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Sample records for brazil chuva acida

  1. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Erosividade e características hidrológicas das chuvas de Rio Grande (RS Erosivity and hydrological characteristics of rainfalls in Rio Grande (RS, Brazil

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    Marcos Gabriel Peñalva Bazzano

    2010-02-01

    ,0 % do intermediário e 24,2 % do atrasado. Da erosividade anual, 49,1 % correspondeu a chuvas do padrão avançado, 28,9 % a chuvas do padrão intermediário e 22,1 % a chuvas do padrão atrasado. O método da distribuição extrema tipo I foi adequado para obter as curvas de intensidade-duração-frequência. Os períodos de retorno da chuva podem ser calculados por meio das equações, utilizando os valores dos parâmetros encontrados, ou pelos gráficos das curvas de intensidade-duração-frequência.Specific rainfall characteristics vary among regions and their erosion potential must be known for the planning of agricultural and civil engineering activities. For Rio Grande (RS, Brazil, the erosivity and relationships with the precipitation and rainfall coefficient, rainfall hydrologic patterns and return period were determined based on rainfall data of 23 years. For each erosive rainfall the segments of the rainfall chart with the same intensity were separated together and the data registered in worksheets. The mean monthly and annual rainfall erosivity, the EI30 index in the International System of Units and the rainfall patterns were estimated using software Chuveros. The mean monthly values of precipitation and erosivity index were expressed as percentage of the mean annual values of these variables, resulting in the curve of accumulated distribution of precipitation and erosivity index in function of time. The rainfall coefficient (Rc was calculated. Pearson correlations and linear regressions between the erosivity index EI30 and the mean annual values of precipitation and rainfall coefficient were calculated. The rainfall return period was calculated for 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years. The mean annual value of EI30 was 5135 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, which is to be used as "R" Factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for Rio Grande and surrounding regions with similar climatic conditions. The regression equations for EI30 and precipitation and rainfall

  3. Modelos da distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas em Piracicaba, SP Time distribution models of intense rainfall in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

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    Décio E. Cruciani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da variação temporal de chuvas intensas é de grande importância na hidrologia, para a análise e previsão de eventos extremos, necessárias em projetos de controle de engenharia. Com esse objetivo, foram analisados dados de pluviogramas da cidade de Piracicaba, SP, do período de 1966 a 2000, para se determinar a distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas de 60 e de 120 min de duração. As chuvas de 60 min foram subdivididas em três intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 20 min cada um, enquanto as chuvas de 120 min foram subdivididas em quatro intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 30 min cada um. O modelo de distribuição da precipitação que predominou para as chuvas de 60 e 120 min, foi do tipo exponencial negativo, com 85,7 e 50,7% dos casos, respectivamente. Para as chuvas de 60 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 20,7 mm, a distribuição foi de 72,3, 21,4 e 6,2% do total precipitado, respectivamente, nos três intervalos sucessivos de 20 min. Para as chuvas de 120 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 33,3 mm, o resultado foi de 60,1, 25,2, 11,1 e 3,6%, respectivamente, nos quatro intervalos sucessivos de 30 min. O modelo de distribuição temporal dessas chuvas não foi modificado pelo total precipitado nem pela sua duração, nos intervalos em questão.Time distribution models of intense and short rains are very important in hydrology and for extreme predictions in engineering projects. With this purpose, rain data of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, from 1966 to 2000 were analyzed to establish time distribution models of 60 and 120 min intense rains, during the rainy season from October through March. Time distribution models were assessed by three intervals of twenty minutes duration, for 60 min rains and by four intervals of thirty minutes duration for 120 min rains. The prevailing precipitation model for both, 60 and 120 min rains was a negative exponential distribution, in 85.7 and 50.7% of cases, respectively. For 60 min

  4. Equações de chuvas intensas para o estado do Pará Intense rainfall equations for the state of Pará, Brazil

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    Rodrigo O. R. de M. Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As equações de chuvas intensas têm sido usadas como ferramenta importante para o dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas. Devido à grande carência de informações relativas às equações de chuvas intensas, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção das relações de intensidade, duração e frequência de precipitação pluvial para o Estado do Pará, utilizando-se a metodologia da desagregação da chuva de 24 h. Foram utilizadas séries históricas de dados pluviométricos de 74 cidades do Estado do Pará, obtidas no Sistema de Informações Hidrológicas da Agência Nacional de Águas-ANA. As equações de intensidade-duração-frequência foram devidamente ajustadas e apresentaram bom ajuste, com coeficientes de determinação acima de 0,99. A maioria das estações (51,4% apresentou intensidade de precipitação entre 90 e 110 mm h-1, para uma duração de chuva de 30 min e um tempo de retorno de 15 anos. Pode-se perceber uma concentração das maiores precipitações na região próxima ao litoral do nordeste paraense e no sudeste da Ilha do Marajó.The intense rainfall equations have been used as an important tool for design of hydraulic structures. Considering the lack of intense rainfall equations, this study aimed to determine the relations of intensity, duration and frequency of intense rainfall in the Pará State (Brazil, using the one-day rain disaggregation method. In this research rainfall data of 74 cities in the State of Pará were used, obtained from the Hydrological Information System of the National Water Agency-ANA. The equations of intensity-duration-frequency were adjusted and presented good adjustment with coefficients of determination above 0.99. Most stations (51.4% showed intensity of precipitation between 90 and 110 mm h-1 for duration of 30 min and rainfall return period of 15 years. The highest rainfall intensities were in the region near the northeast coast of Pará State and southeast of the Marajo

  5. Continuidade espacial de chuvas intensas no estado de Minas Gerais Spatial continuity of intense rainfall in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O mapeamento de variáveis climáticas, como chuvas intensas, é de fundamental importância para o manejo ambiental. Para isto, ferramentas estatísticas para interpolação espacial devem ser devidamente analisadas e caracterizadas. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar modelos e métodos de modelagem do semivariograma que melhor se ajustem a chuvas intensas com duração de 20, 60, 360 e 1440 minutos e tempos de retorno de 5, 50 e 100 anos, fornecendo subsídios primordiais para espacialização da mesma pelo interpolador geoestatístico, para o Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram testados os modelos esférico, exponencial e gaussiano pelos métodos de ajuste da Máxima Verossimilhança (MV e Mínimos Quadrados Ponderados (MQP. Utilizou-se como critério de escolha do melhor modelo, o menor erro médio gerado pela validação cruzada, e em caso de similaridade, também foram considerados o maior grau de dependência espacial e o menor efeito pepita, além da análise visual do ajuste do modelo ao semivariograma experimental. O modelo exponencial se sobressaiu em nove das doze situações analisadas, o gaussiano em duas e o esférico em uma situação. Quanto aos métodos de ajuste, o MQP sobressaiu em todos os casos estudados, o que permite sugerir o modelo exponencial ajustado pelo método dos mínimos quadrados ponderados como sendo o mais adequado para o mapeamento da chuva intensa para as condições do Estado de Minas Gerais.Climate variables mapping, as intense rainfall, is very important to environmental management. Although, statistical tools for spatial interpolation should be analyzed and characterized. This paper aims to analyze models and methods of semi-variogram modeling applied to intense rainfall with duration time of 20, 60, 360 and 1440 minutes and 5, 50 and 100 years of recurrence and consequently, giving support for its mapping, using kriging, in Minas Gerais State. Exponential, Spherical and Gaussian semi

  6. Variabilidade espacial do potencial erosivo das chuvas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Spatial variability of the rainfall erosive potential in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Claudinei A. Montebeller

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de analisar a variabilidade espacial da erosividade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, por meio de análise geoestatística. Os índices de erosividade médios anuais EI30, definidos pelo produto da energia cinética da chuva e sua intensidade máxima em 30 min e KE>25 (definidos como a energia cinética das chuvas com intensidades superiores a 25 mm h-1 foram calculados a partir de dados pluviográficos de 36 estações, enquanto, para outras 57 estações, os mesmos índices foram estimados por meio de equações de regressão, totalizando 93 pontos de amostragem. O modelo matemático ajustado ao semivariograma experimental, para ambos os índices, foi o exponencial. A partir dos parâmetros dos modelos ajustados, foi possível gerar mapas de erosividade pelo método da krigagem, que apresenta vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais. Além disso, também foram gerados mapas de variância de krigagem. Os maiores valores de erosividade foram observados nas regiões Serrana e da Baía da Ilha Grande, enquanto os menores valores foram observados nas regiões norte e noroeste do Estado. As maiores variâncias de krigagem foram observadas nas regiões Litorânea e Norte, que são as que apresentam menores densidades de amostragem.The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of the rainfall erosivity indices for the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using geostatistical analysis. Rainfall erosivity indices EI30 (defined by the product of kinetic energy of the rainfall and its maximum intensity on 30 minutes, and KE>25 (defined as the kinetic energy of the rain just to rainfall intensity higher than 25 mm h-1 were calculated using rain charts for 36 stations, while for the remaining 57 locations, this indices where estimated using standard regression procedures with rain gauges data. Therefore, the total number of points for the entire state was 93. The experimental semivariograms

  7. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  8. Raindrop distribution in the Eastern Coast of Northeastern Brazil using disdrometer data Distribuição do tamanho de gotas de chuva para a Costa Leste do Nordeste do Brasil utilizando dados de disdrômetro

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    Ricardo Sarmento Tenório

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually a single literature-suggested Z-R relationship, where Z the radar reflectivity factor and R the rain rate, is used for weather radar data interpretation. It is desirable to calculate a Z-R relationship by precipitation type to improve the accuracy of quantitative rainfall rate in case of coexistence of different precipitation types, such as, in the area of precipitation produced from a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS. In general, in the MCS trailing anvil, the stratiform precipitation does not fall as drizzle. Rather, the rainfall can assume significant intensity (~10 mm h-1 with showery character. For that reason, in this study, the precipitations were classified into convective and stratiform type, to produce optimum rainfall estimates. Therefore, Z-R relationships were developed for the Eastern Coast of Northeastern Brazil (NEB using rainfall raindrop size distribution (DSD data collected with a disdrometer RD-69, aiming their utilization to start the operation of a weather radar system. In this study, due to operation and maintenance facilities, the disdrometer was installed in the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas (The Federal University of Alagoas in Maceió in 2001, 12 months before the complete installation of a new radar system. The DSD was stratified by rainfall rate classes. It is found that the DSD are clearly dependent on the parameters of the analytical distribution functions are, and show a marked monthly variability. The parameters of the frequency distributions are dependent on R. The forms of DSDs are similar but the amount of droplets in each one very strongly. This may be possible due to the short period of data collection or to the intraseasonal rainfall variability. The general relationship for the Eastern Coast of NEB was found to be Z = 176.5 R1.29, with correlation coefficient equal to 0.83. This equation is in accordance with the ones for stratiform rain reported in the literature. We found that the

  9. Dinâmica do pH da água das chuvas em Passo Fundo, RS Dynamics of rainfall pH in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gilberto Rocca da Cunha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica do pH da água das chuvas em Passo Fundo, RS, de 1992 a 2007. A água foi coletada em recipiente de PVC (diâmetro de 10 cm acoplado a um pluviômetro, e as amostras foram armazenadas em congelador para posterior determinação do pH. A dinâmica do pH da água foi avaliada por meio das médias mensais e anuais do pH, da probabilidade empírica da distribuição dos valores anuais de pH por estação do ano e da frequência relativa acumulada do pH. A água das chuvas incidentes na região de Passo Fundo apresentou pH acima de 5,6, que é o limite para que a chuva seja considerada ácida. A análise do período de 16 anos indicou tendência de redução do pH da água das chuvas em 0,023 ao ano. Nesse período, a redução foi de 6,1 para 5,8. As chuvas foram ligeiramente mais ácidas no verão e na primavera do que no outono e no inverno. Em geral, as chuvas incidentes na região não apresentaram riscos imediatos de acidificação ambiental.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of rainfall pH in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, from 1992 to 2007. The rainfall pH was monitored in 50 mL samples collected in a 10-cm diameter PVC tube connected to a rain gauge; samples were then stored in a freezer for later determination of pH. The dynamics of rain water pH was evaluated through the annual and monthly averages of the pH, the empirical probability of pH values distributed over the seasons, and the pH accumulated relative frequency. The rainfall events in Passo Fundo region have pH higher than the critical threshold (pH 5.6 to be considered acid rain. The analysis of a 16-year period showed reduction of the rainfall pH at 0.023 per year. Over that period, the average pH fell from 6.1 to 5.8. The rainfalls were slightly more acidic in the summer and spring than in the autumn and winter. In general, the analysis of rainfall events in the region showed no immediate risk of environmental

  10. Erosividade da chuva e erodibilidade de Cambissolo e Latossolo na região de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais Rainfall erosivity and erodibility of Cambisol (Inceptisol and Latosol (Oxisol in the region of Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são relativamente poucos os estudos envolvendo erodibilidade do solo, principalmente Cambissolos, dada a morosidade na obtenção dos resultados de experimentos com chuva natural. O conhecimento dos índices de erosividade e de erodibilidade é importante para o planejamento conservacionista, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade dos solos. Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar a erosividade da chuva e a erodibilidade de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob chuva natural, em Lavras (MG, no período de 1998 a 2002. Os dados de precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos na Estação Climatológica Principal de Lavras, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, próxima das unidades experimentais de perdas de solo. A erosividade (EI30 foi determinada a partir do produto da energia cinética da chuva pela sua intensidade máxima em 30 min. Estes dados, correlacionados com as perdas de solo, permitiram obter o índice de erodibilidade dos solos. A precipitação total média anual foi 1.287 mm e a erosividade média foi de 4.865 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. A erodibilidade foi 0,0355 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Cambissolo e 0,0032 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Latossolo, em consonância com seus atributos mineralógicos, químicos, físicos e morfológicos diferenciais.Relatively few studies in Brazil have investigated soil erodibility, mainly for Cambisols (Inceptisols, due to the tediousness of data collection in natural rainfall experiments. Knowledge about erodibility and erosivity is important for conservation planning, which contributes to soil sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the rainfall erosivity and erodibility of a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol and a typic dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under natural rainfall, in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1998 and 2002. Pluvial precipitation data were obtained from the main weather

  11. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the coastal plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil Erosividade da chuva e tempo de retorno na bacia experimental da Aracruz, região dos tabuleiros costeiros brasileiros

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    Sérgio Gualberto Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the factors influencing water erosion is fundamental for the choice of the best land use practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is one of the most important factors of water erosion. The objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and the return period of rainfall in the Coastal Plains region, near Aracruz, a town in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, based on available data. Rainfall erosivity was calculated based on historic rainfall data, collected from January 1998 to July 2004 at 5 min intervals, by automatic weather stations of the Aracruz Cellulose S.A company. A linear regression with individual rainfall and erosivity data was fit to obtain an equation that allowed data extrapolation to calculate individual erosivity for a 30-year period. Based on this data the annual average rainfall erosivity in Aracruz was 8,536 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Of the total annual rainfall erosivity 85 % was observed in the most critical period October to March. Annual erosive rains accounted for 38 % of the events causing erosion, although the runoff volume represented 88 % of the total. The annual average rainfall erosivity return period was estimated to be 3.4 years.O conhecimento dos fatores que influenciam a erosão hídrica é de fundamental importância no planejamento do uso do solo. Dos fatores que alteram a erosão, a precipitação pluvial, expressa pela erosividade da chuva, é um dos mais importantes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a erosividade e o tempo de retorno para a região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, no município de Aracruz, ES. Para o cálculo da erosividade, foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de janeiro de 1998 a julho de 2004, obtidos em estações climatológicas automatizadas, localizadas em área experimental da Aracruz Celulose AS, que, para este estudo, geraram dados de 5 em 5 min. A análise de regressão linear entre precipitação pluvial e erosidade para esse per

  12. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

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    Homero Bergamaschi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling. Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuva de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos.

  13. Erosividade da chuva: sua distribuição e relação com as perdas de solo em Campinas (SP Rainfall erosivity: its distribution and relationship with soil loss at Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Francisco Lombardi Neto

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de erosão de uma chuva, representado pelo produto da energia cinética pela intensidade máxima em 30 minutos, foi calculado para chuvas individuais, para Campinas (SP. Durante um período de 22 anos (de 1954 a 1975, o índice de erosão médio anual computado foi de 6.738 MJ.mm/ha.h.ano, tendo os valores variado de 3.444 a 13.830. Foram estabelecidas as distribuições mensais e estacionais do índice de erosão. Os dados mostraram que 62% do potencial de erosão anual ocorre durante dezembro-fevereiro. A freqüência de distribuição dos valores totais anuais e do valor máximo anual do índice de erosão seguiu o tipo de curva inclinada, típica de dados hidrológicos, mas o logaritmo dos dados apresentou distribuição normal. Foi encontrada alta correlação entre a média mensal do índice de erosão e a média mensal do coeficiente de chuva, o que simplifica o método para calcular o índice de erosão de um local.The rainfall erosion potential for individual storms was evaluated for Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The erosion potential of a rainstorm is the product of the rainfall energy and the maximum 30-minute intensity of the storm. Over a 22-year period the average annual erosion index computed was 6,738 MJ.mm/.ha.h.year (values ranged from 3,444 to 13,830. Monthly and seasonal distributions of the erosion index were established. The data showed that 62% of the annual erosion potential occurs during the period from December to February. The frequency distribution of the total annual and maximum annual individual storm erosion index was skewed, but the logarithms of the data appeared to be normally distributed. Expected average monthly and annual values of erosion potential may be readily estimated from local rainfall amount records by the equation EI = 68,730 (p²/P0,841. A high correlation was found between actual and estimated EI values.

  14. Erosividade de chuvas no Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Waltrick, Paulo Cesar

    2010-01-01

    RESUMO: A erosão hídrica é uma das principais causas de perdas de solo na maioria das regiões do planeta. Nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais estas perdas são maiores, devido a elevada erosividade das chuvas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estimar a erosividade das chuvas para o estado do Paraná, avaliando a influência dos eventos climáticos El Niño e La Niña, bem como estimar a erosividade para cenários futuros relacionados com projeções de mudanças climáticas. A erosividade das chuvas foi e...

  15. Daily rainfall variability at a local scale (1,000 ha, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and its implications on soil water recharge Variabilidade diária da chuva em uma escala local (1000 ha em Piracicaba, SP, e suas implicações na recarga da água do solo

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    K. Reichardt

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall variability at a local scale (1,000 ha was studied at Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, for the period of one year (1993-1994, in order to better understand the process of soil water recharge. Coefficients of variation of daily data for ten observation points varied from 2.2 to 169.3% and the variability was independent of rain type, i.e. whether convective, frontal or of other origin. Data were not related to separation distances between observation points and it is concluded that one observation point does not represent areas as far as 1,000 to 2,500 m apart, for daily, monthly or even quarterly averages. Yearly totals for the ten observation points presented a coefficient of variation as low as 3.06%, indicating that all points can replace each other in annual terms.A variabilidade diária da chuva em uma escala local (1000 ha foi estudada em Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, pelo período de um ano (1993-1994. Os coeficientes de variação de dados diários para dez pontos de observação variaram de 2,2 a 169,3 % e a variabilidade independeu do tipo de chuva, isto é, se convectiva, frontal ou de outra origem. Os dados não apresentaram correlação com a distância entre os pontos de observação e concluiu-se que uni ponto de observação não representa áreas distantes dele de 1000 a 2500 m, para médias diárias, mensais ou mesmo trimestrais. Os totais anuais dos dez pontos apresentaram um coeficiente de variação de apenas 3,06 %, indicando que cada ponto pode representar qualquer outro em termos anuais.

  16. Variabilidade espacial do potencial de erosão das chuvas do Estado de São Paulo Spatial variability of rainfall erosivity for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Rosa Vieira; Francisco Lombardi Neto

    1995-01-01

    Utilizaram-se dados de 292 pluviômetros da rede oficial do Estado de São Paulo para o cálculo do fator R da equação universal de perdas de solo, segundo modelo disponível na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi usar a geoestatística para estudar a variabilidade espacial do potencial de erosão das chuvas e construir mapas de isolinhas com precisão. Calculou-se a dependência espacial através do semivariograma para os períodos das secas (abril a setembro), das águas (outubro a março) e para...

  17. Modelos matemáticos para predição da chuva de projeto para regiões do Estado de Minas Gerais Mathematical models for the estimation of rainfall in selected regions of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Carlos R. de Mello

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de modelos matemáticos para predição da chuva é uma forma prática e precisa para determinação do valor a ser aplicado em projetos, sendo útil para localidades desprovidas de informações pluviométricas. Objetivou-se ajustar o método de Bell, que possui características de regionalização para a chuva de projeto, com base em equações de chuvas intensas e modelos de probabilidade de Gumbel de estações meteorológicas do Estado de Minas Gerais ajustando, também, um modelo para cada região do estado. Avaliaram-se os modelos considerando-se o coeficiente de determinação e os erros médios em relação aos dados originais. Para validação, trabalhou-se com três estações meteorológicas da região Norte não usadas para ajuste do respectivo modelo. Foram analisadas três metodologias para estimativa da chuva intensa padrão (h(60,2, que pondera o método usado, ressaltando-se a média aritmética, a média ponderada pelo inverso do quadrado da distância e a predição geoestatística (krigagem. Observou-se que os modelos possuem bons indicadores estatísticos e a validação produziu erros baixos, mostrando que os modelos podem ser aplicados, especialmente se a krigagem for usada para estimativa do parâmetro h(60,2.The use of mathematical models for predicting rainfall is a practical and accurate way of determining this parameter to be applied to regions which do not have any precipitation data. Based on the intense rainfall equations and Gumbel's probability model for maximum daily precipitation of meteorological stations in Minas Gerais State, the objective of this work was to adjust the Bell's Method, with regional features, for rainfall, adjusting one model for each region. The regional parameters were estimated by non-linear multiple regression, using Gauss-Newton's method. The goodness of the models was evaluated by the coefficient of determination and mean errors of prediction as compared to the original data

  18. Contaminação de águas superficiais e de chuva por agrotóxicos em uma região do estado do Mato Grosso Groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in an agricultural region of Mato Grosso state in central Brazil

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    Josino Costa Moreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a contaminação de águas superficiais e de chuvas por agrotóxicos em dois municípios do estado do Mato Grosso, Lucas do Rio Verde e Campo Verde, situados entre os maiores produtores de soja, milho e algodão do estado e do país. A metodologia analítica combinou o uso de técnicas cromatográficas em amostras de água superficial e de chuva com análises ecotoxicológicas do impacto da contaminação por agrotóxicos sobre espécies bioindicadoras. Resultados das análises mostraram a presença de resíduos de diferentes agrotóxicos nas amostras de águas superficiais e de chuva coletadas nos dois municípios. Associados a estes dados, resultados das análises ecotoxicológicas mostraram a presença de anomalias em uma espécie de anfíbio anuro coletado em uma das duas localidades, compatíveis com exposição a agrotóxicos. Os resultados aqui apresentados e discutidos apontam para a degradação da qualidade de recursos hídricos da região, causada pelo uso intensivo de agrotóxicos na agricultura, incluindo fontes de água de consumo humano e de chuvas, amplificando o risco de contaminação para além das áreas de plantio.This study sought to analyze groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in two municipalities (Lucas do Rio Verde and Campo Verde of Mato Grosso state. The area is Brazil's mid-west situated among the major soybean, corn and cotton producers in the state and the country. The analytical methodology combined chromatographic techniques on groundwater and rainwater samples with eco-toxicological analyses of the impacts of contamination by pesticide on bio-indicator species. The results revealed the presence of different pesticide residues in the groundwater and rainwater samples collected in the two municipalities. In conjunction with this data, results of the eco-toxicological tests revealed the presence of anomalies in a bio-indicator species collected in one of the

  19. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)

  20. Chuva de sementes em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Seed rain in a seasonal semideciduous forest at Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Érica Pereira de Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição florística, a densidade e a freqüência de sementes, em 25 coletores, em um trecho de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Além disso, classificar os táxons quanto à forma de vida, às síndromes de dispersão e, nas arbóreas, quanto ao estádio sucessional e verificar a similaridade florística entre as espécies identificadas na chuva de sementes e as espécies arbóreas localizadas nas mesmas parcelas dos coletores. O trabalho foi realizado entre dezembro/2004 a novembro/2006. Foram reconhecidos 43 táxons, sendo que Leguminosae foi representada por 11 espécies. A forma de vida dominante foi arbórea (63,1%, as lianas foram representadas por 28,9% das espécies amostradas, as herbáceas por 5,3% e as arbustivas por 2,6%. A densidade média de sementes no primeiro ano foi de 113,92 sementes.m-2 e no segundo de 2.603,84 sementes.m-2. Essas diferenças demonstraram heterogeneidade espacial e temporal da chuva de sementes. A similaridade florística encontrada pelo índice de Sørensen entre as espécies da chuva de sementes e as espécies arbóreas do trecho do fragmento estudado foi de 32%, valor considerado baixo (This study aims to evaluate the floristic composition, density and frequency of seeds in 25 traps in a section of seasonal semideciduous forest, as well as classify taxons as to life form, dispersal syndromes, and succession phase of the tree species, and verify floristic similarities between seed rain species and tree species located in the same plots. The work was carried out from December/2004 to November/2006. Forty three taxons were recognized and Leguminosae was represented by 11 species. The dominant life form was arboreal (63.1%, climbers were represented by 28.9% of the sampled species, herbs by 5.3% and shrubs by 2.6%. Mean seed density in the first year was 113.92 seeds.m-2 and 2603.84 seeds.m-2 in the second year. These differences showed spatial and seasonal heterogeneity

  1. Erosividade das chuvas associada a períodos de retorno e probabilidade de ocorrência no estado do Rio de Janeiro Rainfall erosivity associated to return periods and occurrence probability in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Roriz Luciano Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da erosividade das chuvas associada à probabilidade de ocorrência e ao período de retorno pode contribuir para o planejamento conservacionista de uma região, em médio e longo prazo. A fim de gerar informações para melhor utilizar modelos e controle da erosão, dados de chuvas de 30 séries pluviográficas e pluviométricas, abrangendo 25 municípios, entre 1933 e 2006, foram estudados quanto à adequação das séries e do cálculo da probabilidade de ocorrência teórica (P e período de retorno (T da erosividade das chuvas (EI30 e KE>25, para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi feita a espacialização do potencial erosivo associado aos períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 e 100 anos para todo o Estado. A erosividade anual média (EI30 ou fator R da USLE para qualquer localidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro pode ser igualada ou superada pelo menos uma vez, em média, em um período de 1,8 a 2,1 anos, com faixa de 48,5 a 54,9 % de probabilidade de ocorrência teórica. As localidades que apresentam maior erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno estão situadas nas mesorregiões Metropolitanas e em partes das mesorregiões Sul e Centro Fluminense. Foi possível identificar de oito a 12 regiões homogêneas, quanto à distribuição espacial da erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno de dois para 100 anos no Estado. De modo geral, a maior variação da distribuição espacial da erosividade apresenta-se na faixa de período de retorno de dois a cinco anos.Knowledge on rainfall erosivity associated to occurrence probability and return periods can contribute to conservation planning in the medium and long term. With the objective of generating information for a better use of medium and long-term erosion models and erosion control, rainfall data of 30 pluviometric and pluviographic data sets from 25 cities ranging from 1933 to 2006 were studied in terms of adjustment of data sets, calculation of the probability of

  2. A gênese da escassez de chuva em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, durante os meses de maio de 2003 e maio de 2005 = The genesis of scanty rainfall in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, during the months of May 2003 and May 2005

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    Leonor Marcon da Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar os sistemas atmosféricos geradores da escassez de chuvas durante os meses de maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Para atingir os objetivos propostos, utilizaram-se dados meteorológicos de superfície referentes às variações diárias dos elementos climáticos, com os quais se elaborou uma tabela para cada um dos meses em estudo, eleitos como amostragem de meses de maio secos. Para identificar os sistemas atmosféricos promotores dos diferentes tipos de tempo, tais tabelas foram analisadas concomitantemente à análise de cartas sinóticas meteorológicas de superfície, também diárias, e de imagens de satélite. Constatou-se que a escassez de chuva em Maringá durante os períodos estudados decorreu da atuação de anticiclones frios, que penetraram na retaguarda dos sistemas frontais, e da atuação do Sistema Tropical Atlântico sobre o continente, o qual geralmente bloqueava as frentes frias próximo à latitude de 30°S, de modo que estas se deslocavam para o Atlântico antes de alcançarem a área em estudo. The atmospheric systems accountable for scanty rainfall during May 2003 and May 2005 in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, are identified. Surface meteorological data on daily variables of climatic elements have been employed for the creation of a table for each month under analysis. They were chosen as dry May samplings. Tables were analyzed concomitantly with an investigation on daily surface meteorological synoptic charts and on satellite photos, so that the atmosphericsystems causing different types of climate might be identified. Results show that scanty rainfall in Maringá during the periods under analysis was caused by cold anti-cyclone activities which followed after frontal systems and by the activities of Atlantic TropicalSystem on the South American subcontinent. The latter normally blocks out cold fronts near latitude 30°S which, in turn

  3. Evaluation of GPROF-SSMI/S rainfall estimates over land during the Brazilian CHUVA-VALE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rômulo A. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Vila, Daniel A.; Morales, Carlos A.

    2015-09-01

    One of the major goals of the CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM [GlobAl Precipitation Measurement]) is to collect information about the cloud processes of the main precipitating systems over Brazil in order to evaluate and improve the quality of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Thus, this paper evaluates the performance of the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) version 2004 for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensor, carried onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16, F17 and F18 satellites, for instantaneous rain rates over land by comparing with other remote sensing based estimates such as X-band dual polarization rainfall retrievals from the CHUVA Project (named here X-band CHUVA radar) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) Precipitation Radar - version 7 (PR-V7) precipitation estimates (named here the 2A25_V7 product) for the CHUVA-VALE campaign. The analyses were performed on an area within a radius of 60 km from the X-band CHUVA radar, located at São José dos Campos, SP - Brazil (centered at 23.2°S and 45.95°W) and another delimited by 41°W-51°W and 18°S-28°S (10° x 10° box). GPROF showed an overestimate of light/moderate rain rate intensities, while underestimating the rainfall rates above 10 mm h- 1, considering the X-band CHUVA radar as reference. The same behavior was observed when compared with the 2A25_V7 database. Through a PDF analysis, GPROF was found to overestimate the frequencies of moderate rain rates (between 2 and 10 mm h- 1, above 15%), and underestimate the frequencies of light and high rain rates ( 10 mm h- 1, respectively) when compared to both the X-band CHUVA radar and 2A25_V7 reference databases. The results for the studied region suggest that GPROF has a relatively good agreement (spatial distribution and accumulated rainfall), especially for convective rain cases, due

  4. Variabilidade espacial do potencial de erosão das chuvas do Estado de São Paulo Spatial variability of rainfall erosivity for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se dados de 292 pluviômetros da rede oficial do Estado de São Paulo para o cálculo do fator R da equação universal de perdas de solo, segundo modelo disponível na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi usar a geoestatística para estudar a variabilidade espacial do potencial de erosão das chuvas e construir mapas de isolinhas com precisão. Calculou-se a dependência espacial através do semivariograma para os períodos das secas (abril a setembro, das águas (outubro a março e para a erosividade média anual. Os alcances dos semivariogramas variaram de 50 a 70 km, porém a autovalidação das estimativas mostrou que o número de vizinhos utilizados em uma estimativa não deve ultrapassar 16 para que as hipóteses a respeito dos dados não sejam invalidadas. Estimou-se um total de 2.460 valores para todo o Estado, com uma separação de 20 km entre pontos para boa precisão na construção dos mapas de isolinhas. Os mapas de isolinhas mostraram que, no período das secas, existe aumento de erosividade na direção sul do Estado; no período das águas, dá-se o inverso: o aumento da erosividade é na direção norte.Rainfall data from 292 raingauges operated by the State of São Paulo were used to calculate the rainfall erosivity factor from the Universal Soil Loss Equation using a model available from the literature. The objective of this work was to use geostatistics to study the spatial variability of the rainfall erosivity and to construct isoline maps with high precision. Spatial autocorrelation was calculated with semivariograms for the rainy (October to March and dry seasons (April to September, and for the yearly average. The range of the semivariograms were within 50 and 70 kilometers, however, the jack-knifing technique showed that only the 16 nearest neighbors should be used in order to stay within distances where stationarity existed. A total of 2,460 values were estimated on a 20 kilometers grid to allow for a

  5. Spatial variability of the rainfall erosivity in southern region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil Variabilidade espacial da erosividade da chuva na região sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2012-10-01

    do uso local da terra. Para tanto, determinou-se o fator erosividade para séries de precipitação pluviométrica, utilizando dados de precipitações obtidas junto à Agencia Nacional de Água - ANA, constituindo-se séries históricas que variaram de 15 a 40 anos. Os índices de erosividade mensais e anuais foram obtidos, utilizando a equação de Fournier utilizada em Lavras, MG e a variabilidade espacial da erosividade foi realizada com base nos princípios da geoestatística, considerando-se apenas a distância que os separa, construindo-se o semivariograma experimental isotrópico. O ajuste do semivariograma foi realizado com base no método dos Mínimos Quadrados Ponderados e no grau de dependência espacial. Definida a estrutura e o ajuste do semivariograma passou-se à fase de geração dos mapas de krigagem, gerando o comportamento espacial das erosividades, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. Observou-se que a região Sul de Minas Gerais apresenta elevados padrões de erosividade, com amplitude de 5.145 a 7.776 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1, para Ijaci (região norte e Itajubá (região sul, respectivamente. Os índices de erosividade da região do Sul de Minas Gerais foram considerados elevados e com forte influência da topografia, associados às características climáticas. Maiores erosividades estão associadas às áreas de maior altitude, como ao longo da Serra da Mantiqueira e em planaltos e serras elevadas no centro-norte da região. A abordagem geoestatística com dados de longo prazo de chuva para a região Sul de Minas Gerais, que é uma região relativamente heterogênea em termos de altitude, profundidade do solo e declive, mostrou-se adequada à proposta do presente estudo.

