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Sample records for brazil chuva acida

  1. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Evolution of the Planetary Boundary Layer on the northern coast of Brazil during the CHUVA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Diogo Nunes da Silva; Fernandez, Julio Pablo Reyes; Fisch, Gilberto

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the wind and thermodynamic structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) on the northern coast of Brazil (NCB) via the CHUVA datasets. Three synoptic conditions were present in the NCB region between March 1 and 25, 2010: a dry period, the Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Nighttime precipitation accounted for 78% of the total precipitation observed in the month, mainly during the ITCZ. In general, the surface meteorological fields were few changed by intense weather events due to proximity to the ocean and the predominant contribution of the northeasterly trade winds. There was also a weak sea breeze signal that maintained the horizontal moisture flow in the studied area. On dry days, the PBL depth was higher, drier, and warmer, resulting in stronger winds below 500 m. Moreover, trends throughout the period suggest that PBLs are near-neutral below 500 m. However, the wind variability was intensified by up to 20% due to downdrafts and higher wind shears during the deep convection mechanisms derived by UTCV. Furthermore, ITCZ mixed rainfall cooled the PBL at approximately 2 K, making it very stable according to the Richardson number classification adopted. The observed temporal and spatial scale represent challenges to the physical parameterizations used to improve numerical weather prediction models over tropical coastal areas.

  4. Erosividade e características hidrológicas das chuvas de Rio Grande (RS Erosivity and hydrological characteristics of rainfalls in Rio Grande (RS, Brazil

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    Marcos Gabriel Peñalva Bazzano

    2010-02-01

    ,0 % do intermediário e 24,2 % do atrasado. Da erosividade anual, 49,1 % correspondeu a chuvas do padrão avançado, 28,9 % a chuvas do padrão intermediário e 22,1 % a chuvas do padrão atrasado. O método da distribuição extrema tipo I foi adequado para obter as curvas de intensidade-duração-frequência. Os períodos de retorno da chuva podem ser calculados por meio das equações, utilizando os valores dos parâmetros encontrados, ou pelos gráficos das curvas de intensidade-duração-frequência.Specific rainfall characteristics vary among regions and their erosion potential must be known for the planning of agricultural and civil engineering activities. For Rio Grande (RS, Brazil, the erosivity and relationships with the precipitation and rainfall coefficient, rainfall hydrologic patterns and return period were determined based on rainfall data of 23 years. For each erosive rainfall the segments of the rainfall chart with the same intensity were separated together and the data registered in worksheets. The mean monthly and annual rainfall erosivity, the EI30 index in the International System of Units and the rainfall patterns were estimated using software Chuveros. The mean monthly values of precipitation and erosivity index were expressed as percentage of the mean annual values of these variables, resulting in the curve of accumulated distribution of precipitation and erosivity index in function of time. The rainfall coefficient (Rc was calculated. Pearson correlations and linear regressions between the erosivity index EI30 and the mean annual values of precipitation and rainfall coefficient were calculated. The rainfall return period was calculated for 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years. The mean annual value of EI30 was 5135 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, which is to be used as "R" Factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for Rio Grande and surrounding regions with similar climatic conditions. The regression equations for EI30 and precipitation and rainfall

  5. Modelos da distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas em Piracicaba, SP Time distribution models of intense rainfall in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

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    Décio E. Cruciani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da variação temporal de chuvas intensas é de grande importância na hidrologia, para a análise e previsão de eventos extremos, necessárias em projetos de controle de engenharia. Com esse objetivo, foram analisados dados de pluviogramas da cidade de Piracicaba, SP, do período de 1966 a 2000, para se determinar a distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas de 60 e de 120 min de duração. As chuvas de 60 min foram subdivididas em três intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 20 min cada um, enquanto as chuvas de 120 min foram subdivididas em quatro intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 30 min cada um. O modelo de distribuição da precipitação que predominou para as chuvas de 60 e 120 min, foi do tipo exponencial negativo, com 85,7 e 50,7% dos casos, respectivamente. Para as chuvas de 60 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 20,7 mm, a distribuição foi de 72,3, 21,4 e 6,2% do total precipitado, respectivamente, nos três intervalos sucessivos de 20 min. Para as chuvas de 120 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 33,3 mm, o resultado foi de 60,1, 25,2, 11,1 e 3,6%, respectivamente, nos quatro intervalos sucessivos de 30 min. O modelo de distribuição temporal dessas chuvas não foi modificado pelo total precipitado nem pela sua duração, nos intervalos em questão.Time distribution models of intense and short rains are very important in hydrology and for extreme predictions in engineering projects. With this purpose, rain data of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, from 1966 to 2000 were analyzed to establish time distribution models of 60 and 120 min intense rains, during the rainy season from October through March. Time distribution models were assessed by three intervals of twenty minutes duration, for 60 min rains and by four intervals of thirty minutes duration for 120 min rains. The prevailing precipitation model for both, 60 and 120 min rains was a negative exponential distribution, in 85.7 and 50.7% of cases, respectively. For 60 min

  6. Equações de chuvas intensas para o estado do Pará Intense rainfall equations for the state of Pará, Brazil

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    Rodrigo O. R. de M. Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As equações de chuvas intensas têm sido usadas como ferramenta importante para o dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas. Devido à grande carência de informações relativas às equações de chuvas intensas, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção das relações de intensidade, duração e frequência de precipitação pluvial para o Estado do Pará, utilizando-se a metodologia da desagregação da chuva de 24 h. Foram utilizadas séries históricas de dados pluviométricos de 74 cidades do Estado do Pará, obtidas no Sistema de Informações Hidrológicas da Agência Nacional de Águas-ANA. As equações de intensidade-duração-frequência foram devidamente ajustadas e apresentaram bom ajuste, com coeficientes de determinação acima de 0,99. A maioria das estações (51,4% apresentou intensidade de precipitação entre 90 e 110 mm h-1, para uma duração de chuva de 30 min e um tempo de retorno de 15 anos. Pode-se perceber uma concentração das maiores precipitações na região próxima ao litoral do nordeste paraense e no sudeste da Ilha do Marajó.The intense rainfall equations have been used as an important tool for design of hydraulic structures. Considering the lack of intense rainfall equations, this study aimed to determine the relations of intensity, duration and frequency of intense rainfall in the Pará State (Brazil, using the one-day rain disaggregation method. In this research rainfall data of 74 cities in the State of Pará were used, obtained from the Hydrological Information System of the National Water Agency-ANA. The equations of intensity-duration-frequency were adjusted and presented good adjustment with coefficients of determination above 0.99. Most stations (51.4% showed intensity of precipitation between 90 and 110 mm h-1 for duration of 30 min and rainfall return period of 15 years. The highest rainfall intensities were in the region near the northeast coast of Pará State and southeast of the Marajo

  7. Análise de distribuição de chuva para Santa Maria, RS Analysis of rainfall distribution for Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Joel C. da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo em pauta teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição da quantidade diária de precipitação e do número de dias com chuva e determinar a variação da probabilidade de ocorrência de precipitação diária, durante os meses do ano, em Santa Maria, RS. Os dados de precipitação utilizados foram obtidos durante 36 anos de observação, na Estação Climatológica do 8º Distrito de Meteorologia, localizada na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (29º 43' 23" de latitude Sul e 53º 43' 15" de longitude Oeste, altitude 95 m. Analisaram-se as seguintes funções de distribuição de probabilidade: gama, Weibull, normal, log-normal e exponencial. As funções que melhor descreveram a distribuição das probabilidades foram gama e Weibull. O maior número de dias com chuva ocorreu durante os meses de inverno porém o volume de precipitação é menor nesses dias, resultando em total mensal semelhante para todos os meses do ano.The objectives of this study were to analyze the distribution of total daily rainfall data and the number of rainy-days, and to determine the probability variation of daily precipitation during the months of the year in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A 36-year rainfall database measured at the Climatological Station of 8th District of Meteorology, located in Santa Maria Federal University (29º 43' 23" S and 53º 43' 15" W were used in the study. The following probability distribution functions were tested: gamma, Weibull, normal, lognormal and exponential. The functions that best described the frequency distribution were gamma and Weibull. There were more number of rainy days in the winter, but with less amount of rainfall, resulting in similar monthly total precipitation for the twelve months of the year.

  8. Distribuição de frequência da chuva para região Centro-Sul do Ceará, Brasil Frequency distribution of rainfall for the South-Central region of Ceará, Brazil

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    Ítalo Nunes Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas sete distribuições de probabilidade Exponencial, Gama, Log-normal, Normal, Weibull, Gumbel e Beta para a chuva mensal e anual na região Centro-Sul do Ceará, Brasil. Para verificação dos ajustes dos dados às funções densidade de probabilidade foi utilizado o teste não-paramétrico de Kolmogorov-Smirnov com nível de 5% de significância. Os dados de chuva foram obtidos da base de dados da SUDENE registrados durante o período de 1913 a 1989. Para a chuva total anual teve ajuste satisfatório dos dados às distribuições Gama, Gumbel, Normal e Weibull e não ocorreu ajuste às distribuições Exponencial, Log-normal e Beta. Recomenda-se o uso da distribuição Normal para estimar valores de chuva provável anual para a região, por ser um procedimento de fácil aplicação e também pelo bom desempenho nos testes. A distribuição de frequência Gumbel foi a que melhor representou os dados de chuva para o período mensal, com o maior número de ajustes no período chuvoso. No período seco os dados de chuva foram melhores representados pela distribuição Exponencial.Seven probability distributions were analysed: Exponential, Gamma, Log-Normal, Normal, Weibull, Gumbel and Beta, for monthly and annual rainfall in the south-central region of Ceará, Brazil. In order to verify the adjustments of the data to the probability density functions, the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used with a 5% level of significance. The rainfall data were obtained from the database at SUDENE, recorded from 1913 to 1989. For the total annual rainfall, adjustment of the data to the Gamma, Gumbel, Normal and Weibull distributions was satisfactory, and there was no adjustment to the Exponential, Log-normal and Beta distributions. Use of Normal distribution is recommended to estimate the values of probable annual rainfall in the region, this being a procedure of easy application, performing well in the tests. The Gumbel frequency

  9. NetErosividade MG: erosividade da chuva em Minas Gerais NetErosividade MG: rainfall erosivity for Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Michel Castro Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A erosividade da chuva é um índice numérico que expressa a capacidade das chuvas em provocar erosão hídrica no solo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver um programa computacional para estimar os valores da erosividade da chuva no Estado de Minas Gerais com base em redes neurais artificiais (RNAs. O valor anual da erosividade da chuva é obtido pelo somatório dos valores mensais dos índices de erosividade EI30 ou KE > 25. Foram utilizados para cálculo de cada um desses índices dois métodos de obtenção da energia cinética de precipitação pluvial. Dessa maneira, obtiveram-se quatro valores de erosividade para cada mês, totalizando o desenvolvimento de 48 redes. As RNAs desenvolvidas foram implementadas no ambiente de programação Borland Delphi 7.0. O programa computacional desenvolvido foi denominado NetErosividade MG. O programa fornece, de forma fácil e rápida, os valores mensais e anual da erosividade da chuva para qualquer localidade do Estado de Minas Gerais.Rainfall erosivity represents the potential of rainfall causing soil erosion. This study aimed to develop a software to estimate rainfall erosivity in the state of Minas Gerais based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. The annual value of the rainfall erosivity is given by the sum of the monthly values of the erosivity indexes EI30 or KE > 25. Two methodologies were used to estimate the kinetic energy for each index. Thus, four erosivity values were evaluated for each month, resulting in the development of 48 ANNs. These ANNs were implemented using the software Borland Delphi 7.0. The new software was called NetErosividade MG. The program calculates the monthly and annual values of rainfall erosivity for any location in the state of Minas Gerais in an easy and fast way.

  10. Erosividade da chuva e erodibilidade de Cambissolo e Latossolo na região de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais Rainfall erosivity and erodibility of Cambisol (Inceptisol and Latosol (Oxisol in the region of Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são relativamente poucos os estudos envolvendo erodibilidade do solo, principalmente Cambissolos, dada a morosidade na obtenção dos resultados de experimentos com chuva natural. O conhecimento dos índices de erosividade e de erodibilidade é importante para o planejamento conservacionista, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade dos solos. Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar a erosividade da chuva e a erodibilidade de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob chuva natural, em Lavras (MG, no período de 1998 a 2002. Os dados de precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos na Estação Climatológica Principal de Lavras, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, próxima das unidades experimentais de perdas de solo. A erosividade (EI30 foi determinada a partir do produto da energia cinética da chuva pela sua intensidade máxima em 30 min. Estes dados, correlacionados com as perdas de solo, permitiram obter o índice de erodibilidade dos solos. A precipitação total média anual foi 1.287 mm e a erosividade média foi de 4.865 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. A erodibilidade foi 0,0355 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Cambissolo e 0,0032 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Latossolo, em consonância com seus atributos mineralógicos, químicos, físicos e morfológicos diferenciais.Relatively few studies in Brazil have investigated soil erodibility, mainly for Cambisols (Inceptisols, due to the tediousness of data collection in natural rainfall experiments. Knowledge about erodibility and erosivity is important for conservation planning, which contributes to soil sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the rainfall erosivity and erodibility of a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol and a typic dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under natural rainfall, in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1998 and 2002. Pluvial precipitation data were obtained from the main weather

  11. Estimativas de chuvas intensas para o Estado de Goiás Intense rainfall estimates for the Goiás State, Brazil

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    Luiz F. C. de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de estações pluviográficas e de séries históricas longas, tem levado os Engenheiros à utilização de metodologias que permitam expressar a relação intensidade-duração-freqüência de precipitações críticas. Com o objetivo de estimar as alturas de chuvas intensas, associadas a uma duração e freqüência, desenvolveu-se uma rotina computacional para ajustar os parâmetros do modelo de Bell para alguns municípios do Estado de Goiás. Para tal, empregaram-se séries históricas de precipitações diárias e de relações intensidade-duração-freqüência disponíveis para alguns municípios. Determinou-se, também, a relação entre a precipitação de 60 minutos e 1 dia de duração, para um período de retorno de dois anos. As informações geradas neste trabalho foram regionalizadas, permitindo a geração de mapas temáticos, visando a estimar a altura precipitada-duração-freqüência para as localidades desprovidas de registros. Para os municípios estudados, o modelo de Bell se ajustou-se perfeitamente, apresentando alternativa interessante na obtenção das alturas de chuvas intensas a partir de séries curtas. A reconstrução do modelo de Bell a partir da regionalização dos parâmetros ajustados permitiu a ampliação das equações que expressam a relação entre a precipitação máxima para diferentes durações e o período de retorno com baixos valores no erro-padrão da estimativa.The absence of pluviograph stations and of long historical series has induced engineers to use methodologies that allow them to express the intensity-duration-frequency relation of critical rainfalls. With the purpose of estimating the height of intense rain associated to a given duration and frequency, it was developed a computational routine to adjust the parameters of the BellÂ’s model to some municipal districts of the Goiás State. For such work it was employed historical series of daily precipitation and intensity

  12. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the coastal plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil Erosividade da chuva e tempo de retorno na bacia experimental da Aracruz, região dos tabuleiros costeiros brasileiros

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    Sérgio Gualberto Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the factors influencing water erosion is fundamental for the choice of the best land use practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is one of the most important factors of water erosion. The objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and the return period of rainfall in the Coastal Plains region, near Aracruz, a town in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, based on available data. Rainfall erosivity was calculated based on historic rainfall data, collected from January 1998 to July 2004 at 5 min intervals, by automatic weather stations of the Aracruz Cellulose S.A company. A linear regression with individual rainfall and erosivity data was fit to obtain an equation that allowed data extrapolation to calculate individual erosivity for a 30-year period. Based on this data the annual average rainfall erosivity in Aracruz was 8,536 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Of the total annual rainfall erosivity 85 % was observed in the most critical period October to March. Annual erosive rains accounted for 38 % of the events causing erosion, although the runoff volume represented 88 % of the total. The annual average rainfall erosivity return period was estimated to be 3.4 years.O conhecimento dos fatores que influenciam a erosão hídrica é de fundamental importância no planejamento do uso do solo. Dos fatores que alteram a erosão, a precipitação pluvial, expressa pela erosividade da chuva, é um dos mais importantes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a erosividade e o tempo de retorno para a região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, no município de Aracruz, ES. Para o cálculo da erosividade, foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de janeiro de 1998 a julho de 2004, obtidos em estações climatológicas automatizadas, localizadas em área experimental da Aracruz Celulose AS, que, para este estudo, geraram dados de 5 em 5 min. A análise de regressão linear entre precipitação pluvial e erosidade para esse per

  13. Erosividade, padrões hidrológicos, período de retorno e probabilidade de ocorrência das chuvas em São Borja, RS Erosivity, hydrological patterns, return period and probability of occurrence of rainfalls at São Borja, RS, Brazil

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    Elemar Antonino Cassol

    2008-06-01

    "R" da USLE, foi obtido de dados pluviométricos, representados pelo coeficiente de chuva, que pode ser utilizado para regiões climáticas semelhantes que apenas dispõem de dados pluviométricos. O valor da erosividade média anual de 9.751 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1 é esperado pelo menos uma vez a cada 2,2 anos, com uma probabilidade de ocorrência de 44,9 %.The erosivity potential of rainfalls can be estimated by some indexes, among them the EI30, which is given by the product of kinetic energy (E and rainfall intensity for a 30-minute period (I30. The purpose of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity, hydrological patterns, return period and probability of occurrence of erosive rainfalls in São Borja, RS, Brazil, based on diary rainfall charts of the FEPAGRO meteorological station, from 1956 to 2003. The duration and accumulated amount of each erosive rainfall were measured, entered in a spreadsheet, digitalized and processed by CHUVEROS software, which calculated the EI30 index and the monthly and annual total erosivity, besides determining the hydrological pattern of each rainfall. Most of the annual erosivity (76 % was concentrated between October and April, in the period of soil tillage, sowing and growth of summer crops. The most notable peak in the erosive potential was observed between March and April (1,260-1,269 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, when most crops are normally in full growth, while July and August were the months of lowest erosive potential (268-271 MJ mm ha-1 h-1. Of the total erosive rainfalls 47, 25 and 28 % had advanced, intermediary and delayed patterns, respectively, while these patterns corresponded to 50, 26 and 24 %, respectively, of the mean annual volume of erosive rainfalls and to 53, 25 and 22 % of the average annual erosivity. The mean annual index of erosivity in São Borja is 9,751 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. It represents the "R" Factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to be used in São Borja and regions with similar rainfall pattern

  14. Salvianolic Acid-A Induces Apoptosis, Mitochondrial Membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using Hoechst 33258 staining. The effect of the compound on mitochondrial membrane potential loss ... Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that salvianolic acid-A induced dose- dependent ..... aggregation and anticancer properties. It has.

  15. Erosividade da chuva: sua distribuição e relação com as perdas de solo em Campinas (SP Rainfall erosivity: its distribution and relationship with soil loss at Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Francisco Lombardi Neto

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de erosão de uma chuva, representado pelo produto da energia cinética pela intensidade máxima em 30 minutos, foi calculado para chuvas individuais, para Campinas (SP. Durante um período de 22 anos (de 1954 a 1975, o índice de erosão médio anual computado foi de 6.738 MJ.mm/ha.h.ano, tendo os valores variado de 3.444 a 13.830. Foram estabelecidas as distribuições mensais e estacionais do índice de erosão. Os dados mostraram que 62% do potencial de erosão anual ocorre durante dezembro-fevereiro. A freqüência de distribuição dos valores totais anuais e do valor máximo anual do índice de erosão seguiu o tipo de curva inclinada, típica de dados hidrológicos, mas o logaritmo dos dados apresentou distribuição normal. Foi encontrada alta correlação entre a média mensal do índice de erosão e a média mensal do coeficiente de chuva, o que simplifica o método para calcular o índice de erosão de um local.The rainfall erosion potential for individual storms was evaluated for Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The erosion potential of a rainstorm is the product of the rainfall energy and the maximum 30-minute intensity of the storm. Over a 22-year period the average annual erosion index computed was 6,738 MJ.mm/.ha.h.year (values ranged from 3,444 to 13,830. Monthly and seasonal distributions of the erosion index were established. The data showed that 62% of the annual erosion potential occurs during the period from December to February. The frequency distribution of the total annual and maximum annual individual storm erosion index was skewed, but the logarithms of the data appeared to be normally distributed. Expected average monthly and annual values of erosion potential may be readily estimated from local rainfall amount records by the equation EI = 68,730 (p²/P0,841. A high correlation was found between actual and estimated EI values.

  16. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)

  17. Contaminação de águas superficiais e de chuva por agrotóxicos em uma região do estado do Mato Grosso Groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in an agricultural region of Mato Grosso state in central Brazil

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    Josino Costa Moreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a contaminação de águas superficiais e de chuvas por agrotóxicos em dois municípios do estado do Mato Grosso, Lucas do Rio Verde e Campo Verde, situados entre os maiores produtores de soja, milho e algodão do estado e do país. A metodologia analítica combinou o uso de técnicas cromatográficas em amostras de água superficial e de chuva com análises ecotoxicológicas do impacto da contaminação por agrotóxicos sobre espécies bioindicadoras. Resultados das análises mostraram a presença de resíduos de diferentes agrotóxicos nas amostras de águas superficiais e de chuva coletadas nos dois municípios. Associados a estes dados, resultados das análises ecotoxicológicas mostraram a presença de anomalias em uma espécie de anfíbio anuro coletado em uma das duas localidades, compatíveis com exposição a agrotóxicos. Os resultados aqui apresentados e discutidos apontam para a degradação da qualidade de recursos hídricos da região, causada pelo uso intensivo de agrotóxicos na agricultura, incluindo fontes de água de consumo humano e de chuvas, amplificando o risco de contaminação para além das áreas de plantio.This study sought to analyze groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in two municipalities (Lucas do Rio Verde and Campo Verde of Mato Grosso state. The area is Brazil's mid-west situated among the major soybean, corn and cotton producers in the state and the country. The analytical methodology combined chromatographic techniques on groundwater and rainwater samples with eco-toxicological analyses of the impacts of contamination by pesticide on bio-indicator species. The results revealed the presence of different pesticide residues in the groundwater and rainwater samples collected in the two municipalities. In conjunction with this data, results of the eco-toxicological tests revealed the presence of anomalies in a bio-indicator species collected in one of the

  18. Erosividade, coeficiente de chuva, padrões e período de retorno das chuvas de Quaraí, RS Erosivity, rainfall coefficient and patterns and return period in Quarai, RS, Brazi

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    Marcos Gabriel Peñalva Bazzano

    2007-10-01

    intermediário e 18 % do atrasado. Das chuvas erosivas, 57 % da erosividade correspondeu a chuvas do padrão avançado, 25 % a chuvas do padrão intermediário e 18 % a chuvas do padrão atrasado.The planning of agricultural and civil engineering activities must be based on knowledge of rainfall erosion potential. For Quarai, RS, Brazil, the rainfall erosivity and its relationship with precipitation and rainfall coefficient, rainfall patterns and rainfall return period were determined. Daily rainfall data from the 1966-2003 period were used. For each erosive rainfall the segments of the rainfall chart with the same intensity were separated and the data recorded in a worksheet. The mean precipitation and rainfall patterns were estimated, as well as the monthly and annual erosivity by the EI30 index (International System of Units, using the software Chuveros. The rainfall coefficient was calculated. Pearson correlations and linear regressions between the erosivity index EI30 and the mean annual precipitation and rainfall coefficient (Rc were performed. The rainfall maximum intensity was calculated by the method of extreme distribution type I for different rainfall durations (1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h and rainfall return periods (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years. Equations were adjusted that relate the maximum intensity and rainfall duration to all return periods, by the method of simple linear regression, and the rainfall characteristics related in a graph. The mean annual values of EI30 (R factor of USLE determined for Quarai, RS, Brazil, was 9,292 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. The following equations were obtained: EI30 = -754.37 + 13.50 p (r² = 0.85 and EI30 = -47.35 + 82.72 Rc (r² = 0.84. In relation to the total precipitation studied, 44 % of the number of rainfalls and 90 % of the volume were erosive. Of the total rainfalls evaluated, 44 % of the number and 90 % of the volume were erosive. Of the total erosive rainfall events, 51 % had an advanced, 25 % had an

  19. Erosividade das chuvas associada a períodos de retorno e probabilidade de ocorrência no estado do Rio de Janeiro Rainfall erosivity associated to return periods and occurrence probability in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Roriz Luciano Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da erosividade das chuvas associada à probabilidade de ocorrência e ao período de retorno pode contribuir para o planejamento conservacionista de uma região, em médio e longo prazo. A fim de gerar informações para melhor utilizar modelos e controle da erosão, dados de chuvas de 30 séries pluviográficas e pluviométricas, abrangendo 25 municípios, entre 1933 e 2006, foram estudados quanto à adequação das séries e do cálculo da probabilidade de ocorrência teórica (P e período de retorno (T da erosividade das chuvas (EI30 e KE>25, para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi feita a espacialização do potencial erosivo associado aos períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 e 100 anos para todo o Estado. A erosividade anual média (EI30 ou fator R da USLE para qualquer localidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro pode ser igualada ou superada pelo menos uma vez, em média, em um período de 1,8 a 2,1 anos, com faixa de 48,5 a 54,9 % de probabilidade de ocorrência teórica. As localidades que apresentam maior erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno estão situadas nas mesorregiões Metropolitanas e em partes das mesorregiões Sul e Centro Fluminense. Foi possível identificar de oito a 12 regiões homogêneas, quanto à distribuição espacial da erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno de dois para 100 anos no Estado. De modo geral, a maior variação da distribuição espacial da erosividade apresenta-se na faixa de período de retorno de dois a cinco anos.Knowledge on rainfall erosivity associated to occurrence probability and return periods can contribute to conservation planning in the medium and long term. With the objective of generating information for a better use of medium and long-term erosion models and erosion control, rainfall data of 30 pluviometric and pluviographic data sets from 25 cities ranging from 1933 to 2006 were studied in terms of adjustment of data sets, calculation of the probability of

  20. Chuva de sementes em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Seed rain in a seasonal semideciduous forest at Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Érica Pereira de Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição florística, a densidade e a freqüência de sementes, em 25 coletores, em um trecho de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Além disso, classificar os táxons quanto à forma de vida, às síndromes de dispersão e, nas arbóreas, quanto ao estádio sucessional e verificar a similaridade florística entre as espécies identificadas na chuva de sementes e as espécies arbóreas localizadas nas mesmas parcelas dos coletores. O trabalho foi realizado entre dezembro/2004 a novembro/2006. Foram reconhecidos 43 táxons, sendo que Leguminosae foi representada por 11 espécies. A forma de vida dominante foi arbórea (63,1%, as lianas foram representadas por 28,9% das espécies amostradas, as herbáceas por 5,3% e as arbustivas por 2,6%. A densidade média de sementes no primeiro ano foi de 113,92 sementes.m-2 e no segundo de 2.603,84 sementes.m-2. Essas diferenças demonstraram heterogeneidade espacial e temporal da chuva de sementes. A similaridade florística encontrada pelo índice de Sørensen entre as espécies da chuva de sementes e as espécies arbóreas do trecho do fragmento estudado foi de 32%, valor considerado baixo (This study aims to evaluate the floristic composition, density and frequency of seeds in 25 traps in a section of seasonal semideciduous forest, as well as classify taxons as to life form, dispersal syndromes, and succession phase of the tree species, and verify floristic similarities between seed rain species and tree species located in the same plots. The work was carried out from December/2004 to November/2006. Forty three taxons were recognized and Leguminosae was represented by 11 species. The dominant life form was arboreal (63.1%, climbers were represented by 28.9% of the sampled species, herbs by 5.3% and shrubs by 2.6%. Mean seed density in the first year was 113.92 seeds.m-2 and 2603.84 seeds.m-2 in the second year. These differences showed spatial and seasonal heterogeneity

  1. A gênese da escassez de chuva em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, durante os meses de maio de 2003 e maio de 2005 = The genesis of scanty rainfall in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, during the months of May 2003 and May 2005

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    Leonor Marcon da Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar os sistemas atmosféricos geradores da escassez de chuvas durante os meses de maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Para atingir os objetivos propostos, utilizaram-se dados meteorológicos de superfície referentes às variações diárias dos elementos climáticos, com os quais se elaborou uma tabela para cada um dos meses em estudo, eleitos como amostragem de meses de maio secos. Para identificar os sistemas atmosféricos promotores dos diferentes tipos de tempo, tais tabelas foram analisadas concomitantemente à análise de cartas sinóticas meteorológicas de superfície, também diárias, e de imagens de satélite. Constatou-se que a escassez de chuva em Maringá durante os períodos estudados decorreu da atuação de anticiclones frios, que penetraram na retaguarda dos sistemas frontais, e da atuação do Sistema Tropical Atlântico sobre o continente, o qual geralmente bloqueava as frentes frias próximo à latitude de 30°S, de modo que estas se deslocavam para o Atlântico antes de alcançarem a área em estudo. The atmospheric systems accountable for scanty rainfall during May 2003 and May 2005 in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, are identified. Surface meteorological data on daily variables of climatic elements have been employed for the creation of a table for each month under analysis. They were chosen as dry May samplings. Tables were analyzed concomitantly with an investigation on daily surface meteorological synoptic charts and on satellite photos, so that the atmosphericsystems causing different types of climate might be identified. Results show that scanty rainfall in Maringá during the periods under analysis was caused by cold anti-cyclone activities which followed after frontal systems and by the activities of Atlantic TropicalSystem on the South American subcontinent. The latter normally blocks out cold fronts near latitude 30°S which, in turn

  2. Erosividade da chuva para o bioma Pantanal

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    Daniel Okamoto Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados pluviográficos na região do Pantanal fez com que muitos autores utilizassem equações de regressão obtidas em outras regiões do Brasil para calcular o Fator R da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (USLE. O presente estudo define equações para a previsão da erosividade em região do bioma Pantanal, correlacionando a erosividade das chuvas calculada pelo índice EI30 e o coeficiente de chuva (Rc. A equação desenvolvida, do tipo potencial, apresenta consistência e correlação significativa com os dados observados, obtendo valor de coeficiente de determinação de 97%. Portanto, a equação de erosividade proposta pode ser utilizada para estimativa do fator R da USLE a partir dos dados mensais e anuais de precipitação da região e de outras regiões com características climáticas semelhantes.

  3. Spatial variability of the rainfall erosivity in southern region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil Variabilidade espacial da erosividade da chuva na região sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2012-10-01

    do uso local da terra. Para tanto, determinou-se o fator erosividade para séries de precipitação pluviométrica, utilizando dados de precipitações obtidas junto à Agencia Nacional de Água - ANA, constituindo-se séries históricas que variaram de 15 a 40 anos. Os índices de erosividade mensais e anuais foram obtidos, utilizando a equação de Fournier utilizada em Lavras, MG e a variabilidade espacial da erosividade foi realizada com base nos princípios da geoestatística, considerando-se apenas a distância que os separa, construindo-se o semivariograma experimental isotrópico. O ajuste do semivariograma foi realizado com base no método dos Mínimos Quadrados Ponderados e no grau de dependência espacial. Definida a estrutura e o ajuste do semivariograma passou-se à fase de geração dos mapas de krigagem, gerando o comportamento espacial das erosividades, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. Observou-se que a região Sul de Minas Gerais apresenta elevados padrões de erosividade, com amplitude de 5.145 a 7.776 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1, para Ijaci (região norte e Itajubá (região sul, respectivamente. Os índices de erosividade da região do Sul de Minas Gerais foram considerados elevados e com forte influência da topografia, associados às características climáticas. Maiores erosividades estão associadas às áreas de maior altitude, como ao longo da Serra da Mantiqueira e em planaltos e serras elevadas no centro-norte da região. A abordagem geoestatística com dados de longo prazo de chuva para a região Sul de Minas Gerais, que é uma região relativamente heterogênea em termos de altitude, profundidade do solo e declive, mostrou-se adequada à proposta do presente estudo.

  4. Índice de cobertura vegetal pela cultura do milho no período de chuvas intensas no sul de Minas Gerais Plant cover index in the period of intensive rainfall for corn crop at south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

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    Fabiana Silva de Souza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura vegetal é a defesa natural do solo contra a erosão hídrica. Nos modelos de estimativas de perdas de solo, o efeito da cobertura vegetal na interceptação da energia cinética da chuva é a variável chave na modelagem do processo erosivo. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da cobertura vegetal, proporcionada pela cultura do milho, e suas relações com os atributos fitotécnicos desta cultura para alguns híbridos. O estudo foi realizado no campo demonstrativo de híbridos de milho da Universidade Federal de Lavras, localizada no município de Lavras, MG. Para determinação da cobertura vegetal utilizou-se um aparato que consiste em uma estrutura horizontal, contendo orifícios para visualização dos pontos com cobertura e sem cobertura vegetal, sendo as leituras feitas de forma aleatória e transversalmente às linhas da cultura. Os atributos fitotécnicos avaliados foram altura da planta, estande, matéria seca e produção de grãos. Diante dos resultados pode-se concluir que o maior índice de cobertura vegetal foi observado para os híbridos de milho P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, DKB 440, evidenciando boa qualidade como planta protetora do solo. No período de maior ocorrência de chuvas, na região sul de Minas Gerais, a cultura do milho pode minimizar o efeito do processo erosivo. A produção de matéria seca relacionou-se bem com o índice de cobertura vegetal, podendo ser um indicativo quanto à proteção do solo.The plant cover is a natural protection of soil against water erosion. In estimative models of soil loss, the effect of plant cover in the interception of rainfall kinetic energy is the key variable in the modeling of the erosive process. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of the plant cover provided by the corn crop and their relations with the phytotechnical attributes of this crop for its respective

  5. Parâmetros erosividade da chuva, da enxurrada e da chuva-enxurrada correlacionados com as perdas de solo de um luvissolo

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    A. W. Albuquerque

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as correlações lineares simples, múltiplas e não-lineares entre os parâmetros erosividade da chuva, da enxurrada e da chuva-enxurrada e as perdas de solo provocadas por chuvas erosivas num Luvissolo. Os dados correspondentes ao período de 1986-1990 foram obtidos na estação experimental de Sumé (PB, pertencente à Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB. Para determinar os parâmetros erosividade da chuva, da enxurrada e da chuva-enxurrada, foram analisadas chuvas individuais registradas em 136 pluviogramas. O volume de enxurrada isolado ou em combinação com características da chuva contribuiu, de forma significativa, para melhorar a estimativa das perdas de solo de chuvas individuais. Os parâmetros erosividade da chuva-enxurrada a(Vu α I30b; a(Vu α I5b; a(EIAb e da enxurrada a(Vub foram os melhores estimadores das perdas de solo para chuvas individuais. Dentre os parâmetros da erosividade da chuva, os que melhor se correlacionaram com as perdas de solo foram aqueles que incluíram o produto do volume da chuva pela intensidade máxima em trinta minutos a(VrI30.

  6. A erosividade das chuvas em Fortaleza (CE: I - distribuição, probabilidade de ocorrência e período de retorno - 1ª aproximação Rainfall erosivity in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil: I - distribution, probability of occurrence and return period - 1st approximation

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    A. S. Dias

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo para previsão de perdas por erosão e para planejamento conservacionista requer a avaliação de valores locais de índices de erosividade da chuva. Visando contribuir para o conhecimento desses índices na zona litorânea do estado do Ceará, os objetivos do presente estudo foram: (a determinar o fator R e os valores anuais do índice EI30, sua distribuição mensal, probabilidade de ocorrência e períodos de retorno em Fortaleza (CE no período de 1962 a 1981, e (b criar um banco de dados que permita, numa análise posterior, avaliar as correlações entre o índice EI30 e as chuvas mensais, com vistas em simplificar o cálculo desse índice e atualizar seus valores durante o período de 1982 a 2000. A energia cinética total, intensidades uniformes, intensidades máximas em 30 minutos e o índice EI30 em chuvas individuais foram determinados em 7.300 diagramas diários de pluviógrafo do período de 1962 a 1981, disponíveis na Estação Meteorológica da Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza. Distribuições de freqüência dos valores máximos individuais e anuais do índice EI30 e seus períodos de retorno foram calculados e plotados em curvas de probabilidades de ocorrência desses valores. No período de 20 anos, o valor do fator R em Fortaleza foi de 6.774 com uma amplitude de 2.237 a 12.882 MJ mm (ha h ano-1. Esse valor médio anual pode ocorrer ou ser superado pelo menos uma vez a cada 2,2 anos, com uma probabilidade de 46 %. Os valores individuais máximos estimados para os períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 20, 50 e 100 anos foram de 1.363, 2.415, 3.783, 5.950 e 8.000 MJ mm (ha h-1, respectivamente. Nos meses de fevereiro a maio, são esperadas as mais altas perdas de solo e água, posto que 70 % do valor anual do índice de erosividade ocorre nesse período, quando é utilizado o preparo convencional do solo e a cobertura vegetal é incipiente.The use of the Universal Soil

  7. APROVEITAMENTO IMEDIATO DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA

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    Cícero Onofre de Andrade Neto

    2013-01-01

    A água de chuva será, em breve, valorizada como a água mais segura que se obterá para consumo humano e com boa qualidade para diversos fins, necessitando, em muitos casos, apenas de tratamento simplificado para purificação. No Brasil, o uso de água de chuva ocorre há séculos, mas a captação imediata no meio urbano, visando ao aproveitamento em usos diversos, ainda é insipiente, e no meio rural somente na última década é que a construção de cisternas vem se disseminando para abastecimento difu...

  8. APROVEITAMENTO IMEDIATO DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA

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    Cícero Onofre de Andrade Neto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A água de chuva será, em breve, valorizada como a água mais segura que se obterá para consumo humano e com boa qualidade para diversos fins, necessitando, em muitos casos, apenas de tratamento simplificado para purificação. No Brasil, o uso de água de chuva ocorre há séculos, mas a captação imediata no meio urbano, visando ao aproveitamento em usos diversos, ainda é insipiente, e no meio rural somente na última década é que a construção de cisternas vem se disseminando para abastecimento difuso de água. Existe amplo conhecimento tecnológico internacional e nacional que deve ser utilizado de forma mais competente para o aproveitamento imediato da água de chuva, sobretudo para maximizar a relação benefício/custo, aumentar a segurança sanitária dos sistemas e assegurar a qualidade da água. Este trabalho procura mostrar as vantagens do aproveitamento imediato da água de chuva para diversos usos, apresenta e comenta avanços, e avalia e discute a segurança da água e a proteção sanitária do sistema de captação e armazenamento. Destaca a atenção que deve ser dispensada aos primeiros milímetros da cada chuva, pois estes têm grande influência sobre a qualidade da água captada em cisternas; já que esta quantidade é, geralmente, suficiente para lavar a atmosfera e a superfície de captação. Se esta água for descartada, o restante da água da chuva tem boa qualidade para diversos usos, e existem dispositivos simples, de baixo custo e de eficiência comprovada para o descarte automático das águas do primeiro milímetro de cada chuva. Quanto às ações de governo das últimas décadas para implantação de cisternas no meio rural no Brasil, é necessário avançar no desenvolvimento e adequação da tecnologia, e manter ou acelerar o ritmo das ações, mas sem perder as diretrizes políticas conquistadas, voltadas para a justiça social e a cidadania.

  9. Vulnerabilidade socioambiental, redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência: lições do terremoto no Haiti e das chuvas fortes na Região Serrana, Brasil Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

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    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre desastres no mundo apontam para uma maior gravidade nos países com menores níveis de desenvolvimento econômico e social. Neste contexto, políticas de redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência constituem prioridades na agenda do desenvolvimento sustentável, estando entre os temas eleitos para a Rio+20. O objetivo deste artigo é, através de uma contribuição de natureza conceitual e dos exemplos de desastres em países com níveis de desenvolvimento diferentes, o terremoto do Haiti e as chuvas fortes na Região Serrana (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, demonstrar como a vulnerabilidade socioambiental cria condições para os desastres, ao mesmo tempo em que limita as estratégias para prevenção e mitigação. Ao final são apontados alguns dos desafios que a redução de riscos de desastres e a construção da resiliência exigem em contextos de vulnerabilidade socioambiental, o que inclui mudanças nos padrões de desenvolvimento social, econômico e ambiental orientados para a sustentabilidade ecológica e a justiça social como pilares do desenvolvimento sustentável.Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio

  10. Kernel smoothing dos dados de chuva no Nordeste

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    Nyedja F. M. Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O regime de chuvas sobre o Nordeste do Brasil é bastante complexo, sendo considerado sazonal, além de sofrer fortes influências dos fenômenos El Niño, La Niña e outros sistemas meteorológicos, como o dipolo, atuantes sobre as bacias do oceano Atlântico Tropical. Neste trabalho foi aplicada a técnica matemática-computacional de interpolação do Kernel Smoothing nos dados de precipitação pluvial sobre o Nordeste, coletados no período de 1904 a 1998, provenientes de 2.283 estações meteorológicas. Os cálculos foram desenvolvidos por meio do software "Kernel", escrito em linguagem C e Cuda o que possibilitou fazer a interpolação de mais de 26 milhões de medidas de precipitação pluvial, permitindo gerar mapas de intensidade de chuva sobre toda a região e calcular estatísticas para a precipitação do Nordeste em escalas mensais e anuais. De acordo com as interpolações realizadas foi possível detectar, dentre o período estudado, os anos mais secos e mais chuvosos, a distribuição espacial das chuvas em cada mês, bem como a característica da precipitação pluviométrica em épocas de El Niño e La Niña.

  11. Erodibilidade de um cambilosolo húmico sob chuva natural

    OpenAIRE

    Schick, Jefferson; Bertol, Ildegardis; Cogo, Neroli Pedro; Paz González, Antônio

    2014-01-01

    A estimativa de perdas de solo é fundamental para o planejamento conservacionista. Com essa finalidade, destaca-se no Brasil o uso da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo (USLE), para cuja utilização há escassez de dados obtidos de acordo com o método-padrão desse modelo. Entre os fatores que compõem a USLE, a erodibilidade do solo (fator K) é de difícil obtenção em razão da necessidade de conduzir experimentos em campo por longo tempo sob chuva natural. Com o objetivo de quantificar a erodibi...

