational system; and improvement in the quality of the labor force. The growing elderly population will require health services, pensions, and alternative living arrangements for the increased proportion without close relatives. A regional development strategy should be developed to assure that conditions do not deteriorate in any region as demographic changes progress.

  15. Ecological opportunity and the adaptive diversification of lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellborn, Gary A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    The tenet that ecological opportunity drives adaptive diversification has been central to theories of speciation since Darwin, yet no widely accepted definition or mechanistic framework for the concept currently exists. We propose a definition for ecological opportunity that provides an explicit mechanism for its action. In our formulation, ecological opportunity refers to environmental conditions that both permit the persistence of a lineage within a community, as well as generate divergent natural selection within that lineage. Thus, ecological opportunity arises from two fundamental elements: (1) niche availability, the ability of a population with a phenotype previously absent from a community to persist within that community and (2) niche discordance, the diversifying selection generated by the adaptive mismatch between a population's niche-related traits and the newly encountered ecological conditions. Evolutionary response to ecological opportunity is primarily governed by (1) spatiotemporal structure of ecological opportunity, which influences dynamics of selection and development of reproductive isolation and (2) diversification potential, the biological properties of a lineage that determine its capacity to diversify. Diversification under ecological opportunity proceeds as an increase in niche breadth, development of intraspecific ecotypes, speciation, and additional cycles of diversification that may themselves be triggered by speciation. Extensive ecological opportunity may exist in depauperate communities, but it is unclear whether ecological opportunity abates in species-rich communities. Because ecological opportunity should generally increase during times of rapid and multifarious environmental change, human activities may currently be generating elevated ecological opportunity – but so far little work has directly addressed this topic. Our framework highlights the need for greater synthesis of community ecology and evolutionary biology, unifying

  16. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

  17. Audiology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Novaes, Beatriz Caiuby; Morata, Thais C

    2008-02-01

    The profession of audiology took root in Brazil nearly a half a century ago and has since blossomed into a flourishing, well-developed field. Currently, audiologists in Brazil work at private institutions, including private medical practices and dedicated speech and hearing clinics. They are also employed in a wide array of public institutions, including community clinics, elementary schools, colleges, and universities. In both the private sector and health clinics, audiologists perform diagnostic evaluations of auditory and vestibular disorders, select and fit hearing aids, and provide aural rehabilitation. At the public level, they assist with workers' health programs, dispense hearing aids, and aural rehabilitation. There is always room to grow, however, and the future of audiology in Brazil holds both challenges and opportunity. The following article will sketch the development of audiology training and practice in Brazil, provide a picture of how the field stands today, and summarize the unique challenges which the profession faces in this large and diverse nation.

  18. 基于生态理念的高尔夫球场水域管理与实践%Ecological concept based water management and practice of golf course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪; 苏德荣; 李楚芳

    2013-01-01

    The basic functions of golf course waters were analyzed and the relationship between the water environment changes of golf course waters and irrigation amount was discussed based on the practical experi-ences from Beijing Willow Golf Club.Based on the principles of ecology,the measures of water environment management should reduce the application of chemical fertilizer,develop rainwater collection system and estab-lish buffers between waters and fairways,enhance the filtration of runoff from fairway,maintain the ability of water self-purification.%通过分析高尔夫球场水域的基本功能,结合北京万柳高尔夫球场水域管理的实践经验,探讨了高尔夫球场水域水环境变化与球场灌溉用水量的关系。基于生态学原理,在球场水域水环境管理中,采取减施化学肥料、雨水收集工程措施、在水域与球道之间建立缓冲区等,增强对球道草坪径流的过滤,保持水体的自净能力。

  19. IN SEARCH OF A TEACHING SOCIOLINGUISTIC PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Cássia Marine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the barriers in teaching Portuguese as mother tongue is the treatment of linguistic variation and fundamentally grammatical knowledge permeated by different linguistic norms. So in this article, we propose some reflections on the current situation of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazil, presenting a literature review on the topic, especially about the concepts of belief and linguistic attitudes studies sociolinguistic and documents the Brazilian government. Still we gather some results of previous studies on language attitudes and beliefs and we quote three factors that show that the Portuguese-speaking education in Brazil is still far from a reflective teaching and culturally sensitive pedagogy. To prove such factors mentioned, we mentioned examples of speeches and activities of students of primary and secondary schools as well as letters of course students. Thus, in this article, we point out how it is still challenging to think of a sociolinguistic conception of Portuguese language teaching in Brazil.