  6. Índice de cobertura vegetal pela cultura do milho no período de chuvas intensas no sul de Minas Gerais Plant cover index in the period of intensive rainfall for corn crop at south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

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    Fabiana Silva de Souza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura vegetal é a defesa natural do solo contra a erosão hídrica. Nos modelos de estimativas de perdas de solo, o efeito da cobertura vegetal na interceptação da energia cinética da chuva é a variável chave na modelagem do processo erosivo. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da cobertura vegetal, proporcionada pela cultura do milho, e suas relações com os atributos fitotécnicos desta cultura para alguns híbridos. O estudo foi realizado no campo demonstrativo de híbridos de milho da Universidade Federal de Lavras, localizada no município de Lavras, MG. Para determinação da cobertura vegetal utilizou-se um aparato que consiste em uma estrutura horizontal, contendo orifícios para visualização dos pontos com cobertura e sem cobertura vegetal, sendo as leituras feitas de forma aleatória e transversalmente às linhas da cultura. Os atributos fitotécnicos avaliados foram altura da planta, estande, matéria seca e produção de grãos. Diante dos resultados pode-se concluir que o maior índice de cobertura vegetal foi observado para os híbridos de milho P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, DKB 440, evidenciando boa qualidade como planta protetora do solo. No período de maior ocorrência de chuvas, na região sul de Minas Gerais, a cultura do milho pode minimizar o efeito do processo erosivo. A produção de matéria seca relacionou-se bem com o índice de cobertura vegetal, podendo ser um indicativo quanto à proteção do solo.The plant cover is a natural protection of soil against water erosion. In estimative models of soil loss, the effect of plant cover in the interception of rainfall kinetic energy is the key variable in the modeling of the erosive process. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of the plant cover provided by the corn crop and their relations with the phytotechnical attributes of this crop for its respective

  7. Chuva de sementes em fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica (São Paulo, SP, Brasil), sob diferentes situações de conectividade, estrutura florestal e proximidade da borda Seed rain in Atlantic forest fragments (São Paulo State, SP, Brazil) with different connectivity, forest structure and distance to edge

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia Regina Pivello; Daniela Petenon; Flávia Moraes de Jesus; Sérgio Tadeu Meirelles; Mariana Morais Vidal; Regina de Azevedo Soares Alonso; Geraldo Antônio Daher Corrêa Franco; Jean Paul Metzger

    2006-01-01

    A composição da chuva de sementes permite inferir sobre o desenvolvimento, o direcionamento sucessional e a regeneração de comunidades vegetais. Em paisagens fragmentadas, é grandemente influenciada pela conectividade entre fragmentos remanescentes e pela estrutura da vegetação. Foram comparadas as chuvas de sementes em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica (Caucaia do Alto, SP), em função de seus tamanhos, graus de conectividade na paisagem, situação de borda e interior, grau de perturbação e ca...

  8. Erosividade da chuva: sua distribuição e relação com as perdas de solo em Campinas (SP) Rainfall erosivity: its distribution and relationship with soil loss at Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Lombardi Neto; William Calvin Moldenhauer

    1992-01-01

    O potencial de erosão de uma chuva, representado pelo produto da energia cinética pela intensidade máxima em 30 minutos, foi calculado para chuvas individuais, para Campinas (SP). Durante um período de 22 anos (de 1954 a 1975), o índice de erosão médio anual computado foi de 6.738 MJ.mm/ha.h.ano, tendo os valores variado de 3.444 a 13.830. Foram estabelecidas as distribuições mensais e estacionais do índice de erosão. Os dados mostraram que 62% do potencial de erosão anual ocorre durante deze...

  9. Modelagem da ocorrência e da quantidade de chuva em Piracicaba Modeling of occurrence and rain amount in Piracicaba

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    F. Neto de Assis

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available É proposto um modelo para descrever chuva diária de Piracicaba-SP em termos da sua ocorrência e da quantidade. Ambos, a ocorrência de dias com e sem chuva, quando considerados como seqüências de 31 dias a partir de determinada data, puderam ser bem representadas pela distribuição binomial negativa truncada, com parâmetros ajustados a uma função periódica com dois harmônicos. A quantidade de chuva nos dias com chuva, foi adequadamente ajustada à distribuição gama com o seu parâmetro de forma (gama permanecendo constante mas o parâmetro de escala (beta apresentando variação periódica que pode ser descrita por uma função com dois harmônicos. A análise dos dados mostrou que as séries de chuva de 1917 a 1944 e de 1945 a 1989, resultantes da mudança dos postos de observação, são homogêneas.A model to describe the daily rainfall in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, is proposed to relate the ocurrence of rainy and rainless days, and in terms of their amount. Both, the occurrence of days without and with rain, in tems of their sequences of 31 days following a given date, can well be represented by the truncated negative binomial distribution function with its parameters adjusted to a periodic funtion with the first two harmonics. The amount of rain was well described by the gamma distribution; the shape parameter (gamma remaining constant but the scale parameter (beta had a periodic variation which could be represented by a periodic function with two harmonics. Analysis of the data shows that the rainfall series for Piracicaba (1917 to 1944 and 1945 to 1989 can be considered omogeneus, even though the weather station had been moved from its original location.

  10. Distribuição espacial da freqüência de chuvas na região hidrográfica do Atlântico, Leste de Minas Gerais Spacial distribution of the rainfall frequencies in the Atlântico hydrographic region, east of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Júlio C. F. de Melo Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, relacionado à segunda parte de um estudo abrangente da determinação de regiões homogêneas quanto a freqüência de chuvas no Leste do Estado de Minas Gerais, complementa a discussão em relação à distribuição geoespacial das regiões hidroclimaticamente homogêneas obtidas por meio da análise estatística multivariada. Neste trabalho, as variáveis fisiográficas: vegetação natural, orografia e direção do vento e os totais de chuva anual espacializados utilizando-se a técnica geoestatística de krigagem, são utilizadas com o intuito de interpretar a distribuição geoespacial dos grupos que representam as regiões com características homogêneas da freqüência de chuvas, na região hidrográfica em estudo. Em âmbito geral, o interpolador geoestatístico proporcionou boas estimativas dos totais de chuva média anual para a região estudada, exceto para as áreas nas quais a densidade de estações se apresentou reduzida. As variáveis fisiográficas e a superfície contínua de totais de chuva média anual justificaram a distribuição espacial dos grupos que representam as regiões hidroclimaticamente homogêneas, sendo que a orografia e as direções predominantes dos ventos a baixos níveis, mostraram ser influenciadores dos mecanismos formadores das chuvas de microescala meteorológica.A study of spacial analysis was carried out with the rainfalls frequencies for the areas of the Atlântico hydrographic region in the eastern part in the State of Minas Gerais. The physiographic variables, such as natural vegetation, topography and wind direction, as well as the total annual rainfall using the geoestatistic Kriging technique to interpret the geospatial distribution of the rainfall frequency groups that represented the areas with homogeneous characteristics. In general, the geostatistic interpolator provided a good estimate of the total annual average rainfall for the studied area, except for the areas where the

  11. Caracterização de padrões de chuvas ocorrentes em Santa Maria (RS

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    H. U. Mehl

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available As características da chuva de uma região podem determinar a maior parte dos efeitos danosos da erosão. A variação da intensidade durante a chuva é uma dessas importantes características. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre os padrões de chuva ocorrentes no Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os padrões das chuvas erosivas naturais verificadas em Santa Maria (RS, e estimar o período de retorno das chuvas em três padrões propostos. Pluviogramas diários foram cedidos pela Estação Central Experimental de Silvicultura e Conservação do Solo de Santa Maria, pertencente à Fepagro, compreendendo o período de 1963 a 1989 e 1991 a 1992. As chuvas foram classificadas em padrão avançado, intermediário e atrasado, de acordo com a posição do pico de máxima intensidade e, posteriormente, foi estimado o período de retorno das chuvas para cada padrão. Algumas características de interesse foram calculadas, como a intensidade média dos picos, duração das chuvas e dos picos com intensidade superior a 100 mm h-1. Das 1.193 chuvas erosivas individuais analisadas, os padrões, avançado, interme-diário e atrasado, corresponderam a 551, 295 e 347 chuvas, perfazendo 46,2; 24,7 e 29,1% do total de chuvas, respectivamente. Isso caracteriza o padrão avançado como o padrão de chuvas mais freqüente em Santa Maria. Das 79 chuvas com picos de intensidade superiores a 100 mm h-1, os padrões analisados (avançado, intermediário e atrasado corresponderam a 45, 18 e 16 chuvas, perfazendo 8,2; 6,1 e 4,6% do total de chuvas, respectivamente. A duração média das chuvas com picos de intensidade superiores a 100 mm h-1 foi de 8 h, e a duração dos picos foi de seis min. e 50 seg. Foram calculados os períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 e 100 anos para as durações estudadas e construídas curvas de intensidade, duração e freqüência para os padrões de chuva supracitados.

  12. Vulnerabilidade socioambiental, redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência: lições do terremoto no Haiti e das chuvas fortes na Região Serrana, Brasil Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre desastres no mundo apontam para uma maior gravidade nos países com menores níveis de desenvolvimento econômico e social. Neste contexto, políticas de redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência constituem prioridades na agenda do desenvolvimento sustentável, estando entre os temas eleitos para a Rio+20. O objetivo deste artigo é, através de uma contribuição de natureza conceitual e dos exemplos de desastres em países com níveis de desenvolvimento diferentes, o terremoto do Haiti e as chuvas fortes na Região Serrana (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, demonstrar como a vulnerabilidade socioambiental cria condições para os desastres, ao mesmo tempo em que limita as estratégias para prevenção e mitigação. Ao final são apontados alguns dos desafios que a redução de riscos de desastres e a construção da resiliência exigem em contextos de vulnerabilidade socioambiental, o que inclui mudanças nos padrões de desenvolvimento social, econômico e ambiental orientados para a sustentabilidade ecológica e a justiça social como pilares do desenvolvimento sustentável.Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio

  13. Kernel smoothing dos dados de chuva no Nordeste

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    Nyedja F. M. Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O regime de chuvas sobre o Nordeste do Brasil é bastante complexo, sendo considerado sazonal, além de sofrer fortes influências dos fenômenos El Niño, La Niña e outros sistemas meteorológicos, como o dipolo, atuantes sobre as bacias do oceano Atlântico Tropical. Neste trabalho foi aplicada a técnica matemática-computacional de interpolação do Kernel Smoothing nos dados de precipitação pluvial sobre o Nordeste, coletados no período de 1904 a 1998, provenientes de 2.283 estações meteorológicas. Os cálculos foram desenvolvidos por meio do software "Kernel", escrito em linguagem C e Cuda o que possibilitou fazer a interpolação de mais de 26 milhões de medidas de precipitação pluvial, permitindo gerar mapas de intensidade de chuva sobre toda a região e calcular estatísticas para a precipitação do Nordeste em escalas mensais e anuais. De acordo com as interpolações realizadas foi possível detectar, dentre o período estudado, os anos mais secos e mais chuvosos, a distribuição espacial das chuvas em cada mês, bem como a característica da precipitação pluviométrica em épocas de El Niño e La Niña.

  14. Análise de chuvas intensas a partir da desagregação das chuvas diárias de Lages e de Campos Novos (SC

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    C. O. Cardoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da magnitude das chuvas intensas é de fundamental importância para a elaboração de projetos hidráulicos e gerenciamento dos recursos hídricos em engenharia, além do dimensionamento de estruturas para o controle de erosão hídrica na conservação do solo. No entanto, informações sobre a intensidade da chuva só podem ser obtidas diretamente de pluviogramas, os quais nem sempre estão disponíveis no local de estudo, sendo mais comum a presença de dados de pluviômetro (chuva de "um dia". Nesse caso, pode-se utilizar o método que desagrega as chuvas diárias em chuvas de 24 horas de duração e menores, possibilitando, assim, estimar as intensidades correspondentes. O estudo foi desenvolvido na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC, em Lages (SC, durante o primeiro semestre de 1996. Utilizaram-se séries anuais de chuvas máximas de "um dia", obtidas de pluviômetros localizados em Lages e Campos Novos (SC, durante um período de 30 anos consecutivos (1966 a 1995. Aplicou-se a distribuição estatística de Gumbel para a obtenção das alturas de chuvas em períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50 e 100 anos e, a partir destas, o modelo de desagregação de chuvas diárias, obtendo-se as alturas máximas esperadas para tempos de duração entre 24 horas e 5 minutos e suas respectivas intensidades máximas médias. Foram obtidas as curvas intensidade-duração-freqüência (I-D-F para os tempos de retorno selecionados, bem como suas relações matemáticas. Para Lages, a equação da família de curvas I-D-F obtida foi: I = 2050TR0,20 (T + 29,41-0,89 e, para Campos Novos, a equação foi I = 2157TR0,17(T + 29,42 -0,89: , em que i é a intensidade máxima média (mm h-1,T a duração (minuto e TR o período de retorno (ano das chuvas.

  15. Distribuição das chuvas no município de Tangará da Serra, médio norte do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil = Rain distribution in Tangará da Serra, mid-northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Ademar Junior Coletti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pela grande importância em se conhecer a distribuição da precipitação pluviométrica no município de Tangará da Serra, Estado do Mato Grosso (lat. 14º37’55”S, long. 57º28’05”W e altitude de 488 m, por ser uma região de expressão agrícola, esse tipo de informação se torna indispensável para um planejamento adequado, uma maximização do potencial agrícola e uma otimização dos recursos hídricos. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade anual, mensal e decendial, quantificar o número de dias secos e chuvosos e a precipitação para diferentes níveis de probabilidade. Foram utilizados dados pluviométricos disponibilizados pela Ag��ncia Nacional de Águas (ANA, do período de janeiro de 1970 a dezembro de 2007, totalizando um histórico ininterrupto de 38 anos. O comportamento da precipitação em Tangará da Serra possui variações anuais e mensais, constituindo duas estações bem definidas, uma seca,de maio a setembro, e outra chuvosa, de outubro a abril. A variabilidade anual no período avaliado corresponde ao valor máximo de 2.861, mínimo de 1.404 e médio de 1.830 mm, respectivamente. A função gama incompleta expressa adequadamente a probabilidade deprecipitação em Tangará da Serra, e as médias mensais de precipitação apresentam-se entre 40 e 50% de probabilidade para os meses chuvosos e entre 30 a 40% para os meses sem chuva. Pelos resultados, esse tipo de pesquisa auxilia na elaboração de projetos de irrigação para o município de Tangará da Serra no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil.It is of great importance to know the rain distribution in the region of Tangará da Serra (latitude 14º37’55”S, longitude 57º28’05”W and altitude 488 m, as it is an agricultural region, which makes such information essential for an adequate planning, maximization of agricultural potential and optimization of hydric resources. Thus, this work was aimed at evaluating the annual

  16. Análise de modelos matemáticos aplicados ao estudo de chuvas intensas

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    C. R. Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa de chuvas intensas máximas é de grande importância para o dimensionamento de projetos agrícolas, tais como: terraços para controle de erosão, obras de barragens de terra e drenagem em solo agrícola. As chuvas são caracterizadas pela sua intensidade (mm h-1, pelo tempo de duração (min e pelo período de retorno (anos. O modelo básico tem sido usado para determinação da intensidade de precipitação máxima diária a ser aplicada no dimensionamento de estruturas de contenção, fixando-se o período de retorno e a duração da chuva. O tempo de concentração em bacias hidrográficas, que normalmente fica entre 60 e 120 min para bacias consideradas pequenas, tem sido usado como tempo de duração na estimativa de chuvas intensas. Nesse intervalo, existem outros modelos que propiciam melhores ajustes e, conseqüentemente, maior confiabilidade na estimativa da chuva a ser usada nos dimensionamentos de estruturas de contenção. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo ajustar dois outros modelos para a estimativa de chuvas intensas: um exponencial e um linear, além do modelo básico. Esses modelos foram ajustados com base em dados de precipitação máxima diária anual da região de Lavras (MG, empregando-se dados de chuvas diárias do período de 1914 a 1991. Os dados foram transformados em intensidades de precipitação, com tempo de retorno variando de 2 a 100 anos e duração entre 5 e 1.440 min. Verificou-se que o modelo exponencial proposto proporcionou melhores ajustes, com menores erros na estimativa, para chuvas variando de 5 a 240 min, sendo, portanto, recomendável a bacias em que o tempo de concentração se enquadre nesta faixa de tempo; o modelo básico mostrou-se mais aplicável a bacias em que o tempo de duração seja maior que 240 min, enquanto o modelo linear não se mostrou confiável para a estimativa de chuvas intensas.

  17. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  18. Uma análise do coeficiente de remoção de poluentes em função do espectro de gotas de chuva em diferentes localidades no Brasil e Alemanha An analysis of pollutant scavenging coefficient in function of drop size distributions from different localities in Germany and Brazil

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    Fábio Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollutant transference among reservoirs atmosphere-hydrosphere, relevant to the atmospheric chemistry, depends upon scavenging coefficient (Λ calculus, which depends on the raindrop size distribution as well as on the rainfall systems, both different to each locality. In this work, the Λ calculus will be evaluated to gas SO2 and particulate matter fine and coarse among five sites in Germany and two in Brazil. The results show three possible classifications in function of Λ, comparable to literature, however with a greater range due to the differences of rainfall system sites. This preliminary study supports future researches

  19. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

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    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  20. Phytochemical Screening And Analgesic Studies Of The Root Bark Of Hymenocardia Acida, Tul (Euphorbiaceae

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    Olotu N. Paul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work covers the phytochemical screening and Analgesic studies of the root bark of Hymenocardia acida, Tul, (Euphorbiaceae which is claimed by the Hausa in the Northern Nigeria to be used traditionally for the treatment of headache, chest-pain, rheumatic pain, toothache, ear pain, migraine and sickle cell crisis. The various phytochemical tests revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The result of analgesic activity of the extracts showed a significant and dose dependent analgesic activity when compared to the untreated control group at P<0.05. This justifies the use of the plant in ethnomedicine for the treatment of headache, chest pain, rheumatic pain, toothache, ear pain, migraine and sickle cell crisis.

  1. Momento da chuva após a aplicação e a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate aplicados em diferentes formulações Rainfastness and glyphosate and sulfosate efficacy using different formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da chuva sobre o desempenho dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate em diferentes formulações, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um no inverno de 2000 e outro no verão de 2001, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. Os experimentos foram instalados segundo o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, no arranjo fatorial de 4x5+1, ou seja, quatro tratamentos de herbicidas, cinco períodos sem chuva após a aplicação e uma testemunha, que não recebeu chuva. As formulações de glyphosate foram: SAqC (1,0 L ha-1, GrDA (0,5 kg ha-1, SAqC Transorb (0,75 L ha-1, mais o sulfosate SAqC (1,09 L ha¹. Os períodos sem chuva após a aplicação foram de 1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em pós-emergência das plantas daninhas, utilizando-se de um pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantida por ar comprimido de 30 lbf pol-2. A chuva foi simulada com um sistema de irrigação por aspersão. A lâmina de água variou entre 18 e 19 mm. Em ambas as épocas, a chuva simulada foi prejudicial à ação dos herbicidas, principalmente quando feita nos menores intervalos após a aplicação. Os sintomas de fitointoxicação apareceram mais rapidamente no verão. A formulação Transorb, comercializada como não sendo afetada pela chuva uma hora após a aplicação, não teve o desempenho esperado, tanto no inverno quanto no verão, para períodos de até seis horas sem chuva após a aplicação. O sulfosate apresentou o melhor controle geral das plantas avaliadas, quando se simulou chuva após seis horas, em ambas as épocas. A formulação GrDA foi a mais afetada pela ação da chuva em ambas as épocas.Two field assays were carried out to evaluate the rainfall effects on sulfosate and glyphosate herbicide activity, using different formulations, under two growing seasons (winter

  2. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

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    Paulo Eduardo Degrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete design with seven treatments and five replicates, consisting of: test without insecticide spraying, without insecticide spraying with rain, flonicamid spraying with simulate rain of 15 mm after 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours after spraying. Equivalent insecticide was sprayed 75 g of flonicamid by hectare. The efficiency evaluation was accomplished through the individuals of A. gossypii count which started from an artificial infestation 6 days before the application of the treatments. The results were: a 15-mm precipitation during the first four hours after flonicamid spraying interfered negatively in the control of A. gossypii.O cultivo do algodoeiro no Brasil concentra-se na Região do Cerrado, caracterizada por chuvas freqüentes que interferem na eficácia das pulverizações necessárias durante seu ciclo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar chuva simulada de 15 mm nas 4h iniciais após pulverização no controle de A. gossypii com inseticida flonicamid. Plantas de Gossypium hirsutum foram cultivadas em vasos contendo solo como substrato em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições, consistindo de: testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida, testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida com presença de chuva e pulverização de flonicamid com chuva simulada de 15 mm aos 30 min., 1, 2 e 4h após aplica

  3. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  4. Efeito da chuva ácida em aços inoxidáveis coloridos

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    Célia Regina de Oliveira Loureiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função da crescente demanda de utilização do aço inoxidável, na arquitetura, como material de revestimento externo e, considerando a preocupação dos órgãos de controle ambiental com a poluição no meio urbano, foram avaliados os efeitos da chuva ácida nas condições superficiais do aço inoxidável colorido e na lixiviação de cromo para o ambiente. Para esse estudo, foram realizados, em laboratório, ensaios de imersão de chapas de aço inoxidável colorido e natural em solução simulada de chuva ácida, sendo avaliados a liberação de cromo para a solução e a alteração da aparência superficial das amostras em tempos de exposição de 1, 3, 7, 14 e 28 dias. Nas amostras de aço inoxidável, com e sem coloração, foram medidos a cor e o brilho e, para soluções ácidas remanescentes, foram realizadas análises de cromo total e cromo hexavalente. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, independente do tempo de contato do aço inoxidável colorido com a solução de chuva ácida, houve preservação da aparência do material, sem alteração das condições superficiais, e o teor de cromo hexavalente na solução se apresentou em níveis muito inferiores aos estabelecidos pelo Conselho de Política Ambiental de Minas Gerais - COPAM.Considering the increase of stainless steel application for exteriors in architecture and governmental environment protection policies, the effect of acid rain exposure on the surface appearance and chromium release of colored stainless steel and uncolored substrate was investigated. Laboratory experiments were conducted by immersing stainless steel samples in an artificial acid rain solution for 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days exposure. The surface appearance of the samples was evaluated by color and brightness measurements and chromium release by chemical analysis of total and hexavalent chromium. The obtained results have shown that the surface appearance of the stainless steel was preserved and the

  5. Distribuição e potencial erosivo das chuvas no Estado do Tocantins

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    Marcelo Ribeiro Viola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os valores de erosividade e gerar os mapas da distribuição espaço-temporal das chuvas no Estado do Tocantins. Analisaram-se séries históricas pluviométricas de 97 postos pluviométricos, compreendendo o período de 1985 a 2009. A erosividade foi estimada por meio de equações nas quais a variável independente foi a precipitação média mensal ou o coeficiente de chuva de Fournier (Rc. A geoestatística foi aplicada para o mapeamento da erosividade tanto na escala mensal quanto na anual. A erosividade anual apresentou valores entre 6.599 e 14.000 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, com auge em dezembro, quando atingiu valores de até 2.800 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 por mês. De maio a setembro, a erosividade apresentou valores inferiores ao crítico, tido como 500 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 por mês. Foram identificadas três regiões prioritárias para ações de planejamento visando a conservação do solo e da água: região centro-oeste do Estado, nas imediações do Parque Estadual do Cantão, com maior erosividade anual; região norte do Estado, especialmente no primeiro trimestre; e região sudeste do Estado, no quarto trimestre.

  6. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM MODELO CHUVA-VAZÃO VIA TANK MODEL E CALIBRAÇÃO AUTOMÁTICA

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    Tatiane Souza Rodrigues Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Como a precipitação é um fator que afeta diretamente as estimativas de vazão, visou-se neste estudo, avaliar as vazões resultantes da execução de um modelo chuva-vazão baseado em “tanques”, e denominado Tank Model, para duas séries históricas de precipitação na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Manoel Alves da Natividade, no Estado de Tocantins. Os parâmetros do modelo foram determinados utilizando programação não-linear e evolucionária para intervalos temporais diferentes para as séries de dados (diário e mensal, para fins de comparação dos resultados. Os resultados evidenciaram que as resoluções simuladas para dados mensais se mostraram mais ajustadas às vazões observadas do que as resoluções para dados diários, apontando que vazões diárias não são indicadas para as estimativas de vazões pelo Tank Model. Os conjuntos de parâmetros estimados foram considerados satisfatórios, possibilitando alta eficiência de modelagem. Assim, o estudo pôde contribuir para a geração de séries de vazões sintéticas confiáveis, permitindo simular o comportamento de reservatórios para diversos cenários de uso da água, principalmente em regiões carentes de dados climatológicos representativos ou que apresentam falhas longas nos dados das séries de vazões, o que é muito comum no Brasil. ABSTRACT: As rainfall affects directly estimations of runoff, this study focused on runoff analysis resulting from the application of a rainfall-runoff model based on tanks - Tank Model. To this end two historical series of precipitation on Manoel Alves River Basin, State of Tocantins, Brazil, have been used. The model parameters were obtained by automatic calibration by using two different optimization methods (nonlinear programming and genetic algorithms as well as two different intervals for time series data (monthly and daily in order to compare the results. The results have shown that the simulated data for monthly

  7. Intensidade-duração-frequência de chuvas para o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Intensity-duration-frequency of rainfall for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenio G. Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de equações de chuvas intensas para o Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e a necessidade de maior segurança na elaboração de projetos e dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas, foram o alicerce para, com este estudo, se obtivessem e espacializassem as relações de intensidade, duração e frequência de precipitações para o Estado. Utilizou-se, então, da metodologia da desagregação da chuva de 24 h e se utilizaram dados pluviométricos consistidos de 109 estações disponíveis no banco de dados da Agência Nacional de Águas. As equações de chuvas intensas apresentaram bom ajuste, com coeficientes de determinação acima de 0,99 para todas as localidades estudadas. Os parâmetros ajustados apresentaram alta variabilidade resultando em grandes diferenças nos valores de precipitações intensas esperadas para as diferentes localidades. A espacialização permitiu boa visualização das diferenças evidenciando maiores intensidades esperadas na região centro-norte e as menores intensidades nas regiões sudeste e sudoeste do Estado. Os resultados demonstram a importância da obtenção da equação de intensidade-duração-frequência para cada localidade e sua utilização para a realização de estudos e projetos hidráulicos.Rain intensity data are necessary to increase security of hydraulic projects. The objective of this study was to determine the rain storm equations and the spatial distribution of rain intensity for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The equations were obtained by disaggregation of 24 h rain data from 109 pluviometric stations available in the National Water Agency (ANA data bank. These equations resulted in coefficients of determination above 0,99 for all localities. The adjusted parameters showed high variability, resulting from different rain intensities in different places of the State. The interpolation of data allowed good visualization of the differences, evidencing higher intensities of rains

  8. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  9. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  10. Evaluación de un inhibidor utilizado en soluciones acidas bajo condiciones hidrodinámicas controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas-Bravo, V. M.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cylindrical rotating electrode and electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the protection against corrosion of a commercial inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid solutions with and without additions of thiourea and ammonium bifluoride. The corrosion phenomenon was investigated under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. These were chosen to simulate those found in a pipe at different flow velocities. It was found that corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions with inhibitor is mainly controlled by activation, whereas in acid solutions with inhibitor added with thiourea and ammonium bifluoride it is mainly controlled by mass transfer. On the other hand, flow velocity of the acidic solutions affects negatively the efficiency of the inhibitor in the concentration range of 0.2 to 1.0 %.

    Utilizando el electrodo cilíndrico rotatorio y técnicas electroquímicas, se estudió la eficiencia de la protección contra la corrosión de un inhibidor comercial utilizado en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico con y sin adiciones de tiourea y bifluoruro de amonio. El fenómeno de la corrosión se investigó en condiciones hidrodinámicas controladas, seleccionadas para simular las que se establecen en una tubería a distintas velocidades de flujo. Se encontró que la corrosión del acero al carbono en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico con inhibidor de corrosión está controlada principalmente por activación, mientras que en soluciones acidas con inhibidor y adiciones de tiourea y bifluoruro de amonio está controlada principalmente por transferencia de masa. Por otra parte, la velocidad del flujo de las soluciones acidas afecta de -manera negativa a la eficiencia de protección del inhibidor estudiado en el intervalo de concentración de 0,2 a 1,0 %.

  11. Erosividade mensal e anual da chuva no Estado de Minas Gerais Monthly and annual rainfall erosivity for Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estimar e mapear a erosividade média (EI30 mensal e anual, analisar a distribuição espacial da precipitação, durante o período chuvoso, e identificar zonas similares quanto a EI30 no Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram levantadas séries históricas de precipitação diária de 248 estações climatológicas para estimativa do coeficiente de chuva de Fournier (Rc. Baseado na relação EI30 x Rc, verificada em algumas localidades do Estado, o índice EI30 mensal foi estimado para as 248 estações. A geoestatística foi aplicada no mapeamento dos dados. O Estado de Minas Gerais pôde ser dividido em três zonas, com erosividade anual variando de 5.000 a 12.000 MJ mm ha-1 ano-1 : erosividade média-alta, nas regiões central, nordeste e parte da Zona da Mata; alta, no Triângulo Mineiro (extremo da região, e parte do nordeste e sul do Estado; e muito alta, na maior parte do Triângulo Mineiro, Alto Paranaíba, noroeste e leste. A erosividade não apresentou relação com a latitude e longitude e foi influenciada por efeitos orográficos e características climáticas de cada região.This work aimed to map monthly and annual rainfall erosivity (EI30 mean, to analyze rainfall erosivity distribution, during rainfall season, and to identify rainfall erosivity zones in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Daily pluviometric data from 248 weather stations dispersed in the State were used to determine the Fournier´s rainfall coefficient (Rc. Based on the relation EI30 x Rc obtained for some locations, EI30 was calculated for each weather station. Geostatistical tools were applied to map EI30 and pluviometric data. Minas Gerais comprises three zones with annual rainfall erosivity varying from 5,000 to 12,000 MJ mm ha-1 year-1: medium-high erosivity, for central, northeastern and part of Zona da Mata; high, for Triângulo Mineiro (extreme of the region, and part of northeast and south of State; and very high, for most part of Tri

  12. Efeito da cobertura nas perdas de solo em um argissolo vermelho-amarelo utilizando simulador de chuva Effect of the cover on soil losses in a red-yellow podzolic soil under simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demétrius D. Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de cobertura do solo e da energia cinética decorrente de chuvas simuladas sobre as perdas de solo. O experimento consistiu de seis parcelas experimentais (4 m², as quais foram mantidas com coberturas de 0; 20; 40; 60; 80 e 100%, utilizando manta de Bidin, simulando condição de manejo de cultivo em contorno. Utilizou-se de simulador de chuva sobre Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com declividade média de 9,5%. Foram utilizadas as intensidades de precipitação de 60; 80; 100 e 120 mm h-1, associadas às durações de 68; 40; 24 e 14 minutos, resultando nos valores de energia cinética de 1.401; 1.122; 841 e 589 J m-2, respectivamente. Para cada uma das intensidades de precipitação, realizaram-se seis aplicações sucessivas, espaçadas de 12 h. Verificou-se diminuição acentuada nas perdas de solo com o aumento da porcentagem de cobertura do solo e que os maiores valores de perda de solo foram obtidos para as menores intensidades de precipitação, em virtude da maior duração da precipitação. Observou-se, também, que a cobertura do solo apresentou maior influência do que a intensidade de precipitação nas perdas de solo e que o potencial erosivo das chuvas intensas foi reduzido pelo aumento da cobertura do solo, passando o processo de erosão a ser dominado pelo efeito erosivo do escoamento superficial, o qual ocorre por maior período nas chuvas menos intensas, por apresentarem maior duração.The present work was carried out in the experimental area of the Agronomy Department of the Viçosa Federal University, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of soil cover and kinetic energy of rainfall on soil losses. The soil management used was the contour cropping, with six experimental units (4,0 m² with soil cover percentage of 0; 20; 40; 60; 80 and 100%. The tests were conducted with a rotative rainfall simulator and the soil in the experimental area was a Red-Yellow Podzolic

  13. CAPTAÇÃO DE ÁGUA DA CHUVA EM PROPRIEDADES RURAIS

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    MARTINS, Camila Aparecida da Silva

    2015-05-01

    objetivo deste trabalho foi abordar os principais aspectos da captação de água superficial das chuvas em propriedades rurais. Assim, conclui-se que a captação e o armazenamento da água oriunda da precipitação é uma forma de conscientização que ajuda a preservar esse recurso natural, utilizando-a de maneira racional, contribuindo para preservação da natureza, para redução de custos da propriedade e água com padrões mínimos de qualidade. Diversas práticas de cultivo associadas aos sistemas de captação de água das chuvas, são alternativas viáveis para uso no meio rural, quando se visa produção sustentável.