  12. Erodibilidade de um Cambissolo Húmico sob chuva natural

    OpenAIRE

    Schick, Jefferson; Bertol, Ildegardis; Cogo, Neroli Pedro; González, Antonio Paz

    2014-01-01

    A estimativa de perdas de solo é fundamental para o planejamento conservacionista. Com essa finalidade, destaca-se no Brasil o uso da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo (USLE), para cuja utilização há escassez de dados obtidos de acordo com o método-padrão desse modelo. Entre os fatores que compõem a USLE, a erodibilidade do solo (fator K) é de difícil obtenção em razão da necessidade de conduzir experimentos em campo por longo tempo sob chuva natural. Com o objetivo de quantificar a erodibi...

  13. Erodibilidade de um Cambissolo Húmico sob chuva natural

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    Jefferson Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa de perdas de solo é fundamental para o planejamento conservacionista. Com essa finalidade, destaca-se no Brasil o uso da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo (USLE, para cuja utilização há escassez de dados obtidos de acordo com o método-padrão desse modelo. Entre os fatores que compõem a USLE, a erodibilidade do solo (fator K é de difícil obtenção em razão da necessidade de conduzir experimentos em campo por longo tempo sob chuva natural. Com o objetivo de quantificar a erodibilidade do solo em um Cambissolo Húmico em Lages, SC, utilizando-se do método-padrão da USLE, quantificaram-se a erosividade (EI30 das chuvas naturais e as respectivas perdas de solo durante o período de 1993 a 2012. A erodibilidade foi determinada pelo quociente entre essas variáveis e pela regressão linear simples dessas. O valor de erodibilidade anual estimado pelo quociente e pela regressão linear simples entre as perdas de solo e as erosividades foi respectivamente de 0,0175 e 0,0172 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1. A erodibilidade nos períodos de primavera-verão e outono-inverno apresentou pequenas variações em relação à média anual. A erodibilidade mensal variou de 0,0083 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 no mês de dezembro a 0,0241 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, no mês de abril. Ao longo do período de tempo avaliado, a erodibilidade anual evidenciou maior incremento nos anos iniciais e menor incremento nos anos finais.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  15. Análise de modelos matemáticos aplicados ao estudo de chuvas intensas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa de chuvas intensas máximas é de grande importância para o dimensionamento de projetos agrícolas, tais como: terraços para controle de erosão, obras de barragens de terra e drenagem em solo agrícola. As chuvas são caracterizadas pela sua intensidade (mm h-1, pelo tempo de duração (min e pelo período de retorno (anos. O modelo básico tem sido usado para determinação da intensidade de precipitação máxima diária a ser aplicada no dimensionamento de estruturas de contenção, fixando-se o período de retorno e a duração da chuva. O tempo de concentração em bacias hidrográficas, que normalmente fica entre 60 e 120 min para bacias consideradas pequenas, tem sido usado como tempo de duração na estimativa de chuvas intensas. Nesse intervalo, existem outros modelos que propiciam melhores ajustes e, conseqüentemente, maior confiabilidade na estimativa da chuva a ser usada nos dimensionamentos de estruturas de contenção. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo ajustar dois outros modelos para a estimativa de chuvas intensas: um exponencial e um linear, além do modelo básico. Esses modelos foram ajustados com base em dados de precipitação máxima diária anual da região de Lavras (MG, empregando-se dados de chuvas diárias do período de 1914 a 1991. Os dados foram transformados em intensidades de precipitação, com tempo de retorno variando de 2 a 100 anos e duração entre 5 e 1.440 min. Verificou-se que o modelo exponencial proposto proporcionou melhores ajustes, com menores erros na estimativa, para chuvas variando de 5 a 240 min, sendo, portanto, recomendável a bacias em que o tempo de concentração se enquadre nesta faixa de tempo; o modelo básico mostrou-se mais aplicável a bacias em que o tempo de duração seja maior que 240 min, enquanto o modelo linear não se mostrou confiável para a estimativa de chuvas intensas.

  16. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  17. Aproveitamento de Água de Chuva em unidades Educacionais do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaila Sant Anna Amaral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo objetivou-se avaliar os sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva em unidades educacionais do Rio Grande do Norte. Inicialmente, foi realizado um levantamento de informações sobre os sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva dos campi do IFRN. Em seguida, os campi foram visitados para validação das informações colhidas e verificação de outros elementos pertinentes (áreas da superfície de captação, tipos e volumes de reservatórios, estado físico das instalações, condições operacionais e destino da água armazenada. Posteriormente, 4 unidades educacionais foram selecionadas e monitoradas mensalmente entre março e setembro de 2014 a fim de caracterizar a água de chuva armazenada, físico-química e microbiologicamente. Os resultados revelam que a água armazenada apresentou qualidade compatível para irrigação de áreas verdes, apesar de descuidos operacionais e sanitários. Conclui-se que sistemas de captação e armazenamento podem compatibilizar o uso racional, eficiente e sanitário da água de chuva no Semiárido brasileiro.

  18. Simulador de chuva tipo empuxo com braços movidos hidraulicamente: fabricação e calibração Rainfall simulator thrust type with hydraulically moved arms: fabrication and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de simuladores de chuva é fundamental em estudos de erosão hídrica pluvial. Com eles é possível controlar as condições experimentais, principalmente as características da chuva, e compreender melhor o processo erosivo do solo. Vários tipos de simulador de chuva foram desenvolvidos desde 1930 no mundo. Atualmente, o tipo Swanson é o mais utilizado. No entanto, um pequeno número desses simuladores está em pleno funcionamento no Brasil, devido ao alto grau de desgaste e às dificuldades de manutenção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um novo modelo de simulador de chuva, construído predominantemente em alumínio, desprovido de motor para rotação dos braços e movido hidraulicamente por empuxo. O simulador de chuva movido hidraulicamente por empuxo mantém em geral as características do modelo Swanson, sobretudo aquelas relacionadas às características de chuva produzida, tendo sido minimizados seu excesso de peso e a necessidade de uso de um motor a gasolina para movimento dos braços, denominado "Tipo Empuxo". Essas características tornaram o novo modelo mais leve, econômico, silencioso e de fácil manejo na área experimental do que o modelo Swanson, sendo possível deslocá-lo com apenas quatro pessoas. A intensidade da chuva correlacionou-se linear e positivamente com a pressão da água no manômetro.The use of rain simulators is fundamental to study rainfall erosion. They are used to monitor the experimental conditions, particularly the rain characteristics and to understand the soil erosion process better. Several types of rainfall simulators have been developed since 1930 around the world. Currently, the Swanson model is the most commonly used. However, a small number of these simulators is fully operational in Brazil, due to the high degree of wear and difficulties of maintenance. The purpose of this study was to develop a new rainfall simulator model, made mostly of aluminum, with no motor to rotate the

  19. Aproveitamento de Água de Chuva em unidades Educacionais do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Xaila Sant Anna Amaral; Ceres Virgínia da Costa Dantas; Carlos Antonio Lira Felipe Neto; Cícero Onofre de Andrade Neto; André Luís Calado Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Com este estudo objetivou-se avaliar os sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva em unidades educacionais do Rio Grande do Norte. Inicialmente, foi realizado um levantamento de informações sobre os sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva dos campi do IFRN. Em seguida, os campi foram visitados para validação das informações colhidas e verificação de outros elementos pertinentes (áreas da superfície de captação, tipos e volumes de reservatórios, estado físico das instalações, condições o...

  20. Desinfecção de água de chuva por radiação ultravioleta Disinfection of rainwater by ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wisbeck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o tratamento de água de chuva, de duas regiões industriais de Joinville (SC, por radiação ultravioleta. O reator operou em processo contínuo, de modo que cada partícula permanecesse sob radiação por 60 segundos. As amostras de água foram analisadas em termos de coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerantes e bactérias heterotróficas antes do tratamento por ultravioleta, após o tratamento e após tratadas e armazenadas por 24, 48 e 72 horas. Verificou-se a eficiência da desinfecção de água de chuva direta e de telhado por radiação ultravioleta com a inativação de 100% dos coliformes totais e dos coliformes termotolerantes e o não recrescimento desses micro-organismos em amostras tratadas e estocados por até 72 horas, no entanto, bactérias heterotróficas persistiram e foram identificadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas ao tratamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment of rainwater in two industrial regions in Joinville (SC, Brazil by ultraviolet radiation. The reactor was operating in continuous process with each particle remaining under radiation for 60 seconds. The samples were evaluated in terms of total coliforms, fecal coliform and heterotrophic bacteria prior to ultraviolet treatment, after treatment and further treated and stored for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The efficiency of disinfection of direct rainwater and that collected from roofing by ultraviolet radiation was verified with 100% inactivation of total coliforms and fecal coliform and these microorganisms did not reappear in samples treated and stored for up to 72 hours, however, heterotrophic bacteria persisted and were identified after 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment.

  1. Momento da chuva após a aplicação e a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate aplicados em diferentes formulações Rainfastness and glyphosate and sulfosate efficacy using different formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da chuva sobre o desempenho dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate em diferentes formulações, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um no inverno de 2000 e outro no verão de 2001, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. Os experimentos foram instalados segundo o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, no arranjo fatorial de 4x5+1, ou seja, quatro tratamentos de herbicidas, cinco períodos sem chuva após a aplicação e uma testemunha, que não recebeu chuva. As formulações de glyphosate foram: SAqC (1,0 L ha-1, GrDA (0,5 kg ha-1, SAqC Transorb (0,75 L ha-1, mais o sulfosate SAqC (1,09 L ha¹. Os períodos sem chuva após a aplicação foram de 1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em pós-emergência das plantas daninhas, utilizando-se de um pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantida por ar comprimido de 30 lbf pol-2. A chuva foi simulada com um sistema de irrigação por aspersão. A lâmina de água variou entre 18 e 19 mm. Em ambas as épocas, a chuva simulada foi prejudicial à ação dos herbicidas, principalmente quando feita nos menores intervalos após a aplicação. Os sintomas de fitointoxicação apareceram mais rapidamente no verão. A formulação Transorb, comercializada como não sendo afetada pela chuva uma hora após a aplicação, não teve o desempenho esperado, tanto no inverno quanto no verão, para períodos de até seis horas sem chuva após a aplicação. O sulfosate apresentou o melhor controle geral das plantas avaliadas, quando se simulou chuva após seis horas, em ambas as épocas. A formulação GrDA foi a mais afetada pela ação da chuva em ambas as épocas.Two field assays were carried out to evaluate the rainfall effects on sulfosate and glyphosate herbicide activity, using different formulations, under two growing seasons (winter

  2. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Degrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete design with seven treatments and five replicates, consisting of: test without insecticide spraying, without insecticide spraying with rain, flonicamid spraying with simulate rain of 15 mm after 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours after spraying. Equivalent insecticide was sprayed 75 g of flonicamid by hectare. The efficiency evaluation was accomplished through the individuals of A. gossypii count which started from an artificial infestation 6 days before the application of the treatments. The results were: a 15-mm precipitation during the first four hours after flonicamid spraying interfered negatively in the control of A. gossypii.O cultivo do algodoeiro no Brasil concentra-se na Região do Cerrado, caracterizada por chuvas freqüentes que interferem na eficácia das pulverizações necessárias durante seu ciclo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar chuva simulada de 15 mm nas 4h iniciais após pulverização no controle de A. gossypii com inseticida flonicamid. Plantas de Gossypium hirsutum foram cultivadas em vasos contendo solo como substrato em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições, consistindo de: testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida, testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida com presença de chuva e pulverização de flonicamid com chuva simulada de 15 mm aos 30 min., 1, 2 e 4h após aplica

  3. Análise da distribuição temporal das chuvas em eventos hidrológicos extremos

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Fernando Girardi de; Sobrinha, Lôide Angelini; Brandão, João Luiz Boccia

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO: O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar a influência da distribuição temporal das chuvas em eventos hidrológicos extremos na bacia do Córrego do Gregório (São Carlos, São Paulo). Foram aplicadas duas metodologias de distribuição temporal das chuvas e adotados períodos de retorno de 25, 50 e 100 anos: o método de Huff 1º quartil e o método dos blocos alternados; e simularam-se as manchas de inundação com o software HEC-GeoRAS. A alteração do método de distribuição temporal das chuvas resul...

  4. Efeito da seca e chuva sobre a comunidade microbiana da rizosfera de leguminosas da Caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Duarte Lançoni

    2014-01-01

    Propriedades que constituem um clima árido são encontradas distribuídas por todo o globo terrestre. A Caatinga, bioma semi-árido brasileiro, se estende por 11% do território nacional e tem particularidades tanto em relação ao clima, volume de chuvas e temperatura, quanto à sua composição flora e faunística. Micro-organismos associados a plantas provêm defesas e resistência a diferentes estresses abióticos ou bióticos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a comunidade rizosférica microbiana...

  5. Aproveitamento de águas de chuva por telhados: aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Maria Mariah Monteiro Wanderley Estanislau Costa de

    2012-01-01

    Nos últimos anos tem-se observado, em várias localidades, um crescimento populacional acelerado. A maior parte da população vive em áreas urbanas e enfrenta diversos problemas relacionados ao abastecimento precário de água e à ocorrência de eventos extremos, tais como estiagem prolongada e enchentes. Nesse contexto, se insere o aproveitamento de águas de chuva, que deverão ser captadas e acumuladas em reservatórios, de modo que a mesma possa ser consumida, de imediato ou após algum tempo, em ...

  6. Reservatório de ardósia para sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Antonio Nogueira Andrade

    Full Text Available RESUMO No contexto da crescente pressão exercida no mundo todo sobre os recursos hídricos, qualitativa e quantitativamente, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias apropriadas para sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva surge como alternativa promissora. Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo apresentar uma tecnologia inovadora para armazenamento de água de chuva, trazendo como modelo a construção de um reservatório executado com placas de ardósia, com capacidade para 250 m3, que faz parte de um sistema de aproveitamento de água de chuva implantado em uma instalação suinícola no Oeste Catarinense. Nesse sistema, a água de chuva é destinada para dessedentação animal e higienização das instalações. Também são apresentados, porém com menos enfoque, os dispositivos de tratamento da água de chuva desenvolvidos no projeto. Realizou-se uma análise comparativa de custos entre esse reservatório e os comumente utilizados na região de estudo. Também foram feitas análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas da água de chuva em diferentes pontos do sistema, a fim de verificar se a qualidade da água é adequada para os usos pretendidos. A tecnologia de construção de reservatórios de ardósia apresentou rapidez e facilidade de execução e baixo custo de construção. A ardósia, além de servir de forma para a moldagem da armadura e para a argamassagem, é um material natural e abundante na região central do Estado de Santa Catarina. As análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas mostraram a eficiência dos dispositivos de tratamento da água de chuva aplicados neste trabalho. Por fim, observou-se que a água de chuva é adequada para dessedentação animal, já que atende às condições e padrões para as águas de Classe 3 da Resolução CONAMA 357. Deste modo, a nova tecnologia apresenta grande potencial de aplicação e viabilidade econômica para a região de estudo.

  7. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  8. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  9. Potabilização de água da chuva por ultrafiltração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizi Miorando

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar a ultrafiltração (UF para o tratamento de água de chuva, ajustando seus parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos para a potabilidade. Para tal, duas membranas de UF foram testadas em duas pressões diferentes para tratar água de chuva coletada em um prédio da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF. A água de chuva apresentou uma moderada concentração de sólidos suspensos, cor, turbidez, matéria orgânica e contaminação por coliformes e uma baixa concentração de nitritos, nitratos e sulfatos. As duas membranas de UF utilizadas (com diâmetro de corte de 4 e 50 kDa permitiram o ajuste desses parâmetros à potabilidade, sendo que a membrana de 50 kDa de fibra oca apresentou fluxos superiores a 130 L.h-1.m-2 (a 2 bar. Logo, a captação de água de chuva e sua UF é uma promissora alternativa para um abastecimento descentralizado de água potável.

  10. Jardim de chuva: sistema de biorretenção para o manejo das águas pluviais urbanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia dos Anjos Tenório de Melo

    Full Text Available Uma abordagem sustentável da drenagem urbana em ambientes construídos precisa integrar todo o sistema de águas urbanas. Uma das formas de se conseguir isso é melhorando a infiltração no próprio lote com a utilização de jardins de chuva, técnica do tipo controle na fonte, baseada no conceito de biorretenção e compensação das áreas impermeáveis. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo experimental de um jardim de chuva, em Recife, avaliando as funções de retenção, armazenamento e infiltração da água de chuva proveniente de um telhado. Devido à elevada taxa de infiltração na superfície (312,0 mm/h, as águas rapidamente se infiltram na estrutura. Os modelos introduzidos por Horton e Mezencev foram utilizados para representar as características de infiltração do solo natural e da primeira camada do jardim de chuva, tendo apresentado resultados satisfatórios. Uma análise de custo foi implementada, e avaliaram-se o desempenho e o custo de construção para diversos tempos de retorno (2, 5, 10 e 25 anos e durações (de 10 min a 120 min. Durante o período de monitoramento não foi observado extravasamento na estrutura. O jardim de chuva piloto apresentou resultados satisfatórios, mostrando-se uma técnica aplicável para o manejo das águas pluviais urbanas.

  11. Distribuição e potencial erosivo das chuvas no Estado do Tocantins

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    Marcelo Ribeiro Viola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os valores de erosividade e gerar os mapas da distribuição espaço-temporal das chuvas no Estado do Tocantins. Analisaram-se séries históricas pluviométricas de 97 postos pluviométricos, compreendendo o período de 1985 a 2009. A erosividade foi estimada por meio de equações nas quais a variável independente foi a precipitação média mensal ou o coeficiente de chuva de Fournier (Rc. A geoestatística foi aplicada para o mapeamento da erosividade tanto na escala mensal quanto na anual. A erosividade anual apresentou valores entre 6.599 e 14.000 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, com auge em dezembro, quando atingiu valores de até 2.800 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 por mês. De maio a setembro, a erosividade apresentou valores inferiores ao crítico, tido como 500 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 por mês. Foram identificadas três regiões prioritárias para ações de planejamento visando a conservação do solo e da água: região centro-oeste do Estado, nas imediações do Parque Estadual do Cantão, com maior erosividade anual; região norte do Estado, especialmente no primeiro trimestre; e região sudeste do Estado, no quarto trimestre.

  12. Características das Frentes Frias Causadoras de Chuvas Intensas no Leste de Santa Catarina

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    Marcelo Seluchi

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente trabalho analisa as características principais das frentes frias causadoras de chuvas intensas no litoral do Estado de Santa Catarina, com a finalidade de melhorar o conhecimento e a previsão desse tipo de situação. Para isso, foi feita uma climatologia sinótica das frentes frias, utilizando reanálises CFSR do NCEP e dados de precipitação do CPTEC/INPE no período 1998-2010, a partir dos quais foram separados 5% das frentes frias mais chuvosas da série. Os resultados mostram que as frentes frias que provocam chuvas mais volumosas ocorrem ao longo de todo o ano, associadas à penetração de cavados frios, intensos e pouco baroclínicos nos níveis médios e altos da atmosfera. A lenta evolução da situação meteorológica permite a intensificação de um cavado na baixa troposfera, que provoca a gradativa intensificação da instabilidade termodinâmica sobre o leste de Santa Catarina, através da advecção de calor e umidade desde a Amazônia. A frente fria que dispara a precipitação apresenta forte inclinação nos baixos níveis e lento deslocamento. Em geral, a situação meteorológica apresenta poucas variações sazonais e pode ser identificada, em média, com pelo menos 48 h de antecedência.

  13. Variabilidade Espacial e Intranual das Chuvas na Região Sul de Moçambique, África Austral

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    Dionísio Inocêncio Uele

    Full Text Available Resumo Estudos sobre a climatologia das chuvas na região Sul de Moçambique (RSM são essenciais para o planejamento de diversas atividades humanas, com destaque para agricultura. Assim, o diagnóstico das tendências sazonais e mensais das chuvas é necessário, principalmente por se tratar de uma região com irregular distribuição espaço-temporal das chuvas. A variação da chuva mensal e sazonal na RSM foi analisada com base em séries climáticas de 45 anos (1960-2004. Aplicou-se na identificação de regiões com chuvas mensais homogêneas a análise de agrupamento (método de Ward. Com base na análise de agrupamento identificaram-se três grupos de estações com chuvas mensais homogêneas (G1, G2 e G3 e outras três estações que não foram agrupadas (NDg. As chuvas apresentaram gradiente espacial negativo na direção de G1 para G3 (nordeste-sudoeste, e totais entre os maiores nas estações do NDg (próximas ao litoral. O período chuvoso mostrou padrão similar, com maior comprimento nas estações do G1 e NDg e, menor nas estações do G3. As variabilidades sazonais e mensais das chuvas na RSM são condicionadas pelos Ciclones Tropicais, Sistemas Frontais, e a influência da Corrente Quente do Canal de Moçambique, enquanto as variabilidades espaciais são, principalmente, definidas pela Zona de Convergência Intertropical.

  14. Intensidade-duração-frequência de chuvas para o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Intensity-duration-frequency of rainfall for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Glenio G. Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de equações de chuvas intensas para o Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e a necessidade de maior segurança na elaboração de projetos e dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas, foram o alicerce para, com este estudo, se obtivessem e espacializassem as relações de intensidade, duração e frequência de precipitações para o Estado. Utilizou-se, então, da metodologia da desagregação da chuva de 24 h e se utilizaram dados pluviométricos consistidos de 109 estações disponíveis no banco de dados da Agência Nacional de Águas. As equações de chuvas intensas apresentaram bom ajuste, com coeficientes de determinação acima de 0,99 para todas as localidades estudadas. Os parâmetros ajustados apresentaram alta variabilidade resultando em grandes diferenças nos valores de precipitações intensas esperadas para as diferentes localidades. A espacialização permitiu boa visualização das diferenças evidenciando maiores intensidades esperadas na região centro-norte e as menores intensidades nas regiões sudeste e sudoeste do Estado. Os resultados demonstram a importância da obtenção da equação de intensidade-duração-frequência para cada localidade e sua utilização para a realização de estudos e projetos hidráulicos.Rain intensity data are necessary to increase security of hydraulic projects. The objective of this study was to determine the rain storm equations and the spatial distribution of rain intensity for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The equations were obtained by disaggregation of 24 h rain data from 109 pluviometric stations available in the National Water Agency (ANA data bank. These equations resulted in coefficients of determination above 0,99 for all localities. The adjusted parameters showed high variability, resulting from different rain intensities in different places of the State. The interpolation of data allowed good visualization of the differences, evidencing higher intensities of rains

  15. VARIABILIDADE DAS CHUVAS NA VERTENTE PARANAENSE DA BACIA DO RIO PARANAPANEMA - 1999-2000 A 2009-2010

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    Vinicius Carmello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os investimentos no campo vêm sendo ampliados ao longo das últimas décadas, sobretudo pela justificativa de se minimizar as repercussões, ditas “naturais”, no território agrícola ocupado. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a variabilidade das chuvas na vertente paranaense da bacia do rio Paranapanema em período de safra de soja (outubro – abril. Para tanto, foram aplicadas duas técnicas estatísticas: Mann-Kendall e Percentil, com o intuito de estudar a tendência e a variabilidade dos totais anuais de chuva da série histórica entre os anos 1999-2000 a 2009-2010. Para isso utilizou-se dados de precipitação de 89 postos pluviométricos administrados pelo Instituto das Águas do Paraná. Ademais, definiram-se períodos extremamente secos, secos, habituais, chuvosos e extremamente chuvosos, representados em um painel tempo-espacial. Quanto ao teste de Mann-Kendall: 13 postos pluviométricos apresentaram tendência positiva de aumento das chuvas. No que se refere aos resultados mais expressivos relacionados à variabilidade da chuva anual acumulada, concluiu-se que o ano agrícola de 1999–2000 foi definido como padrão seco, em contraposição ao ano agrícola chuvoso de 2009–2010. Os valores de produtividade de soja utilizados para medir o impacto desses períodos extremos também evidenciam variações em resposta aos registros pluviométricos de cada ano.

  16. Análise do regime hídrico de Patos-PB por meio do Índice de Anomalia de Chuvas (IAC

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    M. F. A. Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A seca é um fenômeno natural que o ser humano não consegue impedir que ocorra. Nesse sentido, a presente pesquisa tem por objetivo, analisar o comportamento do regime hídrico do município de Patos interior da Paraíba, no período de 1994 a 2009 utilizando o IAC. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa, realizou-se um levantamento pluviométrico de 15 anos obtidos no site da Agência Executiva de Gestão das Águas da Paraíba (AESA de 1994 a 2009. Os dados foram disponibilizados em planilha eletrônica do Microsoft Excel com informações diárias, mensais e anuais e por último foi analisado o comportamento das precipitações através do Índice de Anomalia de Chuva (IAC, que é bastante simples e empregado para avaliação dos períodos secos ou úmidos. Pelo o estudo observou-se que apenas 2009 apresentou um mês (abril, como extremamente úmido e os demais anos foram classificados como muito úmidos, úmidos e secos. O ano mais seco foi 1998 que apresentou anomalias negativas de fevereiro a maio, seguido de 1999 com anomalias negativas em fevereiro e abril do período chuvoso. Dos resultados se percebe que as principais chuvas que ocorrem sob a região estudada caem sobre a terra de forma mal distribuída e irregular, e que o índice pluviométrico da região, se comparado com outras regiões áridas do planeta, o semiárido paraibano é um dos que mais chove em todo mundo, deixando claro que a falta de água que assola os nordestinos são decorrentes das características das chuvas. Percebe-se que apenas 2009 apresentou mês tido como extremamente úmido e isso não é caraterístico da região, devendo-se, sobretudo a modelos de estabilização da atmosfera por eventos meteorológicos que provocaram as chuvas fora do período chuvoso de Patos. Analysis of water regime of Patos-PB through Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAIAbstract: Drought is a natural phenomenon that humans can't prevent that from occurring. In this sense, this research aims

  17. Simulador de chuva tipo empuxo com braços movidos hidraulicamente: fabricação e calibração

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    Ildegardis Bertol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de simuladores de chuva é fundamental em estudos de erosão hídrica pluvial. Com eles é possível controlar as condições experimentais, principalmente as características da chuva, e compreender melhor o processo erosivo do solo. Vários tipos de simulador de chuva foram desenvolvidos desde 1930 no mundo. Atualmente, o tipo Swanson é o mais utilizado. No entanto, um pequeno número desses simuladores está em pleno funcionamento no Brasil, devido ao alto grau de desgaste e às dificuldades de manutenção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um novo modelo de simulador de chuva, construído predominantemente em alumínio, desprovido de motor para rotação dos braços e movido hidraulicamente por empuxo. O simulador de chuva movido hidraulicamente por empuxo mantém em geral as características do modelo Swanson, sobretudo aquelas relacionadas às características de chuva produzida, tendo sido minimizados seu excesso de peso e a necessidade de uso de um motor a gasolina para movimento dos braços, denominado "Tipo Empuxo". Essas características tornaram o novo modelo mais leve, econômico, silencioso e de fácil manejo na área experimental do que o modelo Swanson, sendo possível deslocá-lo com apenas quatro pessoas. A intensidade da chuva correlacionou-se linear e positivamente com a pressão da água no manômetro.

  18. Efeito da cobertura nas perdas de solo em um argissolo vermelho-amarelo utilizando simulador de chuva Effect of the cover on soil losses in a red-yellow podzolic soil under simulated rainfall

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    Demétrius D. Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de cobertura do solo e da energia cinética decorrente de chuvas simuladas sobre as perdas de solo. O experimento consistiu de seis parcelas experimentais (4 m², as quais foram mantidas com coberturas de 0; 20; 40; 60; 80 e 100%, utilizando manta de Bidin, simulando condição de manejo de cultivo em contorno. Utilizou-se de simulador de chuva sobre Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com declividade média de 9,5%. Foram utilizadas as intensidades de precipitação de 60; 80; 100 e 120 mm h-1, associadas às durações de 68; 40; 24 e 14 minutos, resultando nos valores de energia cinética de 1.401; 1.122; 841 e 589 J m-2, respectivamente. Para cada uma das intensidades de precipitação, realizaram-se seis aplicações sucessivas, espaçadas de 12 h. Verificou-se diminuição acentuada nas perdas de solo com o aumento da porcentagem de cobertura do solo e que os maiores valores de perda de solo foram obtidos para as menores intensidades de precipitação, em virtude da maior duração da precipitação. Observou-se, também, que a cobertura do solo apresentou maior influência do que a intensidade de precipitação nas perdas de solo e que o potencial erosivo das chuvas intensas foi reduzido pelo aumento da cobertura do solo, passando o processo de erosão a ser dominado pelo efeito erosivo do escoamento superficial, o qual ocorre por maior período nas chuvas menos intensas, por apresentarem maior duração.The present work was carried out in the experimental area of the Agronomy Department of the Viçosa Federal University, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of soil cover and kinetic energy of rainfall on soil losses. The soil management used was the contour cropping, with six experimental units (4,0 m² with soil cover percentage of 0; 20; 40; 60; 80 and 100%. The tests were conducted with a rotative rainfall simulator and the soil in the experimental area was a Red-Yellow Podzolic

  19. Avaliação do potencial erosivo das chuvas em Urussanga, SC, no período de 1980 a 2012

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    Morgana Levati Valvassori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial erosivo das chuvas e a sua distribuição ao longo do ano contribuem para o planejamento de práticas de manejo e a conservação do solo, que visam a redução da erosão hídrica, diminuindo as perdas de solo e aumentando a produção agrícola. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as chuvas da região de Urussanga, SC, com relação ao potencial erosivo, determinando os Índices de Erosividade mensais e anuais (EI30 e estabelecendo assim o fator "R" para utilização na Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo, período de retorno e probabilidade de ocorrência das chuvas erosivas, a partir dos dados de chuva de diagramas diários do pluviógrafo da Estação Meteorológica de Urussanga, de outubro de 1980 a março de 2012. As chuvas foram digitalizadas em segmentos com intensidade constante. Foi elaborado um programa computacional para a leitura dos dados digitalizados, identificação das chuvas erosivas e realização dos cálculos de erosividade. A precipitação pluvial média anual foi de 1.781,8 mm, dos quais 1.502,6 mm foram de chuvas erosivas e 279,1 mm, de não erosivas. Ocorrem em média 184,9 chuvas por ano, sendo 77,7 % não erosivas e 22,3 %, erosivas. O valor médio anual do índice EI30 é 5.665,10 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, classificando as chuvas com erosividade média a forte. A época do ano com maior erosividade é de dezembro a março. O fator "R" da USLE, para regiões do entorno com características semelhantes de Urussanga, pode ser estimado com dados de pluviometria utilizando-se a equação linear ajustada.

  20. Comparação de desempenho hidrológico de sistemas de infiltração de água de chuva: poço de infiltração e jardim de chuva

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    Ricardo Prado Abreu Reis

    Full Text Available A ocupação de áreas urbanas produz impactos significativos no equilíbrio do balanço hídrico das cidades. Como consequência da impermeabilização de áreas edificadas tem-se o aumento do escoamento superficial, que ocasiona maior frequência de cheias urbanas. Visando diminuir o impacto ocasionado pela ocupação, soluções técnicas compensatórias, fundamentadas em técnicas de infiltração de água pluvial, vêm sendo amplamente propostas para os projetos de sistemas prediais. Este trabalho objetiva comparar o desempenho hidrológico de dois sistemas de infiltração no lote: um jardim de chuva e um poço de infiltração. Para tanto, foram monitoradas as vazões de entrada, o volume infiltrado e o volume extravasado durante eventos de chuva simulados. Os sistemas de infiltração de água foram implantados em uma área experimental, e o monitoramento dos parâmetros foi feito por meio de sensores de nível de água e medidores de vazão de alta precisão. Assim, foi possível construir os hidrogramas de saída dos sistemas e mensurar a parcela de infiltração de água durante a operação deles. Como resultado avaliou-se a relevância de se considerar a parcela de infiltração no dimensionamento dos sistemas de infiltração de água de chuva. Além disso, observaram-se um melhor desempenho de amortecimento de pico de vazão do hidrograma no jardim de chuva e maior eficiência de redução de volume escoado por parte do poço de infiltração.

  1. Velocidade e energia cinética da chuva de um emissor usado em pivô central

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    Ferreira, Denise de Jesus Lemos

    2014-01-01

    A erosão decorrente do escoamento superficial causa grande impacto no potencial produtivo das áreas cultivadas. Portanto, o estudo da velocidade e da energia cinética com que as gotas de água atingem a superfície do solo irrigado é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento de diagnósticos e medidas que visem minimizar os efeitos negativos no manejo das áreas irrigadas. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a velocidade de impacto e a energia cinética de chuvas artificiais ...

  2. Análise econômica de um sistema de aproveitamento de água de chuva em unidade hospitalar

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    Fonseca, Márcio de Castro

    2016-01-01

    O uso de tecnologias de aproveitamento de água de chuva vem se consolidando cada vez mais como fonte alternativa de suprimento de água em diversos tipos de usos. A vantagem desta tecnologia se baseia na acessibilidade da água durante a estação seca, com a possibilidade de substituição da água proveniente do abastecimento público. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu na análise financeira de dois projetos piloto de aproveitamento de água de chuva para o abastecimento de lavanderia em unidade hosp...

  3. Estudo da variabilidade espacial das chuvas em Belo Horizonte a partir da expansão da rede pluviométrica: uma análise qualitativa

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    Carlos Wagner Goncalves Andrade Coelho

    2006-01-01

    Em grandes cidades como Belo Horizonte, o cotidiano humano é influenciado diretamente por eventos extremos como as precipitações de chuva na estação chuvosa, que além de ser um dos controladores hídricos pode causar problemas como enchentes e deslizamentos de terra, principalmente nas "áreas de risco", onde se observam grandes tragédias. Estudos feitos para a capital mineira obtiveram bons resultados sobre o comportamento das chuvas, relacionando-as com a topografia e a outros fatores meteoro...

  4. Vibrações induzidas por chuva e vento em cabos de pontes estaiadas : investigação experimental dos mecanismo em túnel de vento

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    Daniel de Souza Machado

    2012-01-01

    Desde 1988, ao redor do mundo, têm sido relatadas, ocorrências de vibrações de cabos de pontes estaiadas sob ação combinada de chuva de vento. Este mecanismo tem sido de grande interesse dos engenheiros de pontes e pesquisadores, por provocar vibrações de grandes amplitudes em cabos de pontes estaiadas. Estas vibrações, que são predominantemente transversais à direção do vento, foram observadas apenas sob condições de chuva leve e baixa velocidade do vento ocorrendo simultaneamente. As oscila...

  5. Mapeamento de chuvas intensas no estado de Minas Gerais Mapping of heavy rainfalls in the state of Minas Gerais

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    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos associados a chuvas extremas são constituídos de eventos de interesse prático para a gestão dos recursos naturais, como manejo de bacias hidrográficas e conservação dos solos e da água. A distribuição espacial desses eventos possibilita inferir sobre áreas onde sua ocorrência é acentuada e desprovida de informações técnicas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram promover, a partir de dados pontuais de 177 estações meteorológicas e com a utilização de técnicas geoestatísticas, o mapeamento de chuvas intensas para o Estado de Minas Gerais e identificar as áreas mais vulneráveis no tocante à ocorrência dessas chuvas nesse Estado. Foi constatado que as maiores intensidades ocorrem nas regiões leste e noroeste de Minas Gerais, o que pode ser explicado pela maior influência da Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul, além de ocorrência de chuvas convectivas. Foi possível, também, constatar e mapear intensidades intermediárias nas regiões sul e central e os menores valores para as regiões norte e nordeste de Minas Gerais. Para maiores durações, verificou-se, para a região sul, ocorrência de altas intensidades, o que está associado à entrada com maior frequência de frentes frias, produzindo chuvas de longa duração.Studies of heavy rainfall are of practical interest for the conservation management of natural resources such as watersheds and soil and water. The spatial distribution of these natural rainfall events allows conclusions about regions where the occurrence of heavy rain is more frequent and to estimate their magnitude for locations without rainfall data sets. Thus, the purpose of this study was to map heavy rainfall data from 177 meteorological stations, using a geostatistical approach, for Minas Gerais, identifying the most vulnerable regions in terms of the occurrence of heavy rain. The highest values were estimated for the East and Northwest regions of the state, which can be explained by the

  6. VARIABILIDADE DA PRECIPITAÇÃO E DO NÚMERO DE DIAS COM CHUVAS DE DUAS CIDADES DISTINTAS DA PARAÍBA

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    Júlio Mannuel Tavares Diniz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Na região Nordeste do Brasil é característica a significativa variabilidade espacial e temporal da precipitação pluvial, proveniente da atuação de diferentes sistemas meteorológicos. Em determinadas localidades do estado da Paraíba são comuns a ausência de chuvas durante períodos prolongados, ocasionando graves problemas para a sociedade e para os ecossistemas naturais. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo a avaliação da precipitação e do número de dias com chuvas observados em duas cidades distintas da Paraíba. Os dados utilizados foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e são provenientes de observações realizadas entre os anos de 2002 e 2011. A partir da análise dos resultados, verificou-se que o total de chuvas anuais e mensais observado em João Pessoa é bastante superior ao de Campina Grande. Em ambas as localidades, as chuvas apresentaram-se mais abundantes e regulares no primeiro semestre do ano, com valores máximos em torno do mês de Junho.

  7. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada Potassium leaching from green cover crop residues as affected by rainfall amount

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    C. A. Rosolem

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2, sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare, aveia preta (Avena strigosa, triticale (Triticum secale, crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens foram cultivados em vasos com terra, em casa de vegetação, em Botucatu (SP. Aos 45 dias da emergência, as plantas foram cortadas na altura do colo, secas em estufa e submetidas a chuvas simuladas de 4,4, 8,7, 17,4, 34,9 e 69,8 mm, considerando uma quantidade de palha equivalente a 8,0 t ha-1. A máxima retenção de água pela palha corresponde a uma lâmina de até 3,0 mm, independentemente da espécie, praticamente não ocorrendo lixiviação do potássio com chuvas da ordem de 5 mm. A máxima liberação de K por unidade de chuva ocorre com lâminas de até 20 mm, decrescendo a partir deste ponto. A quantidade de K liberado da palha logo após o manejo depende da espécie vegetal, não ultrapassando, no entanto, 24 kg ha-1 com chuvas da ordem de 70 mm, apresentando correlação positiva com a concentração do nutriente no tecido vegetal. O triticale e a aveia são mais eficientes na ciclagem do potássio.Besides protecting soil from erosion, plant residues left on the soil surface by green cover crops in no-till cropping systems represent a considerable nutrient source of nutrients that can be made available for the following crop. Potassium leaching from the straw of six cover crop species was evaluated, in relation to the amount of rain on the residues. Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, guinea sorghum (Sorghum

  8. CHUVA DE SEMENTES COMO INDICADORA DO ESTÁDIO DE CONSERVAÇÃO DE FRAGMENTOS FLORESTAIS EM SOROCABA - SP

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    Fatima Conceição Márquez Piña-Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o nível de degradação de fragmentos florestais a partir do uso da chuva de sementes como indicador ambiental. Fragmentos (n= 5 de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual na região de Sorocaba - SP foram estudados de agosto a outubro de 2007 e janeiro a dezembro de 2008, utilizando-se coletores instalados em 11 parcelas (10 x 10 m. Do material coletado foram separadas as frações de sementes e frutos para identificação e classificação por síndrome de dispersão e hábito. Os resultados demonstraram que, embora os fragmentos F4 e F5 apresentem os maiores índices de riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade, há a dominância de espécies anemocóricas e herbáceas. Os fragmentos F1, F2 e F4 foram os com maior aporte de sementes, respectivamente com 36,8%, 26,8% e 17,8% e os fragmentos F3 e F5, apenas 12,6% e 5,9%. O aporte de propágulos foi sazonal sendo maior na transição da estação seca para a úmida, o que resulta em 63% do total de propágulos aportados. A síndrome com maior representatividade foi a anemocoria (86%, comum em áreas abertas e degradadas. Os resultados obtidos indicam a viabilidade da aplicação do estudo quantitativo da chuva de sementes para o monitoramento da restauração de fragmentos, tendo sido eficiente em detectar diferenças ambientais entre os fragmentos.  

  9. As chuvas no estado do Tocantins: distribuição geográfica e gênese das variações rítmicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Paulo Henrique Pereira [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo trata-se de uma análise acerca da distribuição espacial e temporal das chuvas no estado do Tocantins e da participação dos sistemas atmosféricos na gênese desta. Esta pesquisa possui sua relevância, principalmente devido à sua contribuição para o conhecimento científico da área de estudo, uma vez verificada a carência de estudos climatológicos de base genética e dinâmica realizados na área em foco. Os dados de chuva utilizados nesta pesquisa provêm de estações pluviométricas...

  10. Classicação Sinótica de Frentes Frias Associadas a Chuvas Extremas no Leste de Santa Catarina (SC

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    Gustavo C.J. Escobar

    Full Text Available Resumo O trabalho apresenta uma classificação sinótica de frentes frias sobre o leste do Estado de Santa Catarina (SC, com o propósito de identificar os principais padrões sinóticos associados com chuvas extremas na região do Vale do Itajaí. A metodologia utilizada foi a técnica de Análise de Componentes Principais aplicada à série de reanálises do Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR (NCEP para o período 1979-2010. Previamente, realiza-se uma climatologia de frentes frias sobre o leste de SC, cujos resultados mostram uma maior frequência de frentes frias associadas a chuvas extremas no Vale do Itajaí durante a primavera. Os resultados fornecem cinco padrões sinóticos principais que representam 83,4% dos casos de frentes frias com chuvas extremas no Vale do Itajaí. O padrão sinótico mais frequente mostra um intenso fluxo de quadrante sudeste sobre a região de estudo, determinado pela presença de um forte anticiclone pós-frontal observado sobre o sul da Província de Buenos Aires, cuja frente fria associada encontra-se no extremo nordeste catarinense. Por último, há dois padrões sinóticos típicos de verão relacionados com chuvas extremas no Vale do Itajaí; um relacionado com episódios de Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS e outro associado com a Baixa do Chaco (BCH.