  20. [Generic drugs in Brazil: historical overview and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Lorena Ulhôa; Albuquerque, Kemile Toledo de; Kato, Kelly Cristina; Silveira, Gleiciely Santos; Maciel, Náira Rezende; Spósito, Pollyanna Álvaro; Barcellos, Neila Márcia Silva; Souza, Jacqueline de; Bueno, Márcia; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2010-12-01

    The Brazilian generic drugs policy was implemented in 1999 with the aim of stimulating competition in the market, improve the quality of drugs and improve the access of the population to drug treatment. The process of implementing this policy allowed the introduction and discussion of concepts that had never before been used in the context of drug registration in Brazil: bioavailability, bioequivalence, pharmaceutical equivalence, generic drugs, biopharmaceutical classification system, biowaiver. The present article provides definitions for these concepts in the context of Brazilian legislation as well as a historical and chronological description of the implementation of the generic drugs policy in Brazil, including a list of current generic drug legislation. This article contributes to the understanding of the Brazilian generic drugs policy and facilitates the search for information concerning the legal requirements for registration of drugs in Brazil.

  1. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  2. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965 and during Autumn and Springtime (1975 at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta variação é dependente da estrutura do substrato, da proteção e da quantidade de nichos que ele oferece às espécies. A maior densidade de isópodes foi obtida em Dictyota ciliolata, na franja do infralitoral. Foi encontrada uma relação entre diversidade de espécies e grau de exposição às ondas. A diversidade de espécies aumenta dos lugares expostos para os semi-expostos e decresce muito destes para os abrigados. O presente estudo revelou, também, a existência de uma variação estacional na abundância relativa e na diversidade das espécies, sendo ambas mais elevadas em setembro.

  3. Threshold concepts: implications for the management of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Gross, John

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts can have broad relevance in natural resource management. However, the concept of ecological thresholds has not been widely incorporated or adopted in management goals. This largely stems from the uncertainty revolving around threshold levels and the post hoc analyses that have generally been used to identify them. Natural resource managers have a need for new tools and approaches that will help them assess the existence and detection of conditions that demand management actions. Recognition of additional threshold concepts include: utility thresholds (which are based on human values about ecological systems) and decision thresholds (which reflect management objectives and values and include ecological knowledge about a system) as well as ecological thresholds. All of these concepts provide a framework for considering the use of threshold concepts in natural resource decision making.

  4. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  5. An automated approach to mapping ecological sites using hyper-temporal remote sensing and SVM classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of ecological sites as management units has emerged as a highly effective land management framework, but its utility has been limited by spatial ambiguity of ecological site locations in the U.S., lack of ecological site concepts in many other parts of the world, and the inability to...

  6. Scientific-methodical bases of management of the ecologically innovative development on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kasyanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article investigation and improved essence of concept of the ecologically innovative development, aims, basic functions, principles and methods of management the ecologization of innovative development of the state, region and enterprise are certain. Intercommunication and interconsistency of management levels is formed ecologically innovative development.