  14. Relações da rugosidade superficial do solo com o volume de chuva e com a estabilidade de agregados em água Relations of soil surface roughness with the rainfall volume and water aggregate stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2006-06-01

    -se inversamente com o volume das chuvas naturais. O decaimento máximo da rugosidade ao acaso relacionou-se inversamente com o DMP e com o DMG dos agregados estruturais.Soil surface roughness is, among other factors, affected by soil tillage, cumulative rainfall and aggregate stability in relation to destructive water action. The soil surface roughness of a soil classified as a Haplumbrept was evaluated in an area where a water erosion experiment under natural rainfall has been carried out over the course of 15 years in the South of the Planalto Catarinense, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The soil microrelief was characterized by the indices: roughness (RR, tortuosity (T and limiting elevation difference (LD and was measured in 2003 in a corn crop, and in 2004 in an oat crop (cumulative rainfall during the experimental periods was 229 and 350 mm, respectively. Moreover, water aggregate stability was evaluated and expressed by the mean weight diameter (DMP and mean geometric diameter (DMG of aggregates between the two crops, in 2004. The studied soil tillage system treatments were: plowing plus disking (PC, chisel plow plus disking (CM, and no-tillage (SD, both under corn and oat crops. One additional treatment used as reference consisted of bare soil tillage with plowing plus disking (SC. The surface roughness was evaluated five times under corn and four times under oat. The first evaluation was carried out immediately after soil tilling and the others every other week. The initial values of the RR, T, and LD indices were high and decreased with increasing rainfall on SC, PC AND CM treatments, while in the SD treatment the afore-mentioned indices were only high for oat and varied very little as the rainfall increased. The reduction in the random RR index was the highest in the BS treatment, while the lowest reduction occurred in the SD treatment. The values of all indices under study were reduced in comparison to that of the original microrelief condition, where the slope effects

  15. ESTIMATIVA DA EROSIVIDADE DE CHUVAS NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ PELO MÉTODO DA PLUVIOMETRIA: ATUALIZAÇÃO COM DADOS DE 1986 A 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Cesar Waltrick; Marco Aurélio de Mello Machado; Jeferson Dieckow; Dalziza de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Três estimativas de erosividade de chuvas no Estado do Paraná foram feitas nas décadas de 1980-90, mas nenhuma outra depois. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram atualizar, numa quarta estimativa, as informações de erosividade anual das chuvas para o Paraná, com dados pluviométricos de 1986 a 2008; e gerar informações de erosividade mensal para identificar a distribuição temporal da erosividade. Foram utilizados os métodos pluviográfico e pluviométrico de determinação de erosividade. O primeiro ...

  16. Relação chuva-perdas por erosão Relationship of rainfall - Erosion losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lombardi Neto

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Perdas de terra e água foram correlacionadas com um fator previamente calculado, que leva em conta a intensidade, a duração e a freqüência das chuvas. Os dados utilizados correspondem a um período de 16 anos e foram coletados no Centro Experimental de Campinas, em talhão experimental cultivado com algodão, continuadamente, em Latossolo Roxo, com declive de 9,9%. Foram estabelecidas relações anuais e mensais, como também procurou-se destacar as relações para o período de outubro a março. As perdas de terra e água apresentaram correlações altamente significativas com o fator chuva, para as combinações selecionadas.Soil and water losses data were correlated to a previously calculeted rainfall factor which includes rainfall characteristics like intensity, duration and frequency. Data used were recorded and accumulated for a 16 year period at the Centro Experimental de Campinas, from experimental plots planted to continuous cotton on a Latossolo Roxo soil with a 9.9% slope. Correlation studies were conducted between the calculated rfactor and annual and monthly soil and water losses; similar studies were also undertaken for the specific period spanning from October to March. High correlation indexes were found between soil and water losses data and the rainfall factor.

  17. Mapeamento de chuvas intensas no estado de Minas Gerais Mapping of heavy rainfalls in the state of Minas Gerais

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    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos associados a chuvas extremas são constituídos de eventos de interesse prático para a gestão dos recursos naturais, como manejo de bacias hidrográficas e conservação dos solos e da água. A distribuição espacial desses eventos possibilita inferir sobre áreas onde sua ocorrência é acentuada e desprovida de informações técnicas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram promover, a partir de dados pontuais de 177 estações meteorológicas e com a utilização de técnicas geoestatísticas, o mapeamento de chuvas intensas para o Estado de Minas Gerais e identificar as áreas mais vulneráveis no tocante à ocorrência dessas chuvas nesse Estado. Foi constatado que as maiores intensidades ocorrem nas regiões leste e noroeste de Minas Gerais, o que pode ser explicado pela maior influência da Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul, além de ocorrência de chuvas convectivas. Foi possível, também, constatar e mapear intensidades intermediárias nas regiões sul e central e os menores valores para as regiões norte e nordeste de Minas Gerais. Para maiores durações, verificou-se, para a região sul, ocorrência de altas intensidades, o que está associado à entrada com maior frequência de frentes frias, produzindo chuvas de longa duração.Studies of heavy rainfall are of practical interest for the conservation management of natural resources such as watersheds and soil and water. The spatial distribution of these natural rainfall events allows conclusions about regions where the occurrence of heavy rain is more frequent and to estimate their magnitude for locations without rainfall data sets. Thus, the purpose of this study was to map heavy rainfall data from 177 meteorological stations, using a geostatistical approach, for Minas Gerais, identifying the most vulnerable regions in terms of the occurrence of heavy rain. The highest values were estimated for the East and Northwest regions of the state, which can be explained by the

  18. Simulação do caminhamento da água da chuva e herbicidas em palhadas utilizadas em sistemas de plantio direto Simulation of rain wetting dynamics and herbicide movement in different straws used under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido no NuPAM/FCA/UNESP, Botucatu-SP, objetivando avaliar a dinâmica de retenção de água e o caminhamento de um traçante (simulando um herbicida em diferentes coberturas mortas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo monitoramento do traçante FD&C-1 pulverizado sobre coberturas mortas de cevada, trigo, aveia-preta colhida, aveia-preta rolada, azevém, milheto e capim-braquiária, nas quantidades de 3.000, 6.000 e 9.000 kg ha-1, antes e após simulação de chuvas. As repetições constituíram-se de oito conjuntos de PVC + funil + béquer com palha, onde, através da chuva lixiviada pelas palhadas e do peso dos suportes de PVC, foram estimadas a retenção e transposição da água, assim como quantificado o traçante extraído, através de procedimentos espectrofotométricos. Os diferentes tipos de resíduos culturais mostraram-se similares quanto à retenção da água da chuva, ocorrendo uniformização entre os primeiros 7,5 e 15 mm de precipitação. A formação de "pontos secos" associados a "canais preferenciais de escorrimento" induziu menor capacidade de embebição e retenção da água das chuvas pelas palhadas. As máximas capacidades médias de retenção da chuva pelas coberturas foram de 1,22, 1,99 e 2,59 mm para 3.000, 6.000 e 9.000 kg de matéria seca ha-1, respectivamente. As precipitações iniciais entre 10 e 20 mm foram fundamentais para o molhamento uniforme das palhadas e carregamento do traçante até o solo, independentemente do tipo e da quantidade de palha. Esse comportamento indica ser viável a utilização de programas similares de controle de plantas daninhas para diferentes tipos e quantidades de palha em sistemas de plantio direto.An experiment was conducted at NuPAM/FCA/UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil, to evaluate the dynamics of water retention and the path of a tracer (simulating a herbicide in different crop residues. The treatments were constituted by monitoring of the tracer FD

  19. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM MODELO CHUVA-VAZÃO VIA TANK MODEL E CALIBRAÇÃO AUTOMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Souza Rodrigues Pereira; Kamila Almeida dos Santos; Bruna Ferreira da Silva; Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga; Alexandre Kepler Soares

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO: Como a precipitação é um fator que afeta diretamente as estimativas de vazão, visou-se neste estudo, avaliar as vazões resultantes da execução de um modelo chuva-vazão baseado em “tanques”, e denominado Tank Model, para duas séries históricas de precipitação na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Manoel Alves da Natividade, no Estado de Tocantins. Os parâmetros do modelo foram determinados utilizando programação não-linear e evolucionária para intervalos temporais diferentes para as séries de ...

  20. Dados da Chuva Polínica no Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC), Piauí, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Augusto de Miranda Chaves

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC), que ocupa um total de 130.000 ha na região sudeste do Estado do Piauí. Durante quatro anos (1998 a 2001), foi coletada e analisada a chuva polínica local, visando caracterizá-la e também para melhorar nosso atual conhecimento da flora para um futuro monitoramento dessa vegetação do semiárido. Os resultados apontam para uma nítida dissociação entre as épocas de precipitação e a abundância de floração...

  1. ESCOAMENTO DA ÁGUA DA CHUVA PELO TRONCO DAS ÁRVORES EM UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Simões Lorenzon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação de Pesquisas, Treinamento e Educação Ambiental Mata do Paraíso, situada no Município de Viçosa, na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e teve como objetivo avaliar o escoamento pelo tronco em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2011. Para quantificar esse escoamento, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 10 x 10 m, sendo em cada parcela adaptados coletores à base de poliuretano nos troncos das árvores com circunferência 15,0 cm. Um pluviômetro foi instalado em local aberto para quantificar a água diretamente da chuva. Além disso, realizou-se uma análise qualitativa dos indivíduos do escoamento pelo troco, avaliando a qualidade do fuste e da copa, posição no estrato da floresta e infestação de cipó. Em todo o período de análises, foram realizadas 75 medições. Nas parcelas de escoamento pelo tronco foram amostrados 126 indivíduos, distribuídos em 29 famílias e 59 espécies. A precipitação em aberto foi de 2.391,63 mm, e o escoamento pelo tronco somou 31,59 mm, ou 1,32% da precipitação em aberto. A espécie com maior escoamento pelo tronco foi a Euterpe edulis, com um volume médio de água escoado de 637,00 L. Das espécies com maior escoamento pelo tronco, 73,91% encontravam-se no estrato inferior da floresta, evidenciando que algumas espécies possuem algum tipo de adaptação morfológica para captação da água da chuva.

  2. Sensor de orvalho/chuva aplicado à operação de telescópios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, J. C.; Neres, N. L.; Strauss, C.

    2003-08-01

    Foi desenvolvida uma estação meteorológica para o telescópio robótico Obelix do Observatório Abrahão de Moraes que inclui sensores de temperatura e umidade, além de um inédito sensor de orvalho e chuva que comanda o fechamento automático da cúpula caso haja perigo de condensação. Este sensor é composto de uma malha de segmentos metálicos próximos e detecta o aumento da condutividade do ar que precede a condensação. Esse método é mais confiável que o critério de 100% de umidade, que pode causar falsos alarmes devido a imprecisão dos sensores de umidade em geral e por não considerar a influência dos ventos que dificultam a condensação. O trabalho apresenta o método de construção desse sensor e os testes de avaliação. Sugere-se portanto a inclusão desse sensor nas estações meteorológicas dos telescópios do país.

  3. Efeitos de períodos de permanência de clomazone + hexazinona no solo e na palha de cana-de-açúcar antes da ocorrência de chuvas na eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas Effects of different periods of clomazone + hexazinona permanence in soil and sugarcane mulch before the occurrence of rain on weed control efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Carbonari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia da mistura formulada de clomazone e hexazinona aplicada sobre o solo e em associação com a palha de cana-de-açúcar, após diferentes períodos de permanência sem a ocorrência de chuvas. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, no município de Botucatu-SP. Os vasos foram preenchidos com solo, e as sementes de plantas daninhas (Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Euphorbia heterophylla foram semeadas superficialmente e, em seguida, cobertas ou não com palha de cana-de-açúcar, dependendo do tratamento utilizado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um esquema fatorial 3 x 6, sendo os fatores seis períodos sem ocorrência de chuvas (0, 3, 7, 15, 30 e 60 dias e três posicionamentos do produto (sobre o solo sem palha, sobre e sob a palha de cana. Foram realizadas avaliações de controle aos 10, 21, 35 e 42 dias após a ocorrência da chuva. A mistura de clomazone + hexazinona promoveu excelentes resultados de controle para todas as espécies estudadas quando aplicada sobre, sob ou na ausência de palha de cana-de-açúcar. No entanto, observou-se tendência de redução nos níveis de controle para períodos superiores a 60 dias sem ocorrência de chuva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the formulated mixture clomazone and hexazinone applied in soil or combined with sugarcane mulch, after different periods of permanence without the occurrence of rain. The experiment was carried out in vases under greenhouse conditions in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The weeds Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Euphorbia heterophylla were sown and covered or not with sugarcane mulch. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with four repetitions. The treatments were displaced in a 3x6

  4. Perda de água, solo e fósforo com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo sob plantio direto e com chuva simulada Water, soil and phosphorus loss after cattle slurry application to oxisol under no-tillage and simulated rainfall

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    Hélio Fumiaki Mori

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A região dos Campos Gerais do Paraná é importante produtora de leite em sistema confinado e, com isso, também geradora de dejeto líquido bovino. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar perdas de água, solo, P total, P solúvel e P particulado em chuva simulada, realizada imediatamente após a aplicação das doses de 0, 30, 60 e 90 m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido bovino, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo manejado em plantio direto, e inferir os eventuais impactos na qualidade da água. A aplicação de dejeto aumentou a taxa de perda de água por escoamento superficial em mais de 10 vezes, em todos os intervalos de 15 min da chuva durante duas horas. O maior incremento na perda total de água ocorreu com as doses 0 e 30 m³ ha-1. A partir da dose de 60 m³ ha-1, houve tendência de estabilização da perda de água. A taxa de perda de solo nos primeiros 15 min de chuva também aumentou com a aplicação de dejeto, repetindo-se, embora não de forma significativa, até o final da chuva. O maior incremento na perda de solo também ocorreu com a aplicação das doses de 0 e 30 m³ ha-1, seguido por estabilização com as doses maiores. Parte do material sólido perdido veio do próprio dejeto. A aplicação de dejeto, mesmo na dose de 30 m³ ha-1, elevou a concentração de P total, solúvel e particulado no escoamento para valores acima dos níveis críticos relacionados com a eutrofização, especialmente nos primeiros 15 min de chuva. Por aumentar a taxa de escoamento de água e a concentração de P no escoamento, o dejeto também aumentou a perda absoluta das três formas de P, com tendência de estabilização a partir de 60 m³ ha-1. A causa do aumento substancial tanto das taxas como da quantidade absoluta de perda de água, solo e P por escoamento foi possivelmente o selamento superficial do solo promovido pelo próprio dejeto e pelo fato de a chuva ter ocorrido imediatamente após a aplicação deste.Campos Gerais in the State of Paran

  5. CHUVA E PREVISÃO DE ÉPOCAS DE PULVERIZAÇÃO PARA CONTROLE DAS MANCHAS FOLIARES DO AMENDOIM

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    PEZZOPANE JOSÉ RICARDO MACEDO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados experimentos de campo, em Ribeirão Preto e Pindorama (SP, no ano agrícola de 1996/97, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso da chuva na previsão de épocas de pulverização para racionalizar o controle da mancha-preta e da mancha-castanha em amendoim. Cada experimento constituiu-se de cinco tratamentos, em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições, utilizando-se, em todos os experimentos, o cultivar Tatu. Os tratamentos empregados foram: (A testemunha, sem controle das doenças; (B quatro pulverizações em datas fixas, a cada 14 dias, com início aos 42 dias após a semeadura; indicação de pulverização após a ocorrência de dois (C, quatro (D ou seis (E dias com chuvas diárias >2,5 mm, consecutivos ou não, com monitoramento da chuva no período entre o 35o e o 90o dia após a semeadura. As pulverizações foram realizadas com chlorothalonil, na dosagem recomendada. Para avaliar o desempenho dos tratamentos, mediram-se: índice de severidade (I%, em amostragens semanais realizadas a partir do quarto decêndio após a semeadura, sendo a intensidade das doenças durante o ciclo estimada pela área sob a curva de progresso de cada doença (ASCPD, bem como sua soma (ASCPDT. Também se avaliaram os índices de produção: produtividade (kg.ha-1, rendimento em sementes (% e massa de 200 sementes. Segundo os resultados dos experimentos, os tratamentos com indicação de pulverização após a ocorrência de dois ou quatro dias com chuva >2,5 mm, revelaram dados semelhantes ao tratamento com pulverizações fixas, nos itens: intensidade de doença (ASCPDT e produtividade da cultura. O desempenho desses três tratamentos foi superior à testemunha e àquele com indicação de pulverização após a ocorrência de seis dias com chuva >2,5 mm. Devido à ocorrência de elevado número de dias com precipitação pluvial no período, foi possível, nos dois experimentos, apenas a redução de uma pulverização no tratamento D em rela

  6. Leaching of Picloram in ultisol under different rainfall volumes Lixiviação do Picloram em argissolo vermelho-amarelo submetido a diferentes volumes de chuva

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    E.C Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the leaching potential of Picloram in Ultisol columns under different rainfall amounts. For such, 30 treatments were evaluated (one soil associated with three levels of rainfall and ten depths.The experiments were arranged in a split-plot design, in a completely randomized design, with four replications. PVC columns of 10 cm in diameter and 50 cm in length were filled with these soils, moistened, and placed upright for 48 hours to drain the excess water. The herbicide was applied and rainfall simulations were carried out at specified intensities, according to the treatments, to force Picloram leaching. After 72 hours, all the columns were arranged in a horizontal position and opened lengthwise. Then, soil sampling was carried out every 5 cm of depth for subsequent herbicide extraction and quantification and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. The remaining soil samples were placed in plastic pots, and, at the respective depths, the indicator species Cucumis sativus was sown. Twenty-one days after the emergence (DAE of the indicator plants, evaluations were conducted to verify the symptoms of toxicity caused by Picloram in the plants. It was concluded that Picloram leaching is directly dependent on the volume of rain applied. The herbicide reached the deepest regions in the soil with the highest intensity of rain. The results obtained by bioassay were in agreement with those found by liquid chromatography.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial de lixiviação do Picloram em colunas preenchidas com Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, submetidas a diferentes volumes de chuva. Para isso, foram avaliados 30 tratamentos (um solo associado a três intensidades de chuva e dez profundidades. Utilizou-se o esquema de parcela subdividida em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A montagem do experimento consistiu em preencher com amostras do solo colunas de PVC de 10 cm de di

  7. Índices de erosividade da chuva, perdas de solo e fator erodibilidade para dois solos da região dos cerrados - primeira aproximação

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    J.J.G.S.M. Marques

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: testar a adequação de diferentes índices de erosividade das chuvas, comparar duas equações propostas para cálculo da energia cinética das chuvas e estimar o fator K (erodibilidade da equação universal de perdas de solo (EUPS para um latossolo vermelho-escuro (LE álico muito argiloso e um podzólico vermelho-amarelo (PV álico muito argiloso da região de Sete Lagoas (MG. Não houve diferença significativa entre as duas equações testadas para cálculo da energia cinética das chuvas. O índice EI30 mostrou ser um bom estimador da erosividade da chuva e pode continuar sendo utilizado como fator R (erosividade da EUPS para a região estudada. Os valores do fator K, para o LE e o PV da região de Sete Lagoas, foram, respectivamente, 0,002 e 0,033 t h (MJ mm-1.

  8. Krigagem e inverso do quadrado da distância para interpolação dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas

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    Mello C. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Em projetos de obras hidráulicas, é necessária a estimativa da chuva intensa adequada à realidade técnico-financeira dos projetos, para posterior cálculo de vazões máximas. O uso da equação de chuvas intensas é a forma mais usual para estimativa da chuva de projeto. No entanto, há dificuldade em obtê-la para locais desprovidos de dados pluviométricos, o que pode ser superado mediante técnicas computacionais para a espacialização dos seus parâmetros. Para isto, pode-se trabalhar com procedimentos estatísticos para interpolação dos parâmetros com base em estações meteorológicas vizinhas ao local. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, comparar os dois procedimentos estatísticos mais exatos, conforme já constatado em outras aplicações físicas, que são a krigagem (interpolador geoestatístico e o inverso do quadrado da distância, para interpolação dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas. Utilizaram-se 140 estações meteorológicas do estado de São Paulo, as quais dispõem da respectiva equação de chuvas intensas estimada com base em dados pluviométricos, consideradas como ideais. Destas, 126 foram utilizadas para estudo da dependência espacial dos parâmetros e 14 para comparação de erros nas estimativas da chuva intensa. Constatou-se que ambos os métodos apresentaram boa precisão, mas a krigagem produziu menores erros médios para 11 estações, verificando-se melhorias consideráveis em especial para tempos de retorno e tempos de duração da precipitação usuais em projetos em pequenas bacias hidrográficas, podendo-se sugerir este método como o mais adequado.

  9. Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Copao Fruit (Eulychnia acida Phil. Unswe Thee Environmental Conditions in the Coquimbo Region Características Químicas y Composición Nutricional de los Frutos de Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. Bajo tres Condiciones Ambientales de la Región de Coquimbo

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    Lilia Masson S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. is an endemic arborescent cactus restricted mainly to the semi-arid Coquimbo Region (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" W, Chile. The area of distribution is from sea level to 1200 m.a.s.l. The edible fruit called rumpa is generally round, with green or pink peel and small scales on its surface, showing wide variability in size and weight. The aim of this work was to characterize the rumpa harvested in January 2009 and 2010 in three sectors of Coquimbo Region to determine chemical and nutritional composition in three fractions: pulp with seeds, juice, and peel. The research showed that this fruit is a good natural source of mainly soluble dietary fiber, which has a jellied texture and is present in the three fractions analyzed: 2% for juice, 3% for pulp with seeds, and approximately 5% for peel, making it potentially a good source of hydrocolloids for the food industry. The fruit is also a good source of vitamin C; around 55 mg 100 g-1 in peel, and 30 mg 100 g-1 in pulp with seeds and juice, values considered high compared to 18 mg 100 g-1 for prickly pear (Opuntiaficus-indica [L.] Mill. The main minerals were: K, Mg, Ca, and P. Total polyphenols and betalain pigments were also determined in the pulp with seeds and pink peel fractions, respectively. The nutritional characteristics, together with its high water content of around 96%, make rumpa a promising raw material for agro-industrial development of natural juices or isotonic drinks. This characterization helps in the recovery of an endemic native species by reducing potential threats to destroy wild populations of E. acid, especially near agricultural areas, and by promoting habitat conservation of the species in the region.El copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. es un cactus arborescente endémico restringido principalmente a la región semi árida de Coquimbo (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" O, Chile. El área de distribución comprende desde el nivel del mar hasta los 1200 m de

  10. Intensidade-duração-frequência de chuvas para o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Intensity-duration-frequency of rainfall for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Glenio G. Santos; Cícero C. de Figueiredo; Luiz F. C. de Oliveira; Nori P. Griebeler

    2009-01-01

    A ausência de equações de chuvas intensas para o Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e a necessidade de maior segurança na elaboração de projetos e dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas, foram o alicerce para, com este estudo, se obtivessem e espacializassem as relações de intensidade, duração e frequência de precipitações para o Estado. Utilizou-se, então, da metodologia da desagregação da chuva de 24 h e se utilizaram dados pluviométricos consistidos de 109 estações disponíveis no banco de dados da...

  11. Influência da crosta superficial nas taxas de infiltração de água medidas com simulador de chuva e anéis concêntricos

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    R. Levien

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A taxa de infiltração de água no solo, conjuntamente com a taxa de chuva, determina a taxa de enxurrada, constituindo medida importante para a previsão de erosão e estudos de conservação do solo. Pode-se medir a taxa de infiltração por meio de um infiltrômetro de cilindros concêntricos (CC ou de um simulador de chuva (SC. A utilização do CC requer menos trabalho do que o SC, mas os resultados obtidos com o CC comumente estão em desacordo com as taxas de infiltração que ocorrem em situações de chuva natural, possivelmente por causa da formação de uma crosta superficial sob chuva. A formação dessa crosta procede tanto de fatores independentes do manejo do solo, como a intensidade da chuva e a textura do solo, quanto de fatores dependentes do manejo, principalmente a resistência ao cisalhamento e a cobertura vegetal. Em situações favoráveis à ocorrência de formação de crosta, espera-se que taxas de infiltração medidas com o CC superestimem as taxas reais durante uma chuva. Para verificar a correlação entre o manejo do solo e a razão das taxas de infiltração obtidas com CC e SC, essas taxas foram medidas por ambos os métodos em dois Podzólicos (Ultissolos da região sul do Brasil. Os tratamentos diferiram com a cobertura vegetal e com a existência de crosta superficial. Medidas da taxa de infiltração com SC foram realizadas com um simulador de chuva com bicos aspersores Veejet 80100, em parcelas de 3,5 x 11,0 m, gerando chuva de intensidade de 64,2 mm h-1, durante 100 a 150 minutos. As parcelas foram delimitadas com chapas de metal e a enxurrada foi coletada no lado inferior por três segundos a cada três minutos. O CC consistiu de dois cilindros (diâmetros de 0,30 e 0,60 m, cravados no solo até 0,10 m pouco antes da determinação com o SC. A área dentro dos anéis foi inundada e as taxas de infiltração foram registradas dentro do anel interior, em intervalos de tempo regulares, com três repeti

  12. Perdas de solo e água num Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico submetido a diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo sob chuva natural Water erosion caused by natural rainfall in a clayey Hapludox with different cropland tillage systems

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    J. F. Beutler

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A chuva e a enxurrada, combinadas, são os agentes ativos na erosão hídrica, a qual também é influenciada pela cobertura, rugosidade, tipo de cultura e sistema de preparo do solo. Os preparos de solo conservacionistas reduzem a erosão hídrica em relação aos preparos convencionais, visto que são menos intensos e mantêm o solo coberto por maior período de tempo e, às vezes, proporcionam aumento da rugosidade na superfície do solo. Para avaliar as perdas de solo e água causadas pela erosão hídrica sob chuva natural, realizou-se um experimento em Chapecó (SC, num Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico, com declividade média de 0,09 m m-1, entre 1994 e 1999. Estudaram-se os tratamentos: preparo convencional, cultivo mínimo, rotação de preparos e semeadura direta, executados no sentido paralelo ao declive, com duas repetições, com algumas combinações de rotação de culturas no inverno e no verão. O tratamento-testemunha constou de preparo de solo convencional, sem cultivo (parcela-padrão da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo - EUPS. A semeadura direta com rotação de culturas reduziu as perdas de solo em 45 % em relação ao preparo de solo convencional no verão e semeadura direta no inverno, com rotação de culturas e, em relação ao preparo de solo convencional sem cultura, esta redução foi de 99 %. Nos preparos de solo conservacionistas, as perdas de solo foram reduzidas em 80 % em relação aos preparos de solo convencionais, na média dos tratamentos que envolveram culturas e dos anos de cultivo. Nos tratamentos de semeadura direta, as perdas de solo foram duas vezes maiores na primavera/verão do que no outono/inverno, enquanto, nos demais tratamentos, essas perdas foram 3,3 vezes maiores no outono/inverno, na média dos tratamentos e dos anos de cultivo. As perdas de água foram pequenas e se comportaram de maneira semelhante às perdas de solo, diferindo quanto à magnitude.Rainfall and runoff together are the

  13. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada

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    Rosolem C. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2, sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare, aveia preta (Avena strigosa, triticale (Triticum secale, crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens foram cultivados em vasos com terra, em casa de vegetação, em Botucatu (SP. Aos 45 dias da emergência, as plantas foram cortadas na altura do colo, secas em estufa e submetidas a chuvas simuladas de 4,4, 8,7, 17,4, 34,9 e 69,8 mm, considerando uma quantidade de palha equivalente a 8,0 t ha-1. A máxima retenção de água pela palha corresponde a uma lâmina de até 3,0 mm, independentemente da espécie, praticamente não ocorrendo lixiviação do potássio com chuvas da ordem de 5 mm. A máxima liberação de K por unidade de chuva ocorre com lâminas de até 20 mm, decrescendo a partir deste ponto. A quantidade de K liberado da palha logo após o manejo depende da espécie vegetal, não ultrapassando, no entanto, 24 kg ha-1 com chuvas da ordem de 70 mm, apresentando correlação positiva com a concentração do nutriente no tecido vegetal. O triticale e a aveia são mais eficientes na ciclagem do potássio.

  14. Interações entre nuvens, chuvas e a biosfera na Amazônia Clouds, rain and biosphere interactions in Amazon

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    Maria Assunção Faus da Silva Dias

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma revisão dos resultados já obtidos no Projeto LBA, na componente de Física do Clima, referente ao efeito da interação entre a biosfera e a formação de nuvens e de chuva em diferentes estações do ano e regiões da Bacia Amazônica. O efeito do desmatamento e das queimadas na atmosfera é abordado assim como mecanismos atmosféricos que foram caracterizados a partir das diversas campanhas do projeto LBA. Uma visão da complexidade das interações e do progresso que tem sido feito com base nos dados colhidos é apresentada.A review of results obtained within the Physical Climate component of LBA with respect to the interaction between the biosphere and cloud and rain formation in the Amazon Basin, in different seasons and different regions within the Basin is presented. The deforestation effect and the effect of biomass burning are discussed and the physical processes highlighted based on the data collected in several LBA intensive field campaigns. The complex interactions and the progress in the understanding their evolution based on the new datasets is presented.

  15. Estudo da regeneração natural, banco de sementes e chuva de sementes na reserva genética florestal de Caçador, SC.

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    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Genética Florestal de Caçador, no Estado de Santa Catarina no período de agosto de 1995 a janeiro de 1996. Para o estudo da regeneração natural foram instaladas 10 parcelas de 250 m² (10m x 25m. No interior das mesmas foram coletados a camada de solo juntamente com a serapilheira em até 3cm de profundidade em 40 pontos amostrais de 0,5m x 0,5m para a análise do banco de sementes no solo, e instalados 20 coletores com área de 0,5 m x 0,5 m para a avaliação da chuva de sementes. Os resultados mostram que apesar da Araucaria angustifolia ser a espécie dominante no estrato superior da floresta não apresenta indivíduos na regeneração natural e a Mimosa scabrella foi a espécie arbórea mais importante presente no banco de sementes no solo. As relações entre os três parâmetros avaliados evidenciam uma distribuição irregular das espécies na área de estudo.

  16. ESTUDO DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL, BANCO DE SEMENTES E CHUVA DE SEMENTES NA RESERVA GENÉTICA FLORESTAL DE CAÇADOR, SC

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Genética Florestal de Caçador, no Estado de Santa Catarina no período de agosto de 1995 a janeiro de 1996. Para o estudo da regeneração natural foram instaladas 10 parcelas de 250 m² (10m x 25m. No interior das mesmas foram coletados a camada de solo juntamente com a serapilheira em até 3cm de profundidade em 40 pontos amostrais de 0,5m x 0,5m para a análise do banco de sementes no solo, e instalados 20 coletores com área de 0,5 m x 0,5 m para a avaliação da chuva de sementes. Os resultados mostram que apesar da Araucaria angustifolia ser a espécie dominante no estrato superior da floresta não apresenta indivíduos na regeneração natural e a Mimosa scabrella foi a espécie arbórea mais importante presente no banco de sementes no solo. As relações entre os três parâmetros avaliados evidenciam uma distribuição irregular das espécies na área de estudo.

  17. Análise de viabilidade técnica e econômica do uso de água de chuva em uma indústria metalmecânica na região metropolitana de Curitiba PR

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    Celimar Azambuja Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar a possibilidade de aproveitamento da água da chuva em uma indústria metalmecânica localizada no município de São José dos Pinhais, região metropolitana de Curitiba, considerando o volume de chuvas, necessidade da indústria, as características de qualidade da água de chuva da região, além de uma simulação da cobrança pelo uso da água e emissão dos seus efluentes lançados em um córrego próximo. Nesta avaliação, verificou-se que o aproveitamento da água de chuva pode ser viável devido ao comportamento hidrológico da região e a qualidade dessa água, verificada por ensaios de laboratório. Além disso, realizou-se uma simulação para estimar a provável economia ao se evitar o pagamento pela captação e emissão dos lançamentos nos corpos d’água da região, além do orçamento do reservatório proposto para o armazenamento da água de chuva.

  18. Análise da frequência e da intensidade das chuvas em Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, no período entre 1954 E 2001 - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.6957

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    Maysa de Lima Leite

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar uma avaliação da frequência e da intensidade da precipitação pluvial em Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, no período de 1954 a 2001, utilizando técnicas estatísticas de análise exploratória de dados com o auxílio dos softwares Microsoft Office Excel e Microcal Origin. A média dos totais anuais de precipitação para a série analisada foi de 1.546,2 mm, revelando tendência a aumentar com o passar dos anos. O mês com maior total médio de precipitação foi janeiro com o mês de agosto sendo o de menor total médio. Para todos os meses do ano foi observada assimetria positiva na distribuição de frequência dos dados, e nos meses mais secos essa tendência se mostrou mais acentuada. Em relação à intensidade de precipitação acumulada diariamente, os totais foram classificados como chuvisco, chuva fraca, chuva moderada, chuva forte e chuva extrema. O intervalo de precipitação predominante para a maioria dos meses foi o de chuva fraca, entre 2,5 e 10,0 mm.

  19. Observations of tropical rain with a polarimetric X-band radar: first results from the CHUVA campaign

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    M. Schneebeli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A polarimetric X-band radar has been deployed during one month (April 2011 for a field campaign in Fortaleza, Brazil, together with additional sensors like a Ka-band vertically pointing frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar and three laser disdrometers. The disdrometers as well as the FMCW radar are capable of measuring the rain drop size distributions (DSDs, hence making it possible to forward-model theoretical polarimetric X-band radar observables at the point where the instruments are located. This set-up allows to thoroughly test the accuracy of the X-band radar measurements as well as the algorithms that are used to correct the radar data for radome and rain attenuation. In the first campaign in Fortaleza it was found that radome attenuation dominantly affects the measurements. With an algorithm that is based on the self-consistency of the polarimetric observables, the radome induced reflectivity offset was estimated. Offset corrected measurements were then further corrected for rain attenuation with two different schemes. The performance of the post-processing steps is being analyzed by comparing the data with disdrometer-inferred polarimetric variables that were measured in a distance of 20 km to the radar.

  20. Erodibilidade, fatores cobertura e manejo e práticas conservacionistas em argissolo vermelho-amarelo, sob condições de chuva natural

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    Eliete Nazaré Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos de predição de perda de solo têm se tornado importantes ferramentas no planejamento conservacionista, sendo, para tanto, fundamental a estimativa local dos parâmetros que influenciam o processo erosivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a erodibilidade (fator K e os fatores manejo e cobertura (fator C e práticas conservacionistas de suporte (fator P da Equação Universal da Perda de Solo (USLE, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram avaliadas as perdas de solo (PS ocorridas em parcelas-padrão de Wischmeier, no período de 2006 a 2011, com seus respectivos índices de erosividade (EI30. Valores de erodibilidade foram calculados pelo quociente entre PS e EI30 das chuvas anuais (Ka e total no período (Kt e pelo coeficiente angular gerado pela análise de regressão linear entre esses mesmos parâmetros (Kci e Kct. Os fatores C e P foram estimados para a cultura do milho, durante três anos de cultivo em nível (MN. Os valores de Kt e Kct obtidos foram de 0,0090 e 0,0106 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, respectivamente. Os valores médios calculados para os fatores C e P são de 0,0070 Mg ha Mg-1 ha-1 e de 0,45, respectivamente, indicando redução de 55 % na perda de solo do MN, em relação ao MMA. Os valores dos fatores K, C e P encontrados podem ser usados como primeira aproximação para estudos de manejo e conservação do solo e da água na região.