  11. ESCOAMENTO DA ÁGUA DA CHUVA PELO TRONCO DAS ÁRVORES EM UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL

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    Alexandre Simões Lorenzon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação de Pesquisas, Treinamento e Educação Ambiental Mata do Paraíso, situada no Município de Viçosa, na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e teve como objetivo avaliar o escoamento pelo tronco em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2011. Para quantificar esse escoamento, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 10 x 10 m, sendo em cada parcela adaptados coletores à base de poliuretano nos troncos das árvores com circunferência 15,0 cm. Um pluviômetro foi instalado em local aberto para quantificar a água diretamente da chuva. Além disso, realizou-se uma análise qualitativa dos indivíduos do escoamento pelo troco, avaliando a qualidade do fuste e da copa, posição no estrato da floresta e infestação de cipó. Em todo o período de análises, foram realizadas 75 medições. Nas parcelas de escoamento pelo tronco foram amostrados 126 indivíduos, distribuídos em 29 famílias e 59 espécies. A precipitação em aberto foi de 2.391,63 mm, e o escoamento pelo tronco somou 31,59 mm, ou 1,32% da precipitação em aberto. A espécie com maior escoamento pelo tronco foi a Euterpe edulis, com um volume médio de água escoado de 637,00 L. Das espécies com maior escoamento pelo tronco, 73,91% encontravam-se no estrato inferior da floresta, evidenciando que algumas espécies possuem algum tipo de adaptação morfológica para captação da água da chuva.

  12. Efeitos de períodos de permanência de clomazone + hexazinona no solo e na palha de cana-de-açúcar antes da ocorrência de chuvas na eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas Effects of different periods of clomazone + hexazinona permanence in soil and sugarcane mulch before the occurrence of rain on weed control efficacy

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    C.A. Carbonari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia da mistura formulada de clomazone e hexazinona aplicada sobre o solo e em associação com a palha de cana-de-açúcar, após diferentes períodos de permanência sem a ocorrência de chuvas. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, no município de Botucatu-SP. Os vasos foram preenchidos com solo, e as sementes de plantas daninhas (Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Euphorbia heterophylla foram semeadas superficialmente e, em seguida, cobertas ou não com palha de cana-de-açúcar, dependendo do tratamento utilizado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um esquema fatorial 3 x 6, sendo os fatores seis períodos sem ocorrência de chuvas (0, 3, 7, 15, 30 e 60 dias e três posicionamentos do produto (sobre o solo sem palha, sobre e sob a palha de cana. Foram realizadas avaliações de controle aos 10, 21, 35 e 42 dias após a ocorrência da chuva. A mistura de clomazone + hexazinona promoveu excelentes resultados de controle para todas as espécies estudadas quando aplicada sobre, sob ou na ausência de palha de cana-de-açúcar. No entanto, observou-se tendência de redução nos níveis de controle para períodos superiores a 60 dias sem ocorrência de chuva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the formulated mixture clomazone and hexazinone applied in soil or combined with sugarcane mulch, after different periods of permanence without the occurrence of rain. The experiment was carried out in vases under greenhouse conditions in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The weeds Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Euphorbia heterophylla were sown and covered or not with sugarcane mulch. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with four repetitions. The treatments were displaced in a 3x6

  13. Dimensionamento de reservatório para aproveitamento de água de chuva: comparação entre métodos da ABNT NBR 15527:2007 e Decreto Municipal 293/2006 de Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra,Stella Maris da Cruz; Christan,Priscila de; Teixeira,Celimar Azambuja; Farahbakhsh,Khosrow

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma comparação entre os métodos de dimensionamento de reservatório de água de chuva propostos na NBR 15527:007 e no Decreto Municipal 293/2006, de Curitiba, PR. Para esta análise foram selecionadas cinco edificações que possuem sistema de captação e aproveitamento de água de chuva em funcionamento. Os resultados obtidos através dos dois métodos foram discrepantes. A fim de resultarem volumes coerentes com o aproveitamento de água de chuva, as equações do Decreto Munici...

  14. Estudo comparativo da qualidade da água da chuva coletada em telhado com telhas de concreto e em telhado verde para usos não potáveis

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    Celimar Azambuja Teixeira

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta uma comparação da qualidade da água da chuva coletada em telhado inclinado com telhas de concreto (residência 1 e cobertura plana e vegetada (residência 2, indicada como telhado verde. Os objetivos desta investigação foram: (1 analisar a qualidade da água da chuva captada nas duas coberturas, com base nos parâmetros da NBR 15527 (ABNT, 2007 e (2 fazer acompanhamento da qualidade da água armazenada para verificar eficiência e comportamento dos dois telhados. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em Curitiba, PR, onde é obrigatório o aproveitamento da água da chuva em novas construções desde o ano de 2007. A água da chuva captada no telhado com telhas de concreto apresentou menores valores para turbidez e demanda química de oxigênio na maioria dos resultados (oito e sete amostras, respectivamente. O telhado verde contribuiu para a diminuição da acidez natural da água da chuva. Não foram atendidos os parâmetros microbiológicos estabelecidos na NBR 15527 (ABNT, 2007 em nenhuma das amostras coletadas. Apesar de a qualidade da água da chuva não atender todos os parâmetros indicados na NBR 15527 (ABNT, 2007, essa água vem sendo aproveitada nas residências para limpeza de calçadas, irrigação de jardim e descarga em bacias sanitárias, sem indicação de inconvenientes pelos moradores.

  15. Perda de água, solo e fósforo com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo sob plantio direto e com chuva simulada Water, soil and phosphorus loss after cattle slurry application to oxisol under no-tillage and simulated rainfall

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    Hélio Fumiaki Mori

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A região dos Campos Gerais do Paraná é importante produtora de leite em sistema confinado e, com isso, também geradora de dejeto líquido bovino. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar perdas de água, solo, P total, P solúvel e P particulado em chuva simulada, realizada imediatamente após a aplicação das doses de 0, 30, 60 e 90 m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido bovino, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo manejado em plantio direto, e inferir os eventuais impactos na qualidade da água. A aplicação de dejeto aumentou a taxa de perda de água por escoamento superficial em mais de 10 vezes, em todos os intervalos de 15 min da chuva durante duas horas. O maior incremento na perda total de água ocorreu com as doses 0 e 30 m³ ha-1. A partir da dose de 60 m³ ha-1, houve tendência de estabilização da perda de água. A taxa de perda de solo nos primeiros 15 min de chuva também aumentou com a aplicação de dejeto, repetindo-se, embora não de forma significativa, até o final da chuva. O maior incremento na perda de solo também ocorreu com a aplicação das doses de 0 e 30 m³ ha-1, seguido por estabilização com as doses maiores. Parte do material sólido perdido veio do próprio dejeto. A aplicação de dejeto, mesmo na dose de 30 m³ ha-1, elevou a concentração de P total, solúvel e particulado no escoamento para valores acima dos níveis críticos relacionados com a eutrofização, especialmente nos primeiros 15 min de chuva. Por aumentar a taxa de escoamento de água e a concentração de P no escoamento, o dejeto também aumentou a perda absoluta das três formas de P, com tendência de estabilização a partir de 60 m³ ha-1. A causa do aumento substancial tanto das taxas como da quantidade absoluta de perda de água, solo e P por escoamento foi possivelmente o selamento superficial do solo promovido pelo próprio dejeto e pelo fato de a chuva ter ocorrido imediatamente após a aplicação deste.Campos Gerais in the State of Paran

  16. Resistência hidráulica da crosta formada em solos submetidos a chuvas simuladas Crust hydraulic resistance in soils under simulated rain

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    Viviane dos Santos Brandão

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a redução da taxa de infiltração em solos sujeitos ao encrostamento decorrente da aplicação de chuvas simuladas, foi realizado um experimento em esquema fatorial 5 x 6, sendo cinco solos (Argissolo Vermelho, Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Neossolo Flúvico e Neossolo Quartzarênico e seis energias cinéticas de chuva (0, 525, 1051, 2102, 3153 e 4204 J m-2, com três repetições. A partir dos dados de taxa de infiltração da água no solo e da espessura da crosta, determinadas por micromorfometria, calcularam-se a condutividade e a resistência hidráulica da crosta. Todos os solos apresentaram redução da taxa de infiltração, quando a energia cinética de chuva simulada aplicada aumentou. A resistência hidráulica da crosta aumentou com a energia cinética (especialmente para os solos Argissolos Vermelho-Amarelos e Vermelho até atingir um valor máximo, a partir do qual ocorreu diminuição, atribuída ao desgaste erosivo da crosta provocado pelo aumento do escoamento superficial, associado aos maiores valores de energia cinética da chuva simulada. Por meio de análise de regressão múltipla, foram determinadas a relação da resistência hidráulica da crosta com a energia cinética da chuva e as características químicas e físicas de cada solo. A variável resistência hidráulica da crosta mostrou-se adequada a ser utilizada nos modelos infiltração da água no solo para descrever a influência do encrostamento neste processo.To evaluate the decrease in infiltration rate in crusting soils an experiment was carried out using a rainfall simulator. Treatments were distributed in a factorial schedule 5 x 6, using five soils (Red Ultisol, Red-Yellow Ultisol, Red-Yellow Oxisol, Fluvic Entisol and Arenic Entisol and six rainfall kinetic energies (0, 525, 1051, 2102, 3153, and 4204 J m-2 with three replications. According to the water infiltration rate and crust thickness, as determined by

  17. Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Copao Fruit (Eulychnia acida Phil. Unswe Thee Environmental Conditions in the Coquimbo Region Características Químicas y Composición Nutricional de los Frutos de Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. Bajo tres Condiciones Ambientales de la Región de Coquimbo

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    Lilia Masson S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. is an endemic arborescent cactus restricted mainly to the semi-arid Coquimbo Region (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" W, Chile. The area of distribution is from sea level to 1200 m.a.s.l. The edible fruit called rumpa is generally round, with green or pink peel and small scales on its surface, showing wide variability in size and weight. The aim of this work was to characterize the rumpa harvested in January 2009 and 2010 in three sectors of Coquimbo Region to determine chemical and nutritional composition in three fractions: pulp with seeds, juice, and peel. The research showed that this fruit is a good natural source of mainly soluble dietary fiber, which has a jellied texture and is present in the three fractions analyzed: 2% for juice, 3% for pulp with seeds, and approximately 5% for peel, making it potentially a good source of hydrocolloids for the food industry. The fruit is also a good source of vitamin C; around 55 mg 100 g-1 in peel, and 30 mg 100 g-1 in pulp with seeds and juice, values considered high compared to 18 mg 100 g-1 for prickly pear (Opuntiaficus-indica [L.] Mill. The main minerals were: K, Mg, Ca, and P. Total polyphenols and betalain pigments were also determined in the pulp with seeds and pink peel fractions, respectively. The nutritional characteristics, together with its high water content of around 96%, make rumpa a promising raw material for agro-industrial development of natural juices or isotonic drinks. This characterization helps in the recovery of an endemic native species by reducing potential threats to destroy wild populations of E. acid, especially near agricultural areas, and by promoting habitat conservation of the species in the region.El copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. es un cactus arborescente endémico restringido principalmente a la región semi árida de Coquimbo (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" O, Chile. El área de distribución comprende desde el nivel del mar hasta los 1200 m de

  18. Comparing parameterized versus measured microphysical properties of tropical convective cloud bases during the ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaign

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    R. C. Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to validate parameterizations that were recently developed for satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei supersaturation spectra, NCCN(S, at cloud base alongside more traditional parameterizations connecting NCCN(S with cloud base updrafts and drop concentrations. This was based on the HALO aircraft measurements during the ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaign over the Amazon region, which took place in September 2014. The properties of convective clouds were measured with a cloud combination probe (CCP, a cloud and aerosol spectrometer (CAS-DPOL, and a CCN counter onboard the HALO aircraft. An intercomparison of the cloud drop size distributions (DSDs and the cloud water content (CWC derived from the different instruments generally shows good agreement within the instrumental uncertainties. To this end, the directly measured cloud drop concentrations (Nd near cloud base were compared with inferred values based on the measured cloud base updraft velocity (Wb and NCCN(S spectra. The measurements of Nd at cloud base were also compared with drop concentrations (Na derived on the basis of an adiabatic assumption and obtained from the vertical evolution of cloud drop effective radius (re above cloud base. The measurements of NCCN(S and Wb reproduced the observed Nd within the measurements uncertainties when the old (1959 Twomey's parameterization was used. The agreement between the measured and calculated Nd was only within a factor of 2 with attempts to use cloud base S, as obtained from the measured Wb, Nd, and NCCN(S. This underscores the yet unresolved challenge of aircraft measurements of S in clouds. Importantly, the vertical evolution of re with height reproduced the observation-based nearly adiabatic cloud base drop concentrations, Na. The combination of these results provides aircraft observational support for the various components of the satellite-retrieved methodology that was recently developed to

  19. Overview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA

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    L. A. T. Machado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin near Manaus during the GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiments. This study takes advantage of the numerous measurement platforms and instrument systems operating during both campaigns to sample cloud structure and environmental conditions during 2014 and 2015; the rainfall variability among seasons, aerosol loading, land surface type, and topography has been carefully characterized using these data. Differences between the wet and dry seasons were examined from a variety of perspectives. The rainfall rates distribution, total amount of rainfall, and raindrop size distribution (the mass-weighted mean diameter were quantified over both seasons. The dry season generally exhibited higher rainfall rates than the wet season and included more intense rainfall periods. However, the cumulative rainfall during the wet season was 4 times greater than that during the total dry season rainfall, as shown in the total rainfall accumulation data. The typical size and life cycle of Amazon cloud clusters (observed by satellite and rain cells (observed by radar were examined, as were differences in these systems between the seasons. Moreover, monthly mean thermodynamic and dynamic variables were analysed using radiosondes to elucidate the differences in rainfall characteristics during the wet and dry seasons. The sensitivity of rainfall to atmospheric aerosol loading was discussed with regard to mass-weighted mean diameter and rain rate. This topic was evaluated only during the wet season due to the insignificant statistics of rainfall events for different aerosol loading ranges and the low frequency of precipitation events during the dry season. The impacts of aerosols on cloud droplet diameter varied based on droplet size. For the wet season, we observed no dependence between land surface type and rain rate. However

  20. Rugosidade superficial do solo formada por escarificação e influenciada pela erosividade da chuva Soil surface roughness formed by chiseling and affected by rainfall erosivity

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    Wilson Antonio Zoldan Junior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A rugosidade superficial do solo é influenciada, entre outros fatores, pelo efeito residual de manejo do solo, pelo tipo de preparo e pela erosividade da chuva e, juntamente com a cobertura do solo por resíduos vegetais, influencia a erosão hídrica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, entre junho de 2005 e março de 2006, em um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico típico, o efeito de uma operação de escarificador e da erosividade de chuvas sobre a rugosidade superficial, nos seguintes sistemas de manejo do solo: preparo convencional sem cultivo do solo (SCE, preparo convencional com cultivo do solo (PCE, semeadura direta em solo nunca preparado e com resíduos queimados (SQE e semeadura direta tradicional (STE. Nos tratamentos PCE, SQE e STE, cultivaram-se aveia-preta, soja, ervilhaca comum, milho, aveia-preta, feijão preto, nabo forrageiro, soja, ervilhaca comum, milho e aveia-preta. Aplicaram-se cinco testes de chuva simulada, com 64 mm h-1 e duração de 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 min cada um. Entre o segundo e o terceiro teste de chuva simulada ocorreram 57 mm de chuva natural; entre o terceiro e o quarto, 21 mm; e entre o quarto e o quinto, 30 mm. Determinou-se a rugosidade superficial imediatamente antes e logo após o preparo do solo com escarificador e imediatamente após cada teste de chuva simulada. A rugosidade original e linear da superfície do solo não foi influenciada pelo manejo, enquanto a rugosidade ao acaso teve essa influência, ao final de um pousio de seis meses. Diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo mantidos em pousio por seis meses resultaram em diferente rugosidade original, linear e ao acaso, quando o solo foi submetido à operação de escarificador. A rugosidade ao acaso foi menos influenciada pela declividade do terreno do que pelas marcas de preparo do solo, tendo diminuído com o aumento da erosividade das chuvas. Essa mesma rugosidade apresentou coeficiente de decaimento temporal semelhante nos sistemas de manejo

  1. Erosividade das chuvas associada a períodos de retorno e probabilidade de ocorrência no estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Roriz Luciano Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da erosividade das chuvas associada à probabilidade de ocorrência e ao período de retorno pode contribuir para o planejamento conservacionista de uma região, em médio e longo prazo. A fim de gerar informações para melhor utilizar modelos e controle da erosão, dados de chuvas de 30 séries pluviográficas e pluviométricas, abrangendo 25 municípios, entre 1933 e 2006, foram estudados quanto à adequação das séries e do cálculo da probabilidade de ocorrência teórica (P e período de retorno (T da erosividade das chuvas (EI30 e KE>25, para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi feita a espacialização do potencial erosivo associado aos períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 e 100 anos para todo o Estado. A erosividade anual média (EI30 ou fator R da USLE para qualquer localidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro pode ser igualada ou superada pelo menos uma vez, em média, em um período de 1,8 a 2,1 anos, com faixa de 48,5 a 54,9 % de probabilidade de ocorrência teórica. As localidades que apresentam maior erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno estão situadas nas mesorregiões Metropolitanas e em partes das mesorregiões Sul e Centro Fluminense. Foi possível identificar de oito a 12 regiões homogêneas, quanto à distribuição espacial da erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno de dois para 100 anos no Estado. De modo geral, a maior variação da distribuição espacial da erosividade apresenta-se na faixa de período de retorno de dois a cinco anos.

  2. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA ARMAZENADA EM CISTERNAS RURAIS E AS MODIFICAÇÕES DECORRENTES DO MANUSEIO NA REGIÃO DE SERRINHA-BA.

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    Maria Auxiliadora Freitas dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No nordeste brasileiro, em especial, nas áreas áridas, a escassez de água para o consumohumano constitui-se uma realidade comum. Dentre as propostas de aproveitamento,utilização e armazenamento da água da chuva, tem-se as cisternas rurais. Este trabalhoteve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água da chuva armazenada em cisternas ruraisassociada às práticas de manuseio realizadas pelas famílias no município deSerrinha/BA. No período de outubro/2007 a janeiro/2008 foram realizadas análisesbacteriológicas e físico-químicas das amostras de água armazenadas nas cisternas,associando-as aos dados relacionados sobre captação armazenamento, uso e manuseiodesta água através da aplicação de formulário. Os resultados demonstraram que, emrelação aos parâmetros bacteriológicos, todas as amostras apresentaram E.c. Quanto aosparâmetros físico-químicos, aqueles que estavam fora dos limites estabelecidos pelaportaria n518/04, foram: 27,8% em relação a cor, 4,2% em relação a turbidez. Emrelação aos parâmetros pH, sulfato, dureza, alcalinidade, cloreto, sólidos dissolvidos,nitrito e nitrato as amostras estão em conformidade com a portaria citada. Foramidentificadas algumas práticas de armazenamento e manuseio que proporcionam acontaminação da água, dentre elas: 44,4% das famílias entrevistadas misturam a água dachuva com água de outras fontes, 11,2% não desviam a primeira água da chuva, 27,8 %insere peixes na água e deste percentual, 20% fornece alimento. Para captar a água,70,8% das famílias utilizam o balde. A utilização de práticas inadequadas possibilitou oaumento da concentração de E.c e entre as famílias que apenas utilizam a bombamanual foram encontrados os menores valores de E.c. As cisternas constituem umatecnologia viável para o abastecimento de água no nordeste brasileiro, entretanto, asfamílias devem aperfeiçoar as técnicas de manejo, dentre elas realizar a desinfecção daágua da chuva

  3. Infiltração de água em um Latossolo vermelho-escuro sob condições de chuva intensa em diferentes sistemas de manejo

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    A. A. Barcelos

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A infiltração de água é uma propriedade que reflete as condições físicas do solo, principalmente quanto à sua qualidade estrutural. Foi realizado um estudo na Embrapa Trigo, em Passo Fundo (RS, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, submetido por longo tempo a diferentes sistemas de manejo, com o objetivo de verificar a influência desses sistemas na taxa de infiltração de água, considerando as diferentes coberturas de solo e condições físicas gerais por eles propiciadas. A área experimental estava cultivada com milho, tendo-se aplicado chuva simulada de 120 mm h-1, durante 90 minutos, em três repetições, em três épocas distintas: (a 45 dias após a semeadura do milho; (b logo após a colheita do milho e (c logo após a semeadura de aveia. As chuvas simuladas foram aplicadas sobre parcelas de 0,81 m² distribuídas dentro de macroparcelas com os sistemas de manejo em preparo convencional, cultivo mínimo e sistema plantio direto. O cultivo mínimo apresentou, em todas as épocas, as maiores taxas de infiltração de água no solo, e o sistema plantio direto produziu as maiores quantidades de palha na superfície do solo.

  4. Krigagem e inverso do quadrado da distância para interpolação dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas

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    Mello C. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Em projetos de obras hidráulicas, é necessária a estimativa da chuva intensa adequada à realidade técnico-financeira dos projetos, para posterior cálculo de vazões máximas. O uso da equação de chuvas intensas é a forma mais usual para estimativa da chuva de projeto. No entanto, há dificuldade em obtê-la para locais desprovidos de dados pluviométricos, o que pode ser superado mediante técnicas computacionais para a espacialização dos seus parâmetros. Para isto, pode-se trabalhar com procedimentos estatísticos para interpolação dos parâmetros com base em estações meteorológicas vizinhas ao local. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, comparar os dois procedimentos estatísticos mais exatos, conforme já constatado em outras aplicações físicas, que são a krigagem (interpolador geoestatístico e o inverso do quadrado da distância, para interpolação dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas. Utilizaram-se 140 estações meteorológicas do estado de São Paulo, as quais dispõem da respectiva equação de chuvas intensas estimada com base em dados pluviométricos, consideradas como ideais. Destas, 126 foram utilizadas para estudo da dependência espacial dos parâmetros e 14 para comparação de erros nas estimativas da chuva intensa. Constatou-se que ambos os métodos apresentaram boa precisão, mas a krigagem produziu menores erros médios para 11 estações, verificando-se melhorias consideráveis em especial para tempos de retorno e tempos de duração da precipitação usuais em projetos em pequenas bacias hidrográficas, podendo-se sugerir este método como o mais adequado.

  5. Avaliação das contribuições de água de chuva provenientes de ligações domiciliares em sistema de esgotamento sanitário separador absoluto

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolino, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os sistemas de esgotamento sanitário do tipo separador absoluto são concebidos de maneira que não devam sofrer com a interferência das águas pluviais, sendo que estas devem ser direcionadas aos sistemas de drenagem pública. No entanto, a água de chuva é comum na operação deste tipo de sistema. A interferência da água de chuva se dá por meio de infiltrações no sistema ou por afluxo direto ou indireto. A infiltração pode ser definida como sendo a água pluvial ou de lençol freático que p...

  6. Avaliação interdisciplinar de um sistema de captação de água de chuva construído através de processo participativo com agricultores familiares paulistas.

    OpenAIRE

    Binotti, Túlio Caio; Stolf, Rubismar; Costa, Manoel Baltasar Baptista da; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato

    2013-01-01

    Sistemas de captação de água de chuva são frequentemente utilizados no semi árido rural brasileiro, porém em outras regiões rurais brasileiras são ainda pouco usados, mesmo com toda problemática envolvendo os recursos hídricos. Este trabalho é fruto de uma pesquisa ação que teve como objetivo avaliar um sistema de captação de água de chuva construído em processo participativo com os agricultores em um assentamento do Programa de Reforma Agrária paulista. Para verificar a viabilidade e sustent...

  7. QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA ARMAZENADA EM CISTERNAS NA ÁREA RURAL DE INHAMBUPE, NO SEMIÁRIDO BAIANO, E SEUS FATORES INTERVENIENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Nara de Melo Dantas Silva; Louisa Wessels Perello; Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Com a existência da problemática de carência hídrica no Semiárido Brasileiro devido aos fatores climáticos e edáficos, o sistema de captação e armazenamento de água de chuva, mostra-se como uma solução para o abastecimento de água, melhorando a qualidade de vida dos habitantes das regiões semiáridas, inclusive dos moradores de Inhambupe. Ao estudar os fatores intervenientes da água de chuva armazenada em cisternas da zona rural do município de Inhambupe, pode-se concluir que existe a possibil...

  8. Análise estatística de chuvas intensas na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Paraíba Statistical analysis of rains intense in the Paraíba River bas

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    Lincoln Eloi de Araújo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada na bacia hidrográfica do rio Paraíba com a finalidade de identificar a variação espacial e temporal das chuvas intensas de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 dias. Os resultados obtidos mostraram concentração de valores máximos da variação espacial das chuvas intensas no leste da sub-bacia do Baixo Paraíba, Sul da sub-bacia do rio Taperoá e centro-norte da sub-bacia do Alto Paraíba. A análise da variação temporal revelou que os meses de maiores ocorrências de chuvas intensas na bacia em estudo são: janeiro, fevereiro, março e abril. Em seguida, as chuvas intensas foram ajustadas à função distribuição de probabilidade de Gumbel. O teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov foi utilizado para verificar a qualidade desses ajustes.This research was accomplished in the Paraíba river basin for to identify the space and temporal variability of the rains intense of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. The obtained results showed concentration of maximum values of the space variation of the rains intense in the east of the subbasin of Low Paraíba, south of the subbasin of the river Taperoá and center-north of the subbasin of High Paraíba. The analysis of the temporal variation did reveal that the months of larger occurrences of rains intense in the basin in study are: January, February, March and April. Soon after, the rains intense they were adjusted to the probability distribution function of Gumbel. The test Kolmogorov-Smirnov was used to verify the quality of those fittings.

  9. Dimensionamento de reservatório para aproveitamento de água de chuva: comparação entre métodos da ABNT NBR 15527:2007 e Decreto Municipal 293/2006 de Curitiba, PR

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    Stella Maris da Cruz Bezerra

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma comparação entre os métodos de dimensionamento de reservatório de água de chuva propostos na NBR 15527:007 e no Decreto Municipal 293/2006, de Curitiba, PR. Para esta análise foram selecionadas cinco edificações que possuem sistema de captação e aproveitamento de água de chuva em funcionamento. Os resultados obtidos através dos dois métodos foram discrepantes. A fim de resultarem volumes coerentes com o aproveitamento de água de chuva, as equações do Decreto Municipal 293/2006 merecem uma revisão, para serem incluídas as considerações sobre índice pluviométrico, área de captação e demanda para a água de chuva armazenada. A utilização dos métodos apresentados na NBR 15527:2007 seria facilitada com ajustes de nomenclatura e inclusão de mais informações na apresentação das equações, em função da ambiguidade de denominação das variáveis. A decisão final sobre qual método mais indicado pode ser baseada na comparação dos volumes obtidos e na viabilidade em termos de área disponível e custo de construção do reservatório.

  10. Perdas de solo e água num Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico submetido a diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo sob chuva natural Water erosion caused by natural rainfall in a clayey Hapludox with different cropland tillage systems

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    J. F. Beutler

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A chuva e a enxurrada, combinadas, são os agentes ativos na erosão hídrica, a qual também é influenciada pela cobertura, rugosidade, tipo de cultura e sistema de preparo do solo. Os preparos de solo conservacionistas reduzem a erosão hídrica em relação aos preparos convencionais, visto que são menos intensos e mantêm o solo coberto por maior período de tempo e, às vezes, proporcionam aumento da rugosidade na superfície do solo. Para avaliar as perdas de solo e água causadas pela erosão hídrica sob chuva natural, realizou-se um experimento em Chapecó (SC, num Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico, com declividade média de 0,09 m m-1, entre 1994 e 1999. Estudaram-se os tratamentos: preparo convencional, cultivo mínimo, rotação de preparos e semeadura direta, executados no sentido paralelo ao declive, com duas repetições, com algumas combinações de rotação de culturas no inverno e no verão. O tratamento-testemunha constou de preparo de solo convencional, sem cultivo (parcela-padrão da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo - EUPS. A semeadura direta com rotação de culturas reduziu as perdas de solo em 45 % em relação ao preparo de solo convencional no verão e semeadura direta no inverno, com rotação de culturas e, em relação ao preparo de solo convencional sem cultura, esta redução foi de 99 %. Nos preparos de solo conservacionistas, as perdas de solo foram reduzidas em 80 % em relação aos preparos de solo convencionais, na média dos tratamentos que envolveram culturas e dos anos de cultivo. Nos tratamentos de semeadura direta, as perdas de solo foram duas vezes maiores na primavera/verão do que no outono/inverno, enquanto, nos demais tratamentos, essas perdas foram 3,3 vezes maiores no outono/inverno, na média dos tratamentos e dos anos de cultivo. As perdas de água foram pequenas e se comportaram de maneira semelhante às perdas de solo, diferindo quanto à magnitude.Rainfall and runoff together are the

  11. A dinâmica atmosférica na vertente oriental da bacia do alto rio Paraná e a gênese das chuvas - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5498

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    Victor da Assunção Borsato

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O ritmo dos sistemas atmosféricos e a intensidade variam no tempo e no espaço. Por isso, para caracterizar a dinâmica climática de uma região é necessário estudar a dinâmica das massas de ar ao longo de uma série. Estudaram-se, por meio da dinâmica das massas de ar, a participação dos sistemas atmosféricos atuantes e as porcentagens das chuvas convectivas e frontais ao longo da vertente oriental da bacia do alto rio Paraná. Verificou-se que, nessa vertente, nos meses mais frios, predomina a atuação da massa tropical Atlântica e da polar Atlântica. Nos meses mais quentes, além de predominar a atuação dos sistemas de baixa pressão equatorial continental e tropical continental, têm-se as chuvas convectivas. Verificou-se, também, progressivo aumento na participação das chuvas convectivas, a partir da década de 1990, corroborando a teoria das mudanças climáticas.

  12. ANÁLISE DE VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA: UM ESTUDO DE APROVEITAMENTO DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA NO INSTITUTO EDUCACIONAL PAULO DE TARSO – CAMPOS, RJ

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    Marcelo Mello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos dias atuais é notória a escassez de água em que o mundo vivencia aliado a isso, o desenvolvimento sustentável tem evoluído bastante no sentido de encontrar formas para proteger recursos naturais essenciais a sobrevivência humana; além da demanda pelo uso da água ser crescente, devido ao aumento populacional. Esses fatores remetem ao questionamento de como utilizar alternativas que reduzam o consumo de água potável e seus custos, preservando os recursos hídricos. Contexto que necessita de alternativas para preservação da água, de modo que esse recurso no futuro próximo não se torne escasso. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a viabilidade econômica da implantação de um sistema de aproveitamento de água de chuva para fins não potáveis; no Instituto Educacional Paulo de Tarso, localizado no bairro Parque Aurora, na cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes – RJ. Foi desenvolvido um estudo de caso para auxiliar na tomada de decisão sobre a aplicação do investimento no projeto; por meio de levantamento dos consumos mensais de água, precipitação pluviométrica e determinação da área de coleta de chuva. Foi realizado o levantamento dos custos dos materiais, mão-de-obra, operação e manutenção do sistema. Os fluxos de caixas das duas alternativas foram analisados com um horizonte de planejamento de vinte e cinco anos a uma taxa mínima de atratividade (TMA de 8,5% ao ano; a alternativa de se investir em um sistema de aproveitamento de água pluvial foi viável financeiramente. A análise de viabilidade econômica foi realizada através dos métodos de valor presente líquido (VPL, taxa interna de retorno (TIR, e o estudo do tempo de recuperação do capital investido, através do payback simples (PBS e payback descontado (PBD.

  13. Erosão hídrica em um Nitossolo Háplico submetido a diferentes sistemas de manejo sob chuva simulada. I - Perdas de solo e água Water erosion on an Hapludox submitted to different soil managements under simulated rainfall. I - Soil and water losses

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    D. Leite

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo do solo influencia a cobertura e a rugosidade na superfície, constituindo-se no principal fator que afeta a erosão hídrica. Utilizando um simulador de chuvas de braços rotativos, foram aplicados, no campo, três testes de chuva simulada no cultivo do milho e três no do feijão, com intensidade constante de 64 mm h-1 e energia cinética de 0,2083 MJ ha-1 mm-1 , no Planalto Sul Catarinense, entre março de 2001 e abril de 2003, para avaliar as perdas de água e solo nos seguintes tratamentos de manejo do solo, em duas repetições: solo sem cultivo com uma aração + duas gradagens (SSC; cultivos de milho e feijão com uma aração + duas gradagens sobre resíduos dessecados (PCO; cultivos de milho e feijão em semeadura direta sobre resíduos dessecados em solo previamente preparado (SDI; cultivos de milho e feijão em semeadura direta sobre resíduos dessecados em solo nunca preparado (SDD; cultivos de milho e feijão em semeadura direta sobre resíduos queimados em solo nunca preparado (SDQ, e solo sem cultivo com campo nativo melhorado (CNM. O experimento foi realizado em um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico argiloso, com inclinação média do terreno de 0,165 m m-1. As perdas de solo foram fortemente influenciadas pelo sistema de manejo do solo, enquanto as perdas de água sofreram efeito apenas moderado. A SDI reduziu as perdas de solo 96 % em relação ao PCO, enquanto as perdas de água que equivaleram a 22 % do volume das chuvas aplicadas no PCO foram reduzidas para 7 % do referido volume na SDI, na média dos cultivos. A queima dos resíduos culturais aumentou as perdas de solo em 21 vezes em relação à ausência de queima, enquanto as perdas de água que eqüivaleram a 22,5 % do volume das chuvas aplicadas na área não queimada aumentaram para 26,5 % do referido volume com a queima, na média dos cultivos. As perdas de solo relacionaram-se exponencialmente com a percentagem de cobertura da superfície pelos res

  14. Índices de chuva dirigida direcional e análise do nível de umedecimento em fachadas de edifício multipavimentos em Goiânia, GO

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    Carlos Mariano Melo Júnior

    Full Text Available As fachadas dos edifícios estão sujeitas a condições de exposição que variam de acordo com as características climatológicas da região onde estão localizadas. A chuva dirigida, associação do vento à chuva, é uma das principais fontes externas de umidade e contribui com o processo de degradação dessas fachadas. O fenômeno é estudado em vários países e, devido à preocupação com seus efeitos, métodos vêm sendo desenvolvidos como forma de mensuração. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho visa obter os primeiros índices de chuva dirigida direcionais para a cidade de Goiânia-GO, bem como verificar a existência de relação desse índice com a umidade medida na superfície das fachadas de um edifício multipavimentos. Para tanto, os índices de chuva dirigida direcionais (ICDd da média mensal e de janeiro foram calculados aplicando o método semi-empírico, considerando dados meteorológicos do período de 2002 a 2008. Posteriormente, foi realizada a medição experimental de umidade na superfície do revestimento das fachadas de um edifício com 17 pavimentos tipo. As medições foram realizadas sobre as fachadas revestidas com argamassa, no mês de janeiro, após um evento de precipitação pluviométrica. Como resultado, obteve-se que o ICDd da média de todos os meses dos anos analisados e o ICDd de janeiro indicam um comportamento diferenciado de chuva dirigida para cada orientação. As medições de umidade superficial nas fachadas do edifício apontaram a ocorrência de maior umedecimento para as fachadas voltadas à orientação N, bem como no pavimento mais alto (17º e nas regiões abaixo das janelas.

  15. Erosivity under two durations of maximum rain intensities in Pelotas/RS = Erosividade sob duas durações de intensidades máximas da chuva em Pelotas - RS

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    Jacira Porto dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Universal Equation of Soil Loss (USLE, erosivity is the factor related to rain and express its potential to cause soil erosion, being necessary to know its kinetic energy and the maximum intensities of rain in duration of 30 min. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify and quantify the impact of the rain duration, considering 15 and 30 min, on the USLE erosivity factor. To achieve this, 863 rain gauge records were used, duiring the period of 1983 to 1998 in the city of Pelotas, RS, obtained from the Agrometeorological Station - Covenant EMBRAPA/UFPel, INMET (31o51´S; 52o21´O and altitude of 13,2 m. With the records, it was estimated the erosivity values from the maximum intensities of rain during the period evaluated. The average annual values of erosivity was 2551,3 MJ ha-1 h-1 ano-1 and 1406,1 MJ ha-1 h-1 ano-1, for the average intensities of 6,40 mm h-1 and 3,74 mm h-1, in durations of 15 and 30 min, respectively. The results of this study have shown that the percentage of erosive rainfalls in relation to the total precipitation was of 91.0%, and that the erosivity was influenced by the duration of the maximum intensity of rain.= Na Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo (EUPS a erosividade é o fator relacionado à chuva e expressa o seu potencial em provocar a erosão do solo, sendo necessário que se conheça a energia cinética da mesma e as máximas intensidades da chuva na duração de 30 min. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar e quantificar o impacto da duração da chuva, considerando 15 e 30 min, sobre o fator erosividade da EUPS. Para tanto foram utilizados 863 registros pluviográficos de chuva, no período de 1983 a 1998 da localidade de Pelotas, RS, obtidos na Estação Agroclimatológica – Convênio EMBRAPA/UFPel, INMET (31o51´S;52o21´O e altitude de 13,2 m. Com os registros foram estimados os valores de erosividade a partir de intensidades máximas de chuva nas durações consideradas. Os valores m

  16. Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth Erosão hídrica sob chuva simulada em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo durante o crescimento da soja

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    Fernando Luis Engel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h-1. Treatments were replicated twice and consisted of: i conventional tillage on bare soil - control treatment (CTBS, ii conventional tillage on cultivated soil (CTCS, iii no-tillage on non tilled soil with burned crop residue (NTRB, iv no-tillage in non tilled soil with crop residue desiccated (NTRD, and v no-tillage on four-years interrupted soil tillage with crop residue desiccated - "traditional no tillage" (NTRT. Regardless of soybean cropstages, water losses were the highest for the CTCS than for the untilled soils, while soil losses were considerably higher in the CTCS treatment only until cropstage 3, in cultivated soil treatments. The NTRT was most effective treatment in terms of both water and soil loss reduction. Water infiltration should also be considered, when considering the soil erosion process caused by rainfall and its associated runoff, due to the management systems usually adopted in cultivated fields.O manejo do solo influencia a cobertura superficial pelo resíduo cultural e, juntamente com a cobertura do solo pela copa das plantas, afeta a erosao hídrica. O objetivo do estudo foi quantificar as perdas de água e solo por erosão hídrica em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, em diferentes estádios do cultivo da soja, em um experimento conduzido de abril de 2003 a maio de 2004, na região do Planalto Catarinense, em um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico. Chuvas simuladas foram aplicadas em cinco estádios do cultivo da soja, com intensidade

  17. Interações entre nuvens, chuvas e a biosfera na Amazônia Clouds, rain and biosphere interactions in Amazon

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    Maria Assunção Faus da Silva Dias

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma revisão dos resultados já obtidos no Projeto LBA, na componente de Física do Clima, referente ao efeito da interação entre a biosfera e a formação de nuvens e de chuva em diferentes estações do ano e regiões da Bacia Amazônica. O efeito do desmatamento e das queimadas na atmosfera é abordado assim como mecanismos atmosféricos que foram caracterizados a partir das diversas campanhas do projeto LBA. Uma visão da complexidade das interações e do progresso que tem sido feito com base nos dados colhidos é apresentada.A review of results obtained within the Physical Climate component of LBA with respect to the interaction between the biosphere and cloud and rain formation in the Amazon Basin, in different seasons and different regions within the Basin is presented. The deforestation effect and the effect of biomass burning are discussed and the physical processes highlighted based on the data collected in several LBA intensive field campaigns. The complex interactions and the progress in the understanding their evolution based on the new datasets is presented.

  18. ESTUDO DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL, BANCO DE SEMENTES E CHUVA DE SEMENTES NA RESERVA GENÉTICA FLORESTAL DE CAÇADOR, SC

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Genética Florestal de Caçador, no Estado de Santa Catarina no período de agosto de 1995 a janeiro de 1996. Para o estudo da regeneração natural foram instaladas 10 parcelas de 250 m² (10m x 25m. No interior das mesmas foram coletados a camada de solo juntamente com a serapilheira em até 3cm de profundidade em 40 pontos amostrais de 0,5m x 0,5m para a análise do banco de sementes no solo, e instalados 20 coletores com área de 0,5 m x 0,5 m para a avaliação da chuva de sementes. Os resultados mostram que apesar da Araucaria angustifolia ser a espécie dominante no estrato superior da floresta não apresenta indivíduos na regeneração natural e a Mimosa scabrella foi a espécie arbórea mais importante presente no banco de sementes no solo. As relações entre os três parâmetros avaliados evidenciam uma distribuição irregular das espécies na área de estudo.

  19. Aproveitamento de água de chuva para usos não potáveis na Universidade Severino Sombra

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    Juliana Francisco Souza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a viabilidade de um sistema de captação e reuso de água de chuva no campus da Universidade Severino Sombra. O índice pluviométrico anual médio foi de 1329,9 mm. O consumo de água potável médio mensal foi de 468,9 m³, correspondendo a um custo médio de R$ 4.478,00. Para o dimensionamento do reservatório foram utilizados três métodos: Azevedo Neto, Rippl e Interação. Foram obtidos volumes de reservatório de 71, 142, 215, 285 e 355 m3 pelo Método Interativo e custos totais de implantação de R$ 63.694,71; R$ 86.997,90; R$ 110.027,79; R$ 131.218,97 e R$ 131.218,97, com tempos de retorno de aproximadamente 7,8; 5,3; 4,5; 4,0 e 3,8 anos levando em consideração os percentuais de aproveitamento de 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50%, respectivamente.