  7. Resilience Concept Analysis and Evaluation of Socio-Ecological Systems:An Overview%社会-生态系统弹性概念分析及评价综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘梅; 肖人彬; 王慧丽; 刘志玲

    2014-01-01

    How a socio⁃ecological system ( SES) responds to changes in global environment has been deemed as a priority concern in the modern natural resources management. The resilience theory provides an important theoretic basis to scien⁃tific analysis of interactions between disturbance and adaptivity in a SES. With the contradiction between human and land resources getting increasingly prominent, it is of great significance to analyze the connotation of resilience as a valuable feature of the nature⁃human system and to sum up progresses in the research of its evaluation. Based on the introduction to genesis of the resilience theory, definition of resilience was dissected and explanations of engineering resilience, ecosystem resilience and socio⁃ecological resilience were tried, with emphasis on analysis of their differentiation from and relationships with frangibility, adaptability and sustainability. Meanwhile, a review was presented of quantitative evaluation and application of resilience from the angle of framework, indices and tools of the evaluation. In the end, for better under⁃standing of the resilience in SESs, outlooks on the future development tendency of the resilience are described, in the as⁃pects of connotation of resilience, quantitative evaluation and remediation practice of the degraded SESs.%社会-生态系统如何响应全球环境变化已经被认为是当今自然资源管理中重点关注的方面之一,弹性理论为科学分析社会-生态系统中扰动和适应性的相互作用提供重要理论基础。在人地矛盾日益突出的今天,弹性作为自然界和人类系统一个有价值的特性,对其概念内涵进行分析并总结其评价的研究进展,具有重要的意义。在介绍弹性起源基础上,对弹性定义进行了剖析,对工程弹性、生态系统弹性以及社会-生态系统弹性进行解释。在此基础上,着重分析了弹性分别与脆弱性、适应性和可持续

  8. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  9. The parallel materialization of REDD+ implementation discourses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, R. van der; Rajão, R.; Leroy, P.; Boezeman, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Reducing Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) dominates international debates on the role of forests in climate change mitigation, but concrete implementation remains a challenge. In contrast to this general trend, Brazil emerged as a noteworthy exception due to the widespread

  10. The Climate Justice Discourse in Brazil: Potential and Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Milanez; Igor F. Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Milanez and Fonseca (2011) argue that the climate justice discourse has not been adopted by the media, society or the communities affected by extreme climate events in Brazil. The climate justice discourse has been adapted from the concept of environmental justice and created from the idea that the impacts of climate change affect different social groups in various ways and intensities. (?)

  11. [Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

  12. Emerging Relationships Between Structure and Ecological Function in the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brown

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of landscape ecology are theoretically applicable to landscapes anywhere in the world. Much information has been generated relating sizes, shapes, and composition of patches and corridors in the landscape to their ecological function. Many patterns related to ecological processes are emerging that can be applied with increasing confidence in landscape planning and design. In this context, we developed a comprehensive approach that makes use of three-dimensional (3-D models to describe visually the structural properties of landscape elements. This approach may be used by landscape architects so that the patterns they create also have an appropriate ecological function.

  13. Ethical and Legal Implications of Animal Use in Didactic Situations: The Conceptions of undergraduate Biology and Biomedicine students of a Federal Institution of Higher Education located in the State of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Christina Pitta P. de S. Melgaço

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in teaching situations is one of the methods of animal experimentation that has been institutionalized in the scientific context of the eighteenth century, when it was believed that animals had no soul or feel pain. Today, new knowledge about the physiology of animals brought to the ethical implications of the scientific experiments on animals, they show that the basic model of organization of the nervous system of humans and vertebrate animals is qualitatively the same. This study aimed to investigate the conceptions of Biological Sciences and Biomedicine students at a federal institution of higher education in the State of Rio de Janeiro on the use of animals in teaching situations during graduation. The results show that the university community remains hostage to the vivisectionist paradigm when the use of animals is recurrent and unjustifiable, and teachers and students are unaware of the ethical and legal implications of the use of animals in teaching situations during science education.

  14. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  15. Modern concepts of soil conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dumanski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to soil conservation are in constant evolution and improvement. This paper summarizes some of the modern approaches, ranging from no till to conservation agriculture to sustainable land management. These approaches are not separate, but components of a continuum of conservation approaches applicable at different levels and different scales. No tillage is important at the detailed, farm level, while CA and SLM are important at the farming systems and corporate levels. The successes achieved with no till in Argentina (also Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Mexico, Canada, Australia, and others illustrate how these concepts relate to each other.

  16. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site.