  1. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem C. A.; Calonego J. C.; Foloni J. S. S.

    2003-01-01

    Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2), sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare), avei...

  2. COMPORTAMENTO ESTATÍSTICO DO GRAU DE ACIDEZ DAS CHUVAS NA CIDADE DE NATAL/RN PELA DISTRIBUIÇÃO GAUSSIANA

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    Daniel Pereira Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento do grau de acidez da precipitação pluviométrica torna-se relevante para as ciências de cunho ambiental, especialmente à Geografia, que busca entender os fenômenos provenientes da interação homem-atmosfera-paisagem. Assim, o artigo objetiva analisar o comportamento estatístico do grau de acidez das chuvas na cidade de Natal/RN. Para tanto, foram utilizados dados pluviométricos coletados na Estação Climatológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte/UFRN no período de 14/12/2005 a 25/08/2006, tendo como coordenadas geográficas: latitude 05°55' Sul e longitude de 35°12' Oeste, com uma altitude de 48,62 metros. Ao término de cada evento chuvoso, foi realizada a medição do pH da amostra utilizando um phgâmetro portátil de marca WTW modelo 330i com resolução de ± 0, 003, calibrado anteriormente a cada medição. Como método de análise fez-se uso da estatística descritiva (tendência central e dispersão e da estatística probabilística (Distribuição de Gauss. Os resultados mostraram que a concentração do pH da precipitação pluviométrica de Natal/RN, apresenta uma média de 5,914, com coeficiente de variação de 8%, encontra-se em níveis preocupantes, pois, a taxa de concentração está abaixo dos limites que segundo a Resolução do CONAMA 357/2005.

  3. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  4. Perdas de fósforo e potássio por erosão hídrica em um inceptisol sob chuva natural Phosphorus and potassium losses by water erosion in an inceptisol under natural rainfall

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    I. Bertol

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas inadequados de manejo do solo favorecem a erosão hídrica, perdas de nutrientes e poluição das águas superficiais, acelerando a degradação ambiental. As perdas de P e K por erosão hídrica foram avaliadas entre 1999 e 2001, em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico com 0,102 m m-1 de declividade, em Lages (SC, sob condições de chuva natural, em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo. Os tratamentos de preparo do solo foram: semeadura direta em seis anos (SDI6, semeadura direta em nove anos (SDI9, escarificação + gradagem em nove anos (E + G9 e aração + duas gradagens em nove anos (A + 2G9, cada um com duas parcelas experimentais, sendo uma parcela submetida à rotação das culturas de feijão, ervilhaca, milho e aveia e a outra, à sucessão de soja, trigo, soja e trigo, além de um tratamento-testemunha, constituído por aração + duas gradagens sem cultivo, em nove anos (SSC9. O P e o K foram determinados tanto na água quanto nos sedimentos da enxurrada. As concentrações dos dois elementos foram maiores nos sedimentos do que na água da enxurrada. Tanto na água quanto nos sedimentos da enxurrada, os preparos de solo conservacionistas proporcionaram maiores concentrações de P e K do que os preparos de solo convencionais. As perdas totais de K foram maiores na água do que nos sedimentos da enxurrada, com exceção do manejo SSC9. Com relação às perdas de P, apenas nos manejos SDI6 e SDI9 elas foram maiores na água do que nos sedimentos. No caso da água da enxurrada, as perdas totais de P foram maiores nos manejos SDI6 e SDI9, enquanto as de K variaram com os preparos conservacionistas e convencionais, sem apresentarem tendência clara. No caso do sedimento da enxurrada, as perdas totais de K foram menores nos preparos conservacionistas, mas as de P foram menores apenas nos manejos SDI6 e SDI9.Inadequate soil management systems can lead to water erosion, nutrient losses and superficial water pollution

  5. Dias trabalháveis para o manejo do solo em função da chuva e da disponibilidade hídrica do solo em diferentes regiões brasileiras

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    Leonardo Amaral Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de maquinário nos sistemas agrícolas está se tornando cada vez mais intensivo levando à compactação ou degradação dos solos quando o manejo desses é feito em condições inadequadas, o que vem contribuindo para o decréscimo das produtividades agrícolas. Com base nisso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi definir os períodos do ano mais apropriados para a realização das operações mecanizadas de preparo de solo em algumas localidades brasileiras onde a agricultura é atividade de relevante impacto econômico. Foram utilizados dados históricos diários de chuva e temperatura do ar das localidades de Piracicaba, SP, Passo Fundo, RS, Londrina, PR, e Dourados, MS. As condições eram consideradas favoráveis ao preparo do solo quando o dia apresentava chuva diária menor do que 5 mm e o armazenamento relativo de água do solo entre 40 e 90% da capacidade de água disponível, sendo este último determinado por meio do balanço hídrico sequencial diário empregando-se o modelo de Thornthwaite e Mather (1955, para uma capacidade de água disponível de 100 mm, valor representativo dos solos dessas regiões. A partir da cadeia de Markov foram calculadas as probabilidades condicionais, com as quais se determinou os dias consecutivos aptos às atividades mecanizadas em cada decêndio ao longo do ano, sendo, portanto, uma ferramenta importante para o planejamento dos períodos mais adequados ao emprego de máquinas para o preparo e manejo do solo. A variabilidade anual das chuvas e do armazenamento de água no solo permitiu identificar os períodos do ano com favorabilidades baixa, média e alta às operações com máquinas para o preparo e manejo do solo. Dentre as localidades analisadas houve predomínio do número médio de dias trabalháveis entre 11 e 20 dias na grande maioria dos meses, exceto para Londrina onde houve uma maior predominância de um baixo número de dias trabalháveis ao longo do ano, ou seja, com até 10 dias.

  6. Influência da chuva na eficiência de diquat no controle de Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes e Eichhornia crassipes Influence of rainfall on diquat efficiency in controlling Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes

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    G.S.F Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da ocorrência de chuva em diferentes períodos de tempo após a aplicação do herbicida diquat, em sua eficiência de controle sobre plantas de Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes e Eichhornia crassipes. Foram estudadas chuvas de 10 mm, aplicadas durante 5min, em diferentes períodos de tempo (0h, 0,25h, 0,5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h e não simulação de chuva após a aplicação de diquat, na formulação Reward, a 600 g i.a. ha-1 (2,5 L p.c. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram avaliadas visualmente aos 3, 5, 7 e 12 dias após a aplicação (DAA, sendo os resultados submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias dos tratamentos, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rainfall events at different time periods after application of diquat on the efficiency of this herbicide in controlling Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. Simulation of 10 mm rainfall applied during 5 min was studied at different time periods (0h, 0.25h, 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and no rain simulation after application of diquat in Reward formulation, 600 g a.i. ha-1 (2.5Lcp ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Plants were evaluated at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days after application (DAA, and the results submitted to analysis of variance by the F test and the treatment means compared by the Tukey test (p < 0.05. Diquat provided excellent control of all the species studied, regardless of the time period for rain occurrence after application, even when immediately after application.

  7. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

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    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  8. Potássio no solo em conseqüência da adubação sobre a palha de milheto e chuva simulada Soil potassium as affected by fertilization over the millet straw and simulated rain

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    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a lixiviação de potássio (K, no solo, e sua presença nas formas trocável e não trocável, em conseqüência da aplicação de chuva simulada e adubação potássica sobre palha de milheto, na superfície do solo. Vasos com terra e palha de milheto na superfície (quantidade equivalente a 8 t ha-1 receberam ou não adubação potássica, na dose de 150 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl, aplicados sobre a palha. Na seqüência, foram aplicadas lâminas de água de 0 a 50 mm. O solo foi analisado em diversas profundidades, quanto aos teores de K trocável e não trocável. A palha do milheto revelou-se fonte importante de K, que é lixiviado até 4 cm de profundidade por chuvas superiores a 30 mm. A lixiviação de K, em profundidade no solo, é proporcional à chuva aplicada; entretanto, uma chuva de 50 mm não carreia o nutriente para profundidades superiores a 8 cm. A passagem de K trocável para não trocável é rápida, conforme atestado pelo conteúdo de K não trocável na camada de solo abaixo de 4 cm.This research aimed to evaluate K leaching through the soil profile, and its presence in the exchangeable and nonexchangeable forms, as affected by simulated rain and potassic fertilizer applied over the pearl millet straw left on soil surface. Pots filled with soil and pearl millet straw (equivalent to 8 t ha-1 in the surface received or not 150 kg ha-1 of K2O, as KCl applied over the straw. Rainfalls from 0 to 50 mm were applied. The soil was analyzed at several depths for exchangeable and nonexchangeable K. Pearl millet straw acts as an important K source, which is leached down to 4 cm depth when subjected to a simulated 30-mm rain. K leaching is positively related to the amount of rain; however, a 50-mm rain does not lead the nutrient down to more than 8 cm depth. The transformation of exchangeable K to non exchangeable K is very fast, as shown by the contents of non exchangeable K in the soil

  9. Redistribuição das chuvas pelas copas de um povoamento de seringueira, José Bonifácio, SP. Rainwater redistribution under a rubber tree stand in the José Bonifacio county, SP.

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    Valdemir Antonio RODRIGUES

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida emum povoamento de seringueira, clone RRIM 600,com 15 anos de idade, município de JoséBonifácio, SP. A pesquisa avaliou a redistribuiçãodas chuvas no período de agosto de 1996 a julhode 1997 (ano hídrico 1996/97, por meio dequantificação das precipitações pluvial total,interna e efetiva; do escoamento pelo tronco; eestimativa da interceptação das chuvas pelas copasdo seringal. Foram instalados pluviômetros a céuaberto e sob o dossel das árvores e, nos troncos dasárvores, coletores de água. A precipitação médiaanual foi de 1.514,5 mm, a precipitação interna foide 1.065,7 mm e o escoamento pelo tronco, de107,7 mm. A interceptação das chuvas pelas copase a precipitação efetiva resultaram em 341,1 e1.173,4 mm, respectivamente; correspondendo a22,5% e 77,5% do total da precipitação no seringal.A proporção de água que chega ao solo através doescoamento pelo tronco na seringueira foi superioraos obtidos em estudos similares realizados naregião Sudeste do Brasil. Os menores e maioresvalores percentuais de interceptação ocorreram noperíodo de estiagem, enquanto no período chuvosoos valores foram intermediários. Os valores mínimosocorreram durante os meses do período deestiagem, durante os quais as árvores estãodesfolhadas, enquanto os maiores valores ocorreramlogo a seguir, quando as chuvas que ainda têmcaracterísticas do período de estiagem ocorreramsobre as árvores com a folhagem recomposta.This research was developed in a 15years old rubber-tree plantation (RRIM 600,located in the municipality of José Bonifácio,São Paulo State. The reasearch evaluate the rainredistribution between August 1996 and July 1997(water year 1996/1997. It was estimated the grossand net precipitation, the throughfall, the stemflowand the crown interception loss. Non-recordingrain gauges were installed at an open area andunder the rubber tree canopy. Stemflow collectorswere installed at the

  10. Perdas de elementos nutritivos pela erosão: I - Nitrogênio e suas relações com as quantidades existentes no solo e na água de chuva Plant nutrient losses caused by erosion: I. Nitrogen and its relationship to soil and rain water

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    F. da Costa Verdade

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar as perdas do elemento nitrogênio, ocasionadas pela erosão num solo tipo terra roxa misturada, em Campinas, utilizaram-se quatro talhões sujeitos a plantio e práticas culturais diferentes, mantidos pela Seção de Conservação do Solo, do Instituto Agronômico. As amostras da água de enxurrada e do material sólido arrastado de cada talhão eram retiradas de coletores especiais e as águas das chuvas que produziram enxurradas, dum pluviômetro mantido nesse campo experimental. Os resultados indicam que o nitrogênio nas formas nítrica e amoniacal, trazido pelas chuvas, só em parte 6 perdido pela erosão. Os ganhos em nitrogênio, pelo solo, compensam parcialmente as perdas dêsse elemento sob outras formas, ocasionadas pela água de enxurrada. Dependendo da prática conservacionista e do desenvolvimento das chuvas, o nitrogênio incorporado ao solo pode compensar as perdas ocasionadas pelo material sólido erosado. Nas práticas culturais mais comuns no Estado, porém, as perdas de nitrogênio no material arrastado são muito elevadas e não são recuperadas pelo nitrogênio trazido pelas chuvas. O tipo de cultivo e práticas culturais parecem não ter influência na composição da água de enxurrada. As relações entre a composição da chuva, de um lado, e a de enxurrada e material arrastado, de outro, não são muito claras. Para o nitrogênio amoniacal parece existir um equilíbrio entre as fases sólida e líquida das perdas por erosão, pois chuvas relativamente ricas nesse radical produziram enxurradas mais pobres, enquanto chuvas muito pobres deram enxurradas com teores mais elevados, isto é, os teores de Namoniacal eram relativamente constantes nas enxurradas, independentes dos teores existentes nas chuvas. Para os nitratos não existiu relação entre chuvas e enxurradas, sendo as variações talvez devidas às oscilações sofridas no fenômeno de nitrificação do solo.The economy of soil nitrogen in relation

  11. Volume de enxurrada e perda de solo em estradas florestais em condições de chuva natural Runoff volume and soil loss from forest roads under normal rainfall conditions

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    Alessandra Reis Garcia

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados o volume total de água escoada e a perda de solo através da produção de sedimentos provenientes de segmentos de estradas florestais em condições de chuva natural, com diferentes valores de precipitações. As inclinações dos segmentos de 1 e 7% foram analisadas, enquanto os comprimentos variaram de 20 e 40 m, com 4 m de largura. Os segmentos de estrada foram delimitados com tábuas de 0,30 m de largura, envolvidas em lona plástica, para sua impermeabilização. Os dados de volume e intensidade de precipitação diária foram obtidos com a instalação de pluviômetro e pluviógrafo no local. O período de coleta de dados foi de um ano, concentrando-se na época das chuvas. O volume de enxurrada foi mais afetado pelo comprimento do segmento, ao passo que a massa de solo sofreu maior influência da declividade. A massa de solo erosinado cresceu exponencialmente em função do incremento do volume de enxurrada.The total runoff volume and soil loss caused by the production of sediments derived from forest road segments under normal rainfall conditions were determined. Segment slopes from 1 and 7% were analyzed, with segment lengths ranging from 20 and 40 m and width of 4 m. The road segments were marked with 0.30 m wide boards, protected with a plastic, waterproof film. Rainfall volume and intensity data were daily obtained by means of pluviometers and pluviographs. Data collection period was one year, concentrated in the rainy season. Runoff volume was most affected by segment length while soil loss was most affected by steepness. Soil sediment mass increased exponentially in function of the increased runoff volume.

  12. Perdas de carbono e nitrogênio com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo muito argiloso sob plantio direto e chuva natural

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    Adriana Timofiecsyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O transporte de poluentes via escoamento superficial em áreas agrícolas, principalmente na forma solúvel, é considerado um problema ambiental, mesmo em sistemas conservacionistas de preparo do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de carbono orgânico e nitrogênio no escoamento superficial, com a aplicação de 0, 60, 120 e 180 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de dejeto líquido bovino, em Latossolo muito argiloso, com declividade de 10 %, sob plantio direto e chuva natural, na região de Castro - PR. A aplicação do dejeto líquido bovino não alterou o carbono orgânico total, porém diminuiu as perdas de amônio e nitrato até a dose de 120 m³ ha-1 ano-1, o que indica ser esta a dose máxima recomendada para solo muito argiloso, declive moderadamente ondulado, baixas precipitações e com no mínimo uma semana de intervalo entre a aplicação do dejeto e a ocorrência de chuvas. As concentrações médias ponderadas de amônio e nitrato no escoamento superficial aumentaram com a aplicação de dejeto. As concentrações de amônio estiveram muito acima do máximo permitido pela legislação brasileira, inclusive sem aplicação de dejeto, o que indica a necessidade de práticas que evitem a entrada do escoamento em corpos de água, mesmo em sistemas conservacionistas.

  13. Precipitação efetiva e interceptação da chuva em um fragmento florestal com diferentes estágios de regeneração

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    Alexandre Simões Lorenzon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a precipitação efetiva e a interceptação da chuva em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual em estágio inicial e avançado de regeneração no Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, no período de agosto de 2009 a fevereiro de 2011. Foram demarcadas seis parcelas, três na área de regeneração inicial e três na área de regeneração avançada. Para quantificar a precipitação interna e o escoamento pelo tronco, foram instalados 25 pluviômetros em cada parcela e coletores nas árvores com circunferência 15 cm. Além disso, um pluviômetro foi instalado em local aberto para quantificar a precipitação em aberto, que no período estudado foi igual a 1.509,96 mm. Em média, 85,08 e 74,93% da precipitação em aberto, respectivamente, no estágio inicial e avançado de regeneração, chegam ao solo via precipitação efetiva. A interceptação pelo dossel florestal foi maior na área avançada do que na área inicial de regeneração, correspondendo, respectivamente, a 25,07 e 14,92% da precipitação em aberto, o que sugere que áreas mais densamente povoadas interceptam maior quantidade de chuva e, consequentemente, geram menor precipitação efetiva.

  14. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  15. Carajathemis simone, new genus and species from Brazil (Odonata: Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B.M. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carajathemis simone n. gen., n.sp. from the state of Pará, Brazil, is described and illustrated based on 22 specimens collected in a "canga" (laterite lake within the forest at the Flona de Carajás, Parauapebas Municipality. The new libellulid genus fits in the subfamily Sympetrinae and the male keys out to Erythemis in Garrison et al. (2006. The new taxon has a combination of characters that makes it different from all genera of Sympetrinae including Erythemis. The species is remarkable by its large size, pleural striping and especially by the complex and strongly dimorphic leg armature. It seems to be restricted to shallow, rainfall-dependent, iron-rich lakes.Carajathemis simone n. gen., n. sp. do estado do Pará, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada com base em 22 espécimes coletados em uma lagoa de canga (laterita dentro da Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Município de Parauapebas. O novo gênero de libelulídeos enquadra-se na subfamília Sympetrinae e o macho na chave de Garrison et al. (2006 enquadra-se no gênero Erythemis. O novo gênero tem uma combinação de caracteres que o torna diferente de todos os gêneros de Sympetrinae, inclusive Erythemis. A espécie é notável por seu grande tamanho, pelas faixas pleurais e especialmente pela complexa e dimórfica armadura das pernas. A espécie parece restrita a lagos rasos dependentes de chuva e ricos em ferro.

  16. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  17. Rainfall effect on dissipation and movement of diuron and simazine in a vineyard soil Efeito da chuva na dissipação e movimentação de diuron e simazine em solo de vinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alister

    2010-01-01

    , chuvas naturais e chuvas naturais mais irrigação com 180 mm de chuva artificial durante os primeiros 90 dias após a aplicação. O coeficiente de partição no solo (Kd no perfil de solo (a uma profundidade de 0 a 90 cm foi de 2.04 mL g-1 e de 1,4 a 0,66 mL g-1, e a capacidade de adsorção máxima do solo foi de aproximadamente 18,3 mg g-1 e 8.3 mg g-1 para diuron e simazine respectivamente. O diuron e o simazine atingiram uma profundidade de até 90 e 120 cm no solo, com uma média de, respectivamente, 8,3% e 62,4% de movimentação do herbicida abaixo de 15 cm do solo. A meia-vida de simazine no solo (DT50 foi de 38,1 dias e 7,5 dias, enquanto a meia-vida para o diuron foi de 68,0 e 24,6, com chuva natural e irrigação respectivamente. A média de simazine residual remanescente em todo o perfil do solo após 90 DAA foi de 25,4%, e de 39,9% para o diuron, sem nenhum efeito de quantidade de chuva adicional. Em 340 DAA, a quantidade de simazine presente em todo o perfil do solo correspondeu a 13,2% da quantidade inicial aplicada, sendo o diuron mais persistente, com 21,5% do herbicida inicial aplicado. Pode-se atribuir a elevada movimentação no solo com ambos os herbicidas a um processo de não-equilíbrio de sorção, explicado por fluxo preferencial, baixo Kd e elevada dessorção.

  18. Erosão hídrica em um Nitossolo Háplico submetido a diferentes sistemas de manejo sob chuva simulada. II - Perdas de nutrientes e carbono orgânico Water erosion on an Hapludox submitted to different soil managements under simulated rainfall. II - Nutrient and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bertol

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a erosão hídrica, há o transporte de nutrientes para fora das lavouras e, com isso, pode ocorrer o empobrecimento dos solos e a contaminação do ambiente fora do local da erosão. Utilizando um simulador de chuvas de braços rotativos, foram aplicadas, no campo, três chuvas simuladas no cultivo do milho e três no de feijão, com intensidade constante de 64 mm h-1 e energia cinética de 0,2083 MJ ha-1 mm-1 , no Planalto Sul Catarinense, entre março de 2001 e abril de 2003, para avaliar as perdas de nutrientes e carbono orgânico (CO pela erosão hídrica sobre os seguintes tratamentos de manejo do solo, em duas repetições: solo sem cultivo com uma aração + duas gradagens (SSC; cultivos de milho e feijão com uma aração + duas gradagens sobre resíduos dessecados (PCO; cultivos de milho e feijão em semeadura direta sobre resíduos dessecados em solo previamente preparado (SDI; cultivos de milho e feijão em semeadura direta sobre resíduos dessecados em solo nunca preparado (SDD, cultivos de milho e feijão em semeadura direta sobre resíduos queimados em solo nunca preparado (SDQ; e solo sem cultivo com campo nativo melhorado (CNM. Utilizou-se um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico argiloso, com inclinação média do terreno de 0,165 m m-1. As concentrações dos nutrientes e do CO nos sedimentos transportados por erosão foram maiores nos preparos conservacionistas do que nos convencionais, enquanto as perdas totais comportaram-se de maneira inversa. Na água da enxurrada, as concentrações e as perdas de NH4+ e NO3- diminuíram do cultivo do milho para o do feijão, enquanto as de P aumentaram. No caso do K, ocorreu redução da concentração e aumento das perdas. As taxas de empobrecimento do solo situaram-se, em geral, próximas de um para os nutrientes e para o CO. As concentrações dos nutrientes e do CO nos sedimentos transportados correlacionaram-se, linear e positivamente, com a composição química da camada de 0

  19. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  20. Macroinvertebrates under stochastic hydrological disturbance in Cerrado streams of Central Brazil Macroivertebrados sob perturbações hidrológicas estocásticas em riachos de Cerrado do Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Cerrado vegetation, where the seasonal is well defined, rainfall has an important role in controlling the flow of streams and consequently on the structure of macroinvertebrates community. Despite the effects of rainfall associated with seasonality are well studied, little is known about the effects of stochastic rains on the community. In the present study we evaluated the structure and faunal composition of four first-order streams in Central Brazil during the dry season in two years, with and without stochastic rains. Community sampling was done by colonization of boards of high density polyethylene (HDPE, removed after one month submerged in streams. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA performed indicated no difference in rarefied richness between the two periods, different from numeric density of organisms that was higher in the period without disturbance; moreover, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed differences in faunal composition between the two periods. Our results indicate that stochastic rainfall is an important factor in structuring the macroinvertebrates community in studied region.No Cerrado, onde o regime pluviométrico é bem definido, as chuvas tem um importante papel no controle da vazão dos riachos e, por consequência, sobre a estruturação da fauna de macroinvertebrados. Apesar dos efeitos das chuvas associados à sazonalidade serem bem estudados, pouco se sabe a respeito dos efeitos de chuvas estocásticas sobre a comunidade. No presente estudo nós avaliamos a estrutura e a composição faunística de quatro riachos de primeira ordem no Brasil Central na estação seca em dois anos, com e sem chuvas estocásticas. A amostragem da comunidade foi feita através da colonização de placas de polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD, removidas após um mês submersas nos riachos. A Análise de Variância (ANOVA realizada não indicou diferença da riqueza rarefeita entre os dois períodos coletados, diferente da

  1. Análise da frequência e da intensidade das chuvas em Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, no período entre 1954 E 2001 = Analysis of the frequency and intensity of rain in the city of Ponta Grossa, Parana State in the period from 1954 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa de Lima Leite

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar uma avaliação da frequência e da intensidade da precipitação pluvial em Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, no período de 1954 a 2001, utilizando técnicas estatísticas de análise exploratória de dados com o auxílio dos softwares Microsoft Office Excel e Microcal Origin. A média dos totais anuais de precipitação para a série analisada foi de 1.546,2 mm, revelando tendência a aumentar com o passar dos anos. O mês com maior total médio de precipitação foi janeiro com o mês de agosto sendo o de menor total médio. Para todos os meses do ano foi observada assimetria positiva na distribuição de frequência dos dados, e nos meses mais secos essa tendência se mostrou mais acentuada. Em relação à intensidade de precipitação acumulada diariamente, os totais foramclassificados como chuvisco, chuva fraca, chuva moderada, chuva forte e chuva extrema. O intervalo de precipitação predominante para a maioria dos meses foi o de chuva fraca, entre 2,5 e 10,0 mm.This study aimed to conduct an assessment of the frequency and intensity of precipitation in Ponta Grossa, Parana State, for the period between 1954 and 2001, using statistical techniques of exploratory data analysis with the use of the Microsoft Office Excel and Microcal Origin software. The total annual precipitation average for the examined series was 1,546.2 mm, showing a tendency to increase over the years. The month with the highest precipitation average was January, and August was the one with the lowest average. For all months of the year, there was a positive asymmetry observed in the frequency distribution of data, and in the driest months, thistrend was more pronounced. With regard to the intensity of rainfall, daily totals were classified as drizzle, light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and extreme rain. The predominant range of precipitation for most months was light rain, between 2.5 and 10.0 mm.

  2. Relações entre precipitações intensas de diferentes durações para desagregação da chuva diária em Santa Catarina Relationships between intense rainfall of different durations for disaggregation of daily rainfall in Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J. Back

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se determinar as relações entre precipitações de diferentes durações para o Estado de Santa Catarina. Foram estabelecidas as séries de máximas anuais de chuva com duração de 5 a 1440 min de treze estações pluviográficas de Santa Catarina. Para cada duração foram estimadas as precipitações máximas com período de retorno de 2 a 100 anos, com base na distribuição de Gumbel-Chow. A relação média entre a chuva de 24 h e a chuva de um dia independe do período de retorno, com média para o estado de 1,17. Ao se analisar o horário da leitura da precipitação diária verificou-se que esta relação varia de 1,12 a 1,20. Em referência à chuva de 1 h em relação à chuva de 24 h observam-se valores significativamente inferiores aos normalmente usados.The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between rainfalls of different durations for the State of Santa Catarina. The series of annual maximum rainfall were defined with a duration of 5 to 1440 min of thirteen precipitation stations in Santa Catarina. For each duration maximum rainfall were estimated with a return period of 2 to 100 years, based on the Gumbel-Chow distribution. The relationship between the average rainfall of 24 h and one day rain does not depend on the return period, with an average of 1.17 for the State. When analyzing the time reading the daily precipitation it was messed that this ratio varies from 1.12 to 1.20. In relation to 1 h of rain over 24 h of rain it was observed values significantly lower than those normally used.

  3. Influência da soma térmica e da chuva durante o desenvolvimento de laranjas-'Valência' e 'Natal' na relação entre sólidos solúveis e acidez e no índice tecnológico do suco Influence of the accumulated heat unit and rainfall on the ratio and technological index of sweet oranges 'Valência' and 'Natal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLOVIS ALBERTO VOLPE

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a influência que algumas variáveis meteorológicas exercem na razão entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável ("ratio" e no índice tecnológico dos frutos da primeira florada das laranjeiras-'Natal' e 'Valência', na região de Bebedouro-SP, mediante a utilização de métodos estatísticos de regressão. Foram utilizados dados de amostragens de rotina para o processamento industrial durante 4 anos, os quais permitiram desenvolver equações de regressão linear e quadrática, com a soma térmica (graus-dia como variável independente, e de regressão múltipla, utilizando graus-dia e chuva como variáveis independentes. A equação de melhor ajuste para o índice tecnológico foi a quadrática, enquanto para o "ratio" a equação linear apresentou o melhor ajuste. A temperatura do ar, representada por graus-dia, foi a variável que exerceu maior influência nos indicadores de qualidade dos frutos.This study aimed to know the influence of some meteorological variables on the ratio and technological index for oranges provided from 'Natal' and 'Valencia' orchards, from field plots, located at Bebedouro - São Paulo - Brazil. The quality indicators, ratio and technological index, were obtained from routine processing plant tests. These parameters were related to the meteorological variables: degree-day and rainfall. In order to determine which independent variable had a stronger influence on the fruit quality indicators, single and multiple linear regressions analysis were applied. The results have shown that technological index is better described by a quadratic function, and ratio is better described by a linear regression, as function of independent variables. The statistical analysis have indicated that the air temperature, expressed by accumulated degree day, is the meteorological aspect that had greater influence in fruit quality indicators.

  4. Raindrop distribution in the Eastern Coast of Northeastern Brazil using disdrometer data Distribuição do tamanho de gotas de chuva para a Costa Leste do Nordeste do Brasil utilizando dados de disdrômetro

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Sarmento Tenório; Marcia Cristina da Silva Moraes; Byung Hyuk Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Usually a single literature-suggested Z-R relationship, where Z the radar reflectivity factor and R the rain rate, is used for weather radar data interpretation. It is desirable to calculate a Z-R relationship by precipitation type to improve the accuracy of quantitative rainfall rate in case of coexistence of different precipitation types, such as, in the area of precipitation produced from a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). In general, in the MCS trailing anvil, the stratiform precipitati...

  5. Atributos físicos, químicos e erosão entressulcos sob chuva simulada, em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Physics and chemical attributes and enter-rill erosion under simulated rain in no tillage and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane G. da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar as perdas de solo e água, nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional, e foi realizado no câmpus experimental da UFMS, em Dourados - MS, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no período compreendido entre outubro de 2001 e novembro de 2002. As estimativas das perdas de solo e de água foram feitas utilizando-se do infiltrômetro de aspersão InfiAsper/UFMS, regulado para aplicar chuva com intensidade de 60 mm h-1, correspondendo à energia cinética de aproximadamente 820 Jm-2. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: sucessão milho-pousio; sucessão milho-trigo; sucessão milho-nabo; sucessão milho-ervilhaca; sucessão milho-aveia, os quais foram avaliados nos sistemas de preparo convencional (PC e plantio direto (PD. Com os resultados obtidos, foram ajustadas equações de regressão, com as quais foi possível obter valores de perda de solo que variaram de 5,34 g m-2 na sucessão milho-aveia a 47,75 g m-2 na sucessão milho-nabo para o PC, e de 1,09 g m-2 na sucessão milho-trigo a 4,19 g m-2 na sucessão milho-ervilhaca para o PD. As perdas de água variaram de 0,00329 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-aveia a 0,00988 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-nabo, e de 0,00123 a 0,00663 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-pousio para o PC e para o PD, respectivamente.This work was developed in order to estimate the soil and water loss in no tillage and conventional systems. The work was carried out at Experimental Center of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS, in Dourados - MS - Brazil, in a soil classified as "Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico", in a period between October, 2001, and November, 2002. Soil and water loss estimations were done using a sprinkling infiltrometer InfiAsper/UFMS, adjusted to apply a rainfall of 60 mm h-1 of intensity, corresponding to kinetic energy of 820 Jm-2. The estimates were calculated in five treatments: corn-rest succession, corn-wheat succession, corn

  6. Study of the shallow convection over the Belem region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi Marinho Pires, Luciana; Suselj, Kay; Rossato, Luciana; Teixeira, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The largest forest of the world, the Amazon, presents an interesting and very complex system mixing forests, various topographies, sites of deforestation, cities, and regions close and far from the coast, which influence the climatology of the region. This study was focused in the region of Belem which is considered the rainiest region in the eastern Amazon with precipitation around 2000 mm/year. Belem is the capital of Para state, which is located in northern Brazil, 2,146 kilometers from Brasilia with an area of about 1,059,458 km² and a population of 1,432,844 inhabitants with 26% of the area of the Brazilian Amazon and having 49% of its natural attractions, according to the Organization of American States. Shallow convection and deep convection are among the main components of the local energy balance. An analysis of the performance of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory /NASA model of shallow convection parameterization in a framework of the single column model (SCM) in relation to the cluster of cumulus clouds formed in the coastal region of the Amazon forest due to squall lines is provided. To achieve this purpose infrared images from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), visible images from the GOES-12/METEOSAT satellites, and data obtained by the "Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)" - CHUVA - campaign, during the month of June of 2011, were used. Results demonstrated that the parameterizations performed well in the case where only a core of clouds was observed.

  7. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  8. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  9. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  10. Relação entre a precipitação do leste do Nordeste do Brasil e a temperatura dos oceanos Relationship between the rainfall of the eastern Northeast of Brazil and the ocean temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geber B. de A. Moura

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi correlacionar a precipitação (março a julho de um grupo de postos homogêneos do setor leste do Nordeste do Brasil (NEB com Anomalia de Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (ATSM e identificar áreas de influência deste parâmetro nas chuvas da região. O período de estudo foi de 1945 a 1985 e a análise mostrou influência do Atlântico e Pacífico sobre as chuvas do setor leste, sendo a correlação do Atlântico maior, principalmente na área do Dipolo (correlação maior que 0,6, significativa a p The objective of this work was to correlate the Northeast of Brazil (NEB rainfall grouped in one homogeneous cluster with the global sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The data covered the period from 1945 to 1985 and the analyses shows that there are influences from the Atlantic and Pacific ocean over the eastern NEB's rainfall, with a higher correlation for the Atlantic, especially in the Dipole area (correlation values greater than 0.6, and p < 0.05. The 1995 Servain and Arnault meridional (Atlantic Dipole and equatorial modes were detected during several lag analyses. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean in the region of El Niño-3 negative correlations were found, indicating the presence of the descendant branches of the Walker cell in the sector east of the NEB.