  20. Análise da frequência e da intensidade das chuvas em Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, no período entre 1954 E 2001 - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.6957

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    Maysa de Lima Leite

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar uma avaliação da frequência e da intensidade da precipitação pluvial em Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, no período de 1954 a 2001, utilizando técnicas estatísticas de análise exploratória de dados com o auxílio dos softwares Microsoft Office Excel e Microcal Origin. A média dos totais anuais de precipitação para a série analisada foi de 1.546,2 mm, revelando tendência a aumentar com o passar dos anos. O mês com maior total médio de precipitação foi janeiro com o mês de agosto sendo o de menor total médio. Para todos os meses do ano foi observada assimetria positiva na distribuição de frequência dos dados, e nos meses mais secos essa tendência se mostrou mais acentuada. Em relação à intensidade de precipitação acumulada diariamente, os totais foram classificados como chuvisco, chuva fraca, chuva moderada, chuva forte e chuva extrema. O intervalo de precipitação predominante para a maioria dos meses foi o de chuva fraca, entre 2,5 e 10,0 mm.

  1. Análise de viabilidade técnica e econômica do uso de água de chuva em uma indústria metalmecânica na região metropolitana de Curitiba PR

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    Celimar Azambuja Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar a possibilidade de aproveitamento da água da chuva em uma indústria metalmecânica localizada no município de São José dos Pinhais, região metropolitana de Curitiba, considerando o volume de chuvas, necessidade da indústria, as características de qualidade da água de chuva da região, além de uma simulação da cobrança pelo uso da água e emissão dos seus efluentes lançados em um córrego próximo. Nesta avaliação, verificou-se que o aproveitamento da água de chuva pode ser viável devido ao comportamento hidrológico da região e a qualidade dessa água, verificada por ensaios de laboratório. Além disso, realizou-se uma simulação para estimar a provável economia ao se evitar o pagamento pela captação e emissão dos lançamentos nos corpos d’água da região, além do orçamento do reservatório proposto para o armazenamento da água de chuva.

  2. Análise de viabilidade técnica e econômica do uso de água de chuva em uma indústria metalmecânica na região metropolitana de Curitiba PR

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira,Celimar Azambuja; Zattoni,Gleidiston Tadeu; Nagalli,André; Freira,Flávio Bentes; Teixeira,Sidnei Helder Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Resumo Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar a possibilidade de aproveitamento da água da chuva em uma indústria metalmecânica localizada no município de São José dos Pinhais, região metropolitana de Curitiba, considerando o volume de chuvas, necessidade da indústria, as características de qualidade da água de chuva da região, além de uma simulação da cobrança pelo uso da água e emissão dos seus efluentes lançados em um córrego próximo. Nesta avaliação, verificou-se que o aproveitamento da á...

  3. ANÁLISE DA DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPAÇO-TEMPORAL DA CHUVA, NA MESORREGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE BELÉM-PARÁ: CONTRIBUIÇÕES DA TÉCNICA DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO

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    Marcos Ronielly Silva Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação dos montantes de chuva para uma região corrobora para a gestão eficiente das politicas públicas e o desenvolvimento social, econômico e ambiental dos centros urbanos.  A mesorregião metropolitana de Belém detém a maior concentração populacional e urbana da Amazônia Oriental, apresentando elevados índices pluviômetros durante todo o ano. Neste contexto o presente trabalho visa identificar a distribuição temporal e espacial da precipitação na mesorregião metropolitana de Belém e associa-la aos principais sistemas precipitantes que atuam na região. Para isto se utilizou o sensoriamento remoto por meio da técnica do CPC MORPHing technique (CMORPH com resolução temporal de 30 min e espacial de 8/8 km. A partir da técnica empregada foram gerados mapas da distribuição têmporo-espacial da chuva com as médias mensais para os dozes meses do ano, decorrentes dos acumulados do período de Jan/2000 a Dez/2010. Os resultados mostram que há uma grande variação temporal e espacial da chuva na mesorregião evidenciando de modo satisfatório a sazonalidade regional da precipitação, com altos índices durante o período chuvoso e baixos índices no período menos chuvoso. Trabalhos que visem à interdisciplinaridade podem contribuir de forma eficaz para estruturação das ciências ambientais e para a tomada de decisões.

  4. Erodibilidade, fatores cobertura e manejo e práticas conservacionistas em argissolo vermelho-amarelo, sob condições de chuva natural

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    Eliete Nazaré Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos de predição de perda de solo têm se tornado importantes ferramentas no planejamento conservacionista, sendo, para tanto, fundamental a estimativa local dos parâmetros que influenciam o processo erosivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a erodibilidade (fator K e os fatores manejo e cobertura (fator C e práticas conservacionistas de suporte (fator P da Equação Universal da Perda de Solo (USLE, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram avaliadas as perdas de solo (PS ocorridas em parcelas-padrão de Wischmeier, no período de 2006 a 2011, com seus respectivos índices de erosividade (EI30. Valores de erodibilidade foram calculados pelo quociente entre PS e EI30 das chuvas anuais (Ka e total no período (Kt e pelo coeficiente angular gerado pela análise de regressão linear entre esses mesmos parâmetros (Kci e Kct. Os fatores C e P foram estimados para a cultura do milho, durante três anos de cultivo em nível (MN. Os valores de Kt e Kct obtidos foram de 0,0090 e 0,0106 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, respectivamente. Os valores médios calculados para os fatores C e P são de 0,0070 Mg ha Mg-1 ha-1 e de 0,45, respectivamente, indicando redução de 55 % na perda de solo do MN, em relação ao MMA. Os valores dos fatores K, C e P encontrados podem ser usados como primeira aproximação para estudos de manejo e conservação do solo e da água na região.

  5. Avaliação da eficácia de barreiras sanitárias em sistemas para aproveitamento de águas de chuva no semi-árido pernambucano

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Braga de Souza, Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    O uso de cisternas para abastecimento de água das famílias que moram em regiões de escassez de recursos hídricos constitui uma importante forma alternativa para os moradores dessas localidades, uma vez que se trata de um sistema de captação e armazenamento eficiente que emprega dispositivos simples e de custo acessível. Existindo um regime de chuvas que possibilita o armazenamento dos recursos hídricos em quantidade suficiente para a demanda local de água, pode-se considerar qu...

  6. Aproveitamento de água de chuva de cobertura em edificações: dimensionamento do reservatório pelos métodos descritos na NBR 15527

    OpenAIRE

    Jozrael Henriques Rezende; Natália Tecedor

    2017-01-01

    Este estudo avaliou a viabilidade do aproveitamento da água das chuvas no Tanque de Provas, utilizado em ensaios de modelos reduzidos de embarcações da Faculdade de Tecnologia de Jahu - Fatec Jahu, SP. O trabalho considerou os dados pluviométricos locais, a área de cobertura para captação e a demanda de água. Foi estimada a necessidade de água no processo de limpeza por filtragem, lavagem e evaporação do Tanque de Provas. O dimensionamento do reservatório foi calculado conforme as metodologia...

  7. Soil losses from typic cambisols and red latosol as related to three erosive rainfall patterns Perdas de solo em cambissolo e latossolo vermelho, em relação a três padrões de chuvas erosivas

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    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity is one of the main factors related to water erosion in the tropics. This work focused on relating soil loss from a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (CXbd and a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (LVdf to different patterns of natural erosive rainfall. The experimental plots of approximately 26 m² (3 x 8.67 m consisted of a CXbd area with a 0.15 m m-1 slope and a LVdf area with 0.12 m m-1 slope, both delimited by galvanized plates. Drainpipes were installed at the lower part of these plots to collect runoff, interconnected with a Geib or multislot divisor. To calculate erosivity (EI30, rainfall data, recorded continuously at a weather station in Lavras, were used. The data of erosive rainfall events were measured (10 mm precipitation intervals, accuracy 0.2 mm, 24 h period, 20 min intervals, characterized as rainfall events with more than 10 mm precipitation, maximum intensity > 24 mm h-1 within 15 min, or kinetic energy > 3.6 MJ, which were used in this study to calculate the rainfall erosivity parameter, were classified according to the moment of peak precipitation intensity in advanced, intermediate and delayed patterns. Among the 139 erosive rainfall events with CXbd soil loss, 60 % were attributed to the advanced pattern, with a loss of 415.9 Mg ha-1, and total losses of 776.0 Mg ha-1. As for the LVdf, of the 93 erosive rainfall events with soil loss, 58 % were listed in the advanced pattern, with 37.8 Mg ha-1 soil loss and 50.9 Mg ha-1 of total soil loss. The greatest soil losses were observed in the advanced rain pattern, especially for the CXbd. From the Cambisol, the soil loss per rainfall event was greatest for the advanced pattern, being influenced by the low soil permeability.A erosividade da chuva é um dos principais fatores relacionados à erosão hídrica para as condições tropicais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar as perdas de solo em Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico (CXbd e Latossolo

  8. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  9. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  10. PERCEPÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE VISITANTES DA RPPN SERRA DAS ALMAS, CRATEÚS/CE: A ESCOLHA DA ESPÉCIE GUARDA-CHUVA COMO POTENCIAL EDUCATIVO E DE GESTÃO

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    Iris Rianne Santana Alves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se baseia em Dietz e Nagagata (1997 que propõe o direcionamento de programas em educação conservacionista aos visitantes e comunidades do entorno das áreas protegidas utilizando-se de espécies que proporcionam rápida identificação com as pessoas, também chamados de espécies guarda-chuva. Partindo da ideia do uso de espécies guarda-chuva como forma de contribuir para a conservação, foram utilizados questionários como ferramenta para o estudo da percepção de visitantes (professores e público variado quanto a possível espécie que poderia ser símbolo da RPPN. Os questionários (67 foram aplicados entre os meses de agosto à dezembro de 2010, período caracterizado como de extrema seca. Os resultados obtidos foram: I quanto ao perfil do visitante: a referente ao gênero (67% mulheres e faixa etária (entre 16 a 25 anos; b procedência (33% Crateús/CE, 43% Fortaleza/CE e 24% Buriti dos Montes/PI; c formação: professores com formação diversificada (pedagogia, ciências biológicas e química. Os resultados obtidos para a espécie guarda-chuva para a área foram: a espécies botânicas: plantas xerófilas e bromeliáceas, juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro. b espécies da fauna: macaco-prego (Cebus apella. Vale destacar que, dos entrevistados, 75% desconheciam a área e o animal mais preferido (macaco-prego era de fácil visualização em uma das trilhas da RPPN. Tais resultados possibilitam o uso didático da espécie escolhida junto aos visitantes e população do entorno visando se estimular a biofilia, buscando estabelecer aspectos perceptivos e de sensibilidade ambiental na referida comunidade. O resultado da percepção para a definição de uma espécie guarda-chuva foi confirmado com a literatura especializada quanto a maior preferência por espécies antropomórficas e que despertam sentimento de compaixão, neste caso o primata (Cebus apella. Logo podemos refletir à respeito dos benefícios da escolha de uma

  11. Qualidade microbiológica das águas de chuva em cisternas da área rural do município de Inhambupe, no semiárido baiano e seus fatores intervenientes

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    Nara de Melo Dantas Da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de atender à demanda hídrica das populações rurais do semiárido baiano, o aproveitamento da água de chuva mostra-se como uma alternativa de abastecimento de água. A preocupação relaciona-se à preservação da qualidade microbiológica da água coletada. O objetivo foi caracterizar a qualidade microbiológica da água de chuva armazenada em cisternas localizadas na área rural de Inhambupe-Bahia, e investigar os principais fatores intervenientes da sua qualidade. A metodologia utilizada foi iniciada pelo levantamento de dados sobre as cisternas e o Sistema de Aproveitamento de Água de Chuva (SAAC, seguido por coleta de amostras e análise da qualidade microbiológica de água de chuvas armazenada em cisternas e seus fatores intervenientes, acompanhados da formulação do questionário de observação, do trabalho de campo e, por último, da análise fatorial. Foi identificada a existência de 707 cisternas em funcionamento com as seguintes variáveis: falta de desvio das primeiras águas (6%, utilização de balde para a retirada da água do interior da cisterna (47%, existência de árvores próximas ao telhado (93%, criação de galinhas (70% e a não realização de limpeza do interior da cisterna (36%. A interação dos fatores: utilização de balde com corda para retirada de água, limpeza da cisterna em tempo inadequado e a falta de desvio das primeiras águas com a presença de árvores próximas ao telhado, foram os responsáveis pela geração dos efeitos significativos sobrea variável resposta ‘coliformes termotolerantes’, levando em consideração um nível de confiança de 10%. Para a variável resposta bactérias heterotróficas, foram os fatores “árvores próximas ao telhado” e a interação dos fatores “balde com corda com árvores próximas ao telhado e com falta de desvio das primeiras águas”. Para gerar efeito de melhoria na qualidade microbiológica da água, deve ocorrer de forma correta a

  12. Perdas de fósforo e potássio por erosão hídrica em um inceptisol sob chuva natural Phosphorus and potassium losses by water erosion in an inceptisol under natural rainfall

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    I. Bertol

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas inadequados de manejo do solo favorecem a erosão hídrica, perdas de nutrientes e poluição das águas superficiais, acelerando a degradação ambiental. As perdas de P e K por erosão hídrica foram avaliadas entre 1999 e 2001, em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico com 0,102 m m-1 de declividade, em Lages (SC, sob condições de chuva natural, em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo. Os tratamentos de preparo do solo foram: semeadura direta em seis anos (SDI6, semeadura direta em nove anos (SDI9, escarificação + gradagem em nove anos (E + G9 e aração + duas gradagens em nove anos (A + 2G9, cada um com duas parcelas experimentais, sendo uma parcela submetida à rotação das culturas de feijão, ervilhaca, milho e aveia e a outra, à sucessão de soja, trigo, soja e trigo, além de um tratamento-testemunha, constituído por aração + duas gradagens sem cultivo, em nove anos (SSC9. O P e o K foram determinados tanto na água quanto nos sedimentos da enxurrada. As concentrações dos dois elementos foram maiores nos sedimentos do que na água da enxurrada. Tanto na água quanto nos sedimentos da enxurrada, os preparos de solo conservacionistas proporcionaram maiores concentrações de P e K do que os preparos de solo convencionais. As perdas totais de K foram maiores na água do que nos sedimentos da enxurrada, com exceção do manejo SSC9. Com relação às perdas de P, apenas nos manejos SDI6 e SDI9 elas foram maiores na água do que nos sedimentos. No caso da água da enxurrada, as perdas totais de P foram maiores nos manejos SDI6 e SDI9, enquanto as de K variaram com os preparos conservacionistas e convencionais, sem apresentarem tendência clara. No caso do sedimento da enxurrada, as perdas totais de K foram menores nos preparos conservacionistas, mas as de P foram menores apenas nos manejos SDI6 e SDI9.Inadequate soil management systems can lead to water erosion, nutrient losses and superficial water pollution

  13. Perdas de solo e água em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo, submetido a diferentes intensidades de chuva simulada Soil and water losses in a Red Yellow Argissol under different intensities of simulated rainfall

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    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se estimar as perdas de solo e água em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo, utilizando-se um simulador de chuvas pendular. Para testes com 35 min de duração, o simulador foi regulado adequadamente, a fim de aplicar chuvas com cinco diferentes valores de energia cinética (138, 184, 229, 275 e 321 J m-2 correspondendo às intensidades de 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 mm h-1, respectivamente. Com os resultados obtidos, pôde-se ajustar equações de regressão entre as perdas de solo e de água, e o tempo de precipitação. Utilizando-se as equações ajustadas, obtiveram-se valores de perda que variaram de 2,83 a 26,82 g m-2 (solo e de 0,00209 a 0,01370 m³ m-2 (água quando a energia cinética da chuva variou de 138 para 321 J m-2, respectivamente. Comparando-se os valores simulados com os dados de campo, verificaram-se variações máximas de 3,4 e 5,7%, para as perdas de solo e água, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to estimate soil and water losses of a Red Yellow Argissol, using a pendulum rainfall simulator. Rainfall was simulated for 35 min at the intensities of 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mm h-1, which corresponded to kinetic energy values of 138, 184, 229, 275 and 321 J m-2, respectively. Cumulative soil and water losses were recorded with time at 5 min intervals. The results of soil and water losses were then fitted by regression equations. The fitted equations yielded soil and water losses that varied from 2.83 to 26.82 g m-2 (for soil and from 0.00209 to 0.01370 m³ m-2 (for water when the rainfall kinetic energy varied from 138 to 321 J m-2. Fitted and field measured soil and water losses showed a maximum variation of 3.4 and 5.7%, respectively.

  14. Influência da chuva na eficiência de diquat no controle de Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes e Eichhornia crassipes Influence of rainfall on diquat efficiency in controlling Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes

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    G.S.F Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da ocorrência de chuva em diferentes períodos de tempo após a aplicação do herbicida diquat, em sua eficiência de controle sobre plantas de Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes e Eichhornia crassipes. Foram estudadas chuvas de 10 mm, aplicadas durante 5min, em diferentes períodos de tempo (0h, 0,25h, 0,5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h e não simulação de chuva após a aplicação de diquat, na formulação Reward, a 600 g i.a. ha-1 (2,5 L p.c. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram avaliadas visualmente aos 3, 5, 7 e 12 dias após a aplicação (DAA, sendo os resultados submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias dos tratamentos, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rainfall events at different time periods after application of diquat on the efficiency of this herbicide in controlling Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. Simulation of 10 mm rainfall applied during 5 min was studied at different time periods (0h, 0.25h, 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and no rain simulation after application of diquat in Reward formulation, 600 g a.i. ha-1 (2.5Lcp ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Plants were evaluated at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days after application (DAA, and the results submitted to analysis of variance by the F test and the treatment means compared by the Tukey test (p < 0.05. Diquat provided excellent control of all the species studied, regardless of the time period for rain occurrence after application, even when immediately after application.

  15. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

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    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  16. Fósforo reativo: Arraste superficial sob chuvas simuladas para diferentes coberturas vegetais Reactive phosphorus: Surface transport under simulated rainfall for different vegetation cover

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    Luciano Gebler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo é um elemento químico chave para a qualidade da água, agindo principalmente como gatilho desencadeador das florações algais. A principal fonte de fósforo nas pequenas bacias rurais advém da agricultura feita nas encostas das bacias, podendo chegar de várias formas ao corpo d’água, porém as formas mais impactantes são o fósforo reativo total e o dissolvido. A forma dissolvida é a que apresenta maiores riscos pois pode percorrer distâncias comparativamente maiores do que o fósforo reativo nos sedimentos em suspensão que podem acabar depositados ao longo do caminho. Portanto, este trabalho visa avaliar se diferentes coberturas do solo por culturas anuais podem interferir no arraste destas formas de fósforo, afetando o risco da degradação dos recursos hídricos das pequenas bacias rurais. Apesar de não ter havido diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, verificou-se sazonalidade ao longo do experimento representando uma estação de cultivo. Isto significa que houve variação do nível de risco, uma vez que, no terço inicial das primeiras chuvas, o risco de arraste de fósforo na enxurrada foi mais elevado em relação a períodos chuvosos mais distantes da época de plantio/fertilização, tornando-se possível avaliar o risco à bacia de forma sazonal e não anual.Phosphorus is a chemical element considered key to water quality, mainly acting as a trigger of algal blooms. The main source of phosphorus in small rural basins is agriculture practiced in the slopes of the basins. This phosphorus can come in various forms to the water body, but the most striking ones are the total and dissolved reactive phosphorus. The dissolved form has higher risks, because it can cover distances comparatively larger than the reactive phosphorus in suspension which can be deposited along the path. This study sought to determine if different coverage of annual crops can interfere in the transport of these forms of phosphorus

  17. Uso eficiente da água de chuva armazenada em cisterna para produção de hortaliças no Semiárido pernambucano

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    Elvis Pantaleão Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O Semiárido brasileiro requer uma particular atenção, dada à irregularidade das precipitações pluviométricas que ocorrem na a região. A cisterna tipo Calçadão do programa Uma Terra e Duas Águas – P1+2 assegura melhoria na dieta alimentar das famílias rurais, por permitir a inserção de alimentação. Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o uso eficiente da água empregada sob diferentes lâminas durante todo o ano de 2014, visando a produção de hortaliças no Semiárido pernambucano, com água de chuva armazenada em cisterna do P1+2. Para tanto, foram construídos dois canteiros, denominados 1 e 2, cada um com área de 4 m2, para produção de hortaliças, sendo aplicadas, respectivamente, lâminas de 8 mm dia-1 e 4 mm dia-1, durante todo o ano. Á água foi aplicada de forma manual, utilizando-se regador plástico. A melhor relação água/produção foi obtida com a aplicação de uma lâmina de 4 mm dia-1, suficiente para proporcionar o consumo diário de 33,71 gramas de hortaliças na alimentação de uma família.Efficient use of stored rain water in cistern to vegetable production in Semiarid pernambucanoAbstract: The Brazilian semiarid requires particular attention, given the irregularity of rainfall occurring in the region. The cistern program One Land and Two Waters - P1 + 2 ensures improvement in the diet of rural families by allowing the power input. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of water used in different depths throughout the year 2014, aimed at producing vegetables in Pernambuco semiarid, with rainwater stored in cistern of P1 + 2. For this were constructed, two bed, called 1 and 2, each with an area of 4 m2 for vegetable production, and were applied, respectively, 8 mm blades day 1 and 4 mm Day-1 during the whole year. The water was applied manually, using plastic watering. The best result water/production was obtained with the application of a lamina 4 mm per day, sufficient to provide

  18. QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA ARMAZENADA EM CISTERNAS NA ÁREA RURAL DE INHAMBUPE, NO SEMIÁRIDO BAIANO, E SEUS FATORES INTERVENIENTES

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    Nara de Melo Dantas Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Com a existência da problemática de carência hídrica no Semiárido Brasileiro devido aos fatores climáticos e edáficos, o sistema de captação e armazenamento de água de chuva, mostra-se como uma solução para o abastecimento de água, melhorando a qualidade de vida dos habitantes das regiões semiáridas, inclusive dos moradores de Inhambupe. Ao estudar os fatores intervenientes da água de chuva armazenada em cisternas da zona rural do município de Inhambupe, pode-se concluir que existe a possibilidade dos microrganismos, bioindicadores e/ou patogênicos, e a matéria orgânica adentra nas cisternas por meio: da ausência do desvio da primeira água, da não existência de calha de proteção das cisternas, da forma inadequada de retirada de água do interior da cisterna, da existência de árvores próximas à superfície de coleta e da criação de animais, como porcos, galinhas e a presença de curral, ocorrendo a entrada de impurezas, estas podem permanecer no interior da cisterna, caso a família não realize sua limpeza periódica e dos seus componentes. Na avaliação da qualidade microbiológica da água de chuva armazenada nas cisternas estudadas, a maioria das amostras analisadas (78,1% apresentaram coliformes termotolerantes. Com relação a presença de bactérias heterotróficas se faz presente em todas as análises de amostras de água de todas as cisternas estudadas. Aplicando-se o planejamento fatorial para identificar os fatores intervenientes da qualidade microbiológica da água das cisternas, tendo como variável resposta ‘coliformes termotolerantes’, e levando-se em consideração a presença dos fatores analisados a um nível de confiança de 10%, os fatores que apresentaram efeitos significativos foram: Balde*Limpeza*Falta Desvio, Falta Desvio, Árvores, a interação dos quatros fatores estudados - Balde*Limpeza*Árvores*Falta Desvio e Árvores*Falta Desvio. Para a variável resposta bactérias heterotr

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE TÉCNICAS DE CAPTAÇÃO DE ÁGUA DE CHUVA NA REGIÃO SEMI-ÁRIDA DO NORDESTE BRASILEIRO

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    Cavalcanti,Nilton de Brito; Oliveira,Carlos Alberto Vasconcelos de; Brito,Luiza Teixeira de Lima; Resende,Geraldo Milanez

    1999-01-01

    RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer ura levantamento junto aos pequenos agricultores de cinco municípios da região semi-árida, quanto à utilização das técnicas voltadas para a captação e o armazenamento de água de chuva. O trabalho foi realizado nos municípios de Simplício Mendes, PI, Morada Nova, CE, Angicos, RN, Jeremoabo, BA, e Tnajá, PE, no período de 1996 a 1998. Em cada município foi aplicado um questionário junto aos agricultores selecionados por meio de uma amostra aleatória...

  20. Redistribuição das chuvas pelas copas de um povoamento de seringueira, José Bonifácio, SP. Rainwater redistribution under a rubber tree stand in the José Bonifacio county, SP.

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    Valdemir Antonio RODRIGUES

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida emum povoamento de seringueira, clone RRIM 600,com 15 anos de idade, município de JoséBonifácio, SP. A pesquisa avaliou a redistribuiçãodas chuvas no período de agosto de 1996 a julhode 1997 (ano hídrico 1996/97, por meio dequantificação das precipitações pluvial total,interna e efetiva; do escoamento pelo tronco; eestimativa da interceptação das chuvas pelas copasdo seringal. Foram instalados pluviômetros a céuaberto e sob o dossel das árvores e, nos troncos dasárvores, coletores de água. A precipitação médiaanual foi de 1.514,5 mm, a precipitação interna foide 1.065,7 mm e o escoamento pelo tronco, de107,7 mm. A interceptação das chuvas pelas copase a precipitação efetiva resultaram em 341,1 e1.173,4 mm, respectivamente; correspondendo a22,5% e 77,5% do total da precipitação no seringal.A proporção de água que chega ao solo através doescoamento pelo tronco na seringueira foi superioraos obtidos em estudos similares realizados naregião Sudeste do Brasil. Os menores e maioresvalores percentuais de interceptação ocorreram noperíodo de estiagem, enquanto no período chuvosoos valores foram intermediários. Os valores mínimosocorreram durante os meses do período deestiagem, durante os quais as árvores estãodesfolhadas, enquanto os maiores valores ocorreramlogo a seguir, quando as chuvas que ainda têmcaracterísticas do período de estiagem ocorreramsobre as árvores com a folhagem recomposta.This research was developed in a 15years old rubber-tree plantation (RRIM 600,located in the municipality of José Bonifácio,São Paulo State. The reasearch evaluate the rainredistribution between August 1996 and July 1997(water year 1996/1997. It was estimated the grossand net precipitation, the throughfall, the stemflowand the crown interception loss. Non-recordingrain gauges were installed at an open area andunder the rubber tree canopy. Stemflow collectorswere installed at the

  1. Análise de chuvas intensas por meio da desagregação de precipitações diárias de Jaru e Machadinho d’Oeste – RO, Brasil

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    Vinicius Alexandre Sikora de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A precipitação pluviométrica, dentre os elementos hidrológicos, é o que mais interfere na vida humana, uma vez que, se configura como a principal entrada de água no sistema hidrológico. Atualmente uma das soluções para realizar a caracterização e estimativa das precipitações intensas é a utilização de curvas Intensidade-Duração-Frequência (IDF, as quais consistem em modelos matemáticos semi-empíricos que preveem a intensidade precipitada por meio da duração e distribuição temporal. Neste contexto, esse estudo objetiva estimar a função IDF para os municípios de Jaru e Machadinho d’Oeste, localizados no estado de Rondônia – Brasil, por meio da metodologia da desagregação de chuvas diárias, que gera séries sintéticas com duração em intervalos menores, por meio de coeficientes que transformam chuva de 24h em outras de menor duração, permitindo assim o desenvolvimento de curvas IDF. As equações geradas apresentaram um coeficiente de ajuste de aproximadamente 96% para o município de Jaru e 92,85% para Machadinho d’Oeste. Por fim, constatou-se que as equações propostas para a estimativa da intensidade das precipitações máximas são de grande aplicabilidade tanto para o município de Machadinho d’Oeste quanto para Jaru.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE TÉCNICAS DE CAPTAÇÃO DE ÁGUA DE CHUVA NA REGIÃO SEMI-ÁRIDA DO NORDESTE BRASILEIRO

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    Nilton de Brito Cavalcanti

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer ura levantamento junto aos pequenos agricultores de cinco municípios da região semi-árida, quanto à utilização das técnicas voltadas para a captação e o armazenamento de água de chuva. O trabalho foi realizado nos municípios de Simplício Mendes, PI, Morada Nova, CE, Angicos, RN, Jeremoabo, BA, e Tnajá, PE, no período de 1996 a 1998. Em cada município foi aplicado um questionário junto aos agricultores selecionados por meio de uma amostra aleatória simples, no total de 179 agricultores, com as seguintes variáveis: 1 agricultores que utilizam a cisterna rural; 2 agricultores que utilizam o barreiro para irrigação suplementar; 3 agricultores que usam a barragem subterrânea; 4 agricultores que utilizam o sistema de captação de água de chuva "in situ" e 5 motivos da não utilização das técnicas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que apenas 9,5% agricultores utilizam a cisterna rural e 51,96% dos agricultores não utilizam esta técnica, por falta de recursos financeiros. As demais técnicas não foram adotadas por nenhum agricultor. Com esses resultados pode-se concluir que há necessidade de maior difusão e demonstração dessas técnicas para os pequenos agricultores.

  3. Precipitação efetiva e interceptação da chuva em um fragmento florestal com diferentes estágios de regeneração

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    Alexandre Simões Lorenzon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a precipitação efetiva e a interceptação da chuva em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual em estágio inicial e avançado de regeneração no Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, no período de agosto de 2009 a fevereiro de 2011. Foram demarcadas seis parcelas, três na área de regeneração inicial e três na área de regeneração avançada. Para quantificar a precipitação interna e o escoamento pelo tronco, foram instalados 25 pluviômetros em cada parcela e coletores nas árvores com circunferência 15 cm. Além disso, um pluviômetro foi instalado em local aberto para quantificar a precipitação em aberto, que no período estudado foi igual a 1.509,96 mm. Em média, 85,08 e 74,93% da precipitação em aberto, respectivamente, no estágio inicial e avançado de regeneração, chegam ao solo via precipitação efetiva. A interceptação pelo dossel florestal foi maior na área avançada do que na área inicial de regeneração, correspondendo, respectivamente, a 25,07 e 14,92% da precipitação em aberto, o que sugere que áreas mais densamente povoadas interceptam maior quantidade de chuva e, consequentemente, geram menor precipitação efetiva.

  4. Aerodinâmica de cabos de pontes estaiadas sob a ação simultânea de chuva e vento - parte I desprendimento de vórtices

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    D. S. Machado

    Full Text Available Simultâneas ocorrências de vibrações de cabos de pontes estaiadas sob ação combinada de chuva e de vento têm sido observadas ao redor do mundo nos últimos 20 anos. Este mecanismo tem causado grande preocupação aos engenheiros de pontes e pesquisadores por provocar grandes amplitudes de vibração. Estas vibrações, que são predominantemente transversais à direção do vento, foram observadas apenas sob condições de chuva leve e baixa velocidade do vento ocorrendo simultaneamente. Este trabalho apresenta os principais resultados de um programa experimental em túnel de vento, realizado com o intuito de investigar a influência dos filetes d’água formados na superfície dos cabos sobre o desprendimento de vórtices em três modelos seccionais. O modelo M1 foi posicionado horizontalmente com vento incidente normal ao eixo longitudinal, o modelo M2 foi posicionado horizontalmente com vento incidindo obliquamente ao eixo longitudinal e o modelo M3 representa um cabo inclinado típico de ponte estaiada. Para o M3 notou-se aumento da intensidade do desprendimento de vórtices para qualquer posição dos filetes. A maior intensidade ocorreu para os filetes superior e inferior localizados a 50° e 110°. Para escoamento turbulento, o desprendimento de vórtices é mais intenso nos modelos com filetes. Para Re 1,2 x 105 o filete inferior passa a afetar nitidamente o escoamento em torno do cilindro. Para o modelo inclinado o filete inferior apresentou influência no escoamento para todos os valores de Re.

  5. Efeito da chuva na eficiência de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência sobre corda-de-viola Effect of rainfall on the efficiency of herbicides applied in post-emergence on Ipomoea grandifolia

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    G.S.F Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da chuva na eficiência de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência em plantas de Ipomoea grandifolia. As plantas de I. grandifolia foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 2,5 L, em casa de vegetação, com uma planta por vaso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial 7x8 (sete tratamentos químicos e oito períodos para ocorrência de chuva após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos químicos constaram da aplicação de glyphosate em cinco formulações comerciais (Roundup Original, Roundup WG, Roundup Transorb, Roundup Transorb R e Roundup Ultra a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1, amônio-glufosinate (Finale a 400 g i.a. ha-1 e 2,4-D (DMA 806 a 1.000 g e.a. ha-1 e de oito intervalos de tempo para simulação de uma chuva de 15 mm, com duração de cinco minutos: 15', 30', 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h após a aplicação dos tratamentos e uma testemunha sem chuva, Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle das plantas aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após a aplicação e, por ocasião da última avaliação, determinou-se a massa seca das plantas. A ocorrência de chuvas após a aplicação de 2,4-D não alterou a sua eficiência no controle das plantas de I. grandifolia; já os herbicidas amônio-glufosinate e glyphosate, em todas suas formulações testadas, apresentaram redução na eficiência de controle quando da ocorrência de chuvas em até oito horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of rainfall on the efficiency of herbicides applied in post-emergence on Ipomoea grandifolia plants. I. grandifolia plants were sown in plastic pots with a capacity of 2.5L under greenhouse conditions, with only one plant per pot. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications, with the treatments

  6. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  7. Rainfall effect on dissipation and movement of diuron and simazine in a vineyard soil Efeito da chuva na dissipação e movimentação de diuron e simazine em solo de vinha

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    C. Alister

    2010-01-01

    , chuvas naturais e chuvas naturais mais irrigação com 180 mm de chuva artificial durante os primeiros 90 dias após a aplicação. O coeficiente de partição no solo (Kd no perfil de solo (a uma profundidade de 0 a 90 cm foi de 2.04 mL g-1 e de 1,4 a 0,66 mL g-1, e a capacidade de adsorção máxima do solo foi de aproximadamente 18,3 mg g-1 e 8.3 mg g-1 para diuron e simazine respectivamente. O diuron e o simazine atingiram uma profundidade de até 90 e 120 cm no solo, com uma média de, respectivamente, 8,3% e 62,4% de movimentação do herbicida abaixo de 15 cm do solo. A meia-vida de simazine no solo (DT50 foi de 38,1 dias e 7,5 dias, enquanto a meia-vida para o diuron foi de 68,0 e 24,6, com chuva natural e irrigação respectivamente. A média de simazine residual remanescente em todo o perfil do solo após 90 DAA foi de 25,4%, e de 39,9% para o diuron, sem nenhum efeito de quantidade de chuva adicional. Em 340 DAA, a quantidade de simazine presente em todo o perfil do solo correspondeu a 13,2% da quantidade inicial aplicada, sendo o diuron mais persistente, com 21,5% do herbicida inicial aplicado. Pode-se atribuir a elevada movimentação no solo com ambos os herbicidas a um processo de não-equilíbrio de sorção, explicado por fluxo preferencial, baixo Kd e elevada dessorção.

  8. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA DE CHUVA EM JOÃO PESSOA: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO COM DIVERSOS PADRÕES DE QUALIDADE CONFORME OS USOS PRETENDIDOS PARA ÁGUA EM EDIFICAÇÕES RESIDENCIAIS

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    Ysa Helena Diniz Morais de Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Com este artigo, estudou-se a qualidade da água de chuva em um sistema instalado na cidade de João Pessoa-PB, tendo como objetivo verificar sua adequabilidade para usos residenciais. Utilizou-se como padrões comparativos de qualidade os descritos em NBR 15527/2007 (ABNT, 2007, NBR 13969/1997 (ABNT, 1997, Sautchunk et al. (2005, Resolução CONAMA 357/2005 (BRASIL, 2005 e Portaria MS 2914/2011 (BRASIL, 2011. Foram testados dois mecanismos de melhoria da qualidade da água, a saber: dispositivos de descarte dos primeiros milímetros de chuva e filtro de areia. Os resultados mostraram que a qualidade da água, seja a bruta, antes de contato com a superfície de captação, seja a armazenada no reservatório, apresenta boa qualidade, compatível com diversos usos previstos em uma residência, tais como: descargas de bacias sanitárias, irrigação de gramado e de plantas ornamentais, lavagem de veículos e limpeza de calçadas e ruas. Verificou-se, também, o atendimento aos padrões da Resolução CONAMA 357 (BRASIL, 2005 classe 1 que se destina, dentre outros usos, ao abastecimento humano após tratamento simplificado. Com relação aos padrões de potabilidade, preconizados pela Portaria MS 2914/2011 (BRASIL, 2011, ocorreram apenas quatro casos de não atendimento para a turbidez e o não-atendimento para todos os casos referentes a coliformes totais e termotolerantes. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  9. Relationship between raindrops and ultrasonic energy on the disruption of a Haplic Cambisol Relação entre energia de gotas de chuva e energia ultra-sônica na desagregação de um Cambissolo Háplico

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    Bruno Teixeira Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare aggregate disruption of undisturbed soil samples by ultrasonic energy to aggregate disruption caused by the energy of simulated raindrops, to provide equations that can describe this relationship, and to evaluate whether aggregate stability, expressed by sonication method, may be used to estimate the effect that raindrops have on undisturbed soil samples. Undisturbed soil samples from A, Bi and C horizons of a Cambisol were submitted to different levels of ultrasonic energy and simulated raindrops. Sieved samples (aggregates were also submitted to different levels of ultrasonic energy so that both disturbed and undisturbed conditions of samples could be compared. The results showed that the method using ultrasonic energy on undisturbed soil samples can simulate the amount of aggregate disruption of soil due to raindrop impact. Dispersion curves of disturbed samples may not be used to estimate the effect of raindrops on undisturbed soil samples.Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar a desagregação de amostras de solo indeformadas pela energia ultra-sônica com a desagregação causada pela energia cinética de gotas de chuva simulada, estabelecer equações para descrever essa relação e avaliar se a estabilidade de agregados determinada pelas curvas de desagregação por ultra-som pode ser usada para estimar o efeito que as gotas de chuva têm sobre amostras indeformadas. Amostras indeformadas dos horizontes A, Bi e C de um Cambissolo Háplico foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de energia ultra-sônica e gotas de chuva simulada. Amostras peneiradas (agregados também foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de energia ultra-sônica para obtenção de curvas de desagregação. Os resultados mostraram que a quantidade de solo desagregado pelo impacto das gotas de chuva pode ser simulada pela aplicação de energia ultra-sônica sobre amostras indeformadas de solo. Curvas de desagregação de amostras deformadas

  10. Study of the shallow convection over the Belem region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi Marinho Pires, Luciana; Suselj, Kay; Rossato, Luciana; Teixeira, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The largest forest of the world, the Amazon, presents an interesting and very complex system mixing forests, various topographies, sites of deforestation, cities, and regions close and far from the coast, which influence the climatology of the region. This study was focused in the region of Belem which is considered the rainiest region in the eastern Amazon with precipitation around 2000 mm/year. Belem is the capital of Para state, which is located in northern Brazil, 2,146 kilometers from Brasilia with an area of about 1,059,458 km² and a population of 1,432,844 inhabitants with 26% of the area of the Brazilian Amazon and having 49% of its natural attractions, according to the Organization of American States. Shallow convection and deep convection are among the main components of the local energy balance. An analysis of the performance of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory /NASA model of shallow convection parameterization in a framework of the single column model (SCM) in relation to the cluster of cumulus clouds formed in the coastal region of the Amazon forest due to squall lines is provided. To achieve this purpose infrared images from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), visible images from the GOES-12/METEOSAT satellites, and data obtained by the "Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)" - CHUVA - campaign, during the month of June of 2011, were used. Results demonstrated that the parameterizations performed well in the case where only a core of clouds was observed.

  11. Influência da soma térmica e da chuva durante o desenvolvimento de laranjas-'Valência' e 'Natal' na relação entre sólidos solúveis e acidez e no índice tecnológico do suco Influence of the accumulated heat unit and rainfall on the ratio and technological index of sweet oranges 'Valência' and 'Natal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLOVIS ALBERTO VOLPE

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a influência que algumas variáveis meteorológicas exercem na razão entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável ("ratio" e no índice tecnológico dos frutos da primeira florada das laranjeiras-'Natal' e 'Valência', na região de Bebedouro-SP, mediante a utilização de métodos estatísticos de regressão. Foram utilizados dados de amostragens de rotina para o processamento industrial durante 4 anos, os quais permitiram desenvolver equações de regressão linear e quadrática, com a soma térmica (graus-dia como variável independente, e de regressão múltipla, utilizando graus-dia e chuva como variáveis independentes. A equação de melhor ajuste para o índice tecnológico foi a quadrática, enquanto para o "ratio" a equação linear apresentou o melhor ajuste. A temperatura do ar, representada por graus-dia, foi a variável que exerceu maior influência nos indicadores de qualidade dos frutos.This study aimed to know the influence of some meteorological variables on the ratio and technological index for oranges provided from 'Natal' and 'Valencia' orchards, from field plots, located at Bebedouro - São Paulo - Brazil. The quality indicators, ratio and technological index, were obtained from routine processing plant tests. These parameters were related to the meteorological variables: degree-day and rainfall. In order to determine which independent variable had a stronger influence on the fruit quality indicators, single and multiple linear regressions analysis were applied. The results have shown that technological index is better described by a quadratic function, and ratio is better described by a linear regression, as function of independent variables. The statistical analysis have indicated that the air temperature, expressed by accumulated degree day, is the meteorological aspect that had greater influence in fruit quality indicators.