  17. Human appropriation of natural capital: a comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  18. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  19. Human appropriation of natural capital: A comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cub

  20. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cub

  1. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  2. Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rummler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper offers insights to the foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology and relates this concept to traditional concepts of Ecology e.g. media ecology or Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development. It will further discuss the term «ecology» as a relation between learners and their surrounding physical and structural world, e. g. an ecology of resources or the classroom as an ecological system. Thirdly more recent concepts in ecology will be considered e. g. Digital Media Ecology including media ecology (German: Medienökologie from a German perspective. This contribution tries to describe common principles of (media ecologies and will ask after their meaning and relation to media education and mobile learning. One of the main results is the realisation that cultural practices of school learning and cultural practices of media acquisition take place in different worlds or in different ecological spheres. The question is thus again of how to bridge these ecological spheres, and how «agency» developed outside school, can be nourished inside school. In other words: how can we bridge socio-cultural and technological structures within these cultural practices.

  3. Lateral Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  4. Designing for multi-lifecycle to promote industrial ecology philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a design concept originally developed to suit the needs of the agro-industrial sector in the developing economies. It also highlights how this concept fits into other green design paradigms and to the goals of industrial ecology. The need to design for multi-lifecycles arose fro...

  5. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  6. Exergy method technical and ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Szargut, J

    2005-01-01

    The exergy method makes it possible to detect and quantify the possibilities of improving thermal and chemical processes and systems. The introduction of the concept ""thermo-ecological cost"" (cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural exergy resources) generated large application possibilities of exergy in ecology. This book contains a short presentation on the basic principles of exergy analysis and discusses new achievements in the field over the last 15 years. One of the most important issues considered by the distinguished author is the economy of non-renewable natural exergy.

  7. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    sharing and collaborating over one or more technological platforms and business model(s) that serve the actors. However, little research has investigated the properties of actual software ecosystems. In this paper, we present an exploratory study of software ecosystems using the formalizations and metrics...... of the "network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  8. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  9. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  10. The actual relevance of ecological corridors in nature conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Nina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and applied foundations of the concept of the ecological corridors in nature conservation. Their relevance comes from recent ecological phenomenon of habitat fragmentation which is rapidly increasing during last decades. Habitat fragmentation is one of the main threats to richness and diversity of wildlife. Ecological corridors can mitigate the loss and fragmentation of habitat. Corridors perform as “bridges” between habitats for species and they provide a flow of the natural or even anthropogenic caused disturbances. In this paper we will present the meaning and significance of ecological corridors in nature conservation, as well as types of ecological corridors and their ecological benefits. Methodological and practical approaches in nature protection system in Serbia are included. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007 i br. 176008

  11. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  12. Source-sink landscape theory and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the relatiouships between landscape pattern and ecological processes is the key topic of landscape ecology,for which,a large number of indices as well as landscape pattern analysis model were developed.However,one problem faced by landscape ecologists is that it is hard to link the landscape indices with a specific ecological process.Linking landscape pattern and ecological processes has become a challenge for landscape ecologists."Source" and "sink" are common concepts used in air pollution research,by which the movement direction and pattern of different pollutants in air can be clearly identified.In fact,for any ecological process,the research can be considered as a balance between the source and the sink in space.Thus,the concepts of "source" and "sink" could be implemented to the research of landscape pattern and ecological processes.In this paper,a theory of sourcesink landscape was proposed,which include:(1) In the research of landscape pattern and ecological process,all landscape types can be divided into two groups,"source"landscape and "sink" landscape."Source" landscape contributes positively to the ecological process,while "sink" landscape is unhelpful to the ecological process.(2) Both landscapes are recognized with regard to the specific ecological process."Source" landscape in a target ecological process may change into a "sink"landscape as in another ecological process.Therefore,the ecological process should be determined before "source"or "sink" landscape were defined.(3) The key point to distinguish "source" landscape from "sink" landscape is to quantify the effect of landscape on ecological process.The positive effect is made by "source" landscape,and the negative effect by "sink" landscape.(4) For the same ecological process,the contribution of "source" landscapes may vary,and it is the same to the "sink"landscapes.It is required to determine the weight of each landscape type on ecological processes.(5) The sourcesink principle can be