  11. Eficácia do herbicida glifosato-potássico submetido à chuva simulada após a aplicação Effects of rainfall on efficacy the potassium glyphosate in weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuir boa ação herbicida, alguns fatores afetam a eficácia do glifosato e, nesse contexto, realizaram-se estudos buscando formulações mais eficazes. O experimento foi instalado em área do Campus da FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP. Testou-se a formulação potássica de glifosato comparada com solução aquosa e grânulos dispersíveis em água à mesma dosagem (0,36 kg.ha-1 e.a em cinco intervalos (1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas sem chuva após a aplicação, comparados com uma testemunha sem uso de herbicidas. Foram aplicados em pós-emergência sobre Brachiaria plantaginea, B. decumbens e Digitaria horizontalis. A aplicação foi feita com pulverizador costal a CO2, à pressão de 2,5 kg.cm-2, munido de barra com seis bicos DG 110.02 e consumo de calda equivalente a 200 L.ha-1. Realizaram-se cinco avaliações de porcentagem de controle em relação à testemunha infestada, atribuídas visualmente, até 42 dias após aplicação. Notou-se que o controle da formulação potássica sobre as espécies avaliadas foi mais precoce, necessitando apenas quatro horas após sua aplicação para se igualar ao intervalo superior a 48 horas sem chuva. As demais necessitaram de, no mínimo, seis horas de intervalo.In spite of possessing good herbicidal action, some factors affect the effectiveness of the glyphosate and, in that context, studies were accomplished looking for more effective formulations. The experiment was installed in area of FCAV-UNESP Campus, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The potassium glyphosate formulation was compared to CS and WG formulations, at the same rate (0.36 kg.ha-1 a.e, in five intervals (1, 2 ,4 6 and 48 hours without rain after the application, compared to a control without herbicides. They were applied in post emergence on Brachiaria plantaginea, B. decumbens and Digitaria horizontalis. The herbicides were applied with costal sprayer, at a constant pressure (35 lbf/pol², with four nozzles DG 11002. The

  12. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  13. Análise temporal da relação entre leptospirose e ocorrência de inundações por chuvas no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonça Guimarães

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é examinar o efeito da média mensal de precipitações sobre o risco de leptospirose na cidade do Rio de Janeiro entre 2007 e 2012. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico analítico cuja variável de desfecho foi o número de casos de leptospirose por mês, e a variável independente foi a precipitação média mensal para as 32 estações de monitoramento por ano. Optou-se por modelar a relação entre os casos de leptospirose e o efeito da chuva através da construção de um modelo linear generalizado, utilizando a distribuição binomial negativa. A precipitação-lag mês mostrou ser um fator explicativo forte para o número de casos de leptospirose. Este estudo indica que a média mensal de precipitações pode se constituir em um indicador que permita a realização de ações visando a preparação do setor saúde para o provável aumento de casos desta doença. Cabe, portanto, a articulação entre o trabalho da vigilância epidemiológica, especialmente aquele feito pelas salas de situação em períodos de crise, e as instâncias de gestão de riscos da vigilância ambiental, para aumentar a capacidade de resposta a desastres naturais no município do Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Precipitação efetiva e interceptação das chuvas por floresta de Mata Atlântica em uma microbacia experimental em Cunha - São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcova Francisco Carlos Soriano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de pesquisa que quantificaram a precipitação efetiva e a interceptação das chuvas pelo dossel da floresta secundária de Mata Atlântica na "microbacia experimental B", do Laboratório de Hidrologia Florestal Walter Emmerich, em Cunha-SP. No período de um ano foram medidos a precipitação no aberto, a precipitação interna e o escoamento pelo tronco das árvores, totalizando 54 coletas. Um pluviômetro em área aberta e 16 no interior da floresta foram utilizados para quantificação dos dois primeiros processos, respectivamente. Para determinação do escoamento pelo tronco foram instalados dispositivos de espuma de poliuretano em 38 árvores. A água interceptada foi estimada pela diferença entre a precipitação no aberto e a precipitação efetiva. Concluiu-se que, em média, 18,6% da precipitação foi interceptada pela floresta, retornando à atmosfera na forma de vapor. Um montante de 81,2% alcançou o piso como precipitação interna e apenas 0,2% como escoamento pelo tronco. Os fluxos de precipitação interna e escoamento pelo tronco foram maiores no período caracterizado como chuvoso. Os porcentuais de interceptação foram superiores no período pouco chuvoso.

  15. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada Potassium leaching from green cover crop residues as affected by rainfall amount

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Rosolem; J.C. Calonego; J. S. S. Foloni

    2003-01-01

    Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2), sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare), avei...

  16. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  18. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  19. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  20. Influência da palha e da simulação de chuva sobre a eficácia da mistura formulada clomazone + hexazinone no controle de plantas daninhas em área de cana-crua Effect of sugarcane straw and rain simulation on the efficacy of clomazone + hexazinone in controlling weeds in raw sugarcane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Negrisoli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de palha e da simulação de chuva sobre a eficácia da mistura formulada clomazone + hexazinone no controle de plantas daninhas em área de cana-crua. Foi avaliado o controle de Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Euphorbia heterophylla. A dose do herbicida utilizada foi de 2,2 kg ha-1 de produto comercial, correspondendo a 880 e 220 g ha-1 dos ingredientes ativos clomazone e hexazinone, respectivamente. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1 semeadura + palha 5 t ha-1 + aplicação + chuva de 30 mm (1DAA; T2 semeadura + chuva de 30 mm + palha 5 t ha-1 + aplicação; T3 semeadura + aplicação + palha 5 t ha-1 ; T4 semeadura + palha 5 t ha-1 + chuva de 30 mm + aplicação (12h após; T5 semeadura + palha 5 t ha-1 + aplicação + chuva de 2,5 mm (logo após; T6 semeadura + aplicação + chuva de 30 mm; T7 testemunha sem palha; e T8 testemunha com 5 t ha-1 de palha, totalizando oito tratamentos com quatro repetições, dispostos no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados. Foram feitas avaliações visuais de controle aos 6, 13, 21, 27 e 35 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Para controle de B. decumbens, os melhores tratamentos foram aqueles nos quais o herbicida foi aplicado diretamente no solo, recebendo ou não uma camada de palha sobre o solo após a aplicação do herbicida, e quando foi aplicado sobre a camada de palha, recebendo uma chuva após a aplicação. Para a espécie E. heterophylla, os resultados foram bastante satisfatórios, proporcionando médias acima de 98% de controle, quando ocorreram precipitações posteriores à aplicação do herbicida. De modo geral, os tratamentos com a aplicação do herbicida, na ausência ou presença de palha, e posterior chuva apresentaram controle total da espécie I. hederifolia aos 35 DAA. Todos os tratamentos mostraram excelente controle para a espécie I. grandifolia.The experiment was conducted

  1. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  2. Influência de chuva simulada após aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência, sobre o controle de plantas daninhas, em solo com dois níveis de umidade Effects of rainfall on weed control in soil with two moisture levels, after herbicide applied in postemergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos L.R. Bastiani

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em 1995, em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da chuva após a aplicação de herbicidas, no controle de capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea L. e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., na cultura do milho (Zea mays L., em solo com dois níveis de umidade. Foram aplicados o nicosulfuron em duas formulações (SC e WDG e as misturas nicosulfuron + atrazine e atrazine + óleo, com intervalos de 0, 15, 30, 60 e 120 min entre a aplicação do herbicida e a ocorrência de 30 mm de chuva simulada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, dispostos em arranjo fatorial 5x5, sendo o primeiro fator constituído de herbicidas mais testemunha, e o segundo de cinco tempos para ocorrência de chuva. Os parâmetros estimados foram biomassa fresca, biomassa seca e altura de plantas (apenas para picão-preto. Após emergência das plântulas, o teor de umidade do solo foi mantido próximo à capacidade de campo (41,3% para um experimento e, umidade mantida de forma a submeter as plantas à condição de estresse hídrico (24,7% para o outro. A eficiência do nicosulfuron no controle de capim-marmelada foi maior com o aumento do intervalo sem chuva até 30 min após a aplicação do herbicida, para as plantas cultivadas em solo com elevada umidade. Em solo com baixa umidade, a eficiência do controle foi muito baixa, mesmo quando a chuva ocorreu 120 min após aplicação. O controle de picão-preto com nicosulfuron SC ou WDG foi muito baixo (Two experiments were conducted on a greenhouse, at Fitotecnia Department at University Federal of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, intending to evaluate simulated rain influence after herbicides application, on the control of Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa on corn (Zea mays crop, on soil with two moisture levels. Nicosulfuron on two formulations (SC and WDG

  3. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  4. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  5. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  6. Características da chuva e perdas por erosão sob diferentes práticas de manejo do solo Rainfall characteristics and erosion losses for different soil management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar as relações entre a erosividade da chuva e os padrões da precipitação com as perdas por erosão, para diferentes tipos de preparo do solo em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando-se parcelas experimentais de perda de solo com dimensões de 3,5 x 22,0 m, com os seguintes tratamentos: preparo convencional do solo em nível e semeadura de Mucuna Cinza (Mucuna pruriens, Crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, e Milho (Zea mays L.; preparo convencional do solo no sentido do declive e semeadura de milho no mesmo sentido e preparo convencional do solo no sentido do declive, mantido sem qualquer tipo de cobertura. Foi possível evidenciar que as perdas de solo foram mais influenciadas pelos diferentes tratamentos que as perdas de água; os tratamentos Crotalária e Milho morro abaixo, foram aqueles que apresentaram, respectivamente, as menores e maiores perdas de solo e água e, em média, os eventos de precipitação caracterizados como avançado, intermediário e atrasado, foram responsáveis por 62,6, 11,8 e 25,6% das perdas de água e por 35,1, 6,6 e 58,3% das perdas de solo, respectivamente.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the relation between erosivity index and the rainfall pattern associated with different kinds of soil preparation and cover with erosion losses in a Red Yellow Argisol. The experiment was conducted in five soil loss experimental plots of 3.5 x 22.0 m, with the following treatments: conventional tillage (plowing plus disking in contour lines and sowing the velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens, sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea and corn (Zea mays L.; conventional tillage (plowing plus disking in slope line and sowing of corn, conventional tillage (plowing plus disking in slope line and without soil cover. The results showed that soil loss was more affected by different treatments than water loss; the treatments sun hemp and corn sowed in slope line were those

  7. Interceptação das chuvas em um fragmento de floresta da Mata Atlântica na Bacia do Prata, Recife, PE Rainfall interception in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the Prata Basin, Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Einstein Spindola Saraiva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mata de Dois Irmãos é uma das poucas áreas remanescentes da Floresta Atlântica no Estado de Pernambuco. Nela estão inseridos os açudes do Meio, do Prata e Dois Irmãos que compõem a bacia hidrográfica do Prata. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a partição das chuvas em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica na Bacia do Prata em Recife, PE. Para obtenção dos dados de precipitação sob florestas, foram instalados 24 interceptômetros e selecionadas 20 árvores do estrato superior, e 10 árvores do sub-bosque foram escolhidas para obter os dados de escoamento pelo tronco. Encontraram-se perdas por interceptação de 208,3 mm, precipitação efetiva de 1.431,7 mm, precipitação interna de 1.392,4 mm, escoamento pelo tronco das árvores do estrato superior de 6,6 mm e escoamento pelo sub-bosque de 32,8 mm, correspondendo a 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% e 2%, respectivamente, do total precipitado de 1.464 mm.The Dois Irmãos forest is one of the few remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco. The dams of Meio, Prata and Dois Irmãos, which belong to the Prata Basin, are in it. The objective of this work was to study the rainfall partitioning in a fragment of the Atlantic forest in the Prata basin, in Recife, PE. 24 raingouges were installed in the interior of the forest to measure the throughfall and 20 trees of superior extract and 10 of the sub-forest were selected to determine the stemflow. The results showed values of loss interception of 208,3 mm, net precipitation of 1431,7 mm, throughfall of 1392,4 mm, stemflow by superior stratum of 6,6 mm and stemflow by sub-forest of 32,8 mm, corresponding to 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% and 2%, respectively.

  8. Produtividade da água de chuva em culturas de subsistência no Semiárido Pernambucano Rain water productivity in subsistence crops in the Semiarid of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza T. de L. Brito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Os diferentes sistemas de cultivo utilizados pelos agricultores do Semiárido brasileiro apresentam riscos de perdas devido às irregularidades das chuvas, sendo, portanto, necessário associá-los a práticas que propiciem maior disponibilidade de água no solo durante o ciclo de cultivo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação de quantidades mínimas de água e adubação orgânica na produtividade de feijãocaupi, cultivar BRS-Pujante e de milho, cultivar BRS-Caatingueiro. Os resultados indicam que as maiores produtividades de grãos foram obtidas com o tratamento que associou a irrigação de salvação com a adubação orgânica, sendo para o feijão-caupi de 1.422,5 kg ha-1, e para o milho, de 6.099,1 kg ha-1, seguido pelo tratamento que usou somente a adubação orgânica, para ambas as culturas. Porém, comparando-se o efeito da adubação orgânica aplicada de forma isolada sobre a testemunha, observa-se que ocorreram aumentos de 54,5% e de 237,3% nas produtividades de feijão e de milho, respectivamente, ressaltando a importância do uso da adubação orgânica nas culturas.The different crop systems used by farmers in the Brazilian semiarid show risk of loss due to the rainfall irregularity being therefore necessary to associate them to practices that provide higher availability of soil water during the cropping season. This study aimed to evaluate the application of minimal amounts of water and organic fertilization on yields of cowpea, BRS-Punjante cultivar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. and maize, BRS-Caatingueiro cultivar (Zea mays L.. The results indicate that the highest yield of grain were obtained with the treatment which involved the salvation irrigation with organic manure, the cowpea 1,422.5 kg ha-1 and the corn 6,099.1 kg ha-1, followed by treatments that used only organic fertilization for both species. However, comparing the effect of organic manure applied alone on the control experiment were observed increases

  9. Perdas de solo, água, nutrientes e carbono orgânico em Cambissolo e Latossolo sob chuva natural Soil, water, nutrients and organic carbon losses from inceptisol and Oxisol under natural rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é responsável por perdas de nutrientes e carbono dos solos agrícolas. A minimização das perdas de solo, água, nutrientes e carbono orgânico constitui importante aspecto do planejamento conservacionista. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar as perdas, por erosão hídrica, de solo, água, nutrientes e carbono orgânico em Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico (CXbd e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (LVdf. As coletas foram realizadas depois de cada evento de chuva considerada erosiva. As perdas médias anuais de solo foram de 205,65 Mg ha-1 para o CXbd e de 14,90 Mg ha-1 para o LVdf. As perdas médias anuais de água foram 369 mm para o CXbd e 113 mm para o LVdf, representando, respectivamente, 28,67% e 8,78% do total precipitado. Os atributos mineralógicos, químicos e físicos e o relevo de ocorrência desses solos explicam satisfatoriamente os resultados obtidos. O CXbd apresentou as maiores perdas de nutrientes e carbono orgânico. O carbono orgânico foi encontrado em maior quantidade no sedimento erodido, evidenciado pelo caráter seletivo da erosão.Water erosion is responsible for considerable losses of nutrients and organic carbon from agricultural soils. The reduction of soil, water, nutrients and organic carbon losses constitutes an important aspect of the conservation planning. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the soil, water, nutrients and organic carbon losses from a Typic Dystrochept (TD and a Rhodic Hapludox (RH. The samplings were performed after each considered erosive rain event. The mean annual soil losses were 205.65 Mg ha-1 for the TD and 14.90 Mg ha-1 for the RH. The mean annual water losses were 369 mm for the TD and 113 mm for the RH, representing 28.67% and 8.78% of the total precipitation, respectively. The mineralogical, chemical and physical attributes and the relief where these soils occur satisfactorily explain the obtained results. The TD presents higher

  10. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  11. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; L Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  12. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  13. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  14. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  15. A dinâmica atmosférica na vertente oriental da bacia do alto rio Paraná e a gênese das chuvas = The atmospheric dynamics on the eastern slope of the Paraná river basin and the genesis of rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Assunção Borsato

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O ritmo dos sistemas atmosféricos e a intensidade variam no tempo e noespaço. Por isso, para caracterizar a dinâmica climática de uma região é necessário estudar a dinâmica das massas de ar ao longo de uma série. Estudaram-se, por meio da dinâmica das massas de ar, a participação dos sistemas atmosféricos atuantes e as porcentagens das chuvas convectivas e frontais ao longo da vertente oriental da bacia do alto rio Paran��. Verificou-se que, nessa vertente, nos meses mais frios, predomina a atuação da massa tropical Atlântica e da polar Atlântica. Nos meses mais quentes, além de predominar a atuação dos sistemas de baixa pressão equatorial continental e tropical continental, têm-se as chuvas convectivas. Verificou-se, também, progressivo aumento na participação das chuvas convectivas, a partirda década de 1990, corroborando a teoria das mudanças climáticas.The rhythm and intensity of atmospheric systems vary intime and space. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamics of air masses over a temporal series in order to characterize the climate dynamics of a region or area. The participation of the active atmospheric systems and the percentage shared by convective andfrontal rains along the eastern slope of upper Paraná River were studied based on the dynamics of air masses. It was observed that, in such a slope, during the coldest months, the actions of the Atlantic tropical mass and polar Atlantic mass prevail. However, during thewarmer months, in addition to the predominance of the action of equatorial continental and tropical continental low atmospheric pressure systems, convective rains also take place. It was also noted that, from the 1990s onward, a progressive increase was observed in the participation of convective rains, strengthening the theory of climatic change.

  16. Interpolação dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas com uso do inverso de potências da distância Interpolation of parameters of intensity-duration-frequency equation using the inverse distance to a different powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Cecílio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As equações de chuvas intensas representam excelente alternativa para a determinação das precipitações críticas utilizadas em projetos de engenharia; contudo, a sua determinação é muito trabalhosa. No Brasil, entretanto, dispõe-se, em diversos Estados, de um expressivo número de equações, o que torna possível a obtenção, por interpolação, dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas para locais em que estes não são conhecidos. Neste trabalho compararam-se, considerando-se as informações disponíveis em 171 localidades do Estado de Minas Gerais, 625 diferentes combinações entre os quatro parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas ("K", "a", "b" e "c" interpolados com a utilização da metodologia do inverso da potência da distância, através de cinco diferentes potências. Percebeu-se, em todas as combinações, tendência de superestimativa da intensidade de precipitação. A interpolação de "K" e "c" com o inverso da quinta potência da distância, "a" com o inverso da distância e "b" com o inverso do cubo da distância, apresentou melhores resultados na estimativa da intensidade de precipitação.Intense precipitation equations represent an excellent alternative to determinate critical rainfalls used in engineering designs but its obtainment is time-consuming. However, in some Brazilian States a great number of these equations have been determined for several places, permitting to obtain the equation parameters, by interpolation, for the places where these still have not bean known. In this paper 625 different combinations were compared for the four intense precipitation parameters ("K", "a", "b" and "c" interpolated by the inverse distance to a power method (using five different powers. Data from 171 places located in Minas Gerais State were used. In all the combinations, a tendency of overestimation was noticed for the precipitation intensity. "K" and "c" parameters interpolated by the inverse distance to

  17. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  18. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  19. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  20. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  1. Eficácia de imazapic e sulfentrazone sobre Cyperus rotundus em diferentes condições de chuva e palha de cana-de-açúcar Efficacy of imazapic and sulfentrazone applied on Cyperus rotundus under different rain and sugarcane straw conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Simoni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de colheita de cana-de-açúcar sem queima prévia (cana-crua, a presença da palha afeta a germinação de plantas daninhas e a dinâmica dos herbicidas. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do sulfentrazone e imazapic, associado à palha de cana-de-açúcar, com chuva após a aplicação dos herbicidas, no controle de Cyperus rotundus. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 2 x 2, com quatro repetições, totalizando 144 parcelas. Os tratamentos foram conseqüência da combinação fatorial entre três níveis do fator palha de cana-de-açúcar (20, 10 t ha-1 e ausência de cobertura morta sobre o solo; três níveis do fator herbicida (sulfentrazone a 800 g ha-1, imazapic a 147 g ha-1 e ausência de herbicida; dois níveis do fator intensidade de chuva (10 e 20 mm; e dois níveis do fator épocas em que foram simuladas as chuvas após a aplicação dos herbicidas (24 e 168 horas. Avaliou-se o número de plantas por vaso, a massa seca da parte aérea e das estruturas do sistema subterrâneo e o número de tubérculos e bulbos sadios. Constatou-se que, no caso do herbicida sulfentrazone, a presença de 20 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar diminuiu-lhe a eficácia. O herbicida imazapic teve bom desempenho tanto na ausência quanto na presença de palha e causou redução das variáveis estudadas, independentemente da intensidade de chuva. A intensidade de chuva de 10 mm não foi suficiente para transpor o herbicida sulfentrazone na quantidade de 20 t ha-1 de palha. Já a intensidade de 20 mm foi suficiente para lixiviar o herbicida até mesmo na maior quantidade de palha. O herbicida sulfentrazone suportou mais a permanência na palha, pois apresentou melhor eficácia em relação ao imazapic, quando a chuva foi simulada 168 horas após a aplicação dos herbicidas.In the raw sugarcane harvest areas, straw affects weed germination and herbicide

  2. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications; Drenagens acidas do esteril piritoso da mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas: interpretacao e implicacoes ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author) 30 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Degrande; Roni Paulo Fortunato; Paulo Rogério Beltramin da Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete ...

  4. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  5. Brazil: public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  6. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  7. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  8. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  9. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  10. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  11. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  12. The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of reforestation in Brazil and makes an evaluation of federal government policies used to stimulate that activity. Despite the huge increase of reforestation areas in Brazil since the 1970s, what put up Brazil as the sixth large country with reforested areas, a scarcity of roundwood from reforested areas is happing in that country during the first decade of the 21st century. Federal government implemented three programs to foster the reforestation in Brazil d...

  13. Modelagem da proteção do solo por plantas de cobertura no sul de Minas Gerais = Modeling of soil protection by cover crops in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antonio França de Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é o fator de maior importância relativa no controle da erosão hídrica. Assim, objetivou-se no presente estudo elaborar a modelagem da cobertura vegetal de vinte e quatro plantas de cobertura, em diversos sistemas de plantio e históricos de uso, com potencial para cultivo no Sul de Minas Gerais. Para avaliação da cobertura vegetal foram realizadas avaliações no campo utilizando uma régua de classificação da cobertura vegetal, sendo o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, utilizado neste experimento. As plantas cultivadas sobre a palhada de feijãoirrigado apresentaram alto índice de cobertura do solo, o que pode estar relacionado à maior disponibilidade de nutrientes deixado por esta cultura na palhada e a maior reserva de água no solo, promovido pela irrigação do feijão. O milheto cultivado em nível e sobre a palhada de milheto e feijão-de-porco apresentou o menor índice de cobertura entre as plantas testadas. Na região sul de Minas Gerais os padrões de chuvas ocorrem em maior quantidade nos períodos de outubro a março, com elevação em dezembro e janeiro. Neste período o solo deve estar protegido do impacto da gota de chuva, pois o risco de erosão hídrica é maior. Assim, a utilização das plantas de cobertura é de grande importância, pois estas protegem o solo do impacto direto dasgotas de chuvas e diminuem os picos de temperatura do solo, sendo que estas devem ser cultivadas, preferencialmente, sobre a palhada de feijão.The ground cover is the most important factor relative to control erosion. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a model plant cover for 24 cover crops used in several cropping systems and historical use, with potential for cultivation in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. To evaluate the vegetation cover field assessments using the strip land cover classification. A completely randomized design with three replications was

  14. Islam in Brazil or the Islam of Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Peres de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Islam lived and practiced by Muslim communities in Brazil. It attempts to understand the identity that this religion is acquiring in the Brazilian religious field. It discusses the discrepancy between figures presented by the official census and Muslim sources and offers models to think about the emergence of Muslim communities and possible changes due to the entrance of "new Muslims" (converted Brazilians without Muslim origin. Based on empirical data, it discusses the difficulties found and strategies used by the communities. It suggests that Islam in Brazil is starting to put down roots and to have a profile of its own.

  15. Brazil: Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Ludeña; Maria Netto

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the implications of GHG emissions reduction targets in the Brazilian economy it is important to understand the sector composition of these emissions in Brazil. According to the 2010 Second National Communications of Brazil to the UNFCCC, in 2005, the majority of Brazil's emissions (87.2%) corresponded to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  16. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil

  17. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  18. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  19. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  20. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  1. Oral health policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  2. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  3. [Nuptiality among Brazil's black population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-08-01

    Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.

  4. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Angel

    1995-01-01

    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  5. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  6. The population question in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  7. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in... competitive factors in Brazil affecting U.S. and Brazilian agricultural sales in third country markets....

  8. [Progress on biodegradation of polylactic acid--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

    2008-02-01

    Polylactic acid is a high molecular-weight polyester made from renewable resources such as corn or starch. It is a promising biodegradable plastic due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. To achieve natural recycling of polylactic acid, relative microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in the biodegradation has become an important issue in biodegradable materials. Up to date, most isolated microbes capable of degrading polylactic acid belong to actinomycetes. Proteases secreted by these microorganisms are responsible for the degradation. However, subtle differences exist between these polylactic acid degrading enzymes and typical proteases with respect to substrate binding and catalysis. Amino acids relative to catalysis are postulated to be highly plastic allowing their catalytic hydrolysis of polylactic acid. In this paper we reviewed current studies on biodegradation of polylactic acid concerning its microbial, enzymatic reactions and the possible mechanisms. We also discussed the probability of biologically recycling PLA by applying highly efficient strains and enzymes. PMID:18438013

  9. Avaliação de barreiros e finalidade da água armazenada na região semi-árida da Bahia Evaluation of the water traps and stored water usage in the semi-arid region of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de B. Cavalcanti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fazer-se um levantamento do tipo e da quantidade de barreiros utilizados pelos pequenos agricultores das comunidades de Curaçá, Casa Nova e Jaguarari, municípios do Estado da Bahia, foi a meta principal deste trabalho, realizado no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999, em que os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pequenos agricultores utilizam algum tipo de barreiro para armazenar água de chuva. A água é utilizada para o consumo humano e animal.This study had the objective of making a survey about the type and amount of water traps used as rainwater catchment by small farmers of three communities located in the municipalities of Curaçá, Casa Nova and Jaguarari in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was carried out between January of 1998 and December of 1999. The results showed that small farmers use some form of tank for rainwater catchment. The water is used for human and animal consumption.

  10. Brazil, oil and statoil: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Linchausen, Harald Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed some light on what challenges Brazil faces concerning its oil reserves. It also considers Statoil’s situation and attempts to analyse the challenges both face. Hotelling’s rule and Dunning’s OLI framework are presented and used in order to complete this analysis. The thesis starts by looking at the history of petroleum in Brazil and Norway. Next, the theoretical framework is outlined. The challenges for both Brazil and Statoil are presented and anal...

  11. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  12. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  13. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  14. Brazil: Mechanisms of Direct Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bovo, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    In the structure of Brazilian Government, regarding both the executive as well as the executive powers, the increase in ways in which society can participate in decisions of public interest, stands out. Among the shared or participatory managerial policies implemented in Brazil, the following are noteworthy: the participatory budget, managerial councils, committees dealing with watersheds, thematic conferences, plebiscites, public meetings and referenda. However, if compared to the size of Br...

  15. State Government Bailouts in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilaqua, Afonso S.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the consolidation of democracy after the end of the military regime in the mid-1980s, Brazil has gone through a period of remarkable decentralization both in fiscal and political terms. The move towards decentralized management and control of public finances has been followed by a series of bailouts of state governments by the federal government. The lack of effective control on borrowing, coupled with reputational effects originating from these repeated bailout operations, red...

  16. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  17. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  18. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  19. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  20. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  1. Uso do alimento por duas espécies simpátricas de Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae em um riacho da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Food used by two sympatric species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae, in a stream of center-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffael M Tófoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avaliou sazonalmente a dieta de Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 e M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, coletadas em simpatria no riacho Cancela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Independente do período hidrológico, alimentos de origem alóctone predominaram na dieta de ambas as espécies (>50% do total de itens consumidos, sendo insetos terrestres o recurso principal, embora, para M. dichroura insetos aquáticos tenham contribuído na dieta também. Hymenoptera (Formicidae foi o alimento mais consumido, sendo ambas as espécies caracterizadas como insetívoras terrestres. A dieta restrita dessas espécies é confirmada pelos baixos valores de amplitude de nicho trófico: Ba=0,26 para M. dichroura em ambos os períodos e Ba=0,41 no período de seca e 0,38 no período de chuva, para M. sanctaefilomenae. A sobreposição alimentar foi elevada no período de chuva (Ojk=0,75 e apresentou valor intermediário no período de seca (Ojk=0,41, evidenciando maior partilha do alimento entre as espécies neste período.This study evaluated the seasonality in the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 and M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, sympatric species of the Cancela stream, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Regardless of the seasonal period, allochthonous food source predominated in the diet of both species (>50% of all items consumed and among these terrestrial insects were the dominant resource. However, aquatic insects were important in the diet of M. dichroura as well. Hymenoptera (Formicidae was the dominant item to both species, thus they were characterized as terrestrial insectivorous. The restricted diet of these species is confirmed by the trophic niche breadth, whose values were in general low: Ba=0.26 to M. dichroura in both periods and Ba=0.41 and 0.38 in the dry and rainy period, respectively, to M. sanctaefilomenae. The feeding overlap was high in the rainy period (Ojk=0.75 and intermediate in the dry period (Ojk=0.41, showing

  2. Perdas de carbono e nitrogênio com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo muito argiloso sob plantio direto e chuva natural Carbon and nitrogen losses with liquid catlle manure from a clayey oxissol under no-till and natural rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Timofiecsyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O transporte de poluentes via escoamento superficial em áreas agrícolas, principalmente na forma solúvel, é considerado um problema ambiental, mesmo em sistemas conservacionistas de preparo do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de carbono orgânico e nitrogênio no escoamento superficial, com a aplicação de 0, 60, 120 e 180 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de dejeto líquido bovino, em Latossolo muito argiloso, com declividade de 10 %, sob plantio direto e chuva natural, na região de Castro - PR. A aplicação do dejeto líquido bovino não alterou o carbono orgânico total, porém diminuiu as perdas de amônio e nitrato até a dose de 120 m³ ha-1 ano-1, o que indica ser esta a dose máxima recomendada para solo muito argiloso, declive moderadamente ondulado, baixas precipitações e com no mínimo uma semana de intervalo entre a aplicação do dejeto e a ocorrência de chuvas. As concentrações médias ponderadas de amônio e nitrato no escoamento superficial aumentaram com a aplicação de dejeto. As concentrações de amônio estiveram muito acima do máximo permitido pela legislação brasileira, inclusive sem aplicação de dejeto, o que indica a necessidade de práticas que evitem a entrada do escoamento em corpos de água, mesmo em sistemas conservacionistas.The transport of pollutants via runoff in agricultural areas, mainly in soluble forms, is an environmental problem, even in conservation tillage systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses of nitrogen and organic carbon in runoff, after applications of 0, 60, 120, and 180 m³ ha-1 yr-1 of cattle slurry to a clayey Oxisol, with 10 % slope under no-tillage and natural rainfall, in the region of Castro - PR. The application of cattle slurry did not affect total organic carbon in runoff but ammonium and nitrate losses were reduced by the fertilization with 120 m³ ha-1 yr-1 of slurry, indicating this as the maximum dose recommended for soils with a high clay

  3. Seasonality of insects in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil Sazonalidade de insetos na Caatinga do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are essential to tropical ecosystems functioning. In semi-arid regions, the increase in abundance and/or activity (e.g. reproduction and foraging behavior of insects is usually associated with climatic variables. The present study investigates which climatic variables are best predictors of insect abundance in an area of Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. Individuals were sampled for 24 months using Malaise and pitfall traps, and beating trays. A total of 58925 individuals belonging to 20 insect orders were collected. The most abundant orders were Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola and Coleoptera. Most orders studied showed a clear maximum abundance in the rainy season. Rainfall and humidity were the best predictors of insect abundance in the Caatinga. However, no climatic variable could explain Psocoptera and Blattodea variance in abundance/activity. Our results suggest that climatic changes associated with rainfall patterns in the Caatinga may affect ecosystem processes and services that depend direct or indirectly on insect abundance/activity.Os insetos são abundantes e essenciais para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas terrestres tropicais. No entanto, a abundância e/ou atividade (e.g. reprodução ou forrageio destes organismos podem ser fortemente influenciadas pelas variáveis climáticas. Este estudo examina quais as variáveis climáticas podem atuar como preditoras da abundância e/ou atividade dos insetos em uma área de Caatinga do Nordeste brasileiro. Ao longo de 24 meses, os insetos foram coletados mensalmente utilizando armadilhas Malaise, armadilhas tipo "pitfall" e guarda-chuva entomológico. Um total de 58925 indivíduos de 20 ordens foi coletado. As ordens mais abundantes foram Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola e Coleoptera. Entre as doze ordens mais abundantes, dez apresentaram os seus maiores picos durante a estação chuvosa. A precipitação e a umidade relativa foram os principais preditores dos padrões de abund

  4. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  5. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  6. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  7. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  8. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  9. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  10. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  11. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  12. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  13. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  14. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequ...