  12. Atributos físicos, químicos e erosão entressulcos sob chuva simulada, em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Physics and chemical attributes and enter-rill erosion under simulated rain in no tillage and conventional systems

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    Cristiane G. da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar as perdas de solo e água, nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional, e foi realizado no câmpus experimental da UFMS, em Dourados - MS, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no período compreendido entre outubro de 2001 e novembro de 2002. As estimativas das perdas de solo e de água foram feitas utilizando-se do infiltrômetro de aspersão InfiAsper/UFMS, regulado para aplicar chuva com intensidade de 60 mm h-1, correspondendo à energia cinética de aproximadamente 820 Jm-2. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: sucessão milho-pousio; sucessão milho-trigo; sucessão milho-nabo; sucessão milho-ervilhaca; sucessão milho-aveia, os quais foram avaliados nos sistemas de preparo convencional (PC e plantio direto (PD. Com os resultados obtidos, foram ajustadas equações de regressão, com as quais foi possível obter valores de perda de solo que variaram de 5,34 g m-2 na sucessão milho-aveia a 47,75 g m-2 na sucessão milho-nabo para o PC, e de 1,09 g m-2 na sucessão milho-trigo a 4,19 g m-2 na sucessão milho-ervilhaca para o PD. As perdas de água variaram de 0,00329 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-aveia a 0,00988 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-nabo, e de 0,00123 a 0,00663 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-pousio para o PC e para o PD, respectivamente.This work was developed in order to estimate the soil and water loss in no tillage and conventional systems. The work was carried out at Experimental Center of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS, in Dourados - MS - Brazil, in a soil classified as "Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico", in a period between October, 2001, and November, 2002. Soil and water loss estimations were done using a sprinkling infiltrometer InfiAsper/UFMS, adjusted to apply a rainfall of 60 mm h-1 of intensity, corresponding to kinetic energy of 820 Jm-2. The estimates were calculated in five treatments: corn-rest succession, corn-wheat succession, corn

  13. Aproveitamento de água de chuva de cobertura em edificações: dimensionamento do reservatório pelos métodos descritos na NBR 15527

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    Jozrael Henriques Rezende

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a viabilidade do aproveitamento da água das chuvas no Tanque de Provas, utilizado em ensaios de modelos reduzidos de embarcações da Faculdade de Tecnologia de Jahu - Fatec Jahu, SP. O trabalho considerou os dados pluviométricos locais, a área de cobertura para captação e a demanda de água. Foi estimada a necessidade de água no processo de limpeza por filtragem, lavagem e evaporação do Tanque de Provas. O dimensionamento do reservatório foi calculado conforme as metodologias descritas na NBR 15527, que determina os requisitos para o aproveitamento de coberturas em áreas urbanas para fins não potáveis. O volume do reservatório selecionado como a melhor alternativa após as análises comparativas considerou as restrições locais e o risco de não atendimento, permitiu o máximo aproveitamento da água pluvial e resultou na maior redução possível da demanda de água potável do sistema de abastecimento público.

  14. Padrões de circulação em superfície e altitude associados a eventos de chuva intensa na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro

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    Carlos Roberto Weide Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi feita uma classificação sinótica de sequência de campos de pressão ao nível médio do mar (PNMM e de altura geopotencial em 500 hPa, associado à ocorrência de precipitação intensa na cidade do Rio de Janeiro - RJ. Para obter os Padrões de Sequência Principal (PSP da PNMM foi utilizada a metodologia de Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP rotacionadas. Os resultados mostram três tipos de padrões sinóticos que causaram eventos extremos de chuva na cidade do Rio de Janeiro durante o período de 1997-2010, que representam aproximadamente 56% da variância total dos casos. O padrão dominante mostra a passagem de frentes frias com trajetória predominantemente zonal. Já o segundo padrão está relacionado ao ingresso de frentes frias clássicas, acompanhadas de intensos anticiclones pós-frontais. Por último, observa-se um padrão relacionado ao posicionamento de um anticiclone à leste do Rio Grande do Sul, que gera ventos de quadrante sul no Rio de Janeiro.

  15. Cogeneration for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Almost all the electric power in Brazil comes from large-scale hydroelectric plants: only about 3% comes from cogeneration. But, now that the barriers which discouraged cogeneration are being removed, there will be more and more investment in cogeneration and distributed generation. The circumstances which have brought about these changes are described. It is expected that cogeneration will be responsible for producing 10-15% of Brazil's electricity by 2010 and the demand for cogeneration will reach 11-17 GW. It is concluded that Brazil represents one of the world's most attractive market for cogeneration and distributed generation

  16. Melhoramento da videira Grape breeding in Brazil

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    José Ribeiro Almeida Santos Neto

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros trabalhos sôbre o melhoramento da videira no Brasil datam de 1895 e se devem a Pereira Barreto e seus colaboradores. Entre 1930 e 1940, em Amparo, Paulino Recch, Nicolau Martorano e Pedro Araujo, dedicaram-se ao melhoramento da videira obtendo espécimes de real valor. A partir de 1943, no Instituto Agronômico, a Seção de Viticultura vem desenvolvendo um programa traçado para prover a nossa viticultura de abundante material melhorado para múltiplas finalidades. Cogita-se da obtenção de variedades novas para porta-enxertos, para mesa, vinho, suco não fermentado e passa. Essas variedades devem apresentar características de adaptação e acomodação ao nosso meio ambiente ; resistência às moléstias e pragas, e ao apodrecimento ocasionado pelas chuvas ; boas características específicas para mesa, vinho e suco não fermentado (1 a 18. Para execução do programa foi utilizado o material existente nas coleções do Instituto Agronômico, e importado novo material das Américas do Norte e Central. Dos capítulos mais importantes, um que está sendo atacado é o da produção de uvas de mesa isentas de sementes, ou apirenas. Igual importância tem o referente às diferentes combinações com as variedades tropicais, principalmente Vitis gigas e V. tilixfolia. Os resultados até agora obtidos são animadores : o Instituto Agronômico já dispõe de novos porta-enxertos em estudo, novas variedades de mesa com características de grande valor, numerosas variedades para produção de bons vinhos, bem como outras que, combinadas em diferentes proporções, produzem excelente suco não fermentado. Os trabalhos prosseguem e, não sendo interrompidos, poderão trazer reais vantagens à viticultura nacional.Grape breeding, was first started in Brazil by Pereira Barreto in 1895. From 1930 to 1940, Paulino Reech, Nicolau Martorano, and Pedro Araujo, frorn. Amparo, São Paulo, did some breeding work with grapes and obtained several new

  17. Energy Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Rosemary; de Paiva, Terezhina Villela O'Grady

    1980-01-01

    Compares energy education in Brazil and the United States. Topics discussed include the Brazilian setting, government initiatives, dependence on foreign fuel sources, public reaction, schools and energy education, and mass media involvement. (DB)

  18. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  19. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    local farmers — particularly women — ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC ... the roots of violence ... Wage inequalities in Brazil and India ... foreign policy efforts, IDRC supports research in developing countries.

  20. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato de Andrade, C.

    2003-05-01

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  1. Relação entre a precipitação do leste do Nordeste do Brasil e a temperatura dos oceanos Relationship between the rainfall of the eastern Northeast of Brazil and the ocean temperature

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    Geber B. de A. Moura

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi correlacionar a precipitação (março a julho de um grupo de postos homogêneos do setor leste do Nordeste do Brasil (NEB com Anomalia de Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (ATSM e identificar áreas de influência deste parâmetro nas chuvas da região. O período de estudo foi de 1945 a 1985 e a análise mostrou influência do Atlântico e Pacífico sobre as chuvas do setor leste, sendo a correlação do Atlântico maior, principalmente na área do Dipolo (correlação maior que 0,6, significativa a p The objective of this work was to correlate the Northeast of Brazil (NEB rainfall grouped in one homogeneous cluster with the global sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The data covered the period from 1945 to 1985 and the analyses shows that there are influences from the Atlantic and Pacific ocean over the eastern NEB's rainfall, with a higher correlation for the Atlantic, especially in the Dipole area (correlation values greater than 0.6, and p < 0.05. The 1995 Servain and Arnault meridional (Atlantic Dipole and equatorial modes were detected during several lag analyses. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean in the region of El Niño-3 negative correlations were found, indicating the presence of the descendant branches of the Walker cell in the sector east of the NEB.

  2. Diatom assemblage in a tropical lake of northeastern Brazil

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    Lilian Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and spatial variation of diatom assemblage in surface sediments of Caçó Lake (shallow, mesotrophic and weakly acid lake - Maranhão State, Brazil were analyzed in order to know the distribution pattern of the species along the lake during rainy season (April 1999. Four zones were established in the lake based on 21 diatoms species and habitat affinities. The first three zones (prime three meters deep to six meters deep were marked by the occurrence of Pinnularia gigas, Frustulia rhomboides, Encyonopsis krasskei, Eunotia camelus, E. femoriformis and E. monodon. Zone IV (seven to nine meters deep was inhabited mainly by Surirella biseriata and Fragilariforma floridana. During the beginning of the rainy season, the diatom assemblage in Caçó Lake was composed mainly by benthic and epiphytic forms that reflected the low lake levels and the abundance of littoral vegetation present in this lake.Com o objetivo de se conhecer a dinâmica espacial e a distribuição das diatomáceas contidas no sedimento superficial do lago Caçó, durante o período de chuvas (abril de 1999 foram realizadas coletas em um "transect" horizontal. A partir da observação destas coletas efetuadas a cada 1 metro pode-se observar que a distribuição das diatomáceas esteve fortemente ligada a ocorrência do banco de macrófitas da sua margem, com a ocorrência maciça das espécies epifíticas e bentônicas. A análise de agrupamento de dados permitiu uma melhor visualização, da sua distribuição a cada profundidade e também das associações específicas em cada zona. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que a ocorrência e distribuição das diatomáceas do Lago Caçó está fortemente ligada ao banco de macrófitas localizado em suas margens, definindo assim zonas características dentro do lago.

  3. Eficácia do herbicida glifosato-potássico submetido à chuva simulada após a aplicação Effects of rainfall on efficacy the potassium glyphosate in weeds

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    Gustavo Martini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuir boa ação herbicida, alguns fatores afetam a eficácia do glifosato e, nesse contexto, realizaram-se estudos buscando formulações mais eficazes. O experimento foi instalado em área do Campus da FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP. Testou-se a formulação potássica de glifosato comparada com solução aquosa e grânulos dispersíveis em água à mesma dosagem (0,36 kg.ha-1 e.a em cinco intervalos (1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas sem chuva após a aplicação, comparados com uma testemunha sem uso de herbicidas. Foram aplicados em pós-emergência sobre Brachiaria plantaginea, B. decumbens e Digitaria horizontalis. A aplicação foi feita com pulverizador costal a CO2, à pressão de 2,5 kg.cm-2, munido de barra com seis bicos DG 110.02 e consumo de calda equivalente a 200 L.ha-1. Realizaram-se cinco avaliações de porcentagem de controle em relação à testemunha infestada, atribuídas visualmente, até 42 dias após aplicação. Notou-se que o controle da formulação potássica sobre as espécies avaliadas foi mais precoce, necessitando apenas quatro horas após sua aplicação para se igualar ao intervalo superior a 48 horas sem chuva. As demais necessitaram de, no mínimo, seis horas de intervalo.In spite of possessing good herbicidal action, some factors affect the effectiveness of the glyphosate and, in that context, studies were accomplished looking for more effective formulations. The experiment was installed in area of FCAV-UNESP Campus, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The potassium glyphosate formulation was compared to CS and WG formulations, at the same rate (0.36 kg.ha-1 a.e, in five intervals (1, 2 ,4 6 and 48 hours without rain after the application, compared to a control without herbicides. They were applied in post emergence on Brachiaria plantaginea, B. decumbens and Digitaria horizontalis. The herbicides were applied with costal sprayer, at a constant pressure (35 lbf/pol², with four nozzles DG 11002. The

  4. Previsão de chuva a curtíssimo prazo na área de abrangência do radar meteorológico de São Paulo

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    José Felipe da Silva Farias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da previsão de chuva a curtíssimo prazo com até 3 horas de antecedência na área de cobertura do Radar Meteorológico de São Paulo (RSP para diferentes tipos de sistemas precipitantes, principalmente os associados às enchentes e deslizamentos na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP, foi realizada por meio de um modelo advectivo a partir do campo de vento 2D médio e da velocidade dos campos das taxas de precipitação estimados com o radar e um Esquema Numérico de Terceira-ordem Corrente Acima (ENTOCA, que utiliza um vetor de deslocamento constante. O desempenho obtido para precipitação acumulada foi avaliado com os seguintes parâmetros estatísticos: Índice de Sucesso Crítico (ISC, Probabilidade de Detecção (POD, Razão de Falsos Alarmes (RFA, Erro Quadrático Médio (EQM e Coeficiente de Correlação (CCOR. O ISC para limiar de acumulo de 0,2 mm, em períodos de acumulação de 60 minutos, apresentou os seguintes valores: 77% para eventos de Frente fria, 67,5% para Linhas de Instabilidade, 58% para Bandas Dispersas, 56,4% para Convecção Isolada e 47% para Brisa Marítima. A previsibilidade obtida foi maior para sistemas estratiformes do que para sistemas convectivos. A partir de períodos de 90 (120 minutos de advecção o CSI diminui exponencialmente para sistemas convectivos (estratiformes.

  5. Quantitative analysis of seed rain under natural and artificial perches in the Araucaria Forest Análise quantitativa da chuva de sementes sob poleiros naturais e artificiais em Floresta Ombrófila Mista

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    Sandra Bos Mikich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency in terms of number of seeds deposited under natural and artificial bird-perches set in degraded areas of Araucaria Forest. Six experimental units were used, each containing seed traps set under natural perches (NP, artificial perches (AP and under open sky (OS. After 12 months of weekly sampling 26880 zoochoric seeds were collected under AP, 5729 under NP, and only seven under OS. Thus, the presence of perches increases dramatically seed deposition and NP are more or as efficient as AP when the effect of deposition area is taken into account.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência de poleiros naturais e artificiais na deposição de
    sementes em áreas degradadas da Floresta com Araucária. Seis unidades experimentais foram utilizadas, cada qual constituída por coletores de sementes instalados sob poleiros naturais (PN, artificiais (PA e a céu aberto (CA. Após 12 meses de coletas semanais, foram recolhidas 26.880 sementes zoocóricas sob os PA, 5.729 sob os PN e 7 nos CA. Portanto, a presença de poleiros incrementa significativamente a chuva de sementes e os PN são tão ou mais eficientes que os PA quando o efeito da área de deposição é levado em consideração.

  6. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

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    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  7. Precipitação efetiva e interceptação das chuvas por floresta de Mata Atlântica em uma microbacia experimental em Cunha - São Paulo

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    Arcova Francisco Carlos Soriano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de pesquisa que quantificaram a precipitação efetiva e a interceptação das chuvas pelo dossel da floresta secundária de Mata Atlântica na "microbacia experimental B", do Laboratório de Hidrologia Florestal Walter Emmerich, em Cunha-SP. No período de um ano foram medidos a precipitação no aberto, a precipitação interna e o escoamento pelo tronco das árvores, totalizando 54 coletas. Um pluviômetro em área aberta e 16 no interior da floresta foram utilizados para quantificação dos dois primeiros processos, respectivamente. Para determinação do escoamento pelo tronco foram instalados dispositivos de espuma de poliuretano em 38 árvores. A água interceptada foi estimada pela diferença entre a precipitação no aberto e a precipitação efetiva. Concluiu-se que, em média, 18,6% da precipitação foi interceptada pela floresta, retornando à atmosfera na forma de vapor. Um montante de 81,2% alcançou o piso como precipitação interna e apenas 0,2% como escoamento pelo tronco. Os fluxos de precipitação interna e escoamento pelo tronco foram maiores no período caracterizado como chuvoso. Os porcentuais de interceptação foram superiores no período pouco chuvoso.

  8. Desenvolvimento e análise de uma rede neural artificial para estimativa da erosividade da chuva para o Estado de São Paulo Estimates of rainfall erosivity in São Paulo state by an artificial neural network

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    Michel Castro Moreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do valor da erosividade da chuva (R de determinada localidade é fundamental para a estimativa das perdas de solo feitas a partir da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo, sendo, portanto, de grande importância no planejamento conservacionista. A fim de obter estimativas do valor de R para localidades onde este é desconhecido, desenvolveu-se uma rede neural artificial (RNA e analisou-se a acurácia desta com o método de interpolação "Inverso de uma Potência da Distância" (ID. Comparando a RNA desenvolvida com o método de interpolação ID, verificou-se que a primeira apresentou menor erro relativo médio na estimativa de R e melhor índice de confiança, classificado como "Ótimo", podendo, portanto, ser utilizada no planejamento de uso, manejo e conservação do solo no Estado de São Paulo.Knowledge on rainfall erosivity (R of particular sites is fundamental for soil loss estimation by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and therefore highly important in conservation planning. In order to obtain the R value estimates for places where it is unknown, an artificial neural network (ANN was developed for the state of São Paulo, and its accuracy compared with the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method. The developed ANN presented a smaller mean relative error in the R estimation and a confidence index classified as "excellent", better than the IDW. ANN can therefore be used to estimate R values for soil use planning, management and conservation in São Paulo state.

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  10. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  11. the Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To face the forecasted increase of 4 % of the Gross Domestic Product, it is necessary to increase the energy capacity installed in Brazil. The action at first planned on 10 to 20 years, is oriented today on a shorter period from 2001 to 2004. The program proposes investment of 43 milliards or Reals from which 32 will come from the private sector. This report takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the actions in favor of the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  12. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  13. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. BRAZIL. Macapá. Manaus. São Paulo. Belém. Fortaleza. Recife. Salvador. Rio de Janeiro. Porto. Alegre. Brasilia. ✪. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. BOLIVIA. PERU. ECUADOR. COLOMBIA. VENEZUELA. CHILE. PARAGUAY. Atlantic Ocean. Pacific Ocean.

  14. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  15. Neutron radiography in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography studies being carried out in reactor centres in Brazil are discussed. These research projects are under way using the 5 MW swimming pool reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo and the Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) in Rio de Janeiro. (Auth.)

  16. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costamilan, L.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  17. Diabetes Care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Walmir F; Silva Júnior, Wellington Santana

    2015-01-01

    The diabetes epidemic affects most countries across the world and is increasing at alarming rates in Latin America. Nearly 12 million individuals have diabetes in Brazil, and the current prevalence ranges from 6.3% to 13.5%, depending on the region and the diagnostic criteria adopted in each study. To provide an overview of diabetes care in Brazil, focusing on studies of diabetes epidemiology, prevalence of patients within the standard targets of care, and economic burden of diabetes and its complications. SciELO and PubMed searches were performed for the terms "diabetes," "Brazil," "Brazilian," and "health system"; relevant literature from 1990 to 2015 was selected. Additional articles identified from reference list searches were also included. All articles selected were published in Portuguese and/or English. Recent studies detected a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus of nearly 20%. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, almost 90% fail to reach target of glycemic control, with less than 30% receiving treatment for both hypertension and dyslipidemia. More than 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese. Most of these patients fail to reach glycemic targets (42.1%) and less than 30% reached the target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only 0.2% of patients reach all these anthropometric and metabolic targets. Brazil is the fourth country in the world in number of patients with diabetes. Regardless of the diabetes type, the majority of patients do not meet other metabolic control goals. The economic burden of diabetes and its complications in Brazil is extremely high, and more effective approaches for preventions and management are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Características da chuva e perdas por erosão sob diferentes práticas de manejo do solo Rainfall characteristics and erosion losses for different soil management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar as relações entre a erosividade da chuva e os padrões da precipitação com as perdas por erosão, para diferentes tipos de preparo do solo em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando-se parcelas experimentais de perda de solo com dimensões de 3,5 x 22,0 m, com os seguintes tratamentos: preparo convencional do solo em nível e semeadura de Mucuna Cinza (Mucuna pruriens, Crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, e Milho (Zea mays L.; preparo convencional do solo no sentido do declive e semeadura de milho no mesmo sentido e preparo convencional do solo no sentido do declive, mantido sem qualquer tipo de cobertura. Foi possível evidenciar que as perdas de solo foram mais influenciadas pelos diferentes tratamentos que as perdas de água; os tratamentos Crotalária e Milho morro abaixo, foram aqueles que apresentaram, respectivamente, as menores e maiores perdas de solo e água e, em média, os eventos de precipitação caracterizados como avançado, intermediário e atrasado, foram responsáveis por 62,6, 11,8 e 25,6% das perdas de água e por 35,1, 6,6 e 58,3% das perdas de solo, respectivamente.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the relation between erosivity index and the rainfall pattern associated with different kinds of soil preparation and cover with erosion losses in a Red Yellow Argisol. The experiment was conducted in five soil loss experimental plots of 3.5 x 22.0 m, with the following treatments: conventional tillage (plowing plus disking in contour lines and sowing the velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens, sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea and corn (Zea mays L.; conventional tillage (plowing plus disking in slope line and sowing of corn, conventional tillage (plowing plus disking in slope line and without soil cover. The results showed that soil loss was more affected by different treatments than water loss; the treatments sun hemp and corn sowed in slope line were those

  19. Interceptação das chuvas em um fragmento de floresta da Mata Atlântica na Bacia do Prata, Recife, PE Rainfall interception in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the Prata Basin, Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Einstein Spindola Saraiva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mata de Dois Irmãos é uma das poucas áreas remanescentes da Floresta Atlântica no Estado de Pernambuco. Nela estão inseridos os açudes do Meio, do Prata e Dois Irmãos que compõem a bacia hidrográfica do Prata. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a partição das chuvas em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica na Bacia do Prata em Recife, PE. Para obtenção dos dados de precipitação sob florestas, foram instalados 24 interceptômetros e selecionadas 20 árvores do estrato superior, e 10 árvores do sub-bosque foram escolhidas para obter os dados de escoamento pelo tronco. Encontraram-se perdas por interceptação de 208,3 mm, precipitação efetiva de 1.431,7 mm, precipitação interna de 1.392,4 mm, escoamento pelo tronco das árvores do estrato superior de 6,6 mm e escoamento pelo sub-bosque de 32,8 mm, correspondendo a 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% e 2%, respectivamente, do total precipitado de 1.464 mm.The Dois Irmãos forest is one of the few remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco. The dams of Meio, Prata and Dois Irmãos, which belong to the Prata Basin, are in it. The objective of this work was to study the rainfall partitioning in a fragment of the Atlantic forest in the Prata basin, in Recife, PE. 24 raingouges were installed in the interior of the forest to measure the throughfall and 20 trees of superior extract and 10 of the sub-forest were selected to determine the stemflow. The results showed values of loss interception of 208,3 mm, net precipitation of 1431,7 mm, throughfall of 1392,4 mm, stemflow by superior stratum of 6,6 mm and stemflow by sub-forest of 32,8 mm, corresponding to 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% and 2%, respectively.

  20. Relação entre a precipitação no setor leste do nordeste do Brasil e a temperatura da superfície nos oceanos Atlântico e Pacífico Relationship between the rainfall in eastern Northeast Brazil and the sea surface temperature in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geber Barbosa de A. Moura

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, relacionar a precipitação no setor leste do Nordeste do Brasil (NEB com a Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM nos oceanos Atlântico (área do Dipolo e Pacífico, no período de 1945 a 1985. Através dessa análise pode-se ter uma idéia de como os episódios com anomalias de TSM influenciam na pluviometria da costa leste do NEB (que se estende do Rio Grande do Norte à Bahia. Os resultados mais significativos foram os seguintes: em anos com gradiente de temperatura negativo no Atlântico, aqui também chamado gradiente desfavorável, as chuvas ocorreram abaixo da média de longo período nos estados do Rio Grande do Norte (84% e Paraíba (74%; em anos com gradiente de temperatura neutro, as chuvas foram normais ou acima do normal na Paraíba (73%; em anos com gradiente de temperatura positivo no Atlântico, aqui também chamado gradiente favorável, as chuvas ocorreram na média e acima da média de longo período, nos Estados de Alagoas (73%, Sergipe (73% e Bahia (73%.The main purpose of this study was to relate the rainfall in eastern Northeast Brazil (NEB with the sea surface temperature (SST in the Atlantic (Dipole area and Pacific oceans during the 1945-1985 period. This analysis shows how anomalous SST events influence precipitation in the eastern part of NEB, from the states of Rio Grande do Norte through to Bahia. The main significant results were: in years with a negative temperature gradient in the Atlantic, the rainfall was below the long term mean in Rio Grande do Norte (84% and Paraíba (74%; in years with neutral gradient, the rainfall was normal or above normal in Paraíba (73%; in years with positive temperature gradient (south minus north, hereby called favorable gradient, the rainfall was above the long term mean, in Alagoas (73%, Sergipe (73% and Bahia (73%.

  1. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  2. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  3. Ectoparasitic crustaceans on mullet, Mugil curema (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae in the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil = Crustáceos ectoparasítos em tainha, Mugil curema (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae nas águas costeiras do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Teresinha Santos Cavalcanti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available White mullet is a commercial fish species abundant in the coastal waters of Brazil. This study investigated the occurrence of crustacean ectoparasites on white mullet, Mugil curema captured from the littoral waters of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. From 2006 to 2007, 31 individuals of M. curema were captured and encountered ectoparasites were observed, identified and counted. M. curema was parasitized by ectoparasitic crustaceans, caligid copepods, Caligus bonito and Caligus sp.; ergasilid copepods, Ergasilus versicolor andE. lizae; and isopod Cymothoa spinipalpa. Of the caligids detected, 66.66% were C. bonito and 33.33% Caligus sp. C. bonito occurred on males of M. curema during the drought season and Caligus sp. occurred on females during the rainy season. The prevalence of both caligidspecies was 3.23%. Of the ergasilids detected, E. versicolor (91.67% occurred during the drought and rainy seasons, whereas E. lizae (8.33% occurred during the rainy season. Prevalence of E. versicolor was 35.48% and E. lizae was 3.23%. C. spinipalpa was detected during the drought and rainy seasons with a prevalence of 16.13%. The preferred site of fixation by the parasites was the branchial chambers.As tainhas são peixes marinhos de valor comercial, abundantes em águas costeiras brasileiras. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de crustáceos ectoparasitos na tainha, Mugil curema no litoral do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram capturados 31 exemplares de M. curema no período de março de 2006 a março de 2007 e os ectoparasitos encontrados foram coletados, observados, identificados e quantificados. M. curema foi parasitado por vários crustáceosectoparasitos: caligídeos: Caligus bonito e Caligus sp.; ergasilídeos: Ergasilus versicolor e E. lizae; e isópode Cymothoa spinipalpa. Dos caligídeos detectados 66,66% foi de C. bonito e 33,33% de Caligus sp. Caligus bonito ocorreu somente nos machos de M. curema durante a estação seca e Caligus sp

  4. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  5. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reigosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a solid justification, and typically make use of target species that do not co-exist with the donor species under natural conditions. We also found that most studies do not take the additional steps in order to purify and identify the bioactive molecules. We recommend that further studies be conducted in order to explore the potential of plant biodiversity in Brazil. Such studies could lead to the development of new molecular structures (allelochemicals that could be used in the control of pests and weeds, thereby reducing the use of the harmful synthetic herbicides that are currently being widely employed.

  6. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications; Drenagens acidas do esteril piritoso da mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas: interpretacao e implicacoes ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author) 30 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Limnological characteristics and seasonal changes in density and diversity of the phytoplanktonic community at the Caçó pond, Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dellamano-Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes of the phytoplanktonic community and limnological abiotic characteristics of Caçó pond (Maranhão State, Brazil was evaluated from two field researches during the rainy (April 1999 and dry (November 1999 seasons. Measurements of twelve chemical and physical variables and phytoplankton collections were carried out at eight sampling stations. The Chlorophyceae and Cyanobacteria groups were in highest fractions during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The limnological abiotic variables showed a homogenous spatial distribution. The cluster analysis, using Bray-Curtis distance, distinguished two major groups, represented by the most common and abundant species in both the periods. The results showed that the climate regime, due to the seasonal changes in pluviosity, was a determinant over the phytoplanktonic community structure at Caçó pond.Mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica e nas características limnológicas abióticas da lagoa do Caçó, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, foram avaliadas a partir de duas coletas, nos períodos de chuva (Abril/1999 e seca (Novembro/1999. Medidas de quatorze variáveis físicas e químicas e coletas do fitoplâncton foram realizadas em oito estações de amostragem. Quantitativamente, os grupos Chlorophyceae e Cyanobacteria apresentaram maior contribuição nos períodos de chuva e seca, respectivamente. As variáveis limnológicas abióticas mostraram uma distribuição espacial homogênea em relação aos dois períodos amostrados. A análise de agrupamento a partir da distância de Bray-Curtis para comunidade fitoplanctônica distinguiu dois grandes grupos (estação seca e chuvosa, representados pelas espécies mais comuns e abundantes em ambos períodos. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que o regime climatológico foi determinante sobre a dinâmica e a estrutura da comunidade fitoplanctônica da lagoa do Caçó.

  8. INTENSIDADE-DURAÇÃO-FREQÜÊNCIA DE CHUVAS INTENSAS PARA LOCALIDADES NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS E DISTRITO FEDERAL INTENSITY-DURATION-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP OF INTENSIVE RAINFALL FOR SITES IN THE GOIÁS STATE AND THE FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori Paulo Griebeler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção das relações intensidade-duração-frequência para algumas localidades do Estado de Goiás e Distrito Federal, empregando-se a metodologia da desagregação da chuva de um dia. Os resultados das intensidades de precipitação obtidos pelas equações geradas neste trabalho foram comparados com os obtidos pelas equações ajustadas com base em dados de pluviogramas. As relações geradas com o método de desagregação de chuvas de um dia apresentaram desvios relativos médios que variaram de -1,6% a 43,9%, para alguns municípios nessa região. Isso limita a sua utilização nas localidades para as quais não se ajustaram as equações de regressão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chuva intensa; drenagem; intensidade-duração-frequência.

    This study had the objective of obtaining rain intensityduration- frequency information for some sites in the State of Goiás and Distrito Federal, using the one-day rain disaggregation method. The precipitation intensities obtained through the equations generated in this paper were compared to those obtained by adjusted equations based on pluviographic data. The intensityduration-frequency relationships generated through pluviometric data using the one-day rain disaggregation method presented relative mean deviations varying between -1.6% and 43.9%, for some municipalities in this region. This limits its use in sites where regression equations were not adjusted.

    KEY-WORDS: Intense rainfall; drainage; intensity-durationfrequency.

  9. Interpolação dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas com uso do inverso de potências da distância Interpolation of parameters of intensity-duration-frequency equation using the inverse distance to a different powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Cecílio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As equações de chuvas intensas representam excelente alternativa para a determinação das precipitações críticas utilizadas em projetos de engenharia; contudo, a sua determinação é muito trabalhosa. No Brasil, entretanto, dispõe-se, em diversos Estados, de um expressivo número de equações, o que torna possível a obtenção, por interpolação, dos parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas para locais em que estes não são conhecidos. Neste trabalho compararam-se, considerando-se as informações disponíveis em 171 localidades do Estado de Minas Gerais, 625 diferentes combinações entre os quatro parâmetros da equação de chuvas intensas ("K", "a", "b" e "c" interpolados com a utilização da metodologia do inverso da potência da distância, através de cinco diferentes potências. Percebeu-se, em todas as combinações, tendência de superestimativa da intensidade de precipitação. A interpolação de "K" e "c" com o inverso da quinta potência da distância, "a" com o inverso da distância e "b" com o inverso do cubo da distância, apresentou melhores resultados na estimativa da intensidade de precipitação.Intense precipitation equations represent an excellent alternative to determinate critical rainfalls used in engineering designs but its obtainment is time-consuming. However, in some Brazilian States a great number of these equations have been determined for several places, permitting to obtain the equation parameters, by interpolation, for the places where these still have not bean known. In this paper 625 different combinations were compared for the four intense precipitation parameters ("K", "a", "b" and "c" interpolated by the inverse distance to a power method (using five different powers. Data from 171 places located in Minas Gerais State were used. In all the combinations, a tendency of overestimation was noticed for the precipitation intensity. "K" and "c" parameters interpolated by the inverse distance to

  10. A dinâmica atmosférica na vertente oriental da bacia do alto rio Paraná e a gênese das chuvas = The atmospheric dynamics on the eastern slope of the Paraná river basin and the genesis of rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Assunção Borsato

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O ritmo dos sistemas atmosféricos e a intensidade variam no tempo e noespaço. Por isso, para caracterizar a dinâmica climática de uma região é necessário estudar a dinâmica das massas de ar ao longo de uma série. Estudaram-se, por meio da dinâmica das massas de ar, a participação dos sistemas atmosféricos atuantes e as porcentagens das chuvas convectivas e frontais ao longo da vertente oriental da bacia do alto rio Paran��. Verificou-se que, nessa vertente, nos meses mais frios, predomina a atuação da massa tropical Atlântica e da polar Atlântica. Nos meses mais quentes, além de predominar a atuação dos sistemas de baixa pressão equatorial continental e tropical continental, têm-se as chuvas convectivas. Verificou-se, também, progressivo aumento na participação das chuvas convectivas, a partirda década de 1990, corroborando a teoria das mudanças climáticas.The rhythm and intensity of atmospheric systems vary intime and space. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamics of air masses over a temporal series in order to characterize the climate dynamics of a region or area. The participation of the active atmospheric systems and the percentage shared by convective andfrontal rains along the eastern slope of upper Paraná River were studied based on the dynamics of air masses. It was observed that, in such a slope, during the coldest months, the actions of the Atlantic tropical mass and polar Atlantic mass prevail. However, during thewarmer months, in addition to the predominance of the action of equatorial continental and tropical continental low atmospheric pressure systems, convective rains also take place. It was also noted that, from the 1990s onward, a progressive increase was observed in the participation of convective rains, strengthening the theory of climatic change.

  11. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  12. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  13. LDC nuclear power: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.

    1982-01-01

    Brazil has been expanding its nuclear power since 1975, following the Bonn-Brasilia sales agreement and the 1974 denial of US enriched uranium, in an effort to develop an energy mix that will reduce dependence and vulnerability to a single energy source or supplier. An overview of the nuclear program goes on to describe domestic non-nuclear alternatives, none of which has an adequate base. The country's need for transfers of capital, technology, and raw materials raises questions about the advisability of an aggressive nuclear program in pursuit of great power status. 33 references

  14. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  15. Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Viana, Thércia Guedes; Peixoto, Eliane R de M; Barros, Fabiana C R de; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009) were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug in Brazil was conducted. Five companies were granted a permission to market unfractioned heparin in Brazil. Three of them are porcine in origin and two of them are bovine in origin, with only one explicitly showing this information in the package insert. The effectiveness and safety of heparin studied in non-Brazilian populations may not represent the Brazilian reality, since most countries no longer produce bovine heparin. The currently marketed heparin has approximately 10% less anticoagulant activity than that previously produced and this change may have clinical implications. Evidence about the lack of dose interchangeability between bovine and porcine heparins and the unique safety profile of these drugs indicates the need to follow the treatment and the patients' response. Events threatening the patient's safety must be reported to the pharmacovigilance system in each particular country.

  16. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  17. Aproveitamento da água de chuva para lavagem de máquinas agrícolas e veículos: Estudo de caso do Colégio Politécnico da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Cicero Urbanetto; Camilo de Moraes Nogueira, Helena Maria; Fantinel, Antonio Luiz; Jahn, Sérgio Luiz; Rodríguez Padrón, Richard Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Os estudos sobre manejo e aproveitamento dos recursos hídricos vêm sendo um dos focos de pesquisa que está procurando diferentes alternativas para o aproveitamento dos recursos naturais com sustentabilidade. O estudo teve como objetivo o planejamento, a execução e a estimação do retorno econômico do aproveitamento da água de chuva, para lavagem de veículos, máquinas e implementos agrícolas. O estudo foi realizado para o setor de Mecanização do Colégio Politécnico da Universidade Federal de Sa...

  18. Opening up Brazil's hydrocarbon sector - the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which transports natural gas more than 3000 km from Bolivia to Brazil, cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it major challenge. neither of these countries has had a tradition of independent regulation or economic fuel pricing, and the pipeline was the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil. The presentation explains the historical features of the project and how the project was used to open up Brazilian oil and gas sector to private investment and competition. (author)

  19. Electoral Governance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Marchetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral governance has increasingly more frequently been the object of study of the comparative politics literature. This article examines the electoral governance institutional model adopted in Brazil and its consequences for political/electoral competition. It is argued herein that Brazil’s Electoral Justice System, motivated by the institutional design, has ended up becoming one of the main actors of the country’s recent democratic consolidation, being decisive not only with regard to rule adjudication and application, but also to rulemaking. With the purpose of assessing this governance model in action, three important recent rulings by Brazil’s Electoral Justice System are analysed here: verticalization of the coalitions, reduction in the number of councillors, and party loyalty.

  20. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R

    2008-01-01

    .... Lula was re-elected in the second round of voting with fairly broad popular support. His immediate tasks were to boost Brazil's lagging economic growth and address the issues of crime, violence, and poverty...

  1. Brazil's Difficult Road to Greatness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, David C

    2008-01-01

    Brazil is an emerging country that has made important strides in consolidating its democracy, constructing a diversified and financially sound economy, and enhancing its diplomatic participation on the world stage...

  2. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.D.; Fonte, J. da; Suckau, V.; Thakur, V.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  3. Fractal dimension and geostatistical parameters for soil microrelief as a function of cumulative precipitation Parâmetros fractais e geoestatística do microrrelevo do solo em função de chuva acumulada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vidal Vázquez

    2010-02-01

    totalmente dela. Por outro lado, a geoestatística prove algumas ferramentas que podem ser úteis no estudo da dinâmica da variabilidade da superfície do solo, diferentes daquelas avaliadas pela dimensão fractal. Verificou-se se é possível aplicar geoestatística na análise da variação do microrrelevo de um Latossolo sob seis tratamentos de preparo do solo, a saber: grade de discos, arado de discos, escarificador, grade de discos+grade niveladora, arado de discos+grade niveladora e escarificador+grade niveladora. As medidas foram feitas logo após o preparo do solo e subseqüentemente após cumulativos eventos de chuva natural. Medições duplicadas foram feitas em cada tratamento para cada data, produzindo um total de 48 superfícies. Um rugosímetro de agulhas foi utilizado para as medidas da rugosidade da superfície. A área de cada parcela era 1,35 m por 1,35 m e as medidas espaçadas de 0,25 m, produzindo um total de 3025 pontos por parcela. Tendência devido à inclinação do terreno e causadas pelo preparo do solo foi removida dos dados experimentais. Foram ajustados modelos aos semivariogramas de cada superfície e os parâmetros desses modelos analisados e relacionados aos parâmetros de dimensão fractal. Foi encontrada relação entre a dimensão fractal, D, e os parâmetros dos modelos dos semivariogramas. O parâmetro de auto-afinidade, l, não mostrou relação forte com parâmetros dos modelos dos semivariogramas apesar de ter tido uma relação de potência entre D e l.

  4. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images.

  5. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  6. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba-Stonehouse, V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  7. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  8. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    A conspectus of the Lycopodiaceae in Brazil is presented, following a generic classification based on anatomy, chromosome numbers, spores and gametophytes, as well as recent molecular studies. The species of Lycopodiaceae occurring in Brazil, traditionally treated conservatively, were grouped...

  9. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... approaches different technologies applied in the Brazil nut products process. Key words: ... forest and adjacent areas in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru (Ferreira et al., 2011). ... ''Scientific evidence suggests”, but does not prove, that.

  10. All about neosporosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990’s N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  11. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  12. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  13. FY16 Brazil Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Brazil assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Brazil perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Brazil on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Bra...

  14. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, N.

    2000-08-31

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

  15. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  16. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  17. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  18. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  19. Modelagem da proteção do solo por plantas de cobertura no sul de Minas Gerais = Modeling of soil protection by cover crops in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antonio França de Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é o fator de maior importância relativa no controle da erosão hídrica. Assim, objetivou-se no presente estudo elaborar a modelagem da cobertura vegetal de vinte e quatro plantas de cobertura, em diversos sistemas de plantio e históricos de uso, com potencial para cultivo no Sul de Minas Gerais. Para avaliação da cobertura vegetal foram realizadas avaliações no campo utilizando uma régua de classificação da cobertura vegetal, sendo o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, utilizado neste experimento. As plantas cultivadas sobre a palhada de feijãoirrigado apresentaram alto índice de cobertura do solo, o que pode estar relacionado à maior disponibilidade de nutrientes deixado por esta cultura na palhada e a maior reserva de água no solo, promovido pela irrigação do feijão. O milheto cultivado em nível e sobre a palhada de milheto e feijão-de-porco apresentou o menor índice de cobertura entre as plantas testadas. Na região sul de Minas Gerais os padrões de chuvas ocorrem em maior quantidade nos períodos de outubro a março, com elevação em dezembro e janeiro. Neste período o solo deve estar protegido do impacto da gota de chuva, pois o risco de erosão hídrica é maior. Assim, a utilização das plantas de cobertura é de grande importância, pois estas protegem o solo do impacto direto dasgotas de chuvas e diminuem os picos de temperatura do solo, sendo que estas devem ser cultivadas, preferencialmente, sobre a palhada de feijão.The ground cover is the most important factor relative to control erosion. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a model plant cover for 24 cover crops used in several cropping systems and historical use, with potential for cultivation in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. To evaluate the vegetation cover field assessments using the strip land cover classification. A completely randomized design with three replications was

  20. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Eduardo Lins, “La Casa Blanca y El Planalto: Respeto y Solidaridad,” Foreign Affairs En Español, January-March 2003. 31 See “President Bush Meets with...U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005: Brazil, February 2006. 2 Lincoln Gordon, Brazil’s Second Change En Route...stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America. U.S. officials tend to describe Brazil, similar to Chile , as a friendly country governed

  1. Treatments of acid waters; Tratamientos pasivos de aguas acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Fernandez, J. L.

    2000-07-01

    The exploitation of coal mining locations causes acid effluents due to the oxidation of the sulfurous minerals content of the rocks, denominated acid waters. There are Pyritic materials, pyres and sulphates associated to acid waters that in presence of water, oxygen and certain bacteria (mainly Thiobacillus ferro oxidants), are oxidized, by means of a chemistry reaction, yielding different products. (Author)

  2. [Progress on biodegradation of polylactic acid--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

    2008-02-01

    Polylactic acid is a high molecular-weight polyester made from renewable resources such as corn or starch. It is a promising biodegradable plastic due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. To achieve natural recycling of polylactic acid, relative microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in the biodegradation has become an important issue in biodegradable materials. Up to date, most isolated microbes capable of degrading polylactic acid belong to actinomycetes. Proteases secreted by these microorganisms are responsible for the degradation. However, subtle differences exist between these polylactic acid degrading enzymes and typical proteases with respect to substrate binding and catalysis. Amino acids relative to catalysis are postulated to be highly plastic allowing their catalytic hydrolysis of polylactic acid. In this paper we reviewed current studies on biodegradation of polylactic acid concerning its microbial, enzymatic reactions and the possible mechanisms. We also discussed the probability of biologically recycling PLA by applying highly efficient strains and enzymes.