  13. ETHICAL FASHION CONCEPT AND DESIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar GOKLUBERK OZLU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some problems like rapidly developing industrialization, irregular population growth, environmental pollution and to feel the impact of global warming as seriously, has been giving significant damage to the earth. People has realized that, after polluting to clean is harder than polluting of the measures to be taken before. And again people showed the sensitivity to the environment through different reactions and sanctions, took measures and created the new concepts about the enviroment. "Ethical Fashion" concept was created by the conscious and responsible individuals in the last two decades. However, that are being implemented as a concept is noticeable. Textile and fashion industry cover "Ethical Fashion"; ecological product, working conditions, fair trade and sustainable product are all in that concept. "Ethical Fashion" appeared and developed especially in United Kingdom, the USA and the other European countries. Nowadays, we may see a lot of textile and fashion designers, fabric and clothing collections, fairs and some specific courses at the universities about "Ethical Fashion". In this research contains "Ethical Fashion" concept, it's development processes and fashion designers who is working for this concept at the present time, also the main target is in this research, semtinizing "Ethical Fashion" concept.

  14. Social Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  15. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  16. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories...... of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel...

  17. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  18. Materials Testing - Digital Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Wiley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to credible building product performance information throughout the design and construction process is critical to enable project development, vet product selections, ensure as-built quality, and successfully complete construction. This is common knowledge and part of common practice for nearly all parties involved in design and construction. The sources of such information can range from vernacular to formal – from common practice to special reference. The focus of this paper is one of the more formal or specialized information sources, performance testing, as well as how such performance testing information can be better used. This paper’s goals are to familiarize the reader with performance testing and to depict a new kind of valuable informational tool (digital ecology. Reference to pertinent nomenclature, description of a real world example, and detailed description of such an informational tool’s values will be provided.The major content of this paper was developed during project-based work and firm-funded internal research at point b design, ltd. over approximately the previous 4 years. The phrase ‘digital ecology’ as herein used is a new concept proposed by the author. The analysis contained in this paper could be applied to the field of operations and maintenance as it is herein applied to design and construction; however, operations and maintenance is beyond the scope of this paper and may be addressed in future papers. It is my hope that this paper will contribute to tangible and real improvements of the built environment via continued, positive development within academic and professional practice.

  19. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae, from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos ecológicos da helmintofauna de pinguins de Magalhães, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Spheniscidae, do Litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC. Rezende

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W, Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species, found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species, both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species.Com o intuito de investigar se estudos parasitológicos podem ser utilizados como ferramenta para a conservação de espécies, principalmente migratórias, este trabalho analisa a helmintofauna de Spheniscus magellanicus por meio de parâmetros ecológicos populacionais e da comunidade parasitária, relacionando-os com diversos aspectos de vida da espécie hospedeira. O estudo foi realizado com 237 espécimes de S. magellanicus procedentes das praias do litoral norte de São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W ao sul do Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W. A helmintofauna desta ave incluiu: o nematoide Contracaecum pelagicum (espécie-núcleo, encontrado no estômago; o digenético Cardiocephaloides physalis e o cestoide Tetrabothrius lutzi (espécies satélites, ambos coletados

  20. Aspectos ecológicos de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares da mata tropical úmida da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal vesicular-arbuscular fungi of the tropical humid forest of Cardoso Island, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. B Trufem