  15. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  16. Sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae survey in an urban transmission area of visceral leishmaniasis, Northeastern Brazil Pesquisa de flebotomíneos (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae em área urbana de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health challenge in Brazil, especially in states where it is endemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of sand fly population density with environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity in urban areas of the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. Sand flies were captured with Center Disease Control (CDC traps installed monthly in the intra and peridomicile of three houses. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 7,347 sand flies were captured, being 93.85% Lutzomyia longipalpis and 6.15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Sand flies were more commonly found in the peridomicile and there was no difference between the number of males and females. The variables rainy season as well as relative humidity and rainfall, alone or together, did not have an effect on sand fly population density. However, high temperatures had a negative effect. The study of the behavior of sand flies in specific units of endemic areas can provide input to public health authorities for planning appropriate VL vector control measures.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é um grande desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil, particularmente nos estados onde é endêmica. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação da densidade populacional de flebotomíneos com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura, precipitação de chuva e umidade relativa do ar em bairros urbanos de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados com armadilhas CDC instaladas mensalmente no intra e peridomicílio de três casas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e na regressão linear. Foram capturados 7.347 flebotomíneos, sendo 93,85% Lutzomyia longipalpis e 6,15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Os flebotomíneos foram encontrados mais comumente no peridomicílio e nenhuma diferença significativa entre o número de machos e fêmeas foi

  17. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  18. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  19. Lymnaea columella in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a mollusc of the family Lymnaeidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil north of parallel 15ºS, as a result of the finding of Lymnaea columella in Manus and Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas. A description is given of its shell, renal organ, genital system and radula, pointing to the morphological characteristics of diagnostic value to separate it from two other species previously studied by the author, Lymnaea viatrix and L. rupestris, which also occur in Brazil.Pela primeira vez é verificada a ocorrência de um molusco da família Lymnaeidae ao norte do paralelo 15ºS no Brasil, como resultado do encontro da lYmnaea columella em Manus e Benjamin Constant, Estado do Amazonas. É apresentada uma descrição da concha, do órgão renal, do sistema genital e da rádula, sendo indicados os caracteres morfológicos que permitem distinguir a Lymnaea columella de outras espécies que também ocorrem no Brasil, previamente estudadas pelo autor, L. viatrix e L. rupestris.

  20. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  1. [Women and development in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha Neves, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the social, political and cultural status of women in Brazil. In 1976 only 29.6% of Brazilian women participated in economic activities; 54.3% of these were still employed as laborers in the countryside, while only 6% were employed in urban and industrial jobs. The greatest concentration of female labor is in the category of the very badly paid domestic employment. Man is traditionally the head of the family, even when he is not the breadwinner. Illiteracy has decreased in Brazil to 24.3%, but female analphabetism is 26.5% versus 21.9% male analphabetism. Schools are open to males and females at all levels, but the traditional and cultural structure of Brazilian society considers the home, not the school, as the only proper place for young girls, and maternity is still the primary social function of women. Politically Brazilian women have very little power, even if they make up 44% of the electoral body. Sex education does not exist in the school or in the home, and any sexuality exercised outside the bonds of marriage is considered as deviant.

  2. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months.

  3. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  4. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  5. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  6. Physical, chemical and microbiological aspects during the dry and rainy seasons in a pond covered by macrophyte used in aquaculture water supply Aspectos físico-químicos e microbiológicos nas estações de seca e chuva em viveiro coberto por macrófitas usado no abastecimento de água para aquicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Generoso Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The water quality of a pond covered by macrophytes and used as a water supply for aquaculture was evaluated during the dry and rainy seasons; METHODS: Six points were established for water sampling, at water inflow and outflow. Samplings were carried out monthly between June 2008 and May 2009; RESULTS: Inflow points P1, P2 and P3 in the pond had higher nutrient concentrations and high trophic rates. Moreover, capybaras in the area caused sediment suspension and an increase in fecal coliforms. There was significant difference (p OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar durante as estações seca e estação chuvosa a qualidade da água de um viveiro, coberto por macrófitas, utilizado como sistema de abastecimento de água para aquicultura; MÉTODOS: Foram estabelecidos 6 pontos para a coleta das amostras de água na superfície do viveiro, envolvendo entradas e saídas da água. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre junho de 2008 e maio de 2009; RESULTADOS: Os pontos P1, P2 e P3 devido à entrada de água no viveiro apresentaram maiores concentrações de nutrientes com elevado estado trófico e, a entrada de capivaras nestes locais promoveu a suspensão do sedimento e aumento de coliformes fecais. Há significativas diferenças (p < 0,05 nas concentrações de nutrientes na água entre seca e chuva, com o escoamento de água gerado pela precipitação carreando material do entorno do viveiro para a água; CONCLUSÕES: O sistema estudado sofre influência direta da precipitação e da ausência de manejo adequado da área do entorno. Durante a estação chuvosa a qualidade da água ficou comprometida com aumento da concentração de nutrientes, coliformes fecais e redução do oxigênio dissolvido na água, devido ao material alóctone proveniente da área ao redor do viveiro, afetando negativamente o sistema de abastecimento.

  7. Avaliação da economia de água potável com a implantação de um sistema de aproveitamento de água de chuva: estudo de caso no município de Irati, Paraná / Evaluation of the economics of drinking water with the establishment of a rainwater system: case study in Irati, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelena Gonçalves Maia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva tem aumentado em todo o mundo, para minimizar a escassez hídrica local ou como uma fonte alternativa que viabilize a economia de água potável. O presente trabalho estuda o potencial de economia de água potável com a implantação de sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva em residências do município de Irati, Paraná. Os dados de área de telhado residencial foram levantados a partir de imagens satelitárias de alta resolução da área de estudo e foram utilizadas duas metodologias no dimensionamento dos reservatórios, que consideram respectivamente o aumento percentual de economia de água potável e a confiabilidade do sistema. Os reservatórios foram dimensionados considerando diferentes faixas de área de captação, para as quais foram calculadas a economia de água que o sistema proporcionaria. A economia média de água potável, com a implantação do sistema, foi de 44,92%, que representa um valor diário de 148,43 m3.AbstractThe use of rainwater systems has increased worldwide, to minimize the local water scarcity or as an alternative source that makes possible the saving of drinking water. This paper studies the potential savings of potable water with the implantation of rainwater systems in Brazilian residences in Irati, Paraná. Data on residential roof area were gathered from a satellite image of study area and two methods were used to choose the reservoir size, which consider the percentage increase in saving drinking water and system reliability. The reservoirs were designed considering different roof area ranges, from which one were calculated the water savings that the system would provide. The average savings for potable water, with the implementation of the system, was 44.92%, representing a value of 148.43 m3 per day per household.

  8. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  9. Misunderstanding International News in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Wainberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the nature of the Brazilian public comprehension of international news by revealing the quality of such reception with regard to a sample of 170 subjects randomly selected in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A questionnaire was created taking as a basis the directives of Bloom et al(1972. Evaluated in it are the cognitive and aff ective dimensions of thought. In the fi rst case, questions were formulated that allowed the establishment of the level of knowledge of individuals, as well as their comprehension abilities, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of a wide range of international news topics. For the aff ective dimension the following abilities were evaluated: attention, response, valorization, organization and the structuring of a value scale.

  10. Stability and growth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enestor Dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, Brazil has succeeded in implementing and developing an economic model based on an inflation target model to keep domestic prices under control, a flexible exchange rate and a commitment to ensuring the solvency of the public sector. This model was initially adopted during Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s second term as president, and subsequently maintained and refined during Luis Inácio Lula da Silva’s two terms. Its development will certainly continue under the presidency of Dilma Rousseff. The consensus on this economic model and the relative dissociation of political and economic cycles have facilitated the stabilisation of the domestic environment and the acceleration of economic growth.

  11. Phytotherapy in Brazil: recovering the concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Martino Bufaino

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the evolution of the Brazilian legislation in recent years in the area of herbal products and discusses the concept of phytotherapy in Brazil, bringing information about how it works in Europe.

  12. Phytotherapy in Brazil: recovering the concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Martino Bufaino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the evolution of the Brazilian legislation in recent years in the area of herbal products and discusses the concept of phytotherapy in Brazil, bringing information about how it works in Europe.

  13. Queer Counterpublics in Australia, Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyja Noack-Lundberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Rafaael de la Dehesa, Queering the Public Sphere in Mexico and Brazil: Sexual Rights Movements in Emerging Democracies (Duke, 2010 and Kane Race, Pleasure Consuming Medicine (Duke, 2009.

  14. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    in three genera: Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, and Huperzia. Within each genus, the diversity (treated under various subgenera, sections, and subsections) has been discussed. In our new approach, these three genera are treated as subfamilies Lycopodiodeae (four genera in Brazil), Lycopodielloideae (three...

  15. Seasonality, parity rates and transmission indices of Mansonella ozzardi (Manson (Nematoda: Onchocercidae by Cerqueirellum argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias (Diptera: Simulidae in a lower Solimões River community, Amazonas, Brazil Sazonalidade, taxa de paridade e índices de transmissão de Mansonella ozzardi (Manson (Nematoda: Onchocercidae por Cerqueirellum argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias (Diptera: Simuliidae em uma comunidade do baixo rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes de Medeiros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi is transmitted by two dipterian families, Ceratopogonidae (midges and Simuliidae (black flies. In Brazil, black flies are vectors for this filariasis until now. In this paper, we determined the seasonality, parity capacity and parasitic infection rate of Cerqueirellum argentiscutum. The work was carried out in the Porto Japão community, Lower Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil. Results show that the black flies were more abundant during the rainy season (from December to May. The number of parous flies was higher in every sampling during the course of year. Monthly Biting Rate (MBR1 123742.00, MBR2 86701.50 was high, although Parasitic Infection Rate (PIR1 0.06, PIR2 0.08 and Annual Transmission Potential (ATP 7.25 were low in numbers.Mansonella ozzardi é transmitida por dois grupos distintos de insetos, Ceratopogonidae e Simuliidae. No Brasil, os simulídeos são os vetores dessa filariose. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi determinar a sazonalidade, a paridade e a taxa de infecção parasitária de Cerqueirellum argentiscutum. O experimento foi realizado na comunidade Porto do Japão, Baixo rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brasil. Os simulídeos foram mais abundantes no período de chuva (dezembro a maio. Em todos os meses de coletas o número de paríparas foi maior. A taxa mensal de picada (TMP1 123742.00, TMP2 86701.50 foi elevada, já a taxa de infecção parasitária (TIP1 0.06, TIP2 0.08 e o potencial de transmissão anual (PTA 7.25 foram considerados baixos.

  16. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    PAUNIĆ, ALIDA

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  17. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.)

  18. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  19. Huge Business Potential in China and Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Brazil has the largest economy in Latin America, and the world's tenth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. In recent years. Brazil has become a well developed nation and its exports are increasing, with major export industries that include aircraft, coffee, automobiles, soybean, steel, textiles, and electronics. Its biggest investment boom in history is still under way as it continues to focus on attracting investment from foreign countries.

  20. Brazil : Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Despite its origin as one of the pioneering and richest states of Brazil, Pernambuco today has a history of slower economic growth than Brazil as a whole. Pernambuco began as a sugar producing state and the expansion of sugar production led its economic development until the mid 1600s. Then Pernambuco declined, as sugar production became more profitable elsewhere in the world. It is estima...

  1. Land reform and landholdings in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Juliano

    2006-01-01

    Land and wealth are closely related in rural Brazil, a country characterized by high levels of inequality in terms of income or landholdings. After presenting a historical retrospective of land concentration and land reform in Brazil, this study evaluates the impact of the land reform programme undertaken in the 1990s on land ownership and land distribution. It is shown that the programme increased landownership among poor rural families and those with less educated household heads, reducing ...

  2. Epidemia de esquistossomose aguda na praia de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil An outbreak of acute schistosomiasis at Porto de Galinhas beach, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Simões Barbosa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho notifica a ocorrência de um surto de esquistossomose aguda na praia de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil, quando 662 pessoas tiveram diagnóstico positivo para Schistosoma mansoni. A infecção humana em massa ocorreu no feriado de 7 de setembro, quando chuvas pesadas provocaram a enchente do rio Ipojuca que invadiu as residências. A maioria dos casos agudos foi representada por famílias de residentes locais que tiveram exposição diária às cercárias durante três semanas, até que as águas baixassem. O inquérito malacológico aponta para a possibilidade dos caramujos vetores terem sido introduzidos na localidade com os aterros realizados em quintais, onde vieram a se reproduzir em criadouros peridomiciliares. A infecção dos moluscos se deu a partir de vazamentos de fossas. Os resultados da clínica e do laboratório apontam para cerca de 62% de casos agudos. Estudos complementares estão sendo realizados, para a melhor compreensão deste evento epidemiológico de significativa magnitude para os órgãos de saúde pública e impacto para a população afetada.We recently confirmed several cases of acute schistosomiasis in Porto de Galinhas beach, Northeast Brazil. A total of 662 patients were diagnosed by parasitological and clinical examinations. The infection likely occurred during the September 7 national holiday, when heavy rainfall flooded the Ipojuca River and people were infected when the water covered their yards. Families were continuously exposed to infection for a period of three weeks until the water had completely dried up. Previous investigation suggests that snail vectors were introduced as a result of landfill in marshy areas. The swamp-flooding of such areas facilitated the emergence of slums surrounded by snail breeding sites. Heavy rainfall caused open-air sewage ditches to overflow, allowing for infection of snails by Schistosoma mansoni. Thus, continuous floods were responsible for the spread of

  3. Diversidade de formigas na Floresta Nacional de Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brasil Ants diversity in Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A mirmecofauna da Floresta Nacional de Chapecó, Gleba I, foi estudada por coletas semanais realizadas de dezembro de 2003 a dezembro de 2004. Foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo malaise, pit-fall, iscas com sardinha, iscas com glicose, rede de varredura, guarda-chuva entomológico e funil de Berlese. Três constituições vegetais foram amostradas, sendo pinus, eucalipto e Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Estacional Decidual. Foram capturadas 137.019 espécimes de nove subfamílias, 18 tribos, 36 gêneros e 121 espécies. Os índices de diversidade de Margalef obtidos foram 9,9; 9,7 e 12,6; de Shannon e Wiener 3,0; 3,2 e 3,4 e de equitabilidade de 0,69; 0,73 e 0,74, para as áreas com pinus, eucalipto e mata nativa, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam uma distribuição mais uniforme na comunidade da mata nativa, caracterizando-se como um importante reservatório espécies de formigas no Oeste catarinense.Mirmecofauna of the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó, Field I, was studied by weekly collections from December of 2003 to December of 2004. Malaise, pit-fall, sardine baits, glucose baits, sweeping net, entomological umbrella and Berlese funnel had been used. Three vegetal constitutions where showed, like pinus, eucalyptus Ombrófila Mista and Estacional Decidual native forests. 137.019 specimens of nine subfamilies, 18 tribes, 36 generas and 121 species were captured. The indices of diversity of Margalef were 9.9; 9.7 and 12.6; of Shannon and Wiener 3.0; 3.2 and 3.4 and of equitability of 0.69; 0.73 and 0.74, for the areas with pinus, eucalyptus and native forest, respectively. These results indicate a more uniform distribution in the community of the native forest, characterizing itself as an important reservoir species of ants in the West region of the Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  4. Diatomáceas epilíticas de águas oligotróficas e ácidas do Sudeste do Brasil Epilithic diatoms from acidic and oligotrophic waters in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo de Castro Canani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos tem abordado a flora de diatomáceas de sistemas oligotróficos do Brasil. São apresentados os resultados da composição taxonômica e distribuição espacial e temporal de diatomáceas no rio do Salto, situado no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais (21º40'-21º44'S e 43º52'-43º55'W. As águas desse rio possuem pH entre 4,2 e 5,5 e concentração de ortofosfato entre 1,37 e 10,98 µg.L-1. O estudo baseia-se na análise de 80 amostras coletadas em oito estações no leito rochoso do rio, em janeiro e julho de 2004, períodos de chuva e estiagem, respectivamente. Um total de 15 espécies e duas variedades taxonômicas, distribuídas em oito gêneros e oito famílias foram descritas e ilustradas, com destaque para o gênero Eunotia Ehrenberg. O estudo sobre diatomáceas bentônicas em ambientes lóticos é pioneiro no estado de Minas Gerais, sendo registradas 14 novas citações, das quais Fragilariforma stevensonii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Eunotia pirarucu Metzeltin & Lange Betalot, Nupela giluwensis Vyverman & Compère e Sellaphora blackfordensis Mann & Droop são primeiros registros para o Brasil.Few studies have been done on the diatom flora of acidic and oligotrophic environments from Brazil. We present the taxonomic composition and distribution of diatoms of Salto River, situated at Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais (21º40'-21º44'S; 43º52'-43º55'W. The pH values ranged from 4.2 to 5.5 and orthophosphate was between 1.37 and 10.98 µg.L-1. The study is based on the analysis of 80 samples collected at eight stations in the rocky stream bed, in January and July 2004, rainy and dry seasons, respectively. A total of 15 species and two taxonomic varieties distributed in eight genera and eight families were described and illustrated, notably the Eunotia Ehrenberg genus. The study of benthic diatoms in lotic systems is pioneer in Minas Gerais state; 14 new records were recorded of which Fragilariforma stevensonii

  5. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, S

    1996-01-01

    A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100%) was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67%) between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%). In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62%) and of the female sex (53-75%). The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 +/- 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92%) and intracranial hypertension (19-89%). Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical series and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.

  6. [The health system of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  7. Brazil: A Portrait of Diparities

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    Claudio Weber Abramo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparencia Brasil (an NGO dedicated to fi ghting corruption in the country involves systematically gathering stories about corruption and associated themes published in the daily press.Titled “Deu no Jornal” (It Made the News, the initiative has been collecting news stories published in 59 dailies and four weeklies since January 2004. The publications covered by the project comprise all the main newspapers from all 26 states, plus the Federal District. No signifi cant newspaper from any state is absent. News is taken from the newspapers’ web editions and introduced into a data base. Each story is fi led under a specifi c “case”2 and cases are categorized according to several descriptive criteria. At the time of this writing, Deu no Jornal included about 142,500 stories distributed among 3,586 diff erent cases, corresponding to an aggregate of about 326 million characters. On the average, about 3.5 new cases of corruption are reported by the Brazilian press somewhere every day. Deu no Jornal is the most comprehensive database of news stories on corruption in existence, not only in Brazil but worldwide.

  8. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.

  9. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantian

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  10. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  11. Abundância e riqueza de espécies de Heteroptera (Hemiptera do Parque Estadual do Turvo, sul do Brasil: Pentatomoidea Abundance and species richness of Heteroptera (Hemiptera from Parque Estadual do Turvo, southern Brazil: Pentatomoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Santos Schmidt

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de dois anos foi desenvolvido no Parque Estadual do Turvo, município de Derrubadas, sul do Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição, abundância e riqueza de espécies de Pentatomoidea. As amostragens foram efetuadas nas primaveras de 2003 e 2004 (outubro e nos outonos de 2004 e 2005 (maio, utilizando a metodologia do guarda-chuva entomológico, ao longo de duas trilhas do Parque. O esforço amostral foi medido em número de horas de coleta X número de coletores, totalizando 153 horas de amostragem. Um total de 816 indivíduos de Pentatomoidea foram coletados, distribuídos em 56 espécies/morfoespécies, pertencentes a sete famílias. A riqueza estimada de espécies no outono de 2005 foi significativamente menor do que nos demais períodos amostrados. Não houve, entretanto, diferenças significativas entre as primaveras de 2003 e 2004 e o outono de 2004, para o mesmo parâmetro. A trilha do Yucumã apresentou uma riqueza estimada significativamente maior do que a trilha do Garcia. Espécies únicas ou representadas por dois indivíduos equivaleram a 44,6% do total de espécies registradas. Adicionalmente, 20 outras espécies/morfoespécies de Pentatomoidea foram obtidas com amostragens qualitativas, que incluíram, além de guarda-chuva entomológico, armadilhas luminosas e inspeção visual. A presença de espécies de pentatomídeos geralmente associadas a cultivos, dominantes nos diferentes períodos, sugere uma influência das culturas adjacentes a esta unidade de conservação. Novos registros de espécies para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul são fornecidos.A two-year study was carried out at Parque Estadual do Turvo, Municipality of Derrubadas, southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate the composition, abundance and species richness of Pentatomoidea. Samplings were conducted in the Springs of 2003 and 2004 (October, and Autumns of 2004 and 2005 (May, using beating tray method, along two trials of the park. Sampling effort

  12. Sazonalidade e variabilidade espacial da qualidade da água na Lagoa do Apodi, RN Spatial variability and seasonality of the water quality in the Lagoa do Apodi Lagoon, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcírio de Lemos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se propõe avaliar a qualidade da água da Lagoa do Apodi, RN, em pontos compreendidos em todo o seu espelho, com ênfase ao monitoramento da qualidade da água sob influência da bacia urbana da cidade de Apodi e do aporte de materiais trazidos pelas águas continentais que adentram e eutrofizam a lagoa, em períodos extremos de temperatura e de precipitação. Amostras sistemáticas no espelho da lagoa foram coletadas seguindo-se seu formato ou ao longo de seu leito. A condutividade elétrica da água da Lagoa varia em todo o seu espelho, principalmente nas extremidades oeste e sudeste, aumentando após o início do período seco e diminuindo após a chegada das chuvas. Há uma grande variabilidade espacial nas características físicas e químicas, sobretudo para pH, CE, RAS e teores de Na e Cl; pode-se inferir, também, que nas águas da lagoa os íons encontrados em maiores níveis foram o cloreto e o sódio, tanto para os pontos de coleta como para a época de coleta. A variação na qualidade bacteriológica da água compromete a balneabilidade da Lagoa do Apodi, principalmente logo após o período das chuvas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Apodi lagoon, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, at points along its surface. The monitoring of the water quality is emphasized as it is under influence of the urban basin of Apodi and due to incorporation of material by the influx of continental waters that lead to eutrophization of the lagoon water in periods of extreme temperatures and precipitation. Systematic samples were collected from the lagoon water surface throughout its length. The electrical conductivity of the Apodi water varies along the surface, mainly in the west and southeast extremities. The water salinity increased with the beginning of the dry period and decreased after the rains. There is a great spatial variability in the physical and chemical characteristics, mainly

  13. Teleconnection mechanisms of northeast Brazil droughts: modeling and empirical evidence Mecanismos de teleconexões do nordeste do Brasil: modelagem numérica e evidência epirica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kucharski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted numerical modelling experimaents are conducted to complement the previous empirical diagnostics of circulation mechanisms leading from sea surface temperature (SST departures in the equatorial Pacific in January to anomalies in the March-April rainy season of Brazil's Nordeste. A weak interhemispheric northward directed SST gradient in the Atlantic favors a more southerly position of the hydrostatically controlled low pressure trough, embedded in which is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, which is the main rainbearing system for the Nordeste. In addition, anomalously warm waters in the equatorial Pacific in January tend to be followed by Nordeste drought. The underlying chain of causalities has been explored by empirical diagnostics and numerical modelling. During El Nino years, an upper-tropospheric wave train extends from the equatorial eastern Pacific to the tropical North Atlantic, affecting the patterns of upper-tropospheric topography and divergence, and hence of vertical motion over the Atlantic. This leads to a weaker meridional pressure gradient on the equatorward flank of the North Atlantic subtropical high, weaker North Atlantic tradewinds, an anomalously far northerly ITCZ position and thus Nordeste drought. The previous empirical diagnostics are overall supported by the modelling experiments.Experimentos específicos de modelagem numérica foram conduzidos para complementar diagnósticos empíricos realizados anteriormente dos mecanismos da circulação que relacionam anomalias na temperatura das águas superficiais do Pacífico equatorial em janeiro com as chuvas subsequentes em março-abril no Nordeste. Um gradiente térmico fraco (no sentido norte no Atlântico favorece a uma posição mais meridional do cavado de baixa pressão, controlado hidrostaticamente, dentro do qual se encontra a Zona de Convergência Inter-Tropical (ITCZ, que é a principal fonte de chuvas para o norte do Nordeste. Além disso,

  14. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  15. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  16. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  17. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  18. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

      The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns...... for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI...

  19. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  20. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    CERN Document Server

    Segawa, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  1. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  2. Cisternas para armazenamento de água de chuva e efeito na diarreia infantil: um estudo na área rural do semiárido de Minas Gerais Rainwater cisterns and its effect in children diarrhoea: a study in semi arid rural area at Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ventura da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou a prevalência de diarreia em crianças menores de 60 meses, segundo o tipo de abastecimento de água utilizado. Foi conduzido estudo epidemiológico, seguindo o delineamento quase-experimental, com 664 crianças, sendo 332 moradoras de residência que têm cisterna e 332 que utilizam água de outra fonte. A variável dependente foi a ocorrência de diarreia nas últimas 72 horas; as outras informações foram obtidas por meio da aplicação de questionários estruturados. A prevalência total de diarreia foi de 5%, porém sem diferença significativa entre os grupos. As variáveis que explicaram a morbidade foram o grupo, a idade da criança, a ingestão de vitamina ou fortificante, e o local de descarte das fraldas sujas com fezes da criança. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos na avaliação da qualidade microbiológica da água, ou seja, o uso de água de chuva pode não ter proporcionado melhorias no acesso à água de melhor qualidade quando comparado com as outras fontes utilizadas. No entanto, há que se considerar falhas nos cuidados, no manuseio e no tratamento da água adotados. Destaca-se a necessidade de melhoria das práticas sanitárias da população do meio rural para que a higiene pessoal, domiciliar e em relação à água consumida sejam incorporadas como hábitos rotineiros.The present text evaluated the diarrhea prevalence in children under 60 months, according to water supply. An epidemic study was conducted with quasiexperimental design with 664 children, 332 who lived in residence that had cistern and 332 that use water from another source. Diarrhoea occurrence in the last 72 hours was the dependent variable, the others informations were obtained by structured questionnaires. Total diarrhoea prevalence was of 5%, however with no significant difference among the groups. The variables that explained the disease were child's age; if it was taking vitamin and where the dirty diapers with the

  3. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, com e sem suplementação de concentrado durante a época das chuvas Milk yield of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows supplemented or not with concentrate during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deresz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado na época das chuvas e início da seca, entre dezembro e junho, sobre a produção e composição do leite e ganho de peso de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu. Os tratamentos foram pastagem de capim-elefante sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. A área experimental de pastagem foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um, 22 por tratamento, com duas repetições de área. Foram usadas 12 vacas, sendo seis por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso. A pastagem foi manejada em pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação por piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,6± 0,3 e 12,5± 0,3kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário por vaca de 211 e 244g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to study the effect of concentrate supplementation of elephantgrass pasture during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season, on milk yield, milk composition and weight gain of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows. The treatments were: elephantgrass pasture with no concentrate supplementation (NC and with 2kg concentrate supplementation cow/day (WC. The experimental area was divided in 44 paddocks with 606m² each, corresponding to 22 paddocks per replication and six cows per treatment. The cows were alloted to the treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The pasture was managed in a rotational system with 30 days resting period and three days grazing per paddock. The stocking rate was 4.5 cows/ha. The pasture was fertilized with 200kg/ha/yr of N and K2O. The average fat corrected (4% milk yield was 11.6± 0.3 and 12.5± 0.3kg/cow/day and the average daily weight gain during the

  4. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  5. Balanço hídrico em solo com cultivos de subsistência no semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil Water budget in a soil with food crops in the semi-arid region of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Celso Dantas Antonino

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista ser a água limitante e haver poucos estudos sobre o balanço hídrico em cultivos do semi-árido nordestino, instalou-se um experimento em Coxixola, PB, com quatro tratamentos (plantios de milho e de feijão, solo nu e com cobertura morta, parcelas de 7,7 x 10 m e espaçamento de plantio de 1,1 x 1,0 m. Foram medidos chuva, evaporação (Tanque "classe A" e armazenamento de água no solo (sonda de nêutrons. A chuva pouca (212 mm e mal distribuída causou restrição hídrica na parte final do experimento e foi responsável pelas baixas eficiências de uso de água e baixas produtividades do milho (grãos e biomassa total, 282 e 1141 kg ha-1 e do feijão (166 e 558 kg ha-1. Solo nu e com cobertura morta tiveram comportamento semelhante, com grandes perdas de água (1,57 e 1,48 mm dia-1, respectivamente e apenas pequenos aumentos nas lâminas armazenadas no perfil do solo, ao final do experimento (28 e 35 mm, respectivamente. O pequeno aumento e a dificuldade de obtenção de resíduos vegetais fazem com que esta cobertura morta não seja prática promissora na região.Considering that water is a limiting factor and there are few studies on water balance in the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil, an experiment was established at Coxixola, PB, Brazil, with four treatments (corn and beans crops, bare soil and soil covered with mulch, in plots of 7.7 x 10 m and plant spacing of 1.1 x 1.0 m. Rainfall, evaporation (Class A tank and soil water (neutron probe were monitored. Low (212 mm and irregular rainfall resulted in water deficit towards the final period of the experiment and was responsible for the low water use efficiencies and low productivity of corn (grain and total biomass, 282 and 1141 kg ha-1 and beans (166 and 558 kg ha-1. Bare soil and mulch had similar results, with high water losses, 1.57 and 1.48 mm day-1, respectively, and only small increases in stored soil water (28 and 35 mm, respectively were observed at the end of

  6. Absconding and migratory behaviors of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in NE Brazil = Comportamentos de abandono e migração de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Magalhães Freitas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the annual movements of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the state of Ceará, Brazil, aiming to understand seasonal variations in their population. Arrival and absconding of Africanized honey bee (AHB colonies in the semiaridmunicipality of Canindé and the coastal humid city of Fortaleza (120 km apart were recorded weekly from January 1999 to December 2001, and the data compared to rainfall records in both areas. Results showed that AHB colonies only nest in the semiarid during the rainy season and abscond during the dry season, the opposite from observations taken in Fortaleza. Only 5% of colonies remained in the semiarid area for the entire year due to ant (Camponotus sp. attacks and shortage of nectar and water during the dry season, with most colonies migrating to coastal areas where the weather is milder and many plant species bloom at that time of year. Excessive rainfallprobably pushes AHB colonies back to the semiarid during the rainy season. We concluded that absconding and migration are strategies that allow AHB colonies to survive in the semiarid NE of Brazil, contrary to European honeybees, which have never succeeded in establishing wild colonies in the region.Os movimentos de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram investigados com o objetivo de compreender variações anuais em sua população. A chegada e a partida de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (AHB,no município semi-árido de Canindé e na úmida cidade litorânea de Fortaleza (separadas por 120 km, foram monitoradas semanalmente, de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2001, e comparados com os dados pluviométricos de chuvas em ambas as áreas. Os resultadosdemonstraram que as abelhas africanizadas somente nidificaram no semi-árido durante a estação chuvosa e o abandonaram na estação seca, ao contrário do observado em Fortaleza. Apenas 5% das col

  7. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  8. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  9. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance. PMID:22515454

  10. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  11. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Laércio Baptista da Silva; Antonio Guerra Junior

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial s...

  12. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  13. Metátese de olefinas no Brasil: "Brazil is romping it!" Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Milton E. Matos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts. In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community.

  14. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Celia Landmann Szwarcwald; Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior; Maria do Carmo Leal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during ...

  15. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  16. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  17. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  18. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  19. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  1. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Verona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  2. Climatic change in northeastern Brazil: paleoparasitological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris eggs were observed in Kerodon rupestris coprolites dated 9,000 years before present, collected in archeological sites of São Raimundo Nonato, northeastern Brazil. However, present day local rodents seem not to be infected by the parasite, suggesting its disappearence due to climatic changes.

  3. "Almost invisible scars": medical tourism to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Edmonds

    2011-01-01

    Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources, o

  4. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves, presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  5. Perspectives for the uranium enrichment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through an analysis of the electrical energy future in Brazil, the needs for enriched uranium are discussed, and therefore the importance of developing local capability for self-production. A description of the production processes that are well established is given first, then the analysis itself is performed and finally a visualization of the International Market for enriched uranium is shown. (author)

  6. Annual Report - Nuclear Industries of Brazil - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of 1997 of the Nuclear Industries of the Brazil - INB - Brazilian company responsible for the industrial activities of the nuclear fuel cycle - introduces the following main topics: mineral resource directory main actions; industrial directory main actions; finance and administration directory main actions; transparency; environment, safety and quality; the company; and financial statements

  7. Brazil Gender Review : Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The report, which documents findings of a review on gender issues in Brazil, during 1999, and updated in 2001, is responsive to the recognition of gender as an important issue in increasing socioeconomic well-being, and reducing poverty. The review examines gender in terms of demographic trends, health indicators, the effects and causes of violence, education indicators, labor market trend...

  8. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  9. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Trindade, Giliane S; Zélia I P Lobato; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; dos Santos, João R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2005-01-01

    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

  10. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Bohrer Mentz; Fernando Procianoy; Marcelo Krieger Maestri; Marilise Brittes Rott

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented.

  11. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bohrer Mentz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented.