  3. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Brazil, inequality has dropped by 9% between 1993 and 2008, while in India,, it increased by 16%. This reflects the different labour markets in both countries, which provide the main source of income for households. This research project brings together The Centre for Analysis and Planning in São Paulo (CEBRAP) and ...

  4. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in Brazil and India are joining forces to examine the factors behind wage inequality in their countries and propose policy options to reduce inequality in labour markets. While these two economies have succeeded in reducing poverty and gaining influence in global affairs, both still experience high inequality, ...

  5. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in Brazil and India are joining forces to examine the factors behind wage inequality in their countries and propose policy options to reduce inequality in labour markets. While these two economies have succeeded in ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les ...

  6. CHUVAS, EROSIVIDADE, ERODIBILIDADE, USO DO SOLO E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM FOCOS EROSIVOS LINEARES NA ALTA BACIA DO RIO ARAGUAIA / Rainfall, erosivity, erodibility, land use and their relationships with erosion sites in the upper Araguaia River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvando Carlos da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of land occupation by farmers in the tropical savanna region of MidwestBrazil during the last three decades has promoted several environment impacts, such as theoccurrence of gully erosion processes as a consequence of intensive deforestation. Just in theUpper Araguaia River Basin, it was identified more than 300 large and medium gully features,which are related with the high natural susceptibility of the sandy soils; high erosivity and erodibility; inadequate land-use; lack of soil conservation practices; and a high annual rainfallindex during the rainy season. The objective of this research was to identify spatial relationshipsbetween rainfall distribution, erosivity, erodibility, land-use, and gully erosion distribution,which may support environmental planning actions related to land use conservation.Quantitative results show a high correlation between gully erosion distribution and higherosivity/erodibility and inadequate land-use.

  7. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  8. Brazil well worth the wait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duey, R.

    1999-11-01

    Oil companies weren't the only ones waiting for Brazil to make up its mind about privatizing its oil and gas industry. Seismic firms are flocking to the area in droves to work their spec magic. Exploratory activities in these large offshore blocks are described.

  9. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  10. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  11. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  12. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  13. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  14. Occupational health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  15. The Brazil agreement - quo vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossner, R.

    1981-01-01

    After an analysis of the power requirements of Brazil as well as of the options for covering these requirements an important nuclear power program for peaceful uses was decided. It is performed on the basis of a bilateral agreement between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany of 1975 by co-operation between the German and the Brazilian industry. German firms make their know-how available as well as experts for a limited period of time, in order to establish during about 20 years an independent Brazilian infrastructure for nuclear power plants and their requirements, and to realize the transfer of technology which at the same time shall transmit impulses to the industrial development of the country. (orig.) [de

  16. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Barbosa, L.F.W.; Patire Junior, H.; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  17. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  18. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  19. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  20. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Encompassing almost half the South American conti- nent and bordering every South American country except Ecuador and Chile , Brazil ranks as the fifth largest...and agricultural projects related to the program was slowed. Expansion of the sugarcane acreage was less 184 Construction site, Aguas Claras mine near...Development-OECD) purchased 60 percent of Brazil’s exports. Among Brazil’s 10 largest export markets, only Argentina (US$718 million), Chile (US$363 million

  1. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  2. Status of uranium in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdalani, S.A.; Tavares, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium exploration in Brazil was started in 1952 by the Brazilian National Research Council. This led to the discovery of the first uranium deposits in Pocos de Caldas and Jacobina. These activities was later continued by the National Energy Commission/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), formed in 1962. The founding of NUCLEBRAS at the end of 1974 marked the increasing effort of the country's uranium exploration programme. At this time only the Pocos de Caldas deposit was known with measurable resources. Due to the reorganization of the Brazilian nuclear programme in 1988, all uranium exploration in the country was stopped. By then, eight areas with uranium reserves has been identified. Brazil uranium resources in the RAR category at ≤ $80/kg U cost range are estimated to be 162,000 tonnes U, out of which 56,100 tonnes are in the ≤ $40/kg U cost range. Additional resources in the EAR-I category and the cost range ≤ 80/kg U are in the order of 100,200 tonnes U. The first production of uranium in Brazil, at the Osamu Utsumi mine (Pocos de Caldas deposit), started in 1982. Because of escalated costs and reduced demand, this activity was put on stand-by status between 1990 and 1992. The mine was restarted in 1993, but was stopped again in October 1995. The cumulative production of the mine to 1996 was 1241 tonnes U. The Lagoa Real deposit is currently being prepared as a new producing mine. (author)

  3. Avaliação de barreiros e finalidade da água armazenada na região semi-árida da Bahia Evaluation of the water traps and stored water usage in the semi-arid region of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de B. Cavalcanti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fazer-se um levantamento do tipo e da quantidade de barreiros utilizados pelos pequenos agricultores das comunidades de Curaçá, Casa Nova e Jaguarari, municípios do Estado da Bahia, foi a meta principal deste trabalho, realizado no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999, em que os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pequenos agricultores utilizam algum tipo de barreiro para armazenar água de chuva. A água é utilizada para o consumo humano e animal.This study had the objective of making a survey about the type and amount of water traps used as rainwater catchment by small farmers of three communities located in the municipalities of Curaçá, Casa Nova and Jaguarari in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was carried out between January of 1998 and December of 1999. The results showed that small farmers use some form of tank for rainwater catchment. The water is used for human and animal consumption.

  4. All projects related to Brazil | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay ... URUGUAY, Climate change, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, BRAZIL, COASTAL WATERS ... SURVEYS, CONSUMER EDUCATION, HEALTH LEGISLATION.

  5. Seasonality of insects in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil Sazonalidade de insetos na Caatinga do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are essential to tropical ecosystems functioning. In semi-arid regions, the increase in abundance and/or activity (e.g. reproduction and foraging behavior of insects is usually associated with climatic variables. The present study investigates which climatic variables are best predictors of insect abundance in an area of Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. Individuals were sampled for 24 months using Malaise and pitfall traps, and beating trays. A total of 58925 individuals belonging to 20 insect orders were collected. The most abundant orders were Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola and Coleoptera. Most orders studied showed a clear maximum abundance in the rainy season. Rainfall and humidity were the best predictors of insect abundance in the Caatinga. However, no climatic variable could explain Psocoptera and Blattodea variance in abundance/activity. Our results suggest that climatic changes associated with rainfall patterns in the Caatinga may affect ecosystem processes and services that depend direct or indirectly on insect abundance/activity.Os insetos são abundantes e essenciais para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas terrestres tropicais. No entanto, a abundância e/ou atividade (e.g. reprodução ou forrageio destes organismos podem ser fortemente influenciadas pelas variáveis climáticas. Este estudo examina quais as variáveis climáticas podem atuar como preditoras da abundância e/ou atividade dos insetos em uma área de Caatinga do Nordeste brasileiro. Ao longo de 24 meses, os insetos foram coletados mensalmente utilizando armadilhas Malaise, armadilhas tipo "pitfall" e guarda-chuva entomológico. Um total de 58925 indivíduos de 20 ordens foi coletado. As ordens mais abundantes foram Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola e Coleoptera. Entre as doze ordens mais abundantes, dez apresentaram os seus maiores picos durante a estação chuvosa. A precipitação e a umidade relativa foram os principais preditores dos padrões de abund

  6. Trophic state and microorganisms community of major sub-basins of the middle Rio Doce basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mello Petrucio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Total phosphorus concentration was used to define the trophic state of the main sub-basins of the middle Rio Doce, in Minas Gerais State (southeast Brazil and physical, chemical, and microbiological variables of water were analyzed during 2000 to 2001. The study evaluated changes in water quality caused by seasonality and human activities. Water temperature, conductivity, pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, total-N, PO4-P, total-P, DOC, and chlorophyll-a were measured in seven rivers stretches (sampling stations. Total yeasts, faecal and total coliforms, and heterotrophic bacteria were also determined. The studied areas were considered to be under oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions. The variables that presented highest positive correlation with faecal coliforms were total-P and total-N, and heterotrophic bacteria density was identified as a good parameter to differentiate the ecosystems. These results suggested the inclusion of the trophic level and the distinct activities within a watershed as important elements when proposing conservation and restoration areas.A concentração de fósforo total foi utilizada para determinar o grau de trofia das principais sub-bacias do trecho médio da bacia do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais, e variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas da água foram analisadas nos períodos de chuva e seca durante os anos de 2000 e 2001. O estudo visou determinar mudanças na qualidade da água causadas pela sazonalidade e por diferentes atividades antrópicas. As áreas estudadas variaram de oligotróficas a eutróficas. As variáveis que apresentaram as maiores correlações positivas com a densidades de coliformes fecais foram as concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo total, além disso, bactérias heterotróficas mostrou-se capaz de diferenciar os ambientes. Estes resultados sugerem a inclusão do grau de trofia e da caracterização das atividades antrópicas na

  7. Uso do alimento por duas espécies simpátricas de Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae em um riacho da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Food used by two sympatric species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae, in a stream of center-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffael M Tófoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avaliou sazonalmente a dieta de Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 e M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, coletadas em simpatria no riacho Cancela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Independente do período hidrológico, alimentos de origem alóctone predominaram na dieta de ambas as espécies (>50% do total de itens consumidos, sendo insetos terrestres o recurso principal, embora, para M. dichroura insetos aquáticos tenham contribuído na dieta também. Hymenoptera (Formicidae foi o alimento mais consumido, sendo ambas as espécies caracterizadas como insetívoras terrestres. A dieta restrita dessas espécies é confirmada pelos baixos valores de amplitude de nicho trófico: Ba=0,26 para M. dichroura em ambos os períodos e Ba=0,41 no período de seca e 0,38 no período de chuva, para M. sanctaefilomenae. A sobreposição alimentar foi elevada no período de chuva (Ojk=0,75 e apresentou valor intermediário no período de seca (Ojk=0,41, evidenciando maior partilha do alimento entre as espécies neste período.This study evaluated the seasonality in the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 and M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, sympatric species of the Cancela stream, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Regardless of the seasonal period, allochthonous food source predominated in the diet of both species (>50% of all items consumed and among these terrestrial insects were the dominant resource. However, aquatic insects were important in the diet of M. dichroura as well. Hymenoptera (Formicidae was the dominant item to both species, thus they were characterized as terrestrial insectivorous. The restricted diet of these species is confirmed by the trophic niche breadth, whose values were in general low: Ba=0.26 to M. dichroura in both periods and Ba=0.41 and 0.38 in the dry and rainy period, respectively, to M. sanctaefilomenae. The feeding overlap was high in the rainy period (Ojk=0.75 and intermediate in the dry period (Ojk=0.41, showing

  8. Influência da declividade do solo e da energia cinética de chuvas simuladas no processo de erosão entre sulcos Influence of the soil slope and kinetic energy of simulated precipitation in the channel interrill erosion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S.S. Amorim

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se um simulador de chuvas e um canal de solo para se avaliar o efeito da declividade da superfície do solo e da energia cinética decorrente das chuvas simuladas nas perdas de solo em áreas entre sulcos. O experimento consistiu de um esquema fatorial, com cinco valores de energia cinética (495, 832, 1.151, 1.541 e 1.959 J m-2 correspondentes às intensidades de precipitação de 30, 46, 69, 88 e 107 mm h-1, respectivamente, e cinco declividades da superfície do solo (2, 6, 10, 14 e 18%. Nos testes foi utilizado o horizonte A de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. A perda de solo foi determinada pelo método direto e uma equação de regressão foi obtida, tendo-se como variável dependente a perda de solo e, como variáveis independentes, a declividade da superfície do solo e a energia cinética da precipitação. Os resultados mostraram que a perda acumulada de solo ao longo do tempo apresentou comportamento com tendência linear proporcionando, desta forma, taxas de perda de solo constantes ao longo dos testes e que a perda total de solo aumentou à medida que os valores de declividade da superfície do solo e energia cinética foram aumentados, sendo que o efeito da declividade na perda de solo foi menos expressivo que o da energia cinética.A rainfall simulator and a soil channel were used to evaluate the effect of the soil slope and kinetic energy of simulated rainfall on the soil loss for interrill areas. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement, with five values of kinetic energy (495, 832, 1,151, 1,541 e 1,959 J m-2 corresponding to precipitation intensities of 30, 46, 69, 88 and 107 mm h-1, respectively, and five soil slopes (2, 6, 10, 14 and 18%. In the test, a horizon of a Red Yellow Latosol soil was used. The soil loss was determined by direct method and a regression equation was obtained relating the soil loss with the soil slope and kinetic energy. The results showed that the accumulated soil loss with time

  9. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  10. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  11. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... Brazil nut products, including oil, cake and flour, milk extract and extruded products. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS. Brazil nut has high content of proteins, carbohydrates, unsaturated ... nuts, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce ..... products since it enables the mixing of different raw.

  12. An overview on small hydro in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, G.T.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of small-scale hydro development in Brazil was presented in the context of the Brazilian energy sector. Brazil's energy sector is currently comprised of 45 per cent renewable energy. Brazil is the tenth largest energy producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 105.986 MW. Brazil currently has an estimated 258.410 MW of hydroelectric power potential. Small hydropower (SHP) plants in Brazil are defined as plants capable of producing up to 30 MW of power, with a reservoir area smaller than 12 km 2 . It is estimated that SHP plants will provide 5 per cent of Brazil's electrical supply by 2030. SHP plants in Brazil typically use Kaplan and Pelton hydraulic turbines, as well as Michell-Banki cross-flow turbines. Hydrokinetic turbine prototypes are also being designed at the Federal University of Brazil. Researchers are currently developing a diffuser enhancement design. However, there are currently no designs available that use peripheric generators. Researchers are currently investigating the design of fish-friendly turbines as well as mobile dams. Development projects in the Amazon region were outlined. tabs., figs.

  13. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequ...

  14. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  15. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  16. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  17. An overview on small hydro in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.T. [Federal Univ. of Itajuba (Brazil). National Reference Centre for Small Hydro

    2008-07-01

    An overview of small-scale hydro development in Brazil was presented in the context of the Brazilian energy sector. Brazil's energy sector is currently comprised of 45 per cent renewable energy. Brazil is the tenth largest energy producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 105.986 MW. Brazil currently has an estimated 258.410 MW of hydroelectric power potential. Small hydropower (SHP) plants in Brazil are defined as plants capable of producing up to 30 MW of power, with a reservoir area smaller than 12 km{sup 2}. It is estimated that SHP plants will provide 5 per cent of Brazil's electrical supply by 2030. SHP plants in Brazil typically use Kaplan and Pelton hydraulic turbines, as well as Michell-Banki cross-flow turbines. Hydrokinetic turbine prototypes are also being designed at the Federal University of Brazil. Researchers are currently developing a diffuser enhancement design. However, there are currently no designs available that use peripheric generators. Researchers are currently investigating the design of fish-friendly turbines as well as mobile dams. Development projects in the Amazon region were outlined. tabs., figs.

  18. Análise Espacial com SIG de Parâmetros Ambientais e Comportamento Hidrológico (Chuva-Vazão de uma Bacia de drenagem Montanhosa na Serra Dos Órgãos: Bacia Do Paquequer, Município De Teresópolis, RJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Semiramis Silveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivos principais apresentar e analisar, por meio de Sistema de Informação Geográfica, a distribuição espacial dos parâmetros ambientais, na escala 1:50.000, e discutir a possível influência destes na dinâmica hidrológica de chuvavazão da bacia do Paquequer. Este rio (5ª ordem, 30 km de comprimento nasce na Serra dos Órgãos e drena 269 km2 para o vale do Paraíba do Sul. A pluviosidade anual varia de 1500 mm a jusante da bacia até mais de 3000 mm na cabeceira e as chuvas predominam no verão. Em 1996, a vegetação da bacia era composta por um mosaico de diferentes estágios de sucessão ecológica até Floresta Ombrófila Densa - Mata Atlântica, em fragmentos de diferentes tamanhos, e 25 % da área com uso urbano/rural. Na bacia ocorrem 3 unidades geológicas (Granito Teresópolis, Batólito Serra dos Órgãos (gnaisse e Unidade Rio Negro (migmatito. Os afloramentos rochosos (5 % da área são importantes feições da paisagem (principalmente no Granito Teresópolis. As unidades estão sobrepostas por colúvios, colúvios ricos em blocos, elúvio e pouca quantidade de depósitos aluvionares. Os Cambissolos são dominantes, com poucos Latossolos (preferencialmente associados a Unidade Rio Negro e Gleissolos nos vales. Uma coletânea, unificação e análise das relações espaciais dos dados de geologia, solos, declividade, formação superficial, hidrografia, vegetação e uso mapeados pelo projeto Teresópolis (UERJ/IBGE foi elaborada por intermédio do ArcGis Desktop 9.2. Os resultados do SIG apontam que a geologia da bacia condiciona diferentes paisagens. No Granito Teresópolis as classes de maior declividade, os afloramentos rochosos e os colúvios com blocos têm maior significado. As classes Gleissolo e Latossolo adquirem importância significativa na unidade Rio Negro. A investigação por meio de GPR e granulometria de uma sub-bacia identificou padrões geofísicos e granulom

  19. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  20. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  1. H3 internationalization to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carona, Eduardo João Bonneville Torres

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics h3 is a Portuguese firm competing in the fast food market with a hamburger gourmet concept. The firm is now a strong player in Portugal (39 stores); Poland, Warsaw (1 store); Spain, Madrid (1 store) and Brazil, São Paulo (2 stores). As a result of their successes in the domestic market, internationalization was a natural step. One o...

  2. The atomic deal with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirow, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The author deals with the German-Brazilian nuclear treaty using sources which are meanwhile official. A roaring trade - made in 1975 - had become a public nuisance in 1979. Grand plans of German and Brazilian politicians had changed into economic crisis, unemployment and uncompleted, dilapidating buildings. While even the new government adhered to the treaty, Brazilia had begun a national instigation campaign. This was, however, superseded by Brazil's high indebtedness, an economic crisis and social unrest so that it was impossible to realize the nuclear treaty. (HSCH) [de

  3. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    Security & Strategic Review, January 2008. 70 Guila Flint, “Jobim alerta para ameaça de atentados e diz que país deve se preparar para problemas durante...101 Independence Ave, SE ,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10... hacer juego democrático y liberar rehenes,” Associated Press, December 5, 2008; “Brazil Colombia: A Deal Signals Strategic Cooperation,” Stratfor

  4. The aging population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nasri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently in an advanced stage of both the mortality andfertility transitions, which allows one to confi dently forecast the agedistribution and population size over the next four decades. Whereasthe elderly population with more than 65 years will increase at highrates (2 to 4% per year the young population will decline. Accordingto United Nations projections, the elderly population will increasefrom 3.1% of the population in 1970 to 19% in 2050. The changingage distribution of the Brazilian population brings opportunities andchallenges that could lead to serious social and economic issues ifnot dealt with properly in coming decades.

  5. Progress in food irradiation: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, B.

    1978-01-01

    The initial work programme started with investigations on the use of irradiation for preserving beans, onions, rice, potato, wheat, and corn. These products constitute an important part of the average daily diet and, in spite of the large harvests, very heavy losses are incurred each year. Rather than adopt the research results obtained in other countries, the Brazilian authorities considered it essential to establish optimal dose levels for these products and to analyse for physical, chemical and organoleptic alterations under the conditions prevailing in Brazil. Similarly wholesomeness testing has been included as an integral part of the research programme in compliance with the requirements of the National Health Ministry. (orig.) [de

  6. Malaria in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brasil, Patrícia; Ladislau, José L B; Tauil, Pedro L; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2010-04-30

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306,000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  7. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil Patrícia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several

  8. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  9. Previsões climáticas sazonais sobre o Brasil: avaliação do RegCM3 aninhado no modelo global CPTEC/COLA Seasonal climatic forecast over Brazil: evaluation of the RegCM3 model nested to the CPTEC/COLA global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinei Dorneles Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia o desempenho de previsões sazonais do modelo climático regional RegCM3, aninhado ao modelo global CPTEC/COLA. As previsões com o RegCM3 utilizaram 60 km de resolução horizontal num domínio que inclui grande parte da América do Sul. As previsões do RegCM3 e CPTEC/COLA foram avaliadas utilizando as análises de chuva e temperatura do ar do Climate Prediction Center (CPC e National Centers for Enviromental Prediction (NCEP, respectivamente. Entre maio de 2005 e julho de 2007, 27 previsões sazonais de chuva e temperatura do ar (exceto a temperatura do CPTEC/COLA, que possui 26 previsões foram avaliadas em três regiões do Brasil: Nordeste (NDE, Sudeste (SDE e Sul (SUL. As previsões do RegCM3 também foram comparadas com as climatologias das análises. De acordo com os índices estatísticos (bias, coeficiente de correlação, raiz quadrada do erro médio quadrático e coeficiente de eficiência, nas três regiões (NDE, SDE e SUL a chuva sazonal prevista pelo RegCM3 é mais próxima da observada do que a prevista pelo CPTEC/COLA. Além disto, o RegCM3 também é melhor previsor da chuva sazonal do que da média das observações nas três regiões. Para temperatura, as previsões do RegCM3 são superiores às do CPTEC/COLA nas áreas NDE e SUL, enquanto o CPTEC/COLA é superior no SDE. Finalmente, as previsões de chuva e temperatura do RegCM3 são mais próximas das observações do que a climatologia observada. Estes resultados indicam o potencial de utilização do RegCM3 para previsão sazonal, que futuramente deverá ser explorado através de previsão por conjunto.This study presents an assessment of seasonal forecasts from the regional climate model RegCM3 nested to the CPTEC/COLA global model. The used RegCM3 version is 60 km horizontal resolution over an area that includes large part of South America. RegCM3 and CPTEC/COLA forecasts were evaluated using the rainfall and air temperature analyses from Climate

  10. Climatologia do comportamento do período chuvoso da região sudeste do Brasil Climatology of the rainy period behavior in the southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosandro Boligon Minuzzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados dados diários de 203 estações pluviométricas localizadas na região Sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar climaticamente e analisar a tendência do comportamento do período chuvoso. Os resultados indicam que o período chuvoso inicia mais cedo (entre 13 e 22 de setembro e tem maior duração (210 a 229 dias na região litorânea de São Paulo. Comportamento oposto ao observado nas regiões Norte e Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Minas Gerais, onde o período chuvoso inicia em média, entre os dias 23 de outubro a 2 de novembro, durando apenas 136 a 155 dias. As datas de início e a duração do período chuvoso estão fortemente correlacionadas entre si, bem como, entre o total de precipitação e a duração do período chuvoso em praticamente todo o Sudeste do Brasil. De modo geral, desde meados da década de 1970, o período chuvoso tem iniciado precocemente e durado mais no Sudeste do Brasil. Quanto à quantidade de chuva, esta tem ocorrido em maiores quantidades somente na área MG3 (sudeste de Minas Gerais e no estado de São Paulo.Daily data from 203 pluviometric stations, located in the Southeast region of Brazil, were studied with the objective to characterize climatically and analyze the tendency of the behavior of the rainy period. The results indicate that the rainy period begins early (between 13 and September 22th and has larger duration (210 to 229 days at the coastal area of São Paulo. Behavior opposed to the observed in the areas North and Vale do Jequitinhonha, in Minas Gerais, where the rainy period begins on average, among October 23th on November 2nd, only lasting 136 to 155 days. The duration and the dates at the beginning of the rainy period are strongly correlated, as well as, among the precipitation total and the duration of the rainy period in practically the whole Southeast region of Brazil. In general, from middles of the 1970's, the rainy period has started earlier and lasted more in the

  11. Sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae survey in an urban transmission area of visceral leishmaniasis, Northeastern Brazil Pesquisa de flebotomíneos (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae em área urbana de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health challenge in Brazil, especially in states where it is endemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of sand fly population density with environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity in urban areas of the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. Sand flies were captured with Center Disease Control (CDC traps installed monthly in the intra and peridomicile of three houses. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 7,347 sand flies were captured, being 93.85% Lutzomyia longipalpis and 6.15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Sand flies were more commonly found in the peridomicile and there was no difference between the number of males and females. The variables rainy season as well as relative humidity and rainfall, alone or together, did not have an effect on sand fly population density. However, high temperatures had a negative effect. The study of the behavior of sand flies in specific units of endemic areas can provide input to public health authorities for planning appropriate VL vector control measures.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é um grande desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil, particularmente nos estados onde é endêmica. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação da densidade populacional de flebotomíneos com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura, precipitação de chuva e umidade relativa do ar em bairros urbanos de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados com armadilhas CDC instaladas mensalmente no intra e peridomicílio de três casas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e na regressão linear. Foram capturados 7.347 flebotomíneos, sendo 93,85% Lutzomyia longipalpis e 6,15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Os flebotomíneos foram encontrados mais comumente no peridomicílio e nenhuma diferença significativa entre o número de machos e fêmeas foi

  12. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  13. Rapidly developing market regions : Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil and the State of Rio Grande do Sul are experiencing a period of rapid industrial development. Global investment has been forecast to reach $240 billion over the next five to seven years. This level of development is likely to result in a sharp increase in the consumption of plastic products made from olefins and from aromatic products. Accordingly, Copesul, the centre of raw materials for the State complex, is expected to increase its production of ethane from 685 tonnes to 1.13 million tonnes after 1999. The government has established a program of incentives to stimulate investment in third generation industries. Also, the State petrochemical industry has been rendered more competitive as a result of the purchase of the latest generation equipment. The principal challenges that exist for the petrochemical industry in Brazil and for that matter, around the world, are to reduce production costs and to preserve the natural environment. Another challenge, also world-wide, is to address the issue of plastic residues and to eliminate such residues through plastic recycling programs

  14. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months

  15. [Women and development in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha Neves, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the social, political and cultural status of women in Brazil. In 1976 only 29.6% of Brazilian women participated in economic activities; 54.3% of these were still employed as laborers in the countryside, while only 6% were employed in urban and industrial jobs. The greatest concentration of female labor is in the category of the very badly paid domestic employment. Man is traditionally the head of the family, even when he is not the breadwinner. Illiteracy has decreased in Brazil to 24.3%, but female analphabetism is 26.5% versus 21.9% male analphabetism. Schools are open to males and females at all levels, but the traditional and cultural structure of Brazilian society considers the home, not the school, as the only proper place for young girls, and maternity is still the primary social function of women. Politically Brazilian women have very little power, even if they make up 44% of the electoral body. Sex education does not exist in the school or in the home, and any sexuality exercised outside the bonds of marriage is considered as deviant.

  16. Hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago R; Penm, Jonathan; Baldoni, André O; Ayres, Lorena Rocha; Moles, Rebekah; Sanches, Cristina

    2018-01-04

    This study aims to describe the distribution of the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil. Data were acquired, during 2016, through the Brazilian National Database of Healthcare Facilities (CNES). The following variables were extracted: hospital name, registry number, telephone, e-mail, state, type of institution, subtype, management nature, ownership, presence of research/teaching activities, complexity level, number of hospital beds, presence of pharmacists, number of pharmacists, pharmacist specialization. All statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS v.19. The number of hospitals with a complete registry in the national database was 4790. The majority were general hospitals (77.9%), managed by municipalities (66.1%), under public administration (44.0%), had no research/teaching activities (90.5%), classified as medium complexity (71.6%), and had no pharmacist in their team (50.6%). Furthermore, almost 60.0% of hospitals did not comply with the minimum recommendations of having a pharmacist per 50 hospital beds. The Southeast region had the highest prevalence of pharmacists, with 64.4% of hospitals having a pharmaceutical professional. This may have occurred as this region had the highest population to hospital ratio. Non-profit hospitals were more likely to have pharmacists compared to those under public administration and private hospitals. This study mapped the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil, showing a higher prevalence of hospital pharmacists in the Southeast region, and in non-profit specialized hospitals.

  17. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  18. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  19. Sweet future? Brazil's ethanol fuel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the history of Brazil's ethanol fuel programme from 1975 to the present, and considers Brazil's energy policy, and the implications of price liberalisation and privatisation aimed at reducing prices to control inflation. The achievements of ProAlcool which was established in 1975 with the aim of replacing petrol with ethanol, costs and investment in ProAlcool, environmental implications, and policy initiatives to boost ProAlcool are examined. Details of typical emissions from a 6-year old car in Brazil are tabulated illustrating the reduced emissions due to ethanol fuels

  20. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Mesa P, Juan M.; Rocha, Jose Dilcio; Filippetto, Daniele; Luengo, Carlos A.; Pippo, Walfrido Alonso

    2011-01-01

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  1. The situation of nuclear research in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1989-04-01

    In order to understand the nuclear research situation in Brazil, one must examine the historical facts and their political, economical and social dimensions. In the first part of this work, the international aspects of the nuclear area and the corresponding measures adopted in Brazil are examined. The reasons that caused the country to adopt the current development model are presented. A proposal that will permit Brazil to develop and use nuclear energy in the way it wants and not as it might be imposed is presented. 4 tabs

  2. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Mesa P, Juan M. [BIOWARE Ltda., Caixa Postal 6086, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [EMBRAPA-Agroenergia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Filippetto, Daniele; Luengo, Carlos A.; Pippo, Walfrido Alonso [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos/Departamento de Fisica Aplicada/IFGW/UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6165, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  3. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  4. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  5. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  6. Brazil | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC-supported research in Brazil has informed policy debates on a variety of issues, including democracy, economic growth, health, social services, innovation, ... earthquake, including food security and public-private sector partnerships.

  7. Estudo da variabilidade do NDVI sobre o Brasil, utilizando-se a análise de agrupamentos Study of NDVI variability in Brazil using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen da C. Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a variabilidade do NDVI (Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada sobre o Brasil, utilizando-se a análise de agrupamentos. As análises foram feitas através de imagens do sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR para o período de janeiro de 1982 a dezembro de 1993. Os resultados obtidos mostram que na região Amazônica o ciclo anual do NDVI não é bem definido, visto que o máximo tipicamente ocorre em junho, dois meses após o período chuvoso, enquanto o mínimo se dá em dois períodos distintos: entre fevereiro e março e setembro e novembro. Na região central do Brasil, o cerrado apresenta um ciclo anual definido, com valores máximos de NDVI entre março e maio, e mínimos em setembro, final do período seco. Por outro lado, a vegetação das regiões da zona da mata nordestina e dos campos de Roraima apresentam um ciclo anual nítido, sendo que os maiores valores de NDVI ocorrem em junho e julho e os menores entre fevereiro e março, alguns meses antes do início das chuvas. No caso da região nordeste do Brasil, a caatinga mostra um ciclo anual bem definido, com um período seco marcante, sendo que os valores mais elevados de NDVI ocorrem entre os meses de abril e maio, que é o final da época das chuvas, e os menores em setembro e outubro. Em parte do Estado de Santa Catarina e no sul do Paraná, o ciclo anual das formações vegetais dominantes (floresta ombrófila aberta e floresta ombrófila mista não é muito nítido. No sul do Brasil, a região de estepes não apresenta ciclo anual nítido, os valores máximos de NDVI geralmente ocorrem entre março e junho e os valores mínimos no mês de agosto. Além disso, constatou-se que os eventos El Niño, independente da sua intensidade, afetam distintamente os vários tipos de vegetação.This paper deals with vegetation cover variability in Brazil using cluster analysis. The study was done using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation

  8. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  9. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  10. Frontier Security: The Case of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    been rising investment. This analysis is the fourth publication from the Institute for National Strategic Studies on Brazil and its emerging world role...satellite imagery ter- minals, wireless communication networks , computerized data collection, and ground-based air traffic monitoring centers designed for...Bolivia 13 mobile radars that can be positioned at important sites. In 2015, Brazil reengaged Bolivia concerning international crime networks .49 Brazil’s

  11. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Marilena dos Anjos; ARAÚJO, Evangelina da Motta Pacheco Alves de; KUWAKINO, Marcelo Hisato; HEINS-VACCARI, Elisabeth Maria; DEL NEGRO, Gilda Maria Bárbaro; VOZZA JÚNIOR, João Antonio; LACAZ, Carlos da Silva

    1997-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil) and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast) for 6 yea...

  12. Gender Equality and Economic Growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Otaviano Canuto

    2013-01-01

    This note studies the long-run impacts of policies aimed at fostering gender equality on economic growth in Brazil. After a brief review of gender issues in Brazil, this note describes a framework for quantifying the growth effects of gender-based policies in developing economies. The analysis is based on a computable overlapping generations (OLG) model that accounts for the impact of acce...

  13. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  14. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-05-20

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas.

  15. Seletividade de herbicidas: II - aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência inicial e tarida da cana-de-açúcar na época das chuvas Herbicide selectivity: II - herbicide application at initial and late and post-emergence of sugarcane in the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.M. Azania

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho testar a seletividade dos herbicidas diuron+hexazinone, azafenidin+hexazinone, metribuzin e isoxaflutole, aplicados em pósemergência inicial e tardia das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, cultivar RB835089, na época das chuvas, em soqueira de terceiro corte, após colheita com queima prévia do canavial, em Araras-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com testemunhas pareadas, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, existindo uma testemunha capinada para cada tratamento químico dentro de cada bloco. Os tratamentos foram: diuron+hexazinone (1.170+330 g ha-1, azafenidin+hexazinone (192,5+247,5 g ha-1, metribuzin (1.920 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (127,5 g ha-1 e testemunha. Concluiu-se que os herbicidas foram mais fitotóxicos quando aplicados na pós-emergência tardia. Em pós-emergência inicial, o isoxaflutole foi o único produto que afetou a produtividade agrícola. Na pós-emergência tardia, todos os herbicidas prejudicaram a produtividade agrícola, sendo o diuron+hexazinone o único produto que não afetou as características tecnológicas e o rendimento de açúcar.This research aimed to evaluate the selectivity of azafenidin+hexazinone, diuron+hexazinone, metribuzin and isoxaflutole to sugarcane, applied at initial and late post-emergence during the rainy season. The study was conducted over 3-yr sugarcane ratoons (cv. RB 835089, in Araras, SP. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications, and one weeded control for each treatment within each block. The treatments used were: (diuron+hexazinone (1,170 + 330 g ha-1, azafenidin+hexazinone (192.5+247.5 g ha-1, metribuzin (1,920 g ha-1 and isoxaflutole (127.5 g ha-1 and weed control. It was concluded that the herbicides damaged sugarcane the most when applied during late post-emergence. At early post-emergence, isoxaflutole was the only herbicide affecting yield. In late post-emergence, all the

  16. Um estudo de downscaling dinâmico de precipitação intrasazonal acoplado a modelo chuva-vazão na bacia hidrográfica alto-médio São Francisco A study of intraseasonal precipitation dynamic downscaling coupled to rain-streamflow model at the alto-médio São Francisco hydrographic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Rebés Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo mostra a aplicação de modelagem hidroclimática dinâmica (hydroclimate downscaling de precipitação acoplada a um modelo hidrológico chuva-vazão, para as Bacias hidrográficas denominadas Cachoeira Manteiga e Porto da Extrema, localizadas na Bacia do Alto-Médio São Francisco no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ênfase foi dada à simulação na escala intrasazonal (mensal. Os resultados sugerem que a simulação de precipitação pode ser usada como variável de entrada em modelos de estimativa de vazão para períodos na escala de um mês, dando subsídio a um melhor aproveitamento dos recursos hídricos na bacia hidrográfica estudada. Estes ainda sugerem que a simulação de precipitação, quando corrigida pela técnica Probability Density Function (PDFs, é mais eficiente na estimativa de precipitação simulada quando comparada com a precipitação observada na bacia, resultando em uma melhor simulação de vazão afluente na bacia.This study shows the use of rainfall dynamic hydroclimate downscaling coupled to the rain-streamflow hydrological model for the hydrographic basins named Cachoeira Manteiga and Porto da Extrema, localized at Alto-Médio São Francisco Basin in Minas Gerais State. The emphasis was to simulate the intraseasonal scale (monthly. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation can be used as input data to streamflow estimation models for periods of monthly scale, allowing a more rational usage of the surface water resources in the hydrographic basin studied. It is also suggested that the rainfall data simulation, corrected by the Probability Density Function (PDF technique, is more efficient to estimate rainfall comparing to observed rainfall in the basin thus resulting in a better simulation of the basin flow outlet.

  17. Avaliação da economia de água potável com a implantação de um sistema de aproveitamento de água de chuva: estudo de caso no município de Irati, Paraná / Evaluation of the economics of drinking water with the establishment of a rainwater system: case study in Irati, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelena Gonçalves Maia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva tem aumentado em todo o mundo, para minimizar a escassez hídrica local ou como uma fonte alternativa que viabilize a economia de água potável. O presente trabalho estuda o potencial de economia de água potável com a implantação de sistemas de aproveitamento de água de chuva em residências do município de Irati, Paraná. Os dados de área de telhado residencial foram levantados a partir de imagens satelitárias de alta resolução da área de estudo e foram utilizadas duas metodologias no dimensionamento dos reservatórios, que consideram respectivamente o aumento percentual de economia de água potável e a confiabilidade do sistema. Os reservatórios foram dimensionados considerando diferentes faixas de área de captação, para as quais foram calculadas a economia de água que o sistema proporcionaria. A economia média de água potável, com a implantação do sistema, foi de 44,92%, que representa um valor diário de 148,43 m3.AbstractThe use of rainwater systems has increased worldwide, to minimize the local water scarcity or as an alternative source that makes possible the saving of drinking water. This paper studies the potential savings of potable water with the implantation of rainwater systems in Brazilian residences in Irati, Paraná. Data on residential roof area were gathered from a satellite image of study area and two methods were used to choose the reservoir size, which consider the percentage increase in saving drinking water and system reliability. The reservoirs were designed considering different roof area ranges, from which one were calculated the water savings that the system would provide. The average savings for potable water, with the implementation of the system, was 44.92%, representing a value of 148.43 m3 per day per household.

  18. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  19. The scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae-Polypodiopsida of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Weigand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A synopsis of all scaly tree fern species (Cyatheaceae occurring in Brazil is presented. We recognize 51 species in three genera [Sphaeropteris one species, Alsophila four species (one subspecies, two varieties, and Cyathea 45 species (one variety ] with 17 taxa being endemic to Brazil. One hybrid endemic to Brazil is recognized. Further included are five species that have not yet been recorded in Brazil, but are expected here because they are found in adjacent countries and occur literally on the border with Brazil. We present the first key covering the family for the whole territory of Brazil.

  20. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or 4000

  1. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  2. SISTEMA DE ALERTA TEMPRANA POR MOVIMIENTOS EN MASA INDUCIDOS POR LLUVIA PARA EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA SISTEMA DE ALERTA ADIANTADA POR MOVIMENTOS EM MASSA INDUZIDOS POR CHUVA PARA O VALE DE ABURRÁ, NA COLÔMBIA EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR RAINFALL-INDUCED LANDSLIDES IN THE ABURRÁ VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edier Aristizábal

    2010-07-01

    por chuva suportado em umbrais de chuva empíricos. Estes sistemas proporcionam um rápido meio para monitorar e comunicar informação sobre ameaças a uma comunidade vulnerável, por isso usam-se para proteger vidas, assinalando anteriormente a possibilidade de um evento, o que proporciona tempo para tomar ações que podem reduzir as condições de risco. Este artigo descreve a definição e ajuste do modelo, da mesma forma que apresenta os resultados da validação dos umbrais para o período 2004-2008. Os resultados achados indicam que, mesmo que o modelo ajustado prediz a ocorrência de uma porcentagem alta de eventos para a cidade de Medellín, existe ainda um grande número de eventos que se apresentam em condições normais, o qual indica que se requer a definição de umbrais que se ajustem às condições locais do vale e reduzam os níveis de incerteza próprios de um modelo estocástico.The complex physical conditions of the Aburrá Valley coupled with high vulnerability levels led to scenarios with a high potential for human and economic losses upon the occurrence of natural phenomena such as mass movements, which represent 35 % of events occurring in the valley and 77 % of dead people. Due to these severe problems, since 2008, an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides assisted by empirical rainfall thresfolds has been used. Early warning systems provide a rapid means for monitoring and communicating information about threats to a vulnerable community, so they are used primarily to protect lives, noting the possibility of occurrence of an event in advance, providing time to take action that can reduce the risk conditions. This paper describes the definition and model fit as well as presents the results of the validation of thresholds for the period 2004-2008. The found results indicate that, although the fitted model predicts the occurrence of a high percentage of events for the city of Medellin, there are still many events that occur in

  3. Brazil: A Portrait of Diparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Weber Abramo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparencia Brasil (an NGO dedicated to fi ghting corruption in the country involves systematically gathering stories about corruption and associated themes published in the daily press.Titled “Deu no Jornal” (It Made the News, the initiative has been collecting news stories published in 59 dailies and four weeklies since January 2004. The publications covered by the project comprise all the main newspapers from all 26 states, plus the Federal District. No signifi cant newspaper from any state is absent. News is taken from the newspapers’ web editions and introduced into a data base. Each story is fi led under a specifi c “case”2 and cases are categorized according to several descriptive criteria. At the time of this writing, Deu no Jornal included about 142,500 stories distributed among 3,586 diff erent cases, corresponding to an aggregate of about 326 million characters. On the average, about 3.5 new cases of corruption are reported by the Brazilian press somewhere every day. Deu no Jornal is the most comprehensive database of news stories on corruption in existence, not only in Brazil but worldwide.