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto/1984 a maio/1987, em nove ocasiões, foram coletadas 300 amostras de solo da rizosfera de 35 espécies de plantas nativas da mata tropical úmida do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil, para a investigação da ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA ea obtenção de dados sobre aspectos ecológicos desses microrganismos. Foram verificados 35 taxa de fungos MV A, sete dos quais espécies novas. Os esporos qué ocorreram em maior quantidade foram os de Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.. Glomus geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. e Glomus microcarpum Tul. & Tul. As plantas cujas rizosferas apresentaram maior número de esporos de fungos MV A foram as de Blechnum serrulatum L.C. Rich., Euterpe edulis Mart, Neomarica caerulia Sprague, Geonoma elegans Mart, e Piper aduncum L. A maior diversidade de espécies de fugnos MV A ocorreu nas rizosferas de Aphettandra sp., Geonoma elegans Mart e Leandra barbinervis Cogn. Verificouse que houve predominancia de espécies de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares clamidospóricas sobre as azigospóricas, bem como que a quantidade de esporos em urna dada rizosfera está diretamente relacionada com a diversidade. Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe e as espécies de Sclerocystis podem ser apontadas como características do ecossistema estudado, que apresentou a média de 50,04 esporos/ 100g de solo.From August/1984 to May/1987, 300 soil samples were collected from the rhizospheres of 35 species of native plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brazil, in a wet tropical forest, to investigate the occurrence and some ecological aspects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungi. Thirty five taxa of VA M fungi were reported, seven of them as new species. The most numerous VA M fungal spores belong to Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora

  1. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada

  2. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  3. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia, which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a conceptual perspective and provides examples of the contributions of palaeoecology to the study of ecology–evolution interactions. It also admonishes researchers about the threats of overlooking palaeoecology. Specifically, this paper argues that the neglect of palaeoecology may result in the loss of empirical support for ecology and its interactions with evolution as DNA-based phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies become more and more prevalent. The main concepts discussed are the time continuum, the notion of ecological palaeoecology and the empirical nature of palaeoecology in the face of more hypothetical approaches. More practically speaking, several examples are provided that highlight the utility of ecological palaeoecology for understanding a variety of processes, including ecological succession, community– environment equilibria, community assembly, biotic responses to environmental change, speciation and extinction, and biodiversity conservation. The ecology–evolution interface is analysed using two processes in which these disciplines interact intensively: ecological succession and long-range migration. This work concludes that both ecological palaeoecology (including ancient DNA records and DNA-based phylogenetics and phylogeography are needed to better understand the biosphere ecologically and the processes occurring at the ecology–evolution interface.La paleoecología es más que una disciplina ambiental, ya que proporciona las

  4. Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil Homicidio e impunidad: análisis ecológico a nivel de estado en Brasil Homicídio e impunidade: análise ecológica em nível de estado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nadanovsky

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess a new impunity index and variables that have been found to predict variation in homicide rates in other geographical levels as predictive of state-level homicide rates in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional ecological study. Data from the mortality information system relating to the 27 Brazilian states for the years 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. The outcome variables were taken to be homicide victim rates in 2005, for the entire population and for men aged 20-29 years. Measurements of economic and social development, economic inequality, demographic structure and life expectancy were analyzed as predictors. An "impunity index", calculated as the total number of homicides between 1996 and 2005 divided by the number of individuals in prison in 2007, was constructed. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In 2005, state-level crude total homicide rates ranged from 11 to 51 per 100,000; for young men, they ranged from 39 to 241. The impunity index ranged from 0.4 to 3.5 and was the most important predictor of this variability. From negative binomial regression, it was estimated that the homicide victim rate among young males increased by 50% for every increase of one point in this ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Classic predictive factors were not associated with homicides in this analysis of state-level variation in Brazil. However, the impunity index indicated that the greater the impunity, the higher the homicide rate.OBJETIVO: Evaluar un nuevo índice de impunidad y variables que predicen variación en tasas de homicidio en otros niveles geográficos como predictivos de las tasas de homicidio a nivel de estados en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico transversal. Fueron analizados datos del Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad referentes a los 27 estados brasileros en el período de 1996 a 2005. Fueron consideradas variables de resultado de tasas de victimizaci

  5. Neuroecology, Chemical Defense, and the Keystone Species Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard K. Zimmer; Ryan P. Ferrer

    2007-01-01

    .... The "keystone species" concept, for example, is seminal in ecological theory. It defines a species whose impacts on communities are far greater than would be predicted from its relative abundance and biomass...