  12. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  13. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  14. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  15. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  16. Biochar: An emerging policy arrangement in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Brazilian biochar debate is driven by Embrapa experts. • The dominant ADE/biochar discourse has been replaced by biochar/technology discourse. • The international biochar/climate change discourse hardly resonates in Brazil. • Biochar topic is not covered by any formal procedure in Brazil so far. - Abstract: Biochar, the solid product of pyrolysis, has emerged as a new technology and policy tool to address various environmental challenges (climate change, food production and agricultural waste management). The concept of biochar drew its inspiration from Amazonian practices that had led to the creation of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE): fertile soils rich in (bio)char and human artefacts. In this article, we conceptualize biochar as an emerging policy arrangement, and examine it along the four dimensions of the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA), which are actors, discourse, power and rules. We focus on Brazil as an important player in the international biochar debate. Our analysis shows that science experts are the predominant players in the network, while policy-makers, businessmen and farmers are marginally positioned. Experts from Embrapa occupy central positions and thus exercise most power in the network. Moreover, experts linked to ADE have lost prominence in the network. The reason for this is to be found in the shift from the ADE/biochar to the biochar/technology discourse. The latter discourse includes different coalitions such as ‘climate change mitigation’, the ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’. Although the biochar/climate coalition is dominant at the international level, it is far less prominent in Brazil. Nationally, it is particularly the discourses of ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’ which have prompted actors’ relationships and practices. However, the biochar/technology discourse has not (yet) been formally institutionalized in

  17. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  18. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity. PMID:9208050

  19. Ehrlichiosis in Brazil Erliquiose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by rickettsial organisms belonging to the genus Ehrlichia. In Brazil, molecular and serological studies have evaluated the occurrence of Ehrlichia species in dogs, cats, wild animals and humans. Ehrlichia canis is the main species found in dogs in Brazil, although E. ewingii infection has been recently suspected in five dogs. Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA has been detected and characterized in mash deer, whereas E. muris and E. ruminantium have not yet been identified in Brazil. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by E. canis appears to be highly endemic in several regions of Brazil, however prevalence data are not available for several regions. Ehrlichia canis DNA also has been detected and molecularly characterized in three domestic cats, and antibodies against E. canis were detected in free-ranging Neotropical felids. There is serological evidence suggesting the occurrence of human ehrlichiosis in Brazil but its etiologic agent has not yet been established. Improved molecular diagnostic resources for laboratory testing will allow better identification and characterization of ehrlichial organisms associated with human ehrlichiosis in Brazil.Erliquiose é uma doença causada por rickettsias pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia. No Brasil, estudos sorológicos e moleculares têm avaliado a ocorrência de espécies de Ehrlichia em cães, gatos, animais selvagens e seres humanos. Ehrlichia canis é a principal espécie em cães no Brasil, embora a infecção por E. ewingii tenha, recentemente, despertado suspeita em cinco cães. O DNA de E. chaffeensis foi detectado e caracterizado em cervo-do-pantanal, enquanto que E. muris e E. ruminantium ainda não foram identificadas no Brasil. A erliquiose monocítica canina causada pela E. canis parece ser altamente endêmica em muitas regiões do Brasil, embora dados de prevalência não estejam disponíveis em muitas delas. O DNA de E. canis também foi detectado e caracterizado

  20. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Giorgi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  2. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  3. Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Monassa Fioretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of NoV, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. The present study assessed the circulation of NoV genotypes in different Brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 was the prevalent (78% followed by GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.16 and GII.17, demonstrating the great diversity of NoV genotypes circulating in Brazil. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of NoV and their spreading potential.

  4. A report about Zika virus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Cipriano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika vírus, a Flavivirus first isolated in Africa, has spread to many countries around the world including Brazil. In this country, seven months after the football world cup, it was registered the occurrence of a epidemic, subsequently related to cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The virus is transmited via mosquito from Aedes genus, often following the bite from an infected vector. The febrile disease is self-limited, and there is no specific treatment. Few months after this outbreak in Brazil, the authorities recognized the relationship between the Zika vírus and the occurrence of Guillain Barré syndrome and microcephaly in newborns, correponding to fetal cerebral malformation or brain lesions. This finding is being a worldwide alert for strengthening the preventive measures, restricted to prevent insect bites and care for the environment.

  5. Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Sawaya Jank; Shunli Yao; Carter, Colin A.; Mário Queiroz de Monteiro Jales

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetries and complementarities between Brazil's and China's agricultural sectors. Brazil and China are key players in world agriculture. Both countries are among the world's top five producers and exporters of agricultural products and have a significant portion of their population working in agriculture. However, four significant facts profoundly differentiate Brazilian and Chinese agriculture. First, while Brazil has one of the world's most liberal agricultural se...

  6. Developments in Latin America: The Temporary Staffing Industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Watts

    2011-01-01

    While many countries are still struggling to escape the effects of the financial crisis, Brazil has experienced strong economic growth, providing a stimulus for further investment and temporary staffing agency expansion. This Working Brief aims to outline some of the developments that have occurred in the temporary staffing industry in Brazil. I briefly outline the regulatory context for temporary staffing in Brazil before highlighting the characteristics of the industry and detailing the eme...

  7. Sunlover and its internationalization to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Ana Luísa Correia

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The goal of this work project is to study Sunlover and its internationalization process to Brazil. As a first step, it was necessary to collect information, using primary data provided by Sunlover and secondary data from several sources, including articles, books and websites cited in the references. After the data was collected, the company...

  8. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wzorek LF; Correr CJ; Trindade ACB; Pontarolo R

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as print...

  9. THE BACHELOR OF BIOCHEMISTRY IN BRAZIL

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    H. G. Cordeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  10. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  11. Knowledge production and firm growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João Alberto De Negri; Luiz Esteves; Fernando Freitas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gauge the impact of the production of knowledge on the accumulation of fixed capital in Brazil. The hypothesis is that investment in R&D causes investment in fixed capital in Brazilian industrial firms. The empirical estimates rest on an IPEA database for information on firms and the workers linked to these firms during the period 1996-2003 and on the National Innovation Survey (PINTEC) for information on technological development. In the article, various estimates...

  12. Biological Control in Brazil: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Postali Parra

    2014-01-01

    The use of Biological Control methods is on the increase, mainly as a result of the mobilization of human resources in entomology studies since the establishment of graduate programs in this country in the 1960s. This review approaches the retrospective of Biological Control in Brazil in recent decades, with an emphasis on the "culture of applying agrochemicals" adopted by Brazilian growers, which constrains progress in this area. Successful cases of Biological Control have been reported on i...

  13. Industrial Scope of Agglomeration Economies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi; Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp

    2015-01-01

    The tendency towards urbanization in the emerging world accompanied by the constant pursuit for higher productivity prompts an urge for studies aiming at understanding agglomeration economies. In the context of Brazil, a country with extremely high regional disparities, exploring this issue is important not only for private stakeholders, but also for public policy practitioners. In the framework of static agglomeration effects, we investigate the industrial scope of agglomeration economies in...

  14. Periodontal conditions of elders in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain; Maria Daucirlene Costa Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the periodontal conditions of elderly patients assisted in a Specialized Dentistry Center in Northeastern of Brazil. Methods: Quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted with 152 elders. It was used a questionnaire to get information about socio-demographic aspects (age, sex, gender, income, and education), general healthand periodontal clinical examination based on the Communitarian Periodontal Index (CPI), an indicator recommended by the World Health Organization...

  15. Annual Report - Nuclear Industries of Brazil - 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of 1996 of the Nuclear Industries of the Brazil - INB - Brazilian company responsible for the industrial activities of the nuclear fuel cycle - introduces the following main topics: mineral resource directory main actions; nuclear power an option as alternative of supply of the electric system; strategic uranium reserve in upstate State of Ceara; industrial directory main actions; finance and administration directory main actions; transparency; environment, safety and quality; the company; and financial statements

  16. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  17. Labor Turnover and Labor Legislation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Gonzaga

    2003-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Brazilian labor market is its impressively high job and worker turnover rates. Although labor legislation in Brazil is very restrictive, dismissal costs are not high when compared with other Latin American countries. Moreover, many authors argue that the design of some job security programs creates perverse incentives that generate labor turnover. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we describe Brazilian labor legislation, with emphasis on job...

  18. Quidgest internationalization strategic plan to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Maria do Rosário Pinto de Mesquita Ortigão

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics An International Strategic Plan to Brazil is the subject of this work project. The author studies the prospect of the Portuguese company Quidgest increasing its international presence. Quidgest is a software consultant that develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. After an extensive analysis focused on Brazil’s economy, business ...

  19. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author)

  20. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

  1. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

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    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  2. The control of radioactive sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 brought to light several deficiencies in the licensing of medical, industrial and research facilities, which handle radioisotopes, as well as in the control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The article describes some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country and thereby reduce the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  3. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care.

  4. Genetic epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Quinnell, Rupert J

    2008-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis presents the classic, complex disease phenotype, with marked variation in the intensity of infection, the immune response to infection, and the development of schistosome-related pathology. Determining the role of host genetics in schistosomiasis is complicated by the numerous parasite and environmental factors involved in transmission. However, as a result of the increased availability of sequence data, novel statistical methods, and new methods of study design, the last decade has seen significant advances in identifying the role of host genetics in schistosome infection around the world. Many of these advances have taken place in Brazil. Epidemiological studies in Brazil have shown that the intensity of infection (worm burden) is a heritable phenotype (41%). Human genome scans have identified a locus responsible for controlling Schistosoma mansoni infection intensity on chromosome 5q31-q33. There is also evidence for genetic control of pathology due to S. mansoni, with linkage reported to a region containing the gene for the interferon-gamma receptor 1 subunit. Numerous association studies have also provided evidence for major histocompatibility complex control of pathology in schistosomiasis. Recent candidate gene studies suggest a role of other immune response genes in controlling helminth infection and pathology. We chronicle the many advances made in understanding the role of host genetics in S. mansoni infection that have taken place in Brazil by phenotype studied: infection intensity, immune response, and disease development. Results from Brazilian studies are compared with studies of S. mansoni and other schistosome species elsewhere in the world. PMID:18207118

  5. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. PMID:26811272

  6. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  7. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  8. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  9. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil.

  10. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britaldo Soares-Filho

    Full Text Available Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES. The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  11. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  12. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  13. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  14. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. PMID:24111568

  15. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro FIASCHI; José R. PIRANI

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have become a major area of interest in plant systematics, and their impacts on historical biogeographic hypotheses are not to be disregarded. In Brazil, most historical biogeographic studies have relied on animal phylogenies, whereas plant biogeographic studies have largely lacked a phylogenetic component, having a limited utility for historical biogeography. That country, however, is of great importance for most biogeographic studies of lowland tropical South America, and it includes areas from a number of biogeographic regions of the continent. Important biogeographic reports have been published as part of phylogenetic studies, taxonomic monographs, and regional accounts for small areas or phytogeographic domains, hut the available information is subsequently scattered and sometimes hard to find. In this paper we review some relevant angiosperm biogeographic studies in Brazil. Initially we briefly discuss the importance of other continents as source areas for the South American flora. Then we present a subdivision of Brazil into phytogeographic domains, and we cite studies that have explored the detection of biogeographic units (areas of endemism) and how they are historically related among those domains. Examples of plant taxa that could be used to test some biogeographic hypotheses are provided throughout, as well as taxa that exemplify several patterns of endemism and disjunction in the Brazilian angiosperm flora.

  16. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  17. Geração do deflúvio de uma microbacia com Mata Atlântica, Cunha, SP. Runoff generation in a small catchment with Atlantic Rainforest, Cunha, SP, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício RANZINI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como escopo estudar a resposta do deflúvio a eventos deprecipitação de uma microbacia experimental (37,5 ha com Mata Atlântica, localizadano Laboratório de Hidrologia Florestal Walter Emmerich, no Parque Estadual da Serrado Mar – Núcleo Cunha, SP. O escoamento direto foi de 8,3% da precipitação anual.A resposta do deflúvio à precipitação mostrou uma variabilidade de hidrogramas,que dependeu da magnitude da precipitação e das condições de umidade antecedente do solo.De um modo geral, os hidrogramas tenderam grosseiramente a reproduzir a precipitação(hietograma. Foram identificados dois grupos de hidrogramas de acordo com a relação entre aprecipitação e o pico de vazão. No primeiro, a contribuição do escoamento de base foi pequena,com o escoamento direto dominando o hidrograma e a área variável de afluência (A.V.A..No segundo grupo, um acréscimo na precipitação produziu um aumento no pico de vazãomesmo durante as chuvas mais intensas, sugerindo que a A.V.A. ocupou uma menor parte damicrobacia, próxima ao curso d’água. Esses resultados indicaram que a umidade antecedentedo solo foi importante para a resposta do deflúvio à precipitação.This paper studied the response of runoff to rainstorm events of a smallexperimental catchment (37.5 ha with Atlantic Rainforest. The Forest HydrologicalLaboratory, at Cunha, is located in the Serra do Mar State Park, SE Brazil. The total volume ofstormflow is 8.3% of annual rainfall. The response of runoff to rainfall showed a variability ofthe hydrographs, which depended on intensity of the precipitation and soil humidity conditionsbefore the flood. In general, the hydrographs tended to roughly reproduce the shape of therainstorm. It was identified two groups of hydrographs, separated according to the quotientbetween rainfall and peak flow. At first, the contribution of base flow was low, with the directrunoff hydrograph dominating and the variable source

  18. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  19. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil Monitoramento de Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral no Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p No Brasil, o crescimento urbano da leishmaniose visceral (LV está associado com a adaptação do seu vetor, Lutzomyia longipalpis, aos ambientes modificados pelo homem. Este estudo relata a vigilância entomológica de L. longipalpis e os efeitos das variáveis ambientais sobre a sua densidade populacional. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados no município de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, no Nordeste do Brasil, a partir de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. Duas armadilhas tipo CDC foram colocadas mensalmente durante quatro noites consecutivas no peridomicílio das casas escolhidas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e regressão linear. Um total de 2.087 flebotomíneos foram capturados, dos quais 99,86% foram L. longipalpis. Mais fêmeas do que machos foram capturados (p < 0,05. Na análise mensal das variáveis ambientais a temperatura, umidade relativa e a chuva não tiveram impacto significativo sobre a densidade populacional de L. longipalpis. No entanto, houve diferenças sazonais: aproximadamente 70% dos flebotomíneos foram capturados durante a estação chuvosa (p < 0,05. Assim, L. longipalpis, a espécie predominante, representa um risco à saúde p

  20. Condições termodinâmicas de eventos de precipitação extrema em Belém-PA durante a estação chuvosa Thermodynamic conditions of extreme rainfall events in Belém-PA, Brazil, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nardin Tavares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As condições termodinâmicas de uma região são muito importantes para o desenvolvimento da convecção úmida profunda, principalmente nas regiões tropicais. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de entender e caracterizar o papel das condições termodinâmicas da atmosfera durante os eventos de precipitações extremas na estação chuvosa, no período de 1987 a 2007, em Belém (PA. Os resultados mostram que as precipitações extremas, em sua maioria (56% apresentam um ambiente precursor com forte instabilidade, indicada pelos altos valores de CAPE (acima de 1000 J/kg e valores significativos dos índices de instabilidade. Houve, contudo, eventos com baixos valores de CAPE na sondagem das 1200 UTC do dia do evento, mas valores maiores na véspera, o que indica que a chuva em questão pode ter começado na madrugada e ter perdurado por várias horas, atravessando a hora da sondagem, explicando a queda deste parâmetro. Os índices de instabilidade K, TT e LI apresentaram uma boa representação do ambiente, prognosticando as tempestades com chuvas fortes com índice de acerto de até 74%, se levados em conta os eventos em que todos os índices apontavam os mesmos resultados e indicavam forte instabilidade. As condições termodinâmicas de forte instabilidade ajudam a promover, mas não são as únicas responsáveis pelas tempestades convectivas com precipitações extremas.The thermodynamic conditions from any region are very important to the development of the deep, moist convection, mainly in the tropical region. Therefore, the aim of this work was to understand and characterize the role of atmospheric thermodynamic conditions during extreme rainfall events in the rainy season, in Belém (PA, Brazil. The results show that the extreme rainfall, in their majority (56% present a pre-storm environment with strong instability, indicated by the CAPE high values (above 1000 J/kg and meaningful values of the instability indexes. There was

  1. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  2. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  3. Brazil - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Brazil, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. In Brazil, the 5th largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions. ...

  4. Brazil’s Booming Agriculture Faces Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, Constanza

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has emerged as an agricultural superpower in global food and agricultural markets thanks to economic and trade stability and regulatory reforms that encourage investment in agriculture. Brazil is an important producer and the largest exporter of sugar, ethanol, beef, poultry meat, coffee, orange juice, and tobacco.

  5. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L; Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Tauro, Laura B; Faria, Nuno R; Pybus, Oliver G; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-10-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia's capital city, since mid-2014.

  6. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N.; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I.; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Campos, Gubio S.; Tauro, Laura B.; Faria, Nuno R.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014. PMID:27448188

  7. A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil. A new species of Zamischus from Brazil is described and diagnosed. The species is closely related to Z. brasiliensis but differs in the morphology of antennae and scutellum. Z. aquilesi sp. nov. was collected via Malaise trapping in a tobacco field in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul.

  8. Advanced ceramics in Brazil: actual stage and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of advanced ceramics in Brazil, the perspectives of the world and Brazilian markets, the raw materials, the equipments for industry and research, the human resources, and the disposable technology, are presented. The researches on advanced ceramics in Brazil initiated in the sixty decade, with the nuclear fuel development and production projets. (M.C.K.)

  9. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  10. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  11. Macroeconomic and policy implications of population aging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Ole Hagen

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic implications of population aging in Brazil. Three alternative yet complementary methodologies are adopted, and depending on policy responses to the fiscal implications of aging, there are two main findings: First, saving rates could increase and not necessarily fall as a consequence of aging in Brazil -- thus contradicting conventional views. Second, l...

  12. Organic carbon stocks in the soils of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks to 1 m for Brazil, calculated using an updated Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database and simulation of phenoforms, are 65.9-67.5 Pg C, of which 65% is in the Amazonian region of Brazil. Other researchers have obtained similar gross results, despite very different spatial patte

  13. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  14. Use of GIS for Earthquakes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.; Roig, H. L.; Pascual, M. F.; Vasconcelos, A. E.; Ferreira, J. M.; Ribotta, L. C.; do Nascimento, A. F.; Pavao, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    We present geoprocessing techniques to monitor and analyse earthquakes in Brazil. We constructed a georeferenced database called SIGSIBRA using PostgreSQL + PostGIS softwares, and fed by information from the SISBRA earthquake catalog, IBGE geographical data and CPRM geological data. The SISBRA catalog was built from the book "Sismicidade Brasileira" (Berrocal et al, 1984), updated with the Brazilian seismic bulletins from the Brazilian Geophysical Journal up to 1995, and especially with the data from seismographic monitoring activities of the University of Brasília-SIS/UnB, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-UFRN, the University of Sao Paulo-USP and the Institute for Technological Research (IPT). Earthquakes occur in Brazil with moderate to low magnitudes. Besides natural earthquakes, seismic activity triggered by water dams must also be monitored. With the growing number and size of Brazilian dams (because of the many rivers, favorable topography and "clean" energy) concern with reservoir triggered seismicity is expected to increase. Approval for the construction of a hydropower plant requires seismic hazard assesmment prepared by an interdisciplinary team, with a large contribution of geoprocessing specialists. Therefore, it is important to study the characteristics of this seismicity, so that these professionals can avoid or mitigate potential environmental and social harm to communities on the margins of large dams. Thus the SIGSIBRA system can generate spatial analysis of its events, such as intensity estimation of "Kernel" points distribution; spatial statistics; spatial autocorrelation (Morans I) and correlations with geological structures, making it possible to characterize important aspects of the Brazilian seismicity. Finally, we show the statistical analysis of the database through the program ZMAP and estimate the intraplate seismogenic zones in Brazil.

  15. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Tacyana PR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income, and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch, and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of

  16. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Dourado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  17. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  18. Plecoptera from Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Plecoptera collected in Minas Gerais State, Brazil were studied. Twelve previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria boraceiensis Froehlich, 2004, A. debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. itatiaiensis Baldin et al., 2013, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. singularis Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. stanjewetti Froehlich, 2002, A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. vanini Froehlich, 2004, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson and Bianchi, 1905), K. obtusa Klapálek, 1916, Tupiperla gracilis (Burmeister, 1839) and T. robusta Froehlich, 1998. Additionally, two new species of Anacroneuria are described, A. paprockii n. sp. and A. mineira n. sp., and a list of species from Minas Gerais State is presented. PMID:25284668

  19. Effect of Fiscal Policy Shocks in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ackon, Kwabena Meneabe

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a comprehensive assessment of the effect of a fiscal policy shock in Brazil. I found that gross domestic product does not rise in the short run in response to the fiscal policy shock albeit it rises in the long run. In addition, I found that unlike an advanced economy like the USA, the response of both fiscal and monetary variables estimated in the VAR are very volatile with the stock price index which represents Brazil’s financial sector in the VAR model responding negativ...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DEN are found as four antigenically distinct serotypes designated DEN-1, 2, 3, and 4. Laboratory evidence that strain-intratypical variation occurs among DEN viruses has been demonstrated since the 1970s, although only with the advances in molecular technologies has it been possible to determine the genetic variability of each serotype. Genotypical identification has proven to be a useful tool for determining the origin and spread of epidemics and to correlate virulence of strains. In this report we present the results of molecular epidemiological studies with the DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses that caused dengue epidemics in Brazil during the last decade.

  1. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  2. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.C.F.; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided t...

  3. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa, two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia, one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii, one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii. Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  4. On high interest rates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lafaiete Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the question of why interest rates are so high in Brazil as compared to the international average. It looks at theoretical arguments based on excessive government deficits, structural lack of private savings, inflation bias, excessive investment demand and fear of floating. An informal look at the evidence does not strongly corroborate any of these arguments. Hence a wise central bank should consider "testing" the market to make sure it is not dealing with an extreme equilibrium configuration or a long standing disequilibrium.

  5. A Central Brazil GT5 Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Caixeta, D.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-truth (GT) events, accurately located with a precision of 5 km (GT5 event) and associated travel times to regional stations are important in developing precise velocity models. The low Brazilian seismicity, with only three continental earthquakes of magnitude five in the last three decades, and the low number of seismic stations explain the difficulty to detect events at regional distances. In the world maps of GT events, Brazil appears almost empty. In Stable Continental Interiors, like Brazil, it is difficult to find an event fulfilling all the GT5 prerequisites, particularly in respect with the number of picked phases and azimuthal gaps. Recently PTS-CTBTO has organized meeting and workshops to encourage seismologists from South and Central America to cooperate with the work of identifying GT5 events in these countries, with a goal of developing a 3-dimentional velocity model for this part of the globe not covered yet like Europe and North America. As a result we studied a recent magnitude 5 event in Central Brazil detected by few regional stations. Aftershock studies with local stations, showed a fault 5 km long. Taking the mainshock epicenter as the center of fault the maximum error would be minimal, 2.5 km, assuming the events were located with zero uncertainty. The parameters depth and origin time source were precisely determined using correlations between waveforms of six events and stations corrections. The event magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.0 (mainshock, taken as reference event) recorded by regional and local stations. Events recorded at local and regional stations were used to determine the regional station corrections. These events were located only with data from local stations, assigning to the regional stations P and S phases zero weight in order to determine residuals for each regional stations used. The stations corrections were taken as the average of the residuals at each station. Precise pickings of P and S phases for the mainshock

  6. Uranium exploration in Brazil and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the works of prospecting and exploration of uranium in Brazil since 1952 is described in its principal phases: the descovery of the first uranium indications in Pocos de Caldas and Jacobina; the technical cooperation agreements with the United States Government in 1955; the action of CNEN, in 1962, through its Mineral Exploration Department; the increasing of financial resources in the 70's; the foundation of NUCLEBRAS in 1974 and (within the agreement with the FRG) of its subsidiary NUCLAM, in association with'Urangesellschaft'. The evolution of the investments and of the number of technicians involved in these different phases is shown. (I.C.R.)

  7. The "hot money" phenomenon in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Gaulard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high interest rates, Brazil attracts more and more speculative capital flows, called "hot money", under the form of foreign loans, direct or portfolio investments. Actually, the country is directly involved in a carry-trade strategy that tends to appreciate the real, what penalizes the Brazilian exportations of manufactured products. Moreover, capital inflows are extremely volatile, and their departure, causing a fall in loans granted to the Brazilian private banks, could provoke a dangerous burst of the speculative bubble they have contributed to form in the Brazilian real estate sector.

  8. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  9. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author)

  10. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  11. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  12. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... criteria in making a sale. Best Prospects/Services Brazil's strengthened currency has meant that private... discuss industry developments, opportunities, and sales strategies. Commercial Setting Brazil is the... 30% of the import market, with U.S. sales mainly going through local agents, distributors...

  13. Vulnerabilidade socioambiental, redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência: lições do terremoto no Haiti e das chuvas fortes na Região Serrana, Brasil Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Machado de Freitas; Mauren Lopes de Carvalho; Elisa Francioli Ximenes; Eduardo Fonseca Arraes; José Orlando Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Dados sobre desastres no mundo apontam para uma maior gravidade nos países com menores níveis de desenvolvimento econômico e social. Neste contexto, políticas de redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência constituem prioridades na agenda do desenvolvimento sustentável, estando entre os temas eleitos para a Rio+20. O objetivo deste artigo é, através de uma contribuição de natureza conceitual e dos exemplos de desastres em países com níveis de desenvolvimento diferentes, o terre...

  14. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the...

  15. 76 FR 19315 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... certain orange juice from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR... Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  16. 76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Administrative Review, 74 FR 40167 (Aug. 11, 2009); and Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of... Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006). These deposit requirements shall remain in...

  17. 77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20, 2012... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...

  18. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.;

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut sampl...

  19. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences. PMID:25578002

  20. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  1. Paragonimiasis: first case reported in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case from a 59 years old white female Brazilian patient, based in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil's northeastern side area, who experienced irritative cough and progressive dyspnea, and, after 18 months, was admitted to a hospital with respiratory insufficiency. The physical exam showed diffuse rales in both hemithoraces. Initial leukogram showed 14,400 cells/mL with 14% of eosinophils and chest X-ray showed peribronchovascular infiltrate, predominating in the lower half of the lung fields, and small opaque nodules. The high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest (HRCT presented compatible pattern with airways disease, especially from the small airways, with air trapping, tree sprouting images, central lobular nodules and bronchiectasis, making the results compatible with bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. The transbroncho biopsy unveiled granulomatous lesion with necrosis, where was noticed a structure compatible to a parasitic case, and the research of the parasite eggs in the sputum was positive to paragonimus. After the praziquantel use, the patient presented a thick ferruginous expectoration and the result for BAAR examination was positive. The PCR exam and the sputum culture confirmed M. tuberculosis, and then the treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated. The authors warn that this infection may have been a consequence of economics globalization process, where the importation of parasitized crustaceans might be the cause. However, there is the need of an accurate examination for the possibility of paragonimus specimens in this area of Brazil.

  2. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wzorek LF

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results: A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  3. News and views: nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos, E-mail: leonam@eletronuclear.gov.br [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    No energy, whether renewable, clean or known by any other name can possibly be relied upon as the only solution for ensuring a supply of electricity compatible with a nation's economic and social development. Brazilian consumption and installed capacity of electric power generation per capita indices are still inadequate and below the world average-this crucial fact must be considered. It obliges Brazil to take the most advantage of all resources available to increase its electricity generation capacity as rapidly as possible, thereby enabling consumption to reach levels compatible with the quality of life the Brazilian population aspires to. The planning of a country's electric system requires efficient management of a diversified portfolio of energy sources. In Brazil, hydroelectricity will continue for many years yet to be the main component of its portfolio of electric power generation sources, but it must be supplemented by thermal sources- uranium, coal, biomass, natural gas, and oil by-products derived from petroleum-in this order of importance, keeping in mind aspects related to local availability, cost, environmental impacts, and use in other applications. (author)

  4. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  5. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  6. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  7. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  8. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  9. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  10. [Blood regulation in Brazil: contextualization for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Júnior, João Batista; Costa, Christiane da Silva; Baccara, João Paulo de Araújo

    2015-10-01

    The use of blood products as essential medicines and the recognition of the high risk associated with blood transfusions require governments to take regulatory action with a focus on quality and safety. In this scenario, regulatory agencies play an essential role in socially advancing the guarantee that blood components will be produced according to current operating rules. Thus, in the effort to manage sanitary risks involved in the processing and use of blood, the Brazilian regulatory model, based on the construction of a national blood policy overseen by the State, has undergone conceptual improvement and review of the tools employed to achieve its goals. With the inclusion of good manufacturing practices as part of the Brazilian norms, as recommended by the World Health Organization, the country has moved forward in its view of blood facilities as manufacturing centers producing blood-derived biologics for therapeutic applications. It has also strengthened the need to develop safety mechanisms for blood donors and recipients. The development of a State-coordinated national blood policy and the institution of a national surveillance system with legitimate power of inspection are essential elements used in Brazil to guarantee the amount, quality, safety, and timeliness of blood supply to the population. The present article aims to discuss the present context of the blood regulatory model in Brazil so as to identify the challenges for improvement of this model. PMID:26758225

  11. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS Marilena dos Anjos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25° C and 30° C showed growth of white and cottony aerial micelium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution

  12. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school. PMID:26602728

  13. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, O.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  14. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.)

  15. The changing face of autism in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Clarice; Costa Andrada, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    At the end of 2012, after intensive lobbying by parent activist associations, a federal law recognized autism as a "disability for all legal purposes" in Brazil. Defining autism as a disability was more than a change of legal status to guarantee social benefits. It was also a political maneuver, orchestrated by parent associations, aimed to take the responsibility for treatment away from the public mental health network of services. This article examines the controversies that have set parent associations in direct antagonism with mental health professionals in the public health system. We draw from ethnographic data and theoretical discussions in the field of disability studies to situate these controversies within the context of a larger debate on the relationship between health, rights, and citizenship. We found similarities between the ethical and political goals of parent activists and mental health professionals in Brazil, but we argue that the main cause of dissent is the role that each of these social actors assigns to identity politics in their clinical and political projects.

  16. Overview of flue gas treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal mines in Brazil are primarily located in southern part areas. The total coal reserves are approximately 32.8 billions tons, 89% of which are located in Rio Grande do Sul state. The Brazilian agriculture potentiality is very high, mainly due to the availability of flat land and the existence of industrial capacity to supply the main fertilizers needs. Electron beam flue gas treatment process ensures simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOX from flue gases by single process, requiring no additional wastewater treatment system and can produce useful nitrogen fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 as by-products. During the TC Project BRA/8/021 - Pilot Plant for Electron Beam Purification of Flue Gas supported by IAEA (1995-1996), a laboratory facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was set at IPEN. In 1997, an official request from Brazilian Government, Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) and IPEN was made for the Japan Consulting Institute (JCI) to prepare feasibility studies of air pollution control by electron beam flue gas treatment in three power generation companies. These companies are responsible for the power generation, the transmission and the supply of electricity to Brazil: Jorge Lacerda – Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A., Presidente Medici – Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Piratininga – AES Eletropaulo Thermal Power Plants. (author)

  17. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  18. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  19. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  20. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellato, L. P. C.

    2009-04-01

    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by

  1. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  2. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.

  3. Property Rights, Land Conflict and Tenancy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lee J. Alston; Bernardo Mueller

    2010-01-01

    Tenancy has been a means for labor to advance their socio-economic condition in agriculture yet in Brazil and Latin America, tenancy rates are low compared to the U.S. and the OECD countries. We test for the importance of insecure property rights in Brazil on the reluctance of landowners to rent because of a fear of expropriation arising from land reform. Since 1964, the Land Statute in Brazil has targeted rental lands for redistribution. The expropriation of farms, resulting from land confli...

  4. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino de Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará” in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  5. Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applie...

  6. Origin and Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo; Gonzalo Bello; Hector Romero; Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n = 107) of E gene sequences sampled betw...

  7. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  8. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  9. Sciences and races in Brazil ca. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Arteaga, Juan Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a general overview about the way in which Brazilian medicine and physical anthropology gave a naturalistic approach to the idea of race and to the «problem» posed by the mixture of races in the country during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the introduction of evolutionism in Brazil.

    El presente artículo trata de mostrar una visión panorámica sobre el modo en que la medicina y la antropología física brasileñas trataron la cuestión de las «razas» y el mestizaje durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX, a la vez que los principios evolucionistas pasaban a ser aceptados por la ciencia nacional.

  10. Peregrino : a heavy oil development offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, H. [StatoilHydro, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a commercial development plan for an offshore oil field located off the coast of Brazil. A 3-D reservoir flow model was combined with an integrated production system model in order to model water-flooding and water injection strategies as well as to determine optimal water handling capacity. Flow assurance modelling was also conducted. A 3-D geological model was developed using data from wells drilled on the field as well as data from a regional sedimentological model. Reservoir penetration will be approximately 40,500 meters. Multilateral wells will be used to increase reservoir penetration in the future. The first phase of the development will consist of a floating production, storage and offloading unit as well as 2 wellhead platforms. A combined power and heating system will be used to provide power for pumps and to heat water. It was concluded that a high recovery factor is needed to ensure the economic viability of the project. 5 figs.

  11. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  12. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources. PMID:15930560

  13. Literacy in Brazil: from Rights to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Timothy D.

    2008-11-01

    At a time when some 24% of the Brazilian population of 182 million are functionally illiterate, the author shows how illiteracy is concentrated in traditionally poor and disadvantaged social and ethnic groups as well as in certain regions of the country. He surveys the changes in legislation, policies and attitudes relating to literacy over the past few decades and describes how literacy is increasingly seen as a continuous process rather than a short-term, low-cost intervention. While there is still a lack of a broad, coordinated policy and adequate funding in this area, and while the challenges remain formidable, the author concludes that Brazil is moving slowly in the right direction.

  14. [National demonstration project on epilepsy in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Min; Sander, J W A S

    2003-03-01

    Epilepsy is the most prevalent non-communicable serious neurological condition worldwide. Unfortunately, the majority of people with epilepsy in low-income countries do not receive appropriate treatment. Stigmatisation is the rule. In this setting, the World Health Organisation, the International League against Epilepsy and the International Bureau for Epilepsy launched the Global Campaign against Epilepsy in 1997. This entered its second phase in 2001 and as part of it has set up demonstration projects in the People's Republic of China, Zimbabwe, Senegal and, more recently, in Brazil. The objective of the demonstration projects is to show, through methodological evaluation, that it is possible to establish a model of treatment for people with epilepsy in primary health care settings. The Brazilian demonstration project has targeted regions in Campinas and S o Jose do Rio Preto, both in Sao Paulo State. A task force has been established to assess strategies to expand this project nationwide. PMID:12715043

  15. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  16. The Elusive New Middle Class in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Lessa Kerstenetzky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the generalized reduction of poverty in the world, and particularly in Brazil, this article intends to gauge the socio-economic profile of Brazilian households that emerged from poverty and have been identified as integrating a "new middle class". Using indicators of standards of living from the 2008-2009 Survey on Family Budgets (POF/IBGE, we found out that, in contrast to what has been assumed on the basis of average income criteria, this social stratum is markedly heterogeneous, most of it being similar in their consumption patterns to the economically vulnerable or outright poor strata. So, we conclude that, from a sociological perspective that demands additional conditions besides income levels to identify social classes, it is a category mistake to call this social stratum a new middle class. We conjecture that this may be consequential in terms of policy priorities and choices.