  4. Light, distribution company in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Since the publication of the Roulet Report, Electricite de France (EDF), the French group is crossing tormented hours. Despite its good financial results in 2004 with a turnover of 46.9 Mds euros its debts are around 19.7 Mds euros and are mainly due to its international investments which were not all very profitable. The first source of concern remains the Latin America markets and more particularly the Brazilian one which recorded 1.6 Md euros of losses. The future of EDF investment in Brazil, through its acquisition of the distribution company, Light, is uncertain. Within a new electric power industry framework, after currency devaluation and a rationing, Light is now in a catastrophic financial situation. The last tariff revisions given by the Brazilian authorities and the economic characteristics of the concession put the distributor at the edge of the bankruptcy. This article presents the situation of EDF group and Light at the end of 2004. The main question is the future of the Brazilian distributor in general and more particularly within the French group EDF. (author)

  5. [The health system of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  6. Epidemia de esquistossomose aguda na praia de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil An outbreak of acute schistosomiasis at Porto de Galinhas beach, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Simões Barbosa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho notifica a ocorrência de um surto de esquistossomose aguda na praia de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil, quando 662 pessoas tiveram diagnóstico positivo para Schistosoma mansoni. A infecção humana em massa ocorreu no feriado de 7 de setembro, quando chuvas pesadas provocaram a enchente do rio Ipojuca que invadiu as residências. A maioria dos casos agudos foi representada por famílias de residentes locais que tiveram exposição diária às cercárias durante três semanas, até que as águas baixassem. O inquérito malacológico aponta para a possibilidade dos caramujos vetores terem sido introduzidos na localidade com os aterros realizados em quintais, onde vieram a se reproduzir em criadouros peridomiciliares. A infecção dos moluscos se deu a partir de vazamentos de fossas. Os resultados da clínica e do laboratório apontam para cerca de 62% de casos agudos. Estudos complementares estão sendo realizados, para a melhor compreensão deste evento epidemiológico de significativa magnitude para os órgãos de saúde pública e impacto para a população afetada.We recently confirmed several cases of acute schistosomiasis in Porto de Galinhas beach, Northeast Brazil. A total of 662 patients were diagnosed by parasitological and clinical examinations. The infection likely occurred during the September 7 national holiday, when heavy rainfall flooded the Ipojuca River and people were infected when the water covered their yards. Families were continuously exposed to infection for a period of three weeks until the water had completely dried up. Previous investigation suggests that snail vectors were introduced as a result of landfill in marshy areas. The swamp-flooding of such areas facilitated the emergence of slums surrounded by snail breeding sites. Heavy rainfall caused open-air sewage ditches to overflow, allowing for infection of snails by Schistosoma mansoni. Thus, continuous floods were responsible for the spread of

  7. Diversidade de formigas na Floresta Nacional de Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brasil Ants diversity in Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A mirmecofauna da Floresta Nacional de Chapecó, Gleba I, foi estudada por coletas semanais realizadas de dezembro de 2003 a dezembro de 2004. Foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo malaise, pit-fall, iscas com sardinha, iscas com glicose, rede de varredura, guarda-chuva entomológico e funil de Berlese. Três constituições vegetais foram amostradas, sendo pinus, eucalipto e Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Estacional Decidual. Foram capturadas 137.019 espécimes de nove subfamílias, 18 tribos, 36 gêneros e 121 espécies. Os índices de diversidade de Margalef obtidos foram 9,9; 9,7 e 12,6; de Shannon e Wiener 3,0; 3,2 e 3,4 e de equitabilidade de 0,69; 0,73 e 0,74, para as áreas com pinus, eucalipto e mata nativa, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam uma distribuição mais uniforme na comunidade da mata nativa, caracterizando-se como um importante reservatório espécies de formigas no Oeste catarinense.Mirmecofauna of the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó, Field I, was studied by weekly collections from December of 2003 to December of 2004. Malaise, pit-fall, sardine baits, glucose baits, sweeping net, entomological umbrella and Berlese funnel had been used. Three vegetal constitutions where showed, like pinus, eucalyptus Ombrófila Mista and Estacional Decidual native forests. 137.019 specimens of nine subfamilies, 18 tribes, 36 generas and 121 species were captured. The indices of diversity of Margalef were 9.9; 9.7 and 12.6; of Shannon and Wiener 3.0; 3.2 and 3.4 and of equitability of 0.69; 0.73 and 0.74, for the areas with pinus, eucalyptus and native forest, respectively. These results indicate a more uniform distribution in the community of the native forest, characterizing itself as an important reservoir species of ants in the West region of the Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  8. Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and ... The work will be conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and South Africa, which are ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  9. Diatomáceas epilíticas de águas oligotróficas e ácidas do Sudeste do Brasil Epilithic diatoms from acidic and oligotrophic waters in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo de Castro Canani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos tem abordado a flora de diatomáceas de sistemas oligotróficos do Brasil. São apresentados os resultados da composição taxonômica e distribuição espacial e temporal de diatomáceas no rio do Salto, situado no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais (21º40'-21º44'S e 43º52'-43º55'W. As águas desse rio possuem pH entre 4,2 e 5,5 e concentração de ortofosfato entre 1,37 e 10,98 µg.L-1. O estudo baseia-se na análise de 80 amostras coletadas em oito estações no leito rochoso do rio, em janeiro e julho de 2004, períodos de chuva e estiagem, respectivamente. Um total de 15 espécies e duas variedades taxonômicas, distribuídas em oito gêneros e oito famílias foram descritas e ilustradas, com destaque para o gênero Eunotia Ehrenberg. O estudo sobre diatomáceas bentônicas em ambientes lóticos é pioneiro no estado de Minas Gerais, sendo registradas 14 novas citações, das quais Fragilariforma stevensonii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Eunotia pirarucu Metzeltin & Lange Betalot, Nupela giluwensis Vyverman & Compère e Sellaphora blackfordensis Mann & Droop são primeiros registros para o Brasil.Few studies have been done on the diatom flora of acidic and oligotrophic environments from Brazil. We present the taxonomic composition and distribution of diatoms of Salto River, situated at Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais (21º40'-21º44'S; 43º52'-43º55'W. The pH values ranged from 4.2 to 5.5 and orthophosphate was between 1.37 and 10.98 µg.L-1. The study is based on the analysis of 80 samples collected at eight stations in the rocky stream bed, in January and July 2004, rainy and dry seasons, respectively. A total of 15 species and two taxonomic varieties distributed in eight genera and eight families were described and illustrated, notably the Eunotia Ehrenberg genus. The study of benthic diatoms in lotic systems is pioneer in Minas Gerais state; 14 new records were recorded of which Fragilariforma stevensonii

  10. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  11. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-12-01

    Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented.

  12. The scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae-Polypodiopsida) of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Weigand, Anna; Lehnert, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A synopsis of all scaly tree fern species (Cyatheaceae) occurring in Brazil is presented. We recognize 51 species in three genera [Sphaeropteris one species, Alsophila four species (one subspecies, two varieties), and Cyathea 45 species (one variety) ] with 17 taxa being endemic to Brazil. One hybrid endemic to Brazil is recognized. Further included are five species that have not yet been recorded in Brazil, but are expected here because they are found in adjacent countries and occur...

  13. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation No. 731-TA-1089...

  14. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  15. Thermopower generation investment in Brazil - economic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Ajax; Rocha, Katia [IPEA, Inst. for Applied Economic Research of Brazilian Government, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); David, Pedro [FURNAS Centrais Electricas: Power Utility, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    One of the main questions in electricity market deregulation is the aptitude of private capital for investments in power generation. This is especially important in Brazil, whose load has a strong growth trend ({approx}6% per year). Thermopower is an attractive alternative for expanding generation, as it is complementary in many aspects to hydropower, which supplies most Brazil's power at a very low price most of the time, but makes the system vulnerable to seasonal water variations. This paper studies the competitiveness of thermopower generation in Brazil under current regulations; assesses under the real options theory approach the conditions for investments in thermopower generation, and finally presents and discusses a hydropower generation schedule model. (Author)

  16. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project

  17. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  18. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  19. The victory against Greenpeace-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The author writes down an interview with the President of the Brazilian association for nuclear energy (ABEN). ABEN has actively participated to the rebirth of nuclear energy in Brazil. During the beginning of the nineties Brazil underwent several anti-nuclear campaigns led by Greenpeace-Brazil, these campaigns found a favorable echo among the public because of the radiation accident of Goiania (1987) when a Cesium-137 source found in a dump site irradiated several families, killing 4 people, and of the technical difficulties that appeared during the first operating months of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant. The public controversy was so strong that it was in the air to stop the building work on the Angra-2 site. A counter campaign showing the dark sides of the Greenpeace organisation, opened the eyes to Brazilian politicians and now nuclear energy is re-established in the public esteem. (A.C.)

  20. Sources of Brazil's Counter-Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been two key initiatives taken in the last two decades in Brazil to create a counter-hegemonic project for the country. One initiative resulted from Brazil's business community and high-level State bureaucracy and aimed at forming a regional economic and political bloc that would guarantee and enlarge a relative independence from the hegemonic powers. The other resulted from the emergence of the new unionist movement in São Paulo and from the formation of Partido dos Trabalhadores and aimed at promoting radical democratization and reducing social exclusion. Both initiatives have created policies and changes that have converged to enhance Brazil's counter-hegemonic position as a regional and emerging power.

  1. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  2. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    CERN Document Server

    Segawa, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  3. Brazil's mineral development: potential and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, B; Wheeler, E

    1977-03-01

    Brazil's vast mineral wealth still lies in the ground largely unexploited. Lack of adequate communications and the past political instability of the country has greatly hampered mineral exploration, and risk capital for major schemes has only recently been forthcoming. In 1975, Brazil's oil imports alone cost US $3073 million, creating an unhealthy balance of payments deficit and causing the external national debt to reach US $22 billion by the end of that year--an increase of a further 25% in this debt took place during 1976. Substantial price rises in imported machinery followed that of oil, while the prices of Brazil's main exports, coffee, sugar and soya, have continued to fluctuate widely. As a result of the oil price rise Brazil has moved from a traditional trade balance to substantial deficit, although this has fallen from its 1974 peak of 4.6 billion, largely as a result of government policies. Brazil has untapped deposits of bauxite, tin, zinc, iron ore, nickel, as well as oil, and is firmly set on the path that will make her one of the world's major sources of raw materials by the year 2000. The government has made the exploitation of natural resources, particularly the previously neglected oil and gas sectors, one of the cornerstones of its economic strategy. Yet in 1975 the mineral sector produced less than 2% of Brazil's GNP, although it did contribute 11% of exports. Apart from iron oreand manganese, mineral production is small and the country is still a net importer of copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead. Without a substantial increase in exports the government's whole economic/social and political strategy will be at risk.

  4. An overview of migratory birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Somenzari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the occurrences and distributional patterns of migratory species of birds in Brazil. A species was classified as migratory when at least part of its population performs cyclical, seasonal movements with high fidelity to its breeding grounds. Of the 1,919 species of birds recorded in Brazil, 198 (10.3% are migratory. Of these, 127 (64% were classified as Migratory and 71 (36% as Partially Migratory. A few species (83; 4.3% were classified as Vagrant and eight (0,4% species could not be defined due to limited information available, or due to conflicting data.

  5. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Brasileiro, Conferencia Mundial de Energia . Recursos Fnergeticos do Brasil . Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Maio, 1970. Carvalho Filho, Milton X. As Con ferencios...Geopolhti~os en ef At,,1,nrco Sur (No other references ) Baker, P. Warren. "Next: A Resource War?" Soýa Powver, p 55, October 1980. Banco do Brasil ...Brazil, The Nevv Power Brasil . (No date Barbola, Luiz. "Itamnaraty may faz objecat." Jornal de BrasO Ric) de’ Janeiro, Bircizil. (No other ref-rence

  6. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  7. Fast reactor research activities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1998-01-01

    Fast reactor activities in Brazil have the objective of establishing a consistent knowledge basis which can serve as a support for a future transitions to the activities more directly related to design, construction and operation of an experimental fast reactor, although its materialization is still far from being decided. Due to the present economic difficulties and uncertainties, the program is modest and all efforts have been directed towards its consolidation, based on the understanding that this class of reactors will play an important role in the future and Brazil needs to be minimally prepared. The text describes the present status of those activities, emphasizing the main progress made in 1996. (author)

  8. Nutrition surveys in Burma and northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, George E

    2005-05-01

    Participation of the author in the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense sponsored nutrition surveys of Burma and northeast Brazil is described. These surveys not only collected important data on nutritional status but also guided the subsequent research interests of the author. The Brazil survey results contributed to the creation of legislation that mandated the addition of water-dispersible vitamin A to skimmed-milk powder products. This additive has greatly diminished the likelihood of vitamin A deficiency syndrome occurring in children after famine relief efforts.

  9. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  10. Will Brazil's cars go on the wagon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homewood, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel for cars in Brazil, may shortly be reduced. Falling world oil prices have meant that ethanol, derived from sugar cane, following a fourteen year research program, has ceased to be a financially viable replacement for petrol. Although about a third of Brazil's cars are at present powered by ethanol, only substantial government subsidies could reinstate this fuel despite its reduced pollutant status. Government officials now predict that ethanol will become merely a petrol additive and production of ethanol cars will have stopped by the year 2000. (UK)

  11. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  12. Communications received from Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The document reproduces the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy signed by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil on 30 November 1985, the Protocol on Nuclear Co-operation between Argentina and Brazil signed on 10 December 1986, the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy signed by the two Presidents on 10 December 1986, the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy signed by the two Presidents on 17 July 1987 and the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy (IPERO Declaration) signed by the two Presidents on 8 April 1988

  13. Brazil's Higher Education Responses to the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Thinking Brazil. No. 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Thinking Brazil" is an electronic publication of the Brazil Institute. This issue of "Thinking Brazil" highlights the research of Elizabeth Balbachevsky. On July 24, 2006, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Woodrow Wilson Center Public Policy Scholar and Associate Professor of Political Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, presented her research on the…

  14. Absconding and migratory behaviors of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in NE Brazil = Comportamentos de abandono e migração de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Magalhães Freitas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the annual movements of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the state of Ceará, Brazil, aiming to understand seasonal variations in their population. Arrival and absconding of Africanized honey bee (AHB colonies in the semiaridmunicipality of Canindé and the coastal humid city of Fortaleza (120 km apart were recorded weekly from January 1999 to December 2001, and the data compared to rainfall records in both areas. Results showed that AHB colonies only nest in the semiarid during the rainy season and abscond during the dry season, the opposite from observations taken in Fortaleza. Only 5% of colonies remained in the semiarid area for the entire year due to ant (Camponotus sp. attacks and shortage of nectar and water during the dry season, with most colonies migrating to coastal areas where the weather is milder and many plant species bloom at that time of year. Excessive rainfallprobably pushes AHB colonies back to the semiarid during the rainy season. We concluded that absconding and migration are strategies that allow AHB colonies to survive in the semiarid NE of Brazil, contrary to European honeybees, which have never succeeded in establishing wild colonies in the region.Os movimentos de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram investigados com o objetivo de compreender variações anuais em sua população. A chegada e a partida de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (AHB,no município semi-árido de Canindé e na úmida cidade litorânea de Fortaleza (separadas por 120 km, foram monitoradas semanalmente, de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2001, e comparados com os dados pluviométricos de chuvas em ambas as áreas. Os resultadosdemonstraram que as abelhas africanizadas somente nidificaram no semi-árido durante a estação chuvosa e o abandonaram na estação seca, ao contrário do observado em Fortaleza. Apenas 5% das col

  15. Modelo agrometeorológico regional para estimativa da severidade da mancha de Phaeosphaeria em milho safrinha no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Regional agrometeorological model to estimate Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on off-season maize crop in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco de Souza Rolim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O milho safrinha, cultivado no outono-inverno, no Estado de São Paulo, tem apresentado com freqüência significativas reduções de produtividade devidas à mancha foliar de Phaeosphaeria. Como estratégia para minimizar esses danos, os modelos agrometeorológicos de previsão de doenças podem auxiliar no planejamento e na tomada de decisões para o controle da doença na cultura. Dessa forma, este trabalho tem como objetivo o desenvolvimento e teste de modelos agrometeorológicos para previsão da porcentagem da área foliar afetada pela doença (%AFA em função do acúmulo diário de temperatura média e de chuva, em escala regional. Para tanto, foram utilizadas informações sobre a severidade da mancha de Phaeosphaeria em 158 cultivares de milho com diferentes níveis de resistência, durante a safrinha, em 14 diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo. Modelos foram desenvolvidos para cultivares suscetíveis, moderadamente resistentes e resistentes e os resultados indicaram haver boa performance na estimativa da %AFA, com altos valores de coeficiente de determinação (0,92; 0,81 e 0,83 respectivamente e índice de concordância de Willmott (0,98; 0,87; 0,94 respectivamente, além de teste F significativo a 1% de probabilidade para todos os casos. Os resultados também permitiram sugerir que a chuva e a temperatura são os fatores preponderantes para a ocorrência da mancha de Phaeosphaeria no Estado de São Paulo. Esses modelos têm a vantagem de utilizar variáveis usualmente obtidas em estações meteorológicas e poderão ser empregados em sistemas de alerta fitossanitários para monitoramento da doença no Estado.The off-season maize crop (named as "Safrinha" has been frequently suffering significant yield losses due to Phaeosphaeria leaf spot in state of São Paulo, Brazil. As a strategy for minimizing these losses, agrometeorological disease forecasting models can help in the planning and decision-making for disease control

  16. Brachiaria spp. poisoning in cattle in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Roosevelt I.C.; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Brum, Karine B.; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Lemos, Ricardo A. Amaral de

    2010-01-01

    Mediante a revisão dos arquivos das fichas de necropsia do Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, foram estudados a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico e a patologia de 29 surtos de intoxicação por Brachiaria spp., ocorridos em bovinos de corte, no Mato Grosso do Sul, de março de 1996 a novembro de 2009. Os surtos ocorreram em todas as épocas do ano, tanto na seca quanto na chuva. Em 24 dos 29 surtos o principal sinal clínico foi a fotossensibilização e em ci...

  17. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, com e sem suplementação de concentrado durante a época das chuvas Milk yield of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows supplemented or not with concentrate during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deresz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado na época das chuvas e início da seca, entre dezembro e junho, sobre a produção e composição do leite e ganho de peso de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu. Os tratamentos foram pastagem de capim-elefante sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. A área experimental de pastagem foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um, 22 por tratamento, com duas repetições de área. Foram usadas 12 vacas, sendo seis por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso. A pastagem foi manejada em pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação por piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,6± 0,3 e 12,5± 0,3kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário por vaca de 211 e 244g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to study the effect of concentrate supplementation of elephantgrass pasture during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season, on milk yield, milk composition and weight gain of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows. The treatments were: elephantgrass pasture with no concentrate supplementation (NC and with 2kg concentrate supplementation cow/day (WC. The experimental area was divided in 44 paddocks with 606m² each, corresponding to 22 paddocks per replication and six cows per treatment. The cows were alloted to the treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The pasture was managed in a rotational system with 30 days resting period and three days grazing per paddock. The stocking rate was 4.5 cows/ha. The pasture was fertilized with 200kg/ha/yr of N and K2O. The average fat corrected (4% milk yield was 11.6± 0.3 and 12.5± 0.3kg/cow/day and the average daily weight gain during the

  18. Cisternas para armazenamento de água de chuva e efeito na diarreia infantil: um estudo na área rural do semiárido de Minas Gerais Rainwater cisterns and its effect in children diarrhoea: a study in semi arid rural area at Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ventura da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou a prevalência de diarreia em crianças menores de 60 meses, segundo o tipo de abastecimento de água utilizado. Foi conduzido estudo epidemiológico, seguindo o delineamento quase-experimental, com 664 crianças, sendo 332 moradoras de residência que têm cisterna e 332 que utilizam água de outra fonte. A variável dependente foi a ocorrência de diarreia nas últimas 72 horas; as outras informações foram obtidas por meio da aplicação de questionários estruturados. A prevalência total de diarreia foi de 5%, porém sem diferença significativa entre os grupos. As variáveis que explicaram a morbidade foram o grupo, a idade da criança, a ingestão de vitamina ou fortificante, e o local de descarte das fraldas sujas com fezes da criança. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos na avaliação da qualidade microbiológica da água, ou seja, o uso de água de chuva pode não ter proporcionado melhorias no acesso à água de melhor qualidade quando comparado com as outras fontes utilizadas. No entanto, há que se considerar falhas nos cuidados, no manuseio e no tratamento da água adotados. Destaca-se a necessidade de melhoria das práticas sanitárias da população do meio rural para que a higiene pessoal, domiciliar e em relação à água consumida sejam incorporadas como hábitos rotineiros.The present text evaluated the diarrhea prevalence in children under 60 months, according to water supply. An epidemic study was conducted with quasiexperimental design with 664 children, 332 who lived in residence that had cistern and 332 that use water from another source. Diarrhoea occurrence in the last 72 hours was the dependent variable, the others informations were obtained by structured questionnaires. Total diarrhoea prevalence was of 5%, however with no significant difference among the groups. The variables that explained the disease were child's age; if it was taking vitamin and where the dirty diapers with the

  19. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  20. "Almost invisible scars": medical tourism to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2011-01-01

    Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources,

  1. Instructional Technology in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettler, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A status report on the evolving conceptions of instructional technology and current applications in Brazil. A complementary purpose is to summarize those conditions which vitally influence the general characteristics of the Brazilian educational system and the nature of instructional technology in this major developing country of the world.…

  2. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  3. A nuclear power reactor concept for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, F.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an independent national nuclear technology and effective manner of transferring such a technology, as well as developing a modern reactor, a new nuclear power reactor concept is proposed which is considered as a suitable and viable project for Brazil to support its development and finally construct its prototype as an indigeneous venture. (Author) [pt

  4. Cost evolution of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Contreras, E.C.A.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of electric energy costs in Brazil is presented. Hydro, coal and nuclear costs are analysed and the final conclusion seems to indicate that nuclear power plants are not economically interesting untill the Brazilian electric capacity attains 110 GW average power. (Author) [pt

  5. Learning communities and overcoming poverty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Pitanga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Object: Brazil has implemented social programs to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and inequality. Despite the good results still there are ghettos and educational and social inequalities. Moreover Learning Communities are responding to these needs by promoting education based on successful actions scientifically proven of which promote educational change and social inclusion. The aim of this article is to highlight the characteristics of Learning Communities that allow overcoming poverty, and in this perspective, explain the implementation of the Learning Communities in Brazil and how, in this way, it is creating the conditions for effective overcoming give poverty and inequality in this country.Design / methodology: This article is based on documentary analysis of reports of the INCLUD-ED - the project on school education more scientific resources has been funded by the European Union, United Nations / ECLAC, Brazilian public agencies and websites of official institutions that promote Learning Communities in Brazil. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics are also collected.Contributions and results: It highlights successful actions that contribute to overcoming poverty and social exclusion. Such actions are based on dialogic learning, democratic management and the formation of heterogeneous groups. It is observed that in Brazil are carrying out such actions and the ongoing expansion of the project in the country is creating the conditions for effective poverty reduction.Added value: This article reveals specific elements of overcoming poverty through education.

  6. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Communications received from Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document reproduces the Joint Statement on Nuclear Policy signed by the President of Argentina and the President of Brazil on 29 November 1988 at Ezeiza, Argentina, concerning the decision of the two countries to undertake a joint fast breeder reactor project

  8. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Rn; Souto, Wedson Ms

    2011-07-18

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology--reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  9. Environmental sustainability of biodiesel in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes Castanheira, Érica; Grisoli, Renata; Freire, Fausto; Pecora, Vanessa; Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production in Brazil has grown from 736 m 3 in 2007 to 2.7 Mm 3 in 2012. It is an emergent bioenergy for which it is important to guarantee environmental sustainability. The objective of this article is to characterise the biodiesel production chain in Brazil, to identify potential environmental impacts and to analyse key drivers and barriers for biodiesel environmental sustainability. This article explores these aspects and focusses on the increasing demand for the main feedstocks for biodiesel production in Brazil: soybean oil and beef tallow. The impacts of land use and land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and water, as well as the energy balance, were found to be critical for the environmental sustainability assessment and development of biodiesel chains. Increasing agriculture yields, diversifying feedstocks and adopting ethyl transesterification can contribute to minimise environmental impacts. It was also found that environmental impacts could be mitigated by appropriate policies aiming at an integrated optimisation of food and bioenergy production and through agro-economic–ecological zoning, allowing adequate use of land for each purpose. Despite the limitation and weakness of some sustainability tools and initiatives, certification and zoning can play an important role in the sustainability of the emerging biodiesel production in Brazil

  10. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  11. Distribution of nuclear medicine service in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Carolina Costa da; Duarte, Alessandro; Santos, Bianca Maciel dos

    2011-01-01

    The Brazil does not posses a good distribution of nuclear medicine service por all his territory. This paper shows the difference among country regions as far the number of clinics of nuclear medicine as is concerning, and also doctors licensed in the area and radioprotection supervisors, both licensed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

  12. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  13. Perspectives for the uranium enrichment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, J.G.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Through an analysis of the electrical energy future in Brazil, the needs for enriched uranium are discussed, and therefore the importance of developing local capability for self-production. A description of the production processes that are well established is given first, then the analysis itself is performed and finally a visualization of the International Market for enriched uranium is shown. (author)

  14. Coccidioides posadasii infection in bats, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

  15. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

  16. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  18. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

      The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper appl...

  19. Rural Brazil at the cross-roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.

    1951-01-01

    The study attempts to detect and discuss the most urgently needed changes, as to resource distribution, production methods and supporting services in Brazilian agriculture. For that, it was necessary to describe and evaluate the existing situation in rural Brazil, a task taken up in the first part

  20. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G Schatzmayr

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and SouthAmerican countries and in the Caribbean region, due to the weaning of the vector control programs in these countries. High demographic densities and poor housing conditions in large urban communities, made the ideal conditions for vector spreading. All four dengue types are circulating in the continent and there is a high risk of the introduction in the country of the other two dengue types in Brazil, with the development of large epidemics. After the Cuban episode in 1981, when by the first time a large epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome have been described in the Americas, both clinical presentations are observed, specially in the countries like Brazil, with circulation of more than one dengue virus type. A tetravalent potent vaccine seems to be the only possible way to control the disease in the future, besides rapid clinical and laboratory diagnosis, in order to offer supportive treatment to the more severe clinical infections.

  2. Brazil's energy industry in a crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangmeister, H.

    1988-01-01

    In volume 8/1986 of this periodical, Brazil's moving away from the program for the building and expansion of a national nuclear power industry had been reported on back of foreign currencies and urgently necessary saving measures of the public means influence not only the construction of nuclear power plants, they also decay instruments in other areas of energy industry. In the area of electric power, some nationalisations have already taken place and in petroleum supply, the need for imports is increasing again. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that some of the energy-political solutions which Brazil had chosen as answers to the petroleum price shocks of 1973/74 and 1979/80 are likely to lead to some considerable problems in the near future. In the middle of these crises in which Brazil's energy industry has been for some time now, there is nonetheless one spectacular event. Brazil's President, Mr. Jose Sarney, announced the command of the nuclear cycle by means of national technology. (orig.) [de

  3. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  4. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  5. Brazil joins IPPOG as a member

    CERN Multimedia

    'marcelloni, claudia

    2018-01-01

    ignacio de Bediaga Hickman from the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE) has signed the IPPOG MoU on behalf of Brazilian Particle physics outreach community. Marcelo Munhoz from University of Sao Paulo will be the official representative of Brazil in IPPOG

  6. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  7. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  8. Bolivia's gas heads for Brazil as Argentina waits - and watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.

    1998-01-01

    The first 1,800 km stretch of a 3,400 km natural gas pipeline from Bolivia to Brazil will start operating in December. First planned 50 years ago, the pipeline has long been expected to result in an immediate surge of gas use in Brazil. However, impending deep recession in Brazil makes this prospect less likely despite the power shortages which indicate the need for considerable gas imports. Initially, most Bolivian gas will flow through Brazil to Argentina. But gas production is expanding rapidly in Argentina and the supply contract with Bolivia ends in 1999. Plans are well advanced to build two gas lines into the south of the Brazil from Argentina. Ultimately, it is anticipated that Argentina, which has abundant reserves and a virtually saturated domestic market, will become the principal source of natural gas for Brazil. (UK)

  9. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  10. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  11. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  12. Shared Value Creation and Crowdfunding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel José dos Santos Felipe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Approaching the theory of creating shared value (Porter & Kramer, 2011 with the basic social elements of crowdfunding in Brazil. The idea was to explore the complementarity of the concepts governing the CF in line with the theory of Porter and Kramer. Through literature review and empirical discussion is intended to answer two central questions regarding the theme developed in this essay: i which elements of the theory of creating shared value are found in crowdfunding? ii how occurs the creation of shared value in business developed in crowdfunding platforms?Methodology. Theoretical Essay.Findings.  It is possible to make a theoretical approach of the themes studied in this trial, as we take the social and financial perspective of crowdfunding and their relationships with the creation of value for the company and investors.Originality. So far, was not found another study that addressed the themes of this essay in Brazil.

  13. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  14. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  15. [Emergency contraception in Brazil: facilitators and barriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, E; Duarte, G A; Osis, M J; Arce, X E; Possan, M

    2001-01-01

    A multi-centered qualitative study was conducted in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to assess the acceptability of emergency contraception both among potential users and possible providers, authorities, and opinion-makers, and to identify (according to participants' perceptions) factors facilitating or hindering the method's use and the most appropriate strategies to disseminate information and provide the method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, group interviews, and discussion groups, which were tape-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis of this material was conducted. Acceptability of emergency contraception was high among participants, who also felt that there were no barriers towards its acceptance by the population. Participants felt that the method's acceptability would be greater if it were included in reproductive health programs, emphasizing its prescription for emergency situations. Participants highlighted that strategic components in Brazil would be training of providers and inclusion of the method in family planning services.

  16. Policy Dilemmas in Brazil-Africa Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-22

    Ronaldo -ar..nberg, " otas sob-r ias relaiIones Norte-Sur y El Informe Brandt," Estudios in-ernacicna-es, No. 54 (Arii4-June 󈨦 ), .r. 166b-210. Joao Luis...34Brazil’s Arms find Willing Buyers in the Third World," New York Times (August ?, 1?81), p. E-3; "Armas: Brasil invade o mercado mundial," Senhor (February

  17. The politics of power in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the present position concerning Brazil's nuclear energy programme it is shown that it is suffering not only from lack of funds but also from dissent at all levels. The history of the nuclear power plan for the country is outlined reflecting the government's total lack of esteem for its own scientists, its involvement with the United States and later with West Germany and the present position where the programme is years behind schedule and in a state of general disarray. (UK)

  18. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.; Menegassi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author) [pt

  19. Organization of the individual monitoring in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.

    1991-01-01

    There are about 35,000 workers monitored in Brazil. Most of them are employed onhealth and non-nuclear industrial areas. The external individual monitoring is done by 10 laboratories accredited by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, applying specific regulation. The personal date and doses of the monitored workers are stored in a data bank. In this paper, future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  1. Spatial distribution of gender inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Pinheiro Sales Lima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to analyze how gender inequality is distributed all over the Brazil. To that end, it has been built the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Index (MGII, a synthetic index. The main findings underlined that inequality between men and women manifests itself at different degrees in the federal units, but it is determined by a variety of common factors. The asymmetries are observed, mainly, in the political, labor and income dimensions.

  2. Control of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques de; Menezes, Sergio Ferreira; Alves Filho, Aristeu Dacio; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The radiological accident occurred in Goiania, in 1987, brought to light several deficiencies in the conduction of the licensing processes of medical, industrial and research facilities that handle radioisotopes as well as int he control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The objective of this article is to describe some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country, thus reducing the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  3. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  4. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  5. The control of radioactive sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.V.; Menezes, C.F.; Alves Filho, A.D.; Xavier, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 brought to light several deficiencies in the licensing of medical, industrial and research facilities, which handle radioisotopes, as well as in the control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The article describes some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country and thereby reduce the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  6. Entrepreneurship in Brazil, China, and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Djankov; Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

    2006-01-01

    We study the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur in Russia, China, and Brazil, using unique survey data at the individual level. We find that entrepreneurs have many common characteristics relative to non-entrepreneurs in all three countries. They are more likely to have entrepreneurs among their relatives and friends, place a higher value on work, are happier and perceive themselves as more successful. There are also a few important differences. Russian and Chinese entrepr...

  7. Stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Luciana; Meurer, Roberto; Da Silva, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil, and find that the inflows of foreign investment boosted the returns from 1995 to 2005. There was a strong contemporaneous correlation, although not Granger-causality. Foreign investment along with the exchange rate, the influence of the world stock markets, and country risk can explain 73 percent of the changes that occurred in the stock returns over the period. We also find that positive feedback trading play...

  8. Biological Control in Brazil: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Parra,José Roberto Postali

    2014-01-01

    The use of Biological Control methods is on the increase, mainly as a result of the mobilization of human resources in entomology studies since the establishment of graduate programs in this country in the 1960s. This review approaches the retrospective of Biological Control in Brazil in recent decades, with an emphasis on the "culture of applying agrochemicals" adopted by Brazilian growers, which constrains progress in this area. Successful cases of Biological Control have been reported on i...

  9. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue sampl...

  10. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  11. Comportamentos de abandono e migração de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.882 Absconding and migratory behaviors of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in NE Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Maciel Souza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os movimentos de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram investigados com o objetivo de compreender variações anuais em sua população. A chegada e a partida de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (AHB, no município semi-árido de Canindé e na úmida cidade litorânea de Fortaleza (separadas por 120 km, foram monitoradas semanalmente, de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2001, e comparados com os dados pluviométricos de chuvas em ambas as áreas. Os resultados demonstraram que as abelhas africanizadas somente nidificaram no semi-árido durante a estação chuvosa e o abandonaram na estação seca, ao contrário do observado em Fortaleza. Apenas 5% das colônias permaneceram na área semi-árida por todo o ano, por causa dos ataques de formigas (Camponotus sp. e carência de néctar e água na estação seca. A maioria das colônias migrou para as áreas litorâneas onde o clima é mais ameno e muitas espécies vegetais florescem nesta época do ano. O excesso de chuvas provavelmente forçava as colônias africanizadas a migrarem de volta ao semi-árido durante a estação chuvosa. Conclui-se que o abandono e a migração são estratégias que permitem às abelhas africanizadas sobreviverem no semi-árido nordestino, em contraste com as raças européias que nunca conseguiram estabelecer populações silvestres na região.We investigated the annual movements of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis melliferaL. colonies in the state of Ceará, Brazil, aiming to understand seasonal variations in their population. Arrival and absconding of Africanized honey bee (AHB colonies in the semiarid municipality of Canindé and the coastal humid city of Fortaleza (120 km apart were recorded weekly from January 1999 to December 2001, and the data compared to rainfall records in both areas. Results showed that AHB colonies only nest in the semiarid during the rainy season and abscond during the

  12. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  13. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  14. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Biomechanical comments about Triassic dinosaurs from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Delcourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triassic dinosaurs of Brazil are found in Santa Maria and Caturrita formations, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. There are three species known from the Santa Maria Formation (Staurikosaurus pricei, Saturnalia tupiniquim and Pampadromaeus barberenai, and two from Caturrita Formation (Guaibasaurus candelariensis and Unaysaurus tolentinoi. These dinosaur materials are, for the most part, well preserved and allow for descriptions of musculature and biomechanical studies. The lateral rotation of the Saturnalia femur is corroborated through calculations of muscle moment arms. The enhanced supracetabular crest of Saturnalia, Guaibasaurus, Staurikosaurus, Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, Efraasia minor and Chormogisaurus novasi suggests that basal dinosaurs may have maintained an inclination of the trunk at least 20º on the horizontal axis. The pectoral girdle articulation of basal sauropodomorphs (Saturnalia and Unaysaurus was established using a new method, the Clavicular Ring, and the scapular blade remains near 60º on the horizontal axis. This is a plesiomorphic condition among sauropodomorphs and is also seen in the articulated plateosauridae Seitaad ruessi. The Brazilian basal dinosaurs were lightweight with a body mass estimated around 18.5 kg for Staurikosaurus, 6.5 kg for Saturnalia, and 17 kg for Guaibasaurus. Pampadromaeus probably weighed 2.5 kg, but measures of its femur are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The Triassic dinosaurs from Brazil were diversified but shared some functional aspects that were important in an evolutionary context.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGIC OVERVIEW OF AIDS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah Rachel Graciano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of AIDS in Brazil among the years 2000 and 2014 and the mortality rate from 2000 to 2013, correlating the rates for male and female and age. Methods: analytical ecological study with temporal bias of design. The data sources used were SIH, SIM and IBGE. The quantified variables refer to the gender and age of the general population. The selected groups were aged between 0 and 100 years of age. Results: The study showed that between 2000 and 2014 there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of AIDS in Brazil. Regarding the findings by gender, the highest overall prevalence rate corresponded to the year 2001 with a rate of 0.027% (95% CI: 0.027% - 0.028%, while the lowest rate was for the year 2014 with the corresponding rate of 0.010% (95% CI: 0.010% - 0.010%. Regarding the number of cases relating to age, there was a significant reduction in the absolute number of cases among the 2005 and 2006 and subsequent increase between 2006 and 2007. Conclusion: It was concluded that the AIDS epidemiological patterns in Brazil over the the last 15 years was favorable, with significant decrease from 2000 to 2014 while mortality rates not having be changed during the period analyzed.

  17. Contentious Politics and Participatory Democracy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wampler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2014v13n28p199 Contentious politics helps individuals and groups with limited political voice to place their ideas and interests on the political agenda. Contentious politics were long thought to occur when politically marginalized group had no other means to advance their political agenda. The June 2013 social mobilization in Brazil caught most political observers by surprise, especially given the creation of a large, wide-spread participatory architecture (national conferences, councils, participatory budgeting. The innovative institutions emerging in Brazil created a policy environment in which millions of citizens have regular access to state policymaking bodies. How does the institutionalization of a broader network of participatory institutions make it easier for citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways does this institutionalization make it more difficult for some citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways has the vast network of participatory institutions been largely irrelevant to how citizens use contentious politics? This article explore how the institutionalization of an extensive participatory democracy system in Brazil alters the incentive structures that encourage citizens to engage in contentious collective action.

  18. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  19. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  20. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    Full Text Available Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region. This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  1. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  2. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britaldo Soares-Filho

    Full Text Available Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES. The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  3. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  4. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  5. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2004-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  6. Institutional framework changes in Brazil's energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Almeida, E.; Queiroz Pinto JR, H.

    2009-01-01

    The liberalization of the Brazilian energy sector in the 1990's was meant to drastically reduce the role of the State in the sector. This reform has not had the desired results. Private investment could not guarantee the expansion of the Brazilian energy sector at the necessary speed. The first half of this decade has been marked by problems of electricity supply and a rather timid role of private investment in boosting energy supply. During the second half of the decade, liberal reform of the energy sector in Brazil has gone through major adjustments, marked by the search for a new compromise between the role of the State and the private sector. This paper highlights the institutional evolution of Brazil's energy or industries and tries to show how risk for public and private investment has been reduced by the adoption of new institutional and economic mechanisms of coordination. In the current institutional framework, the State plays an important role in coordinating the investment process for the expansion of supply. The pace of investment in Brazil in the energy sector has accelerated significantly after the adoption of the new coordination mechanisms. (authors)

  7. Scientometrical review of Dinoflagellate studies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Martins Barbosa Noga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Scientific production in developing countries is currently increasing, but there is still an unbalanced distribution of scientific production between developed and developing countries. With the need to elucidate disparities in scientific production, this paper aims to review publications on dinoflagellates in Brazil by discussing spatial and temporal trends. A search for papers referring to dinoflagellates was performed in the Scopus database up to the year of 2016. A total of 125 papers were found, but only 106 were selected according to established criteria. A linear regression was used to evaluate the increasing temporal trend in production and non-parametric ANOVA for comparisons among study categories. Dinoflagellate and toxic taxa-based publications have increased from 1990 to 2016 for Brazil, yet a discrepancy in performance with other countries is evident. There is a constant increase in the number of functional ecology studies focusing on toxin-producing species related to blooms. The spatial distribution of production in Brazil revealed that the Southeast and South regions are the most productive, where there more graduate programs and advanced research centers. Investments in this ecological subject are fundamental to the management of biodiversity, and a call for more equal resource distribution in developing countries is imperative.

  8. Variability of extreme climate indices at Rio claro, São Paulo, Brazil Variabilidade dos índices de extremos climáticos em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear trends in climate extreme indices derived from precipitation and temperature data at the Rio Claro station, São Paulo-Brazil, are examined for the 40-year period 1966-2005 and the dataset is available at the Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas (IPMET of the State University of São Paulo (UNESP. The precipitation based climate indices did not show statistically significant trends. When correlated with the SST related indices in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the analysis shows some weak but positive influence of El Niño and the TNAI (Tropical North Atlantic Index over the rainfall behavior of the Rio Claro region. Overall, the temperatures are rising in the last 40 years with an indication of increasing the diurnal temperature range, especially in the recent past due to an increase in the maximum temperature.Foram examinadas tendências lineares nos índices de extremos climáticos derivados de dados de precipitação e temperatura para a estação meteorológica de Rio Claro, São Paulo - Brasil, para o período de 1966 - 2005, correspondente a 40 anos e os dados estão disponíveis no Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas (IPMET da Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP. Os índices climáticos baseados na precipitação não mostraram tendências com significância estatística. Quando correlacionados com os índices relacionados à TSM dos Oceanos Pacífico e Atlântico, as análises mostram influência fraca, mas positiva do El Niño e TNAI (Tropical North Atlantic Index sobre o comportamento das chuvas sobre a região de Rio Claro. De forma geral, as temperaturas estão aumentando nos últimos 40 anos com um sinal de aumento na amplitude térmica diária, especialmente nos últimos anos devido ao aumento das temperaturas máximas.

  9. Geração do deflúvio de uma microbacia com Mata Atlântica, Cunha, SP. Runoff generation in a small catchment with Atlantic Rainforest, Cunha, SP, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício RANZINI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como escopo estudar a resposta do deflúvio a eventos deprecipitação de uma microbacia experimental (37,5 ha com Mata Atlântica, localizadano Laboratório de Hidrologia Florestal Walter Emmerich, no Parque Estadual da Serrado Mar – Núcleo Cunha, SP. O escoamento direto foi de 8,3% da precipitação anual.A resposta do deflúvio à precipitação mostrou uma variabilidade de hidrogramas,que dependeu da magnitude da precipitação e das condições de umidade antecedente do solo.De um modo geral, os hidrogramas tenderam grosseiramente a reproduzir a precipitação(hietograma. Foram identificados dois grupos de hidrogramas de acordo com a relação entre aprecipitação e o pico de vazão. No primeiro, a contribuição do escoamento de base foi pequena,com o escoamento direto dominando o hidrograma e a área variável de afluência (A.V.A..No segundo grupo, um acréscimo na precipitação produziu um aumento no pico de vazãomesmo durante as chuvas mais intensas, sugerindo que a A.V.A. ocupou uma menor parte damicrobacia, próxima ao curso d’água. Esses resultados indicaram que a umidade antecedentedo solo foi importante para a resposta do deflúvio à precipitação.This paper studied the response of runoff to rainstorm events of a smallexperimental catchment (37.5 ha with Atlantic Rainforest. The Forest HydrologicalLaboratory, at Cunha, is located in the Serra do Mar State Park, SE Brazil. The total volume ofstormflow is 8.3% of annual rainfall. The response of runoff to rainfall showed a variability ofthe hydrographs, which depended on intensity of the precipitation and soil humidity conditionsbefore the flood. In general, the hydrographs tended to roughly reproduce the shape of therainstorm. It was identified two groups of hydrographs, separated according to the quotientbetween rainfall and peak flow. At first, the contribution of base flow was low, with the directrunoff hydrograph dominating and the variable source

  10. Variabilidade temporal da precipitação mensal e anual na estação climatológica de Uberaba-MG Temporal variability of monthly rains in the climatological station of Uberaba-MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Waldemar da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise da variabilidade espacial e da variabilidade temporal de atributos naturais vem recebendo destaque nos últimos tempos, devido à possibilidade de se realizar estimativas com maior precisão, destacando-se entre esses atributos a precipitação pluviométrica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o comportamento temporal das chuvas mensais na Estação Climatológica de Uberaba - MG, utilizando-se a série das precipitações pluviais mensais e anuais de 1914 a 2000. Os dados referentes à Estação Climatológica de Uberaba - Estação Experimental Getúlio Vargas - foram obtidos no Laboratório de Climatologia e Recursos Hídricos do Instituto de Geografia - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Realizou-se análise exploratória dos dados por meio de algumas estatísticas, como média aritmética, desvio-padrão, valores máximos e valores mínimos e histogramas. A análise de variabilidade temporal foi feita por meio de semivariâncias. Verificou-se uma tendência à normalidade nos meses correspondentes ao período de outubro a março e assimetria no período de abril a setembro. Observou-se a presença do efeito pepita puro, não constatando-se dependência temporal e, conseqüentemente, estudos e inferências estatísticas podem ser realizados com base em métodos da estatística não espacial.The purpose of this work was to verify the temporal dependence of monthly rainfall in the climatological station of Uberaba-MG, Brazil, using geostatistical methods. It was evaluated the precipitation in series of rainfall monthly data from 1914 to 2000. It were done exploratory and geostatistical analysis. The exploratory analysis was made by calculating basic statistics and histograms and the geostatistical analysis was made by semivariogram. According to the results, a normality tendence was verified in months from october to march. From april to September, it was verified an asymmetric tendence. Semivaviograms showed the nugget

  11. Brazil - Governance in Brazil's Unified Health System : Raising the Quality of Public Spending and Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report on governance in Brazil's unified health system assesses resource allocation and management, planning and budgeting functions, and budget execution at different levels of government for public expenditures on health services. The emphasis is on understanding the incentives generated for service providers, and the overall soundness of the accountabilities established in the publ...

  12. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N

    1996-04-01

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  13. Condições termodinâmicas de eventos de precipitação extrema em Belém-PA durante a estação chuvosa Thermodynamic conditions of extreme rainfall events in Belém-PA, Brazil, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nardin Tavares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As condições termodinâmicas de uma região são muito importantes para o desenvolvimento da convecção úmida profunda, principalmente nas regiões tropicais. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de entender e caracterizar o papel das condições termodinâmicas da atmosfera durante os eventos de precipitações extremas na estação chuvosa, no período de 1987 a 2007, em Belém (PA. Os resultados mostram que as precipitações extremas, em sua maioria (56% apresentam um ambiente precursor com forte instabilidade, indicada pelos altos valores de CAPE (acima de 1000 J/kg e valores significativos dos índices de instabilidade. Houve, contudo, eventos com baixos valores de CAPE na sondagem das 1200 UTC do dia do evento, mas valores maiores na véspera, o que indica que a chuva em questão pode ter começado na madrugada e ter perdurado por várias horas, atravessando a hora da sondagem, explicando a queda deste parâmetro. Os índices de instabilidade K, TT e LI apresentaram uma boa representação do ambiente, prognosticando as tempestades com chuvas fortes com índice de acerto de até 74%, se levados em conta os eventos em que todos os índices apontavam os mesmos resultados e indicavam forte instabilidade. As condições termodinâmicas de forte instabilidade ajudam a promover, mas não são as únicas responsáveis pelas tempestades convectivas com precipitações extremas.The thermodynamic conditions from any region are very important to the development of the deep, moist convection, mainly in the tropical region. Therefore, the aim of this work was to understand and characterize the role of atmospheric thermodynamic conditions during extreme rainfall events in the rainy season, in Belém (PA, Brazil. The results show that the extreme rainfall, in their majority (56% present a pre-storm environment with strong instability, indicated by the CAPE high values (above 1000 J/kg and meaningful values of the instability indexes. There was

  14. Determinação de fatores da equação universal de perda de solo em Sumé, PB Determination of the factors of the universal soil loss equation in Sumé (Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel W. de Albuquerque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para se alcançar os objetivos previstos neste trabalho, determinaram-se os fatores da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS em condições de chuva natural, num Luvissolo de Sumé, PB, em que os dados relativos aos anos de 1983-1990 foram obtidos na Estação Experimental de Sumé, PB, pertencente à Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB, cujos tratamentos foram os seguintes: parcela descoberta e em alqueive contínuo, parcela com caatinga nativa, parcela com caatinga nova, parcelas em pousio, parcela com palma cultivada morro abaixo e parcela com palma cultivada em nível. Os valores médios anuais do fator erosividade da chuva expressos em EI30 e PI30 foram de 4.928 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 e 19.734 mm-2 h-1, respectivamente. Os valores do fator erodibilidade do solo (K foram calculados em 0,013 t h MJ-1 mm-1 e 0,003 t ha-1 mm-2, enquanto os valores determinados para o fator uso e manejo do solo foram os seguintes: 0,0015 (caatinga nativa, 0,0174 (caatinga nova, 0,0133 (cobertura morta, 0,0056 (cobertura morta, 0,5103 (palma cultivada morro abaixo e 0,2355 (palma cultivada em nível. O valor do fator práticas conservacionistas para palma cultivada em nível foi de 0,46The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors were determined in a Haplargs under natural rainfall conditions. Data concerning to the years of 1983 -1990 were obtained at the Sumé Experimental Station (Paraíba State - Brazil of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB. The treatments consisted of runoff plots with bare soil, native semiarid vegetation runoff plot, mulch runoff plot, palm leaf under downhill runoff plot and under contour palm leaf runoff plot. The annual average of the rainfall erosivity factors EI30 and PI30 were 4,928 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 19,734 mm-2 h-1, respectively. The calculated annual mean values of the erodibility parameters were calculated in 0.013 t h MJ-1 mm-1 and 0.003 t h ha-1 mm-2. The calculated values for the support practice factor cropping

  15. How Brazil turned one public health school into 40

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Brazil built its public health education system through the work of the renowned Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, which established courses across the whole country. The courses eventually became the core curriculum for small schools and now Brazil boasts 40 schools of public health. Foundation President Paulo Buss argues that there are ways that resource-poor countries can improve their public health education.

  16. Reflexions on the expansion of nuclear generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Juliana de Moraes Marreco de

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses the pros and cons of the nuclear generation in Brazil, involving in a large discussion the technological perspectives both economic, social and environmental. The objective is to rise the main questions about the polemical nuclear expansion in Brazil

  17. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Pititto B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4CPClin Clinical Research Center, 5Albert Einstein Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Brazil, epidemiology, management

  18. Advanced ceramics in Brazil: actual stage and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1986-11-01

    The development of advanced ceramics in Brazil, the perspectives of the world and Brazilian markets, the raw materials, the equipments for industry and research, the human resources, and the disposable technology, are presented. The researches on advanced ceramics in Brazil initiated in the sixty decade, with the nuclear fuel development and production projets. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. All projects related to Brazil | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite the region's progress in reducing poverty, 165 million people in Latin ... This project aims to study the impacts of reforms to increase participation rights in five Latin American countries at the local level. ... Region: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, India ... Brazil has witnessed an unprecedented rise of women to economic and ...

  20. Rural Sociology in Brazil: Institutional Growth (1965-1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David O.; And Others

    Growth and present status of graduate programs, major research interests, and potential for US-Brazilian collaboration indicate the present state of rural sociology in Brazil. In contrast to US rural sociology's identity crisis of the past decade, the field in Brazil has blossomed. Graduate programs are underway at universities of Rio Grande do…

  1. Dipylidium caninum (Cyclophyllidea, Dipylidiidae) in a wild carnivore from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L; Lima, Sueli de Souza; Neto, Antonio H A de Moraes; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C

    2012-01-01

    We report Dipylidium caninum for the first time in a wild carnivore in Brazil, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Presence of the cestode could be the consequence of anthropogenic expansion into natural habitats of this host, as this parasite has only previously been reported in domestic hosts in Brazil.

  2. Organic carbon stocks in the soils of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks to 1 m for Brazil, calculated using an updated Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database and simulation of phenoforms, are 65.9-67.5 Pg C, of which 65% is in the Amazonian region of Brazil. Other researchers have obtained similar gross results, despite very different spatial

  3. Proceedings of the 3. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is the final report of the III Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil. Many works were presented on the fields related to Nuclear Physics. It was organized some work groups which discussed the following topics: Perspectivas of Nuclear Physics in Brazil, Personnel Formation and Related Instrumentation. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  4. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  5. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Casiraghi, Maurizio; de Almeida, Izabela N.F.; de Almeida, Luciana N.F.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Sobrinho, Edmundo F. de Almeida; Bain, Odile

    2011-01-01

    A case of human intraocular dirofilariasis is reported from northern Brazil. The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same area. A zoonotic Dirofilaria species infesting wild mammals in Brazil and its implications are discussed. PMID:21529396

  6. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review | Kluczkovski | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential enables the development of various products. Among its nutrients, emphasis is given to the amino acid-rich proteins, lipid content and selenium, ...

  8. The Cassava Processing Industry in Brazil: Traditional Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the evolution of cassava-based industrial production, processing and marketing in Brazil, in light of the great technological diversification to be found in Brazil. It discusses the private role of the small- and medium-scale food and related processing enterprises in the food industry, as they employ ...

  9. ICTs for Microcredit Delivery : Correspondent Banking in Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although microfinance has proved a powerful tool in fighting poverty in developing countries, it has been slow to catch on in Latin America, particularly Brazil. On the other hand, correspondent banking enabled by information and communication technologies (ICTs) has allowed Brazil to reach low-income families in remote ...

  10. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Dourado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  11. Journalism as a profession in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ferraz Fernandez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalism as a profession in Brazil discusses the professional characteristics of Journalism in Brazil under the following aspects: 1 formal conditions of access, 2 conditions and effects of the monopoly on the journalistic activity 3 presence of a distinct culture and ethic, based on the notion of the journalist’s social responsibility and 4 characteristics of the real community of individuals who share the journalistic identity. Based on this scope, we can perceive the singularity of the Brazilian formal access conditions, albeit currently in transition. The university diploma for professional journalists, a recently eliminated mandatory requirement, created in the past a specific access condition and produced a field of specialized journalists with a university diploma. The journalists debate today about the end of their access card and a total lack of professional regulation. At the same time, there is a reduction of formal job positions, which are more concentrated with the large media groups, and worsening of working conditions and salaries. The emergence of other types of functions, due to new technological characteristics of the communication field, although potentially increasing professional possibilities, generate dilemmas regarding production and distribution of information. To these new challenges old ones have to be added, such as the need to ethically equate the work done by press offices, as these consist today the majority of job positions for journalists in the country. This work expands the discussion about these characteristics of the journalistic profession in Brazil based on quantitative and qualitative dada produced by the Comprehensive Analysis of Brazilian Communications and Telecommunications.

  12. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ierecê Ml; Alves, Rômulo Rn; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana Pr; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-12-08

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality.

  13. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Tacyana PR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income, and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch, and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of

  14. Uranium exploration in Brazil and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    The development of the works of prospecting and exploration of uranium in Brazil since 1952 is described in its principal phases: the descovery of the first uranium indications in Pocos de Caldas and Jacobina; the technical cooperation agreements with the United States Government in 1955; the action of CNEN, in 1962, through its Mineral Exploration Department; the increasing of financial resources in the 70's; the foundation of NUCLEBRAS in 1974 and (within the agreement with the FRG) of its subsidiary NUCLAM, in association with'Urangesellschaft'. The evolution of the investments and of the number of technicians involved in these different phases is shown. (I.C.R.) [pt

  15. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia

  16. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  17. History and policy of biodiesel in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pousa, Gabriella P.A.G.; Santos, Andre L.F.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, during petroleum shortage, vegetable oils and their derivatives have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum diesel fuel. Since 1930, different approaches have been proposed by Brazilian's universities and research institutes, including the use of neat vegetable oils (pure or in blends) or their derivatives, such as hydrocarbons obtained by thermal-catalytic cracking and fatty acids' methyl or ethyl esters (nowadays known as 'biodiesel') produced by alcoholysis. Recently, the external dependence on imported diesel fuel and the present petroleum crisis have increased the discussion in Brazil in the sense of starting to use alternatives to diesel fuel, biodiesel being the main alternative for a large petroleum diesel substitution program

  18. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

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    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  19. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  20. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  1. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

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    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  2. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.C.S. dos

    1980-01-01

    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author) [pt

  3. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  4. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  5. On high interest rates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lafaiete Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the question of why interest rates are so high in Brazil as compared to the international average. It looks at theoretical arguments based on excessive government deficits, structural lack of private savings, inflation bias, excessive investment demand and fear of floating. An informal look at the evidence does not strongly corroborate any of these arguments. Hence a wise central bank should consider "testing" the market to make sure it is not dealing with an extreme equilibrium configuration or a long standing disequilibrium.

  6. Jean-Baptiste Charcot and Brazil

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    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Baptiste Charcot, a neurologist from the famous Salpêtrière school and a renowned maritime explorer, visited Brazil twice. The first visit was in 1903, when the first French Antarctic expedition, traveling aboard the ship Français, made a very short stopover in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. The second took place in 1908, during the famous voyage of the Pourquoi Pas? to the Antarctic, when Charcot and his crew stayed in the city of Rio de Janeiro for eight days.

  7. Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe.

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    Ruth E Gilbert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America.We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same protocol in both continents.Three hundred and eleven (311 children had congenital toxoplasmosis: 30 in Brazil and 281 in Europe, where 71 were identified by neonatal screening. Median follow up was 4.1 years in Europe and 3.7 years in Brazil. Relatively more children had retinochoroiditis during the first year in Brazil than in Europe (15/30; 50% versus 29/281; 10% and the risk of lesions by 4 years of age was much higher: the hazard ratio for Brazil versus Europe was 5.36 (95%CI: 3.17, 9.08. Children in Brazil had larger lesions, which were more likely to be multiple and to affect the posterior pole (p<0.0001. In Brazil, visual impairment (<6/12 Snellen was predicted for most affected eyes (87%, 27/31, but not in Europe (29%; 20/69, p<0.0001. The size of newly detected lesions decreased with age (p = 0.0007.T. gondii causes more severe ocular disease in congenitally infected children in Brazil compared with Europe. The marked differences in the frequency, size and multiplicity of retinochoroidal lesions may be due to infection with more virulent genotypes of the parasite that predominate in Brazil but are rarely found in Europe.

  8. Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R; Petersen, Eskild

    2008-08-13

    Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America. We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same protocol in both continents. Three hundred and eleven (311) children had congenital toxoplasmosis: 30 in Brazil and 281 in Europe, where 71 were identified by neonatal screening. Median follow up was 4.1 years in Europe and 3.7 years in Brazil. Relatively more children had retinochoroiditis during the first year in Brazil than in Europe (15/30; 50% versus 29/281; 10%) and the risk of lesions by 4 years of age was much higher: the hazard ratio for Brazil versus Europe was 5.36 (95%CI: 3.17, 9.08). Children in Brazil had larger lesions, which were more likely to be multiple and to affect the posterior pole (p<0.0001). In Brazil, visual impairment (<6/12 Snellen) was predicted for most affected eyes (87%, 27/31), but not in Europe (29%; 20/69, p<0.0001). The size of newly detected lesions decreased with age (p = 0.0007). T. gondii causes more severe ocular disease in congenitally infected children in Brazil compared with Europe. The marked differences in the frequency, size and multiplicity of retinochoroidal lesions may be due to infection with more virulent genotypes of the parasite that predominate in Brazil but are rarely found in Europe.

  9. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF LOW FERTILITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Helena Cruz; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    An increasing number of developing countries are experiencing below replacement fertility rates. Although the factors associated with low fertility in developed countries have been widely explored in the literature, studies of low fertility in middle- and low-income countries continue to be rare. To help fill this gap, Brazil was used as a case study to assess whether human development, gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work are associated with the likelihood of married or cohabiting women to have a child. For this purpose, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated using the 1991, 2000 and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses. It was found that human development was negatively associated with fertility in the three periods analysed. Gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work were positively associated with the odds of having higher order births in Brazil in 2000 and 2010. In 1991, these variables were not associated with higher order births, and gender equality was negatively associated with first births. The positive association found in 2000 and 2010 may constitute a reversal of the relationship that in all likelihood prevailed earlier in the demographic transition when gender equality was most likely negatively correlated with fertility levels.

  10. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  11. Radiochemistry teaching and research activities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Much concern has been expressed lately about the decline of teaching and research activities in radiochemistry in many countries, as was discussed in an IAEA Technical Meeting in Antalya, Turkey, in 2002, and also at MTAA-11 in Guildford, UK. In the IAEA meeting, a survey was presented about the current situation in different regions of the world (Eastern Europe, East and West Asia, Africa, North America and Latin America) by experts of each region. In the case of Brazil, which has nuclear research reactors and also cyclotrons in operation, the teaching and research activities in radiochemistry are concentrated in the three main institutes of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, in the University of Sao Paulo and in other universities, in different regions of the country. In the present paper, a closer look is given to the radiochemistry teaching and research activities that are being conducted nowadays in Brazil, comprising: number of radiochemistry courses and students being formed, main research areas being conducted, as well as research and production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, using nuclear reactors and cyclotrons. (author)

  12. Satisfaction among accounting professors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Sousa Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of satisfaction among accounting professors in Brazil throughout their careers. The research is classified as descriptive and used a quantitative approach to data analysis. 641 valid responses were obtained from professors from all regions of Brazil. The results show that a feeling of satisfaction prevails among accounting course professors, as most of them “like the profession” and, in general, "are satisfied with it”. It was found that levels of satisfaction are higher among individuals with more experience, in that in their first years in the job (one to three years, professors have lower satisfaction rates; the highest levels of satisfaction are found in the final stage (over 35 years. The main factor that influences satisfaction is personal fulfillment (teaching work and relationship with students. It was also possible to identify that positive feelings about teaching predominate (67.3% compared to negative ones (32.7%. These results show the need for greater attention to be paid in the early years of the career in order to avoid a "reality clash". They also show the need for other studies to investigate how the phases in the life cycle of accounting professors are characterized.

  13. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  14. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school.

  15. Cropland expansion in Brazil, 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Pickens, A. H.; Okpa, C.; Aguilar, R.; John, N.; Chavez, S.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has become a global leader in the production of commodity row crops such as soybean, sugarcane, cotton, and corn. Here, we employ 30m spatial resolution Landsat data to estimate cropland extent in the year 2000 and its subsequent expansion through 2014. A probability-based sample of reference data allows us to report unbiased estimates of national, biome, and state-scale area of crop expansion with associated uncertainties. We find an increase in Brazilian cropland extent from 26.0 Mha in 2000 to 46.1 Mha in 2014. The cropland frontier states of Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, Bahia (MATOPIBA), Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Para all more than doubled in cropland extent. The states of Goias, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo experienced >50% increases. The vast majority of expansion, 79%, occurred on repurposed pasture lands, and 20% from the conversion of natural vegetation. Area of converted Cerrado savannas was nearly 2.5 times that of Amazon forests, and accounted for over half of new cropland in MATOPIBA. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cropland expansion are reflected in market conditions, land use policies, and other factors. Continued extensification of cropland is a viable option across Brazil with attendant benefits for and challenges to development.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN RODENTICIDES POISONING IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Costa Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the epidemiological profile of human poisoning by rodenticides in Brazil and Regions, in the period 2000 to 2008. This is a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data from the National System of Toxic- harmacological Information. Calculations were performed in the incidence rate and fatality rate. The North and Northeast regions had the highest mortality rates for the period. Children from 1 to 4 years had high incidence in all regions except in Northeast, where teenagers were most affected. The rodenticide poisoning was more incident in urban areas and among females, and had attempt suicide as predominant circumstance. Although most cases have evolved for healing, there was almost 40% unconfirmed healing in the South region and 57% of ignored evolution in Southeast. Deaths caused by ingestion of rodenticides were below 5%. The rodenticide poisoning has remained in Brazil with a major public health problem and, despite the differences in the country, the poisoning profile did not change significantly between different regions.

  17. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  18. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  19. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  20. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  1. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  2. Overview of flue gas treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.A.P.; Duarte, C.L.; Omi, N.M.; Poli, D.C.R.; Lima, W.

    2011-01-01

    The coal mines in Brazil are primarily located in southern part areas. The total coal reserves are approximately 32.8 billions tons, 89% of which are located in Rio Grande do Sul state. The Brazilian agriculture potentiality is very high, mainly due to the availability of flat land and the existence of industrial capacity to supply the main fertilizers needs. Electron beam flue gas treatment process ensures simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO X from flue gases by single process, requiring no additional wastewater treatment system and can produce useful nitrogen fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and ammonium nitrate NH 4 NO 3 as by-products. During the TC Project BRA/8/021 - Pilot Plant for Electron Beam Purification of Flue Gas supported by IAEA (1995-1996), a laboratory facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was set at IPEN. In 1997, an official request from Brazilian Government, Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) and IPEN was made for the Japan Consulting Institute (JCI) to prepare feasibility studies of air pollution control by electron beam flue gas treatment in three power generation companies. These companies are responsible for the power generation, the transmission and the supply of electricity to Brazil: Jorge Lacerda – Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A., Presidente Medici – Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Piratininga – AES Eletropaulo Thermal Power Plants. (author)

  3. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  4. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  5. Physicians’ circularity in health regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Seixas

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to characterize the medical circularity in Brazil and to discuss the case in the North and South Barretos regions, São Paulo. Methods: a cross-sectional study using secondary data from the national registrations and a case study of physician’s sample in the North-Barretos and South-Barretos regions. Results: in the health regions in Brazil, on an average, 45% of the physicians in activities circulate in more than one region. The Capitals of the States have more stable physicians while more than 50% of the medical workforce work in other regions. The professionals with the greatest tendency to move from one work place to another are those who work in surgical specialties in services to uphold the diagnostic and therapy. Conclusions: there is a high circulation of physicians among the regions, with distinct characteristics between geographical and health regions. In case of Barretos area, the professionals move from one workplace to another according to their professional association and specialized practice.

  6. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  7. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M dos A; de Araújo, E da M; Kuwakino, M H; Heins-Vaccari, E M; Del Negro, G M; Vozza Júnior, J A; Lacaz, C da S

    1997-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil) and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast) for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C showed growth of white and cottony aerial miceleium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution.

  8. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J [Biomass Users Network-Brazil Regional Office, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author`s knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author) 115 refs, figs, tabs

  9. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  10. Overview of flue gas treatment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, W. A.P.; Duarte, C. L.; Omi, N. M. [National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN), Radiation Technology Center - CTR, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poli, D. C.R.; Lima, W. [National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN), Cyclotron Accelerator Center - CAC, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The coal mines in Brazil are primarily located in southern part areas. The total coal reserves are approximately 32.8 billions tons, 89% of which are located in Rio Grande do Sul state. The Brazilian agriculture potentiality is very high, mainly due to the availability of flat land and the existence of industrial capacity to supply the main fertilizers needs. Electron beam flue gas treatment process ensures simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} from flue gases by single process, requiring no additional wastewater treatment system and can produce useful nitrogen fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ammonium nitrate NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} as by-products. During the TC Project BRA/8/021 - Pilot Plant for Electron Beam Purification of Flue Gas supported by IAEA (1995-1996), a laboratory facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was set at IPEN. In 1997, an official request from Brazilian Government, Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) and IPEN was made for the Japan Consulting Institute (JCI) to prepare feasibility studies of air pollution control by electron beam flue gas treatment in three power generation companies. These companies are responsible for the power generation, the transmission and the supply of electricity to Brazil: Jorge Lacerda – Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A., Presidente Medici – Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Piratininga – AES Eletropaulo Thermal Power Plants. (author)

  11. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, R.F.; Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of 238 U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  12. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennari, R.F., E-mail: rgennari@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Campos, S.S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA, (Brazil); Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O., E-mail: susanasouzalalic@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of {sup 238}U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  13. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  14. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS Marilena dos Anjos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25° C and 30° C showed growth of white and cottony aerial micelium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution

  15. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  18. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut sampl...

  19. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  20. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  1. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-29

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  2. Novelties in the genus Persicaria (Polygonaceae) in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funez, Luís A.; Hassemer, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents novelties in the genus Persicaria in Brazil. More specifically, we describe P. sylvestris, a new species from the Atlantic rainforest in subtropical Brazil, propose the new combination P. diospyrifolium and designate a lectotype for its basionym, Polygonum diospyrifolium. The new...... species has until now been identified as P. acuminata, from which it differs by morphological characters as well as ecological aspects. We also provide photographs of the new species and of similar species along with a distribution map and a key to the species of Persicaria in Brazil....

  3. Sectoral Innovation System Foresight in Brazil and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand; Park, Byeongwon

    involved in strategic innovation system (IS) transformation. This paper seeks to address the latter research gaps by exploring sector foresight in Brazil and South Korea (henceforth Korea). Though very different, both countries face challenges of IS transformation. In both countries sector level foresight...... in emerging economies as Brazil and Korea. Chapter two will outline the basic principles of ISF that will be translated into indicators for our measuring of ISF. Also, it will illustrate why the sector-level approach is necessary. Chapter three presents sector foresight cases from Brazil and Korea. Chapter...

  4. Contesting and Contextualising CITES: Wildlife Trafficking in Colombia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez Goyes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article raises the question of whether recently implemented legislation in Colombia and Brazil (1 provides the necessary tools to prevent the harms of wildlife trafficking (WLT and (2 influences humans’ practices concerning the use of nonhuman animals. These questions are investigated from the dual perspectives of green criminology and public policy. The analysis is based on a qualitative empirical study undertaken in Colombia and Brazil whereby we discuss the function of the legislation in Colombia and Brazil in preventing illegal WLT. We consider the legitimacy of different practices of WLT and evaluate them with respect to species justice and environmental justice.

  5. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino de Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará” in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  6. Brazil's uranium/thorium deposits: geology, reserves, potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, M.

    1979-01-01

    With its area of 8.5 million square kilometers (3.3 million square miles) Brazil is the world's fifth largest nation, occupying almost one half of the continent of South America. Its vastness and its wide variety of geological terrain suggest that parts of Brazil may be favorable for many kinds of uranium deposits. The nation's favorability for uranium is indicated by the high correspondence between discoveries and the amount of exploration done to date. For the first time, the uranium and thorium resources of Brazil and their geologic setting are described here in a single volume. 270 refs

  7. The new role of Brazil in energy geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, I.

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to its efficient petroleum framework, Brazil has just found some very large deep off-shore fields (pre-halite layers), which, if confirmed, will allow the country to become a major international oil producer. There will be significant repercussions on Brazil. On the one hand, the prospect of high economic rents encourages it to assign its hydrocarbon industry a more social and national calling; on the other hand, this huge potential offers Brazil a new geopolitical dimension. This article examines both these avenues. (author)

  8. Brazil: improved environmental policy in spite of the financial crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, Sjur; Naess, Lars Otto

    2002-01-01

    Globalization is often thought of as being associated with increasing environmental problems. In particular this is true in connection with dramatic financial crises. Experience from the financial crisis in Brazil in 1998 to 1999, however, shows a more varied picture in which parts of the environmental policy were indeed improved. The article also discusses how representative the example of Brazil might be for generalization and points out that the reaction of Brazil on the financial crisis was mitigated by that country being a strong democracy with robust institutions

  9. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be

  10. Environmental and Social Accounting for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, M.; Schaeffer, R.

    2004-01-01

    An environmentally extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) has been constructed for Brazil for the first time. We review in detail previous studies in this field, describe the construction, structure and data sources of the Brazilian SAM, and demonstrate the effect of system closure. Examining a range of type-I and type-II multipliers, we show that incomes generated by final consumption are highly skewed towards rich households, but energy requirements and carbon emissions are higher for the consumption of the poor. A significant negative correlation exists between employment and income on one hand, and energy requirements and carbon emissions on the other, while a significant positive correlation exists between imports, and energy and carbon. These correlations demonstrate that there is scope for policies that pursue imports substitution and reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions whilst increasing employment and income

  11. Status of fast reactor activities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Artur

    1996-01-01

    This text describes the present status of fast reactor activities in Brazil, emphasizing the strategies being used to preserve this reactor concept as a viable alternative for future electricity generation in the country. The program is mostly research-oriented and has the objective of establishing a consistent knowledge basis which can serve as a support for the transition to the activities more directly related to design, construction and operation of an experimental fast reactor. Due to the present economic difficulties, the program is still modest but it is gradually growing. A report which has been finalized in December, 1995 and submitted to the authorities indicates the existence of the grounds for enlarging and consolidating the program. (author)

  12. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  13. Tropical spastic paraparesis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. de Castro Costa

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten possible cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará are presented. They show the typical symptoms and signs of TSP consisting of weakness of the lower limbs, spastic gait, hiperreflexia, bladder dysfunction and variable signs of posterior columns impairment. The laboratory examinations excluded other compressive, infective, degenerative or demyelinating lesions of their spinal cord. Our patients age ranged from 21 to 59 years, all were of black origin and all were of lower social class. There was a slight preponderance of females. An etiological implication of a retrovirus (HTLV-I has been shown for TSP, but for lack of technical conditions we could not determine it in our patients, and that stands as our subsequent step in those and further cases.

  14. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  15. Inventing order catholic intellectuals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Pinheiro Filho

    Full Text Available The work investigates the social genesis and characteristics of the emergence of an intellectual experience directly linked to the propagation of Catholic doctrine, which took shape in Brazil between the 1920s and 1940s. The analysis centres on the activity of the Dom Vital Centre and the magazine A Ordem, entities which expressed the political and cultural militancy of Jackson de Figueiredo, the movement's main lay leader. The text then looks to comprehend the approximation of artists and literary figures who incorporated Catholicism as both the theme and form of their productions within modernist circles, basing its analysis of the trajectory of the triad formed by Ismael Nery, Jorge de Lima and Murilo Mendes, who succeeded in including their production in the period's most dynamic pole of artistic activity.

  16. Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2016-05-20

    Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae. In reality, the zoonotic potential of Eurytrema species is extremely low, and human eurytremiasis is not, and probably never will be, a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a common food habit.

  17. Brazil's Petrobras chops 1992 capital budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA has slashed its 1992 capital budget by more than half for lack of adequate cash flow. Petrobras Pres. Benedicto Moreira last week disclosed the cut, to $1.4 billion from $2.9 billion earmarked earlier, citing cash flow problems stemming from heavy subsidies for domestic products. Petrobras Association of Engineers (Aepet) disputes the latest amount, claiming without elaboration the state company actually is cutting the current budget to $1 billion. At either level, the severe budget cut bodes ill for Petrobras plans to boost domestic production by a net 300,000 b/d to 1 million b/d by 1995, an ambitious program that calls for outlays of $18 billion

  18. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  19. Renewable energy sources: the case of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J

    1979-04-01

    Industrial nations have based their economic and social development on the use of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas). This trend is being followed by many developing countries, which have neither the natural resources nor the manpower to adopt this path. As a result, one finds in many of these countries islands of prosperity (based on consumption patterns copied from industrial nations surrounded by a sea of poverty. The problems resulting from this dual social structure are obvious in many parts of the world. It is argued here that renewable energy sources are a natural basis for the development of the poorer countries and that intelligent use of hydropower, biomass, and direct solar energy can shortut many of the problems faced today by industrial nations. The case of Brazil is analyzed as one of the countries in which these solutions are being tried. 5 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Cultural Diversity: "Reports from Brazil and Argentina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tells two experiences of projects carried through in schools of basic education whose thematic it was the work with the cultural diversity, the valuation of other cultures and reflections on the proper culture The work was carried through in two schools: one in the state of São Paulo, the city of Rio Claro where as the thematic one worked was the Hip-Hop and cultural manifestations local Brazilians the second in the capital of a Argentina province, in the city of Paraná where it worked the contact and the relation enter the cultural manifestations of Brazil and Argentina The central objective of this work was to think ways that could lead to the construction of a school that it considered the differences and the learning that happens when these (the differences they are in relation.

  1. [Management characteristics in charity hospitals in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Portela, Margareth C; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Gerschman, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the management characteristics of charity hospitals in Brazil, based on data from a national survey developed in 2001. The sample accounted for the random inclusion of 66 Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) inpatient care providers with less than 599 beds and all 26 hospitals with at least 599 beds. It also included 10 institutions assumed as non-providers of services to the SUS. The analyses are descriptive, focusing on the classification of the hospitals according to their managerial development level, as well as selected issues regarding the utilization of specific managerial technologies, human resources, technical services, and services contracting. Distinct managerial levels were identified, but it is important to note that 83% of the SUS providers with less than 599 beds were classified as having incipient management. The authors discuss implications of the findings for inpatient care policies, considering the importance of charity hospitals for the Brazilian Health System.

  2. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  3. The potential of Ecotourism in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Simas de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a variety of biomes with great potential for ecotourism. They include plateaus, waterfalls, beaches, sand dunes, native forests, mountains and other attractions in regions that are home to poor populations struggling to make their living on smallholder agriculture and that frequently do not have their land rights guaranteed. Implementing ecotourism in these regions can mean environmental preservation and a more sustainable livelihood for the local population. The government has a fundamental role to leverage this activity, providing the means to stimulate sustainable forms of agriculture and infrastructure construction parallel to ecotourism. It is also important to train community members to ensure environmental preservation and well serve the visitors, in addition to implementing measures such as waste recycling and efficient water use.

  4. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI UV radiation levels to have a population very exposed during its

  5. Sustainability of cosmetic products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Pereira, Neila

    2009-09-01

    The most recent research in the area of cosmetics to sustainability has focused on obtaining formulations rich in nontraditional oils and butters from seeds and fruits native to Brazilian tropical flora. These have contributed to aggregate value for the raw materials and involvement of small farms forming rural production in Brazil, since the plants are cultivated in preservation areas sponsored by companies who are partners in the Government Program for Brazilian Sustainability. Given that the oils extracted from seeds have the potential to replace these cutaneous constituents, it has been verified that new products of strong commercial impact show an increasing tendency to incorporate in their formulas the oils of plants grown in Brazilian soil.

  6. [On family planning policy in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-01-01

    Brazil's population could vary from a minimum of 164.5 million to a maximum of 183.5 million at the turn of the century. The increase in population is due essentially to a decline in mortality, since natality has remained steady, averaging 6.2 children/woman. During the 1st 4 years of the 1980s, a 19% drop in natality was registered, with the greatest reduction occurring in the East-Central (25%) region, testimony to an increased presence of highly effective contraceptive means. 65% of all married women between the ages of 15 and 44 use contraceptives, placing Brazil among the most developed countries (U.S.A., 68%). The main contraceptive method used is sterilization, preferred even by very young women, median age 29, as evidenced by a study in Sao Paulo. The choice of contraceptives, however, is limited. During the military dictatorship family planning was put in the hands of private organizations (BEMFAM since 1965, CEPAIMC since 1975) and recent policies have emphasized a hands-off attitude leaving birth control decisions to the family nucleus. The economic crisis, at the end of the 1970s, modified this position. In order to avoid that, only the wealthy classes have access to family planning means, the government increasingly plays an active role in providing information and assistance. A not-for-profit institution, ABEPF (Brazilian Association for Family Planning Entities), the largest of its kind in Latin America, organizes and promotes private initiative programs. Acting as a true syndicate, each clinic affiliated with the association receives training of professionals and equipment for installation of laboratories and consulting rooms. Various women's rights movements have been active and succeeded in influencing political parties.

  7. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  8. Mucorales from the semiarid of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    Nineteen taxa of Mucorales, belonging to Absidia, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Fennellomyces, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Mycotypha, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were isolated from 36 composite soil samples in three semiarid areas in the State of Pernambuco (Triunfo, Cabrobó and Belém de São Francisco), Northeast Brazil, which are characterized by Caatinga vegetation. Triunfo is preserved, whereas Cabroró and Belém de São Francisco are experiencing low and severe desertification processes, respectively. Mucorales were isolated in Petri dishes in triplicate from 5 mg samples of soil placed on the surface of wheat germ agar plus chloramphenicol and Cercobin [Dimethyl 4,49-(103 phenylene) bis (3-thioallophanate)] medium. The plates were left on a bench at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 72 h of alternating dark and light periods. Absidia cylindrospora presented the highest amount of CFU/g of soil, followed by L. hyalospora, C. phaeospora and C. echinulata var. echinulata. The latter, and R. microsporus var. microsporus, presented the highest frequencies of occurrence. Soils from Triunfo showed higher diversity of Mucorales than the samples from the other areas, although without differing statistically in relation to species richness. The communities of Mucorales from the degraded areas were more similar, while that from the preserved area was quite different. Most of the identified specimens have been commonly isolated from soil in other Brazilian regions, which indicates that they are not endemic of the semiarid. Eleven taxa are registered for the first time in this ecosystem, while F. heterothallicus is reported for the first time in Brazil.

  9. Mucorales from the semiarid of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen taxa of Mucorales, belonging to Absidi, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Fennellomyces, Lichtheimi, Mucor, Mycotypha, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were isolated from 36 composite soil samples in three semiarid areas in the State of Pernambuco (Triunfo, Cabrobó and Belém de São Francisco, Northeast Brazil, which are characterized by Caatinga vegetation. Triunfo is preserved, whereas Cabroró and Belém de São Francisco are experiencing low and severe desertification processes, respectively. Mucorales were isolated in Petri dishes in triplicate from 5 mg samples of soil placed on the surface of wheat germ agar plus chloramphenicol and Cercobin [Dimethyl 4,49-(103 phenylene bis (3-thioallophanate] medium. The plates were left on a bench at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC for 72 h of alternating dark and light periods. Absidia cylindrospora presented the highest amount of CFU/g of soil, followed by L. hyalospor, C. phaeospora and C. echinulata var. echinulata. The latter, and R. microsporus var. microsporus, presented the highest frequencies of occurrence. Soils from Triunfo showed higher diversity of Mucorales than the samples from the other areas, although without differing statistically in relation to species richness. The communities of Mucorales from the degraded areas were more similar, while that from the preserved area was quite different. Most of the identified specimens have been commonly isolated from soil in other Brazilian regions, which indicates that they are not endemic of the semiarid. Eleven taxa are registered for the first time in this ecosystem, while F. heterothallicus is reported for the first time in Brazil.

  10. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  11. Solar energy for steam generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, Jr, A V; Orlando, A DeF; Magnoli, D

    1979-05-01

    Steam generation is a solar energy application that has not been frequently studied in Brazil, even though for example, about 10% of the national primary energy demand is utilized for processing heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C. On the other hand, substitution of automotive gasoline by ethanol, for instance, has received much greater attention even though primary energy demand for process heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C is of the same order of magnitude than for total automotive gasoline production. Generation of low-temperature steam is analyzed in this article using distributed systems of solar collectors. Main results of daily performance simulation of single flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors are presented for 20/sup 0/S latitude, equinox, in clear days. Flat plate collectors considered are of the aluminum roll-bond absorber type, selective surface single or double glazing. Considering feedwater at 20/sup 0/C, saturated steam at 120/sup 0/C and an annual solar utilization factor of 50%, a total collector area of about 3,000 m/sup 2/ is necessary for the 10 ton/day plant, without energy storage. A fuel-oil back-up system is employed to complement the solar steam production, when necessary. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that, although the case-study shows today a long payback period relative to subsidized fuel oil in the domestic market (over 20 years in the city of Rio de Janeiro), solar steam systems may be feasible in the medium term due to projected increase of fuel oil price in Brazil.

  12. Health technology assessment: the process in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Fernanda; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2017-06-08

    To describe, analyze, and compare the opinions of decisionmakers involved in the health technology assessment (HTA) process in Brazil in 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the opinions of a convenience sample of health care professionals from both the public and private health care systems (HCS). The survey collected demographic data for each respondent along with their input on national regulations. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, including chi-square tests to compare groups. Of the 200 completed questionnaires, 65% of the respondents were 31-50 years of age; 36% were HCS managers, 49.3% from the public and 50.7% from the private system. The majority of respondents (85%) considered the time permitted for submission of new technology to be inadequate; 88% also stated that the composition of the evaluation committee needed improvement. Respondents from the private health system more frequently stated that submission times were inappropriate (P = 0.019) and that the deadline for a decision by the committee should be defined (P = 0.021), with a maximum of no more than 180 days / 6 months (P < 0.001). Respondents indicated that the HTA process should be improved to meet their expectations. Given that new legislation has been enacted to continuously accept submissions, to make decisions within 180 days, and to expand the committee to represent more stakeholders, most of the respondents concerns have been addressed. This study is valuable as an historical analysis of HTA process