  6. Ecological quality of production: accounting approach on sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Syroid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific weight of resource and power consuming technologies that is typical for Ukrainian economy, the absence of effective legal, administrative and economic mechanisms of management of nature and the low level of ecological society consciousness have led to the significant deterioration of environment state in Ukraine, excessive pollution of waters, air, and soil, accumulation of a large number of waste products. Besides, the produce as a result of such enterprises’ production affects consumers’ health badly. This causes the need to develop theory and methodology of production ecological quality accounting. The problem of quality is the most important factor of increasing of life level, economic, social and ecological security in market economy. This, the current research aims to formulate the essence of conceptecological quality of production” The research determines that ecological quality is characterized by the following main 6 aspects: social, technical, legal, economic, aesthetic and ecological. If one of these six aspects does not work, we cannot speak about ecological quality of a certain commodity. Many various factors influence upon the level of ecological quality of products and services. According to their contents and directions, they can be united into the following main 6 groups: technical, organizational, economic and social, ecological and aesthetic and legal. The article determines the directions of production ecological quality increasing.

  7. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  8. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  9. RADIOECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  10. The Unit of Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, F. Fraser

    After summarizing the development of ecology from botanical and zoological studies to a study of entire biological communities, the history of wool growing in England and the development of nomadism on the Asian steppes and the North American prairies is described. These examples are interpreted ecologically and used to illustrate the theses that…

  11. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  12. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  13. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  14. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  15. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  16. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  17. Ecological engineering: An introduction to ecotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Joergensen, S.E. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    The authors define ecological engineering and ecotechnology as the design of human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both. It is engineering in the sense that it involves the design of this natural environment using quantitative approaches and basing their approaches on basic science. It is a technology with the primary tool being self-designing ecosystems. The components are all of the biological species of the world. H.T. Odum in his book Environment, Power, and Society (1971, John Wiley and Sons, New York) is acknowledged as the developer of this concept. Part 1 of Ecological Engineering consists of seven chapters in which basic concepts are discussed. Four of these chapters deal with examples, principles and underlying theory. The other three chapters discuss ecological modeling, ecological economics and sustainable agriculture. Part 2 of this book presents a series of twelve case studies which are intended to illustrate applications of the principles. Of five case reported four are ongoing and the fifth was a study of the use of estuarine ponds for wastewater treatment. Three other cases, reported by Chinese scientists deal with wastewater treatment, the use of Spartina plantations for land reclamation, and aquaculture. The remaining case studies are either theoretical discussions or reviews.

  18. Missing concepts in natural selection theory reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnobili, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    The concept of fitness has generated a lot of discussion in philosophy of biology. There is, however, relative agreement about the need to distinguish at least two uses of the term: ecological fitness on the one hand, and population genetics fitness on the other. The goal of this paper is to give an explication of the concept of ecological fitness by providing a reconstruction of the theory of natural selection in which this concept was framed, that is, based on the way the theory was put to use in Darwin's main texts. I will contend that this reconstruction enables us to account for the current use of the theory of natural selection. The framework presupposed in the analysis will be that of metatheoretical structuralism. This framework will provide both a better understanding of the nature of ecological fitness and a more complete reconstruction of the theory. In particular, it will provide what I think is a better way of understanding how the concept of fitness is applied through heterogeneous cases. One of the major advantages of my way of thinking about natural selection theory is that it would not have the peculiar metatheoretical status that it has in other available views. I will argue that in order to achieve these goals it is necessary to make several concepts explicit, concepts that are frequently omitted in usual reconstructions.

  19. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ecological management of urban rivers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yiping

    2017-03-01

    At present, China's urban river is widespread with serious pollution, poor water quality, poor water mobility and other issues. In this article, we analyzed the root causes of urban river water environment problems systematically, then puts forward the ways to solve the problems, which including implement the "river length system", strengthen the control of pollution sources, persist in ecological concepts, establish long-term mechanism and strengthen publicity and education.