  17. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  18. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  19. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable. PMID:27355570

  20. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable.

  1. Transferring ART research into education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART approach in Brazilian dental schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the followig subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. RESULTS: A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%, and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%. The majority (35.3% of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%. It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice, and the disciplines involved in its teaching. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil.

  2. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  3. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  4. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  5. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coêlho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Santos, A P; Forte, E B; Morais, S M; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Herxheimer, A

    1993-05-15

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil, where abortion is legal only in cases of rape or incest, or to save the woman's life. Because misoprostol is an inefficient abortifacient, many women who use it have incomplete abortions and need uterine evacuation. We reviewed the records of women admitted to the main obstetric hospital of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Brazil, between January, 1990, and July, 1992, for uterine evacuation after induced abortion. The number of incomplete abortions induced by misoprostol increased substantially during the first half of 1990, and declined thereafter. Of the 593 cases in 1991, 75% were related to misoprostol, 10% to the use of other specified drugs, and 6% to unspecified drugs. For the remaining 9% the procedure used was not recorded; these included 3% in whom abortion had been induced by a clandestine abortionist. The number of uterine evacuations per month fell from 89 in August, 1990, to 62 in July, 1991, when sales of misoprostol in Ceará state were suspended. The fall continued after the sale of misoprostol ceased, to about 20 cases in December, 1991; numbers remained around this level until June, 1992, sustained by clandestine sales. The lack of access to contraception is the main reason for the large numbers of unplanned pregnancies and is a major public health issue for Brazilian women. The prohibition of abortion creates a void in which misuse of medicines is one extra complication, mainly because of the poor control of drug marketing. PMID:8098403

  6. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Mission to Brazil, 77 FR 13560, Mar. 7, 2012, to announce that the Mission will be executive-led and to... Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications section of the Notice of the Education Mission to Brazil, 77 FR... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S o...

  7. China in Talks with Brazil over Trade Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China is in talks with Brazil on lifting trade barriers that would allow the Latin Ameri-can country to sell it more processed agricul-tural goods; Brazilian government officials have told the Financial Times.

  8. Genetic Improvement of Crops by Mutation Techniques in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture in Brazil has a prominent position in the country's economy due to its large spread under diverse but suitable climatic conditions which are indispensable for higher performance of many crops. Therefore, constant efforts in plant breeding by traditional methods have led Brazil to be internationally recognized as a tropical agricultural country. Spontaneous mutations constitute the source of genetic variability and have been long utilized by breeders. In Brazil, various cultivars of seed propagated, as well as vegetatively propagated plants, were obtained from spontaneous mutation, such as cultivar 'Carioca' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cultivar 'Bahianinha' (Citrus sinensis L.). After introduction of mutation induction in Brazil, several breeding programmes using mutagens, such as nuclear radiation, alkylating and non-alkylating chemical compounds, have been carried out to increase crop production. As will be reported, various mutants were selected or are in the process of selection. (author)

  9. Household and family characteristics of street children in Aracaju, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelgalil, S; Gurgel, R; Theobald, S.; Cuevas, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the family background of street children in Aracaju, Brazil, their parents' perception of street life, and the reasons for the high prevalence of males observed among street children.

  10. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.)

  11. Nuclear proliferation. I. Atoms for Brazil, dangers for all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Germany and Brazil, by seeking to establish their independence in the transfer of nuclear technology to a developing country, have raised international anxieties over how to finance and manage nuclear trade in a way that will secure peace. The deal, which commits the two countries to a program of uranium exploration and mining, enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and power plant construction, means food supplies, jobs, and contracts for Germany and economic development for Brazil. Of concern to the rest of the world are the opportunities for diverting nuclear materials to weapons. Both countries have agreed to comply with the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards agreement, but Brazil is not bound by it. Brazil's development is making her the dominant power in South America and altering her relationship with the United States. A review of the West German-Brazilian agreement focuses on the historical competition for export markets and the lessening of U.S. control over the enriched uranium market

  12. Three new species of Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M. CHARNEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia maculata, C. paranaensis and C. quiririensisare described as new to science. These species were found between the altitudes of 900 to 1887 meters on the Serra do Mar Mountain in Southern Brazil.

  13. Privatization of Brazil's petroleum sector on track despite scandal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the push to privatize Brazil's petroleum sector remains on track despite the taint of scandal that hit state oil company Petroleos Brasileiro SA and the ensuing political crisis for the administration of President Fernando Collor de Mello. Collor's efforts to reform Brazil's beleaguered economy have focused heavily on privatizing state-owned companies by selling assets or ending monopolies. Nowhere is that task more daunting than with Petrobras, one of the world's biggest petroleum companies, which has an entrenched monopoly over most upstream and downstream operations in the country. Collor and the energy ministers and chiefs of Petrobras during his administration have pressed measured to inject free market principles in Brazil's petroleum sector. The Collor administration earlier this year sent a bill to Brazil's Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to end Petrobras monopoly over exploration, production, transportation, refining, and exports and imports of oil and gas. The amendment is expected to be voted upon in 1993

  14. Estimated Zika virus importations to Europe by travellers from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Massad, Eduardo; Tan, Ser-Han; Khan, Kamran; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the interconnectivity of Brazil with the rest of the world, Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have the potential to spread rapidly around the world via viremic travellers. The extent of spread depends on the travel volume and the endemicity in the exporting country. In the absence of reliable surveillance data, we did mathematical modelling to estimate the number of importations of ZIKV from Brazil into Europe.Design: We applied a previously developed mathematical model on import...

  15. Competitiveness of Brazil in the wood international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Brazilian lumber on the international market in the period 2000 to 2007. The methodological tools used to compare the competitiveness of Brazil with its main competitors were the rates of Relative Position Marketing (PRM and Revealed Comparative Advantage (VCR. The results point out to the fact that, although Brazil has proved competitive, it is necessary to use marketing strategies aimed at increasing the country’s competitiveness in this sector.

  16. The sharing economy in Brazil: the case of gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚRBOVÁ, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    After years of boom, Brazil will experience a recession this year. There was a significant imbalance in recent years from a budgetary point of view, inflation and foreign exchange. Protectionist Brazilian policy don't support foreign trade. Therefore consumers in the current recessive market environment are more willing to work with so-called collaborative consumption, even though Brazil is a country with one of the highest crime rate and the level of trust of consumers is lower than in other...

  17. Taxonomy of Epyris (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyane Moreira dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Epyris rotundus sp. nov. and Epyris cochlear sp. nov., from southern Brazil, are described and illustrated. Epyris longus Corrêa & Azevedo, 2002, E. argentinicus Evans, 1969, E. angustatus Evans, 1969, E. perpolitus Evans, 1969, E. parallelus Evans, 1969, E. distinctus Corrêa & Azevedo, 2002, E. variatus Corrêa & Azevedo, 2002, E. jugatus Evans, 1969, E. intermedius Evans, 1969 and E. depressigaster Evans, 1966 are recorded for the first time to Paraná, Brazil.

  18. Would Trade Liberalization Help the Poor of Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Filho, Joaquim Bento de Souza; Horridge, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential effects of world agricultural trade liberalization on poverty and regional income distribution in Brazil, using an inter-regional applied general equilibrium (AGE) and a micro-simulation model of Brazil tailored for income distribution and poverty analysis by using a detailed representation of households. The model distinguishes 10 different labor types and has 270 different household expenditure patterns. Income can originate from 41 different production ac...

  19. Brazil's experience with bioenergy: bioenergy and agriculture promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jose Roberto

    2006-01-01

    "Brazil is the world's largest producer of ethanol, a biofuel used mainly in automobiles as an additive or alternative to gasoline. In the mid-1970s the country undertook a major program to produce ethanol, and since then the industry has had both successes and failures. Although Brazil's program was criticized as being uneconomic during periods of low oil prices, the ethanol industry today is recognized as an efficient sector that brings substantial benefits to the Brazilian economy... For c...

  20. Analysis, Design and Implementation of Biodiesel Projects in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Junior, Aziz Galvao; Perez, Ronaldo; de Oliveira, Rodolfo Osorio

    2008-01-01

    During the oil crisis of the seventies, Brazil has developed a successful program for gasoline substitution by ethanol (Proálcool). Nowadays the biomass accounts for 27% of total national energy consumed in Brazil and the ethanol participates with 40% of the total national fuel consumption of Otto cycle vehicles. In 2004, the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Biodiesel Program) was launched. One priority of the Biodiesel Program is the inclusion of family agriculture a...

  1. A new species of Acteon (Opisthobranchia: Acteonidae from Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Magenta Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acteon Montfort 1810, Acteon mirim sp. nov., from Canopus Bank, state of Ceará, Brazil is described based on shell morphology. The new species is compared with other species of the genus reported from Brazil. It differs from other Brazilian species in having a whitish color with dark orange-brown spiral bands and a shell surface covered with small spiral grooves, regularly rectangular.

  2. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zé-Zé

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  3. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina....

  4. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Marteleto; Molly Dondero

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first bir...

  5. A new recent marine Ostracoda species (Hemicytheridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbra João Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostracods were collected on Sargassum sp. from the littoral of São Sebastião, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. A new species, Aurila ornellasae, is illustrated and described based on a population with various instars and adult specimens. This is the first living species of this genus described from Brazil. A brief discussion on the systematics of the genus Aurila Pokorný, 1955 and its allied genera is presented.

  6. Technological Strategies of Transnational Corporations Affiliates in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Franco; Ruy de Quadros Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the technological efforts made by Transnational Corporations(1) (TNCs) affiliates in Brazil. Many studies have indicated that most TNCs concentrate their main technological activities in their home, developed countries. However, empirical investigation has shown TNC affiliates in Brazil have presented a higher profile than local firms in terms of both innovative performance and R&D efforts. This study is an attempt to examine the technological efforts of TNC...

  7. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anie Savi Serafim; Gustavo Pasquali Moretti; Guilherme Savi Serafim; Cintia Vieira Niero; Maria Inês da Rosa; Maria Marlene de Souza Pires; Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Methods Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. Results The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, p

  8. Exchange Rate Volatility and the Fear of Floating in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Holland

    2006-01-01

    Many emerging market economies (EMs) have adopted a floating exchange rate regime after currency crises. Since 1999 Brazil has experienced a floating regime combined with inflation targeting. The Central Bank varies the interest rates in order to reach the targeted inflation rates and consequently the variability of the interest rates has been higher than the variability of the exchange rates. According to some economists, this is a clear symptom of the fear of floating and Brazil can not be ...

  9. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos; Rafael Laitano Lionello

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF) in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been gr...

  10. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  11. Cash transfer in Brazil and nutritional outcomes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of conditional cash transfer programs on diet and nutrition outcomes among beneficiary families in Brazil. METHODS A systematic review of literature was carried out with original evaluation studies conducted in Brazil, including all types of clinical trials and observational studies. The search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS databases for papers published since 1990. The studies were analyzed according to the program evaluated, pa...

  12. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  13. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  14. Erosão hídrica em latossolo vermelho sob diversos sistemas de manejo do cafeeiro no Sul de Minas Gerais Water erosion in red latosol under diverse coffee plant management systems at South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica contribui para a redução da sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas. O presente estudo avaliou, sob condições de chuva natural, as perdas de solo, água, nutrientes e matéria orgânica em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, com 12 % de declividade, localizado na região de Lavras (MG. O trabalho foi conduzido em parcelas experimentais de perdas de solo. Os sistemas de manejo estudados foram: café sob cultivo convencional, com capina manual (CCC; cultivo convencional, com roçado (CCR; cultivo convencional, com utilização de herbicida (CCH; cultivo orgânico, com capina manual (COC; cultivo orgânico, com roçado (COR; e como referência parcela com solo descoberto (SD. Nos sistemas de manejo em que foi mantida a cobertura da vegetação espontânea (roçado, obteve-se maior eficiência de proteção do solo quando comparado aos sistemas onde houve exposição do solo (capina. No sistema com utilização de herbicida, observou-se um comportamento intermediário. Todos os sistemas de manejo estudados se mostraram conservacionistas quanto à proteção do solo em relação à erosão hídrica, onde o espaçamento adensado merece ser enfatizado.Water erosion reduces the sustainability of agricultural systems. The present study evaluated under natural rainfall, the soil, water, nutrients and organic carbon losses in a typic dystroferric Red Latosol, with 12 % slope, located at Lavras region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The work was conducted in soil losses experimental plots. The studied treatments were: coffee under conventional cultivation with manual weeding (CCC; conventional cultivation with cleared undergrowth (CCR; conventional cultivation with herbicide use (CCH; organic cultivation with manual weeding (COC; organic cultivation with cleared undergrowth (COR; and test plot with bare soil (SD. In the systems where the expontaneous vegetation covers were maintained (cleared undergrowth there was more

  15. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo

    Full Text Available The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3 at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107 of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean, while the fourth one (BR-IV was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000 and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002, respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance.

  16. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Bello, Gonzalo; Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. PMID:22970331

  17. Aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil: limnology and management Ecossistemas aquáticos do semi-árido brasileiro: aspectos limnológicos e manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Etham de Lucena Barbosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil include natural shallow lakes, artificial reservoirs and intermittent streams and rivers. These systems are distinctive features in the semi-arid landscape and comprise a range of associated systems functioning as an ever-changing mosaic of dry/wet patches. Lakes and reservoirs in semi-arid Brazil are subject to important periods of water shortages, whereas rivers and streams are characterized as highly variable and driven by the extremes of water flow and its absence. Within this view a catchment-scale approach must be used to create a holistic model to conceptualize and comprehend these aquatic systems, since the aquatic environment types in the semi-arid region of Brazil incorporate broader aspects within the catchment scale such as geomorphology, vegetation, climate and land use. This paper summarizes some of the information on the aquatic systems of the Brazilian semi-arid region and shows the importance of limnological studies in this region. It also attempts to establish perspectives for future research considering the catchment as a scale for surveying biological processes and limnological characteristics of the various aquatic systems. It is presented information on their overall structure and functioning, as well as characteristics of some biological communities, such as phytoplankton, periphyton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish. The importance of the understanding of eutrophication in reservoirs and the role of the dry phase in streams is emphasized, and information on possible actions of planning and management to improve water quality of reservoirs are presented.Os ecossistemas no semiárido brasileiro englobam lagos rasos naturais, reservatórios artificiais e rios e riachos intermitentes. Estes sistemas são particularidades na paisagem do semiárida e compreendem uma grande variedade de sistemas associados, funcionando como um mosaico em constante mudança entre épocas de

  18. Occupational exposure to natural radiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. A preliminary survey pilot program, that included six mines in Brazil (two coal mines, one niobium mine, one nickel mine, one gold mine and one phosphate mine), was launched in order to determine the need to control the radioactive exposure of the mine-workers. Our survey consisted of the collection and analysis of urine samples, complemented by feces and air samples. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and polonium were measured in these samples and compared to background data from family members of the workers living in the same dwelling and from residents from the general population of Rio de Janeiro. The results from the coal mines indicated that the inhalation of radon progeny may be a source of occupational exposure. The workers from the nickel, gold and phosphate mines that were visited do not require a program to control internal radiological doses. The niobium mine results showed that in some areas of the industry exposure to thorium and uranium might occur. (author)

  19. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  20. Malaria and antimalarial plants in Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, W

    1997-01-01

    One of the numerous problems created by the gold rush which took place in northern Brazil (Roraima State) at the end of the 1980s was a severe epidemic of malaria amongst the indigenous peoples of the region. Worst hit were the Yanomami Indians, who had lived in almost total isolation prior to this event. The problem has been exacerbated by the development of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In an effort to identify viable alternatives to dependence on western medicine for malaria treatment, a survey was carried out on the local plant species (wild and cultivated) used for this purpose in Roraima. Fieldwork was carried out amongst seven indigenous peoples, as well as with the non-indigenous settlers. Over 90 species were collected, many of which have been cited as used for treatment of malaria and fevers elsewhere. Knowledge of antimalarial plants was found to vary greatly between the communities, and in some cases there was evidence of recent experimentation. Initial screening of plant extracts has shown a high incidence of significant antimalarial activity amongst the species collected. PMID:9204719

  1. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  2. Radioactive characterization of phosphogypsum from Imbituba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims to characterize the content of natural occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum stacks at Imbituba, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, 238U and 232Th were determined in PG, soils and sediment samples by gamma spectrometry using the hyper pure germanium detector and neutron activation. The migration of radionuclides in the phosphogypsum profile did not show the same behavior for all sampling sites. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra was 95 Bq kg−1, which is far below the limit recommended by the U.S. Environmental Agency (USEPA) for its application in agriculture (370 Bq kg−1) and the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy Resolution 113 that established a reference level of 1000 Bq kg−1 of 226Ra or 228Ra for the use of PG in agriculture as well as building materials. -- Highlights: • Concentration of 238U and 232Th in the PG stack 1 indicated an igneous origin. • The origin of the stack 2 cannot be determined due the similar values. • Concentration of 226Ra is below the limit recommended for use in agriculture. • Distribution of radionuclides through the stacks profile was very heterogeneous. • Low concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in soils of the areas surrounding the stacks

  3. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  4. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  5. Radiation balance of soybeans grown in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an experimental study of the radiation balance over a growing soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) crop at a tropical agricultural experimental station, Jaboticabal (22°15′S 48°18′W), São Paulo, Brazil. Incoming shortwave radiation, S, net radiation, R, and the shortwave reflection coefficient, α, were measured over this crop from November 1976 to April 1977, and net longwave radiation, L, was deduced from the radiation balance equation. Hourly variation of the radiation components, S, αS, R and L, are presented for 4 nearly clear sky-days during the different growing crop periods. The diurnal variation of α is also presented for these 4 days. The mean daily albedo values for this vegetative surface were between 0.12 and 0.26, and inversely related to the vegetation height. A regression analysis of the radiation balance equation has been made, and the heating coefficient, β, and the longwave exchange coefficient, λ, obtained. The results of the study indicate that both β and λ are found to be descriptively helpful parameters in agricultural meteorology. Predicted regression equations for net radiation from shortwave radiation are presented for the different periods

  6. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  7. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  8. Palliative care and elderly health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Amaral Soares Abou Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years elderly population is increasing substantially, about 650,000 per year, as well as the concept of unifamílies, ie, families consisting of a single person. In this paper, is proposed a reflection about health of elderly in Brazil, and the conditions of a chronic disease and its acute state - terminal. In the actual society, capitalist and capitalized, the individual is valued by his production, losing his value when acquires a disabling illnesses. There is a growing need for work, and each time there is less time and resources to manage the permanence of an elderly patient at home, or pay for a caregiver. This situation leads families to resort to hospitalization, which in turn makes the hospitals overcrowded with patients in this state, affecting both emergency care as the treatment of chronic patients. This fact occurs due to lack of hospital infrastructure, as well by the lack of units of the healthy system capable of providing palliative care. The questioning about the elderly who need palliative care, and reflection about the type of care dispended for this kind of patient, should be the focal point of professional's reflections, capable to lead him to a new way of thinking and, consequently, to inspire him to act in a new way.

  9. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  10. NORM in Brazil - A General Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many industries using NORM in the world today and they have been growing in a large scale. This growth has drawn the international community's attention. They have been discussing the importance of being aware of the existence or not of radiological risks associated with the exploration of ores containing both uranium and thorium, as well as, the treatment of these manufactured products. This fact led to the elaboration of TECDOC's, documents, Safety Reports Series produced by IAEA, and the elaboration of norms, normative instructions and regulatory guides, for the regulatory bodies organisms of the other countries. In Brazil the evaluation of the radiological occupational risks associated with the NORM industries has been accomplished without a centralized coordination doing with that there are diversified actions and discontinued actions. The necessity of a planned evaluation is related to the growing numbers of the Brazilian NORM industry. Therefore, this work has as objectives: 1. To consolidate information of previous projects, to quantify and to identify the mining company and treatment and to order them in groups; 2. To quantify the number of workers involved in the production and to identify the potential risk of process industrial areas; 3.: To evaluate the industrial processing areas through direct measurements: dose rate, surface contamination radon monitoring and air samples collection and smear samples. (author)

  11. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  12. Dental radiographic exposures in Recife - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the operating conditions of x-ray equipment installed in dental clinics in Recife, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the implementation of radiation protection procedures. The results showed that 42% of the inspected units present field diameters out of the range of values recommended by either national or international radiation protection organizations. Non-invasive tests performed in the x-ray units indicated that the discrepancy between the preset time and the true irradiation time was higher than 10% in 69% of the cases. The discrepancy between the preset and the applied kilo voltage, on the other hand, was higher than 10% in 35% of the inspected units. The survey indicated that the majority of the clinics do not use either lead aprons or collars for patients and that films are processed manually, without using timers or thermometers. The test made to verify the adequacy of the film processing box showed that 75% of them had poor light filtration capacity. In view of the results obtained it is strongly recommended that a quality control program be implemented in dental radiological clinics in Recife (author)

  13. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Henrique V; Lopes, Mário Lucio; de Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2011-09-01

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO₂ by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. PMID:21735264

  14. The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Flávia

    2011-05-01

    Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.

  15. Assessing vaccine data recording in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio de Oliveira Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objectives: Vaccines represent an important advancement for improving the general health of a population. The effective recording of vaccine data is a factor for the definition of its supply chain. This study investigated vaccine data recording relatively to data collected from vaccination rooms and data obtained from a government-developed Internet platform. Methods: The monthly recorded total number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (alone or in combination with the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine doses administered in a medium-sized city of the Southeast region of Brazil was collected for the period January/2006 through December/2010 from two sources: City level (directly from vaccination rooms, the study "gold standard", and Federal level (from an Internet platform developed by the country government. Data from these sources were compared using descriptive statistics and the Percentage error. Results: The data values made available by the Internet platform differed from those obtained from the vaccination rooms, with a Percentage error relatively to the actual values in the range [-0.48; 0.39]. Concordant values were observed only in one among the sixty analyzed months (1.66%. Conclusions: A frequent and large difference between the number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine doses administered in the two levels was detected.

  16. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  17. Brazil advances subsea technology in Marlim pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-29

    Petroleum Brasileiro SA has extended several water depth records for subsea technology during a pilot project in giant Marlim oil field in the Campos basin off Brazil. Petrobras finished the 10 well Marlim pilot last December. The field's pilot phase was intended to begin early production and enable Petrobras to gather more reservoir data. Ten satellite wells, including two prepilot wells, were completed during the Marlim pilot phase with guidelineless (GLL) wet christmas trees designed and fabricated by FMC Corp., Houston, and CBV Industrial Mechanic SA, Rio de Janeiro. The subsea wells are producing 52,000 b/d of oil and 21.19 MMCfd of gas in water depths of 1,847-2,562 ft. Marlim pilot well flow is routed to a permanent semisubmersible floating production system (FPS). Oil moves from the FPS to a monobuoy that offloads to a shuttle tanker. In addition to marking the first successful uses of purpose-built GLL wet trees, FMC said the Marlim pilot project allowed GLL subsea technology to evolve from conceptual status into a proven deepwater completion method. The paper describes the project.

  18. Application of Multiple Evaluation Models in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Victal Saliba

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on two different samples, this article tests the performance of a number of Value Drivers commonly used for evaluating companies by finance practitioners, through simple regression models of cross-section type which estimate the parameters associated to each Value Driver, denominated Market Multiples. We are able to diagnose the behavior of several multiples in the period 1994-2004, with an outlook also on the particularities of the economic activities performed by the sample companies (and their impacts on the performance through a subsequent analysis with segregation of companies in the sample by sectors. Extrapolating simple multiples evaluation standards from analysts of the main financial institutions in Brazil, we find that adjusting the ratio formulation to allow for an intercept does not provide satisfactory results in terms of pricing errors reduction. Results found, in spite of evidencing certain relative and absolute superiority among the multiples, may not be generically representative, given samples limitation.

  19. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  20. Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722

  1. Making legal abortion accessible in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Leocádio, Elcylene; Andalaft, Jorge

    2002-05-01

    Abortion is legal in Brazil if it is the only means to save the woman's life or if the pregnancy is the result of rape. Although this has been the law for over 60 years, it has almost never been applied until recent years. In the past five years, the number of hospitals providing care to women victims of sexual violence has increased from 4 to 63, of which 40 are currently providing legal abortions. This paper describes a sensitization project and advocacy work carried out from within the obstetric and gynaecology establishment which has succeeded in motivating many key individuals and hospital staff to provide services for pregnancy termination in cases of rape. The dialogue between medical leaders and women's rights advocates and the emphasis on comprehensive care of women who have suffered sexual violence are key elements in the success of this initiative. The support of medical professionals, the organization and strength of the women's health and rights movement, the political support at federal, state and city government levels, including from the Federal Ministry of Health, and ongoing advocacy within the medical establishment have all been important elements in making the provision of services a reality. PMID:12369314

  2. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  3. Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it{exclamation_point}; Metatese de olefinas no Brasil: 'Brazil is romping it{exclamation_point}'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Jose Milton E.; Batista, Nouga C.; Carvalho, Rogerio M.; Santana, Sirlane A. A.; Puzzi, Paula N.; Sanches, Mario; Lima-Neto, Benedito S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: benedito@iqsc.usp.br

    2007-03-15

    Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts). In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community. (author)

  4. One-dimensional metal phosphonates based on 6-phosphononicotinic acid:A structural and magnetic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of 6-phosphononicotinic acid (pnaH3) and metal salts result in three new compounds, namely, M(pnaH)-(H2O)3·H2O [M = Co(Ⅱ) (1), Ni(Ⅱ) (2), Zn(Ⅱ) (3)]. These compounds are isostructural and contain 21 helical chains made up of corner-sharing {MO5N} octahedra and {PO3C} tetrahedra. The chains are further connected by extensive hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. Magnetic studies reveal that dominant antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated in both 1 and 2. Interestingly the dehydrated compound 1 shows metamagnetic behavior at low temperature.

  5. Acid leaching of scheelite concentrates; Lixiviacion acida de concentrado de scheelita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    The acid leaching in hydrochloric media of a tungsten concentrate (scheelite, CaWO{sub 4}) was studied. Of the above-mentioned, an insoluble solid (H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was obtained which were treated with an alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide, achieving the complete solubilization of the tungsten as wolframate ion (WO''2{sub 4}). The transformed fraction of tungsten increases with the temperature, as well as with a finer grain. A maximum dissolution of 88.5% (400 g/l HCL, 363 K and 20 {mu}m of particle size) was achieved for a 3 h process, of the dissolution process was interpreted by the recessive core model with formation of a layer of solid product for the whole range of variation of the parameters in study. the activation energy value was found to be 28.0kJ/mol. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pérez Cordero; Johanna Rojas Sierra; Johana Rodriguez Ruiz; Irma Arrieta Alvarez; Yenis Arrieta Alvarez; Andrés Rodríguez Carrascal

    2014-01-01

    Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton Título: quitosano actividad antibacterianaResumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiel...

  7. Cotton nanofibers obtained by different acid conditions;Nanofibras de algodao obtidas sob diferentes condicoes acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Eliangela de M.; Oliveira, Caue Ribeiro de; Mattoso, Luiz H.C., E-mail: eliangelat@yahoo.com.b [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio; Correa, Ana Carolina [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Palladin, Priscila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The thermal stability of cellulose nanofibers is related to their application and especially to polymer processing which temperatures of processing are around 200 deg C. In this work, nanofibers of commercial cotton were obtained by acid hydrolysis employing different acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture (2:1; sulfuric acid: hydrochloric acid).The morphology of the nanofibers were characterized by transmission microscopy (TEM), crystallinity by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal stability in air atmosphere by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated a very similar morphology and crystallinity among them. The main differences were relative to aggregation state e and thermal stability. The aggregation state of the suspensions decreases in the order HCl < H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HCl < H{sub 2}SO{sub 4-}. The hydrolysis with a mix of HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} resulted in cellulose nanofibers with higher thermal stability than those hydrolyzed with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The hydrolysis employed with a mixture of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids also showed a better dispersion than those suspensions of nanofibers obtained by hydrolysis with only HCl. (author)

  8. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton Título: quitosano actividad antibacterianaResumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 43863 y  K.  oxytoca ATCC 43086 y las fitopatógenas (Pectobacterium sp UDS y  Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Concentraciones de soluciones de quitosano  de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 3.5 % (v/v disuelto en  ácido acético de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 % (v/v fueron preparadas; a partir de estas concentraciones, mediante la técnica de Kirby-Bauer se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana in vitro. Los resultados de actividad antimicrobiana mostraron diferencias altamente significativas entre la especie de bacteria y los tratamientos de quitosano. Las bacterias P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 y ATCC 43863 fueron las más susceptibles a los tratamientos, mientras que E. faecalis, Pectobacterium sp y B. glumae mostraron resistencia. Los tratamientos T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9 en donde las concentraciones de quitosano estuvieron por encima a las del ácido acético, se presentaron mayores valores medios de actividad de antimicrobiana en mm y aumentó este valor para los tratamientos  T9 (5.8095 mm, T8 (6.00 mm para y  T9 (5.8095 mm, donde las concentraciones  de quitosano  de 2.5 y 3.5%, disuelta en ácido acético fueron igual a 2%.  Los resultados de este estudio en el Caribe Colombiano permitirán a futuro el reaprovechamiento del exoesqueleto de camarón como fuente de quitosano como un compuesto potencial frente al manejo al problema de salud pública ocasionada por las enfermedades bacterianas. Palabras claves: camarón, quitosano, bacterias, patógenas.Abstract: The work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan obtained from exoskeleton of shrimp, on seven pathogenic bacteria, five of which corresponded to human pathogenic strain (ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. oxytoca ATCC 43863 and ATCC 43086 and two phytopathogenic strain (Pectobacterium sp UDS and Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Solution of chitosan of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5% (v/v dissolved in 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (v / v acetic acid was prepared, and with these concentrations through the Kirby-Bauer technique and the antibacterial activity in vitro was evaluated. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed significant differences between the species of bacteria and chitosan treatments evaluated. P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 and ATCC 43863 were the most susceptible to the treatments, while E. faecalis, B. glumae and Pectobacterium sp were resistant. The treatments T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9, where chitosan concentrations were above the acetic acid, showed higher mean mm antimicrobial activity and this value increased to T9 treatments (5.8095 mm , T8 (6.00 mm and T9 (5.8095 mm, where chitosan concentrations 2.5 and 3.5% solution in acetic acid was equal to 2%. The results of this study in the Colombian Caribbean enable future reuse of the exoskeleton of shrimp as a source of chitosan as a potential compound to handle the public health problem caused by bacterial diseases.Key words: shrimp, chitosan, bacteria, pathogens. 

  9. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  10. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L

    2015-11-01

    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network.

  11. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  12. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  13. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L

    2015-11-01

    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network. PMID:26551290

  14. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  15. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  16. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  17. The Fate of the Forest in Brazil, 2000 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding the drivers of tropical deforestation is essential to research on global climate change and biodiversity loss, and would be particularly informative to ongoing international climate change negotiations. Geographically explicit maps of post-forest land cover can provide valuable information about the extent and spatial distribution of the major drivers of deforestation. Brazil is the country with the largest extent of tropical forest in the world and the one with the most tropical forest cover loss since the turn of this century. This fate of the forest study aims to determine which land covers have replaced forest cover in Brazil. Using a classification tree algorithm, we determined pasture and cropland extent in areas of forest cover loss in Brazil circa 2012. We used 30 m resolution Landsat data for the 2000-2013 time period as well as tree cover loss data from the Global Forest Change (GFC) maps published by Hansen et al. (2013). The GFC data was used to mask out areas not categorized as forest cover lost between 2000 and 2013. Additionally, the year of loss layer was used to disaggregate pasture and cropland extent by year. Our results comprehensively demonstrate the extent to which pasture is the dominant post-forest land cover in Brazil. More broadly, the product reveals spatiotemporal patterns of forest conversion to pasture and cropland in Brazil, which could lead to a better understanding of the underlying drivers of deforestation.

  18. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrius da Silva Martins; Mariana Fabris Xavier; Franciéle de Souza Masiero; Juliana Cordeiro; Patrícia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013). CONCLUSIONS...

  19. 75 FR 15687 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil AGENCY..., is organizing a Trade Mission to Brazil, to be led by a senior Commerce official. This event is... Brazil is the largest economy and population in Latin America, and offers considerable...

  20. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  1. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  2. A new species of the genus Xanthomicrogaster Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Shimabukuro, P.H.F.; Achterberg, van C.

    2002-01-01

    One new Xanthomicrogaster species from Brazil is described, and X. fortipes Cameron, 1911, is redescribed and reported from Brazil and Suriname for the first time. A key to the species is presented as well as data about the geographical distribution in Brazil.

  3. 75 FR 35444 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil AGENCY..., is organizing a Trade Mission to Brazil, to be led by a Department of Commerce official. This event... Brazil is the largest economy and population in Latin America, and offers considerable...

  4. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section...

  5. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications...

  6. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  7. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  8. 75 FR 49900 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Sales at Less than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910..., and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 55035, 55036 (September 24, 2008) (Final Determination). The Department... Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 24560 (May...

  9. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  10. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  11. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  12. 75 FR 67689 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661... Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 10022 (March... market. \\2\\ These results were unchanged in the final results of review (Stainless Steel Bar From...

  13. 75 FR 50999 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore, the scope of this order with regard to... Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006). These deposit requirements... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...

  14. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  15. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (April 20, 2012). We are issuing this determination and publishing... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of... on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is August 24, 2005,...

  16. 75 FR 18794 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006) (OJ Order). Subsequently, on March 2, 2009, the...; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore, the scope of this... Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR...

  17. 77 FR 21724 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore... of Critical Circumstances: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR 2183 (Jan. 13, 2006). As noted... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  18. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  19. 75 FR 75172 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 6, 2008, through October 31... covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See Polyethylene...

  20. 76 FR 72676 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 1, 2009 through October 31... duty order covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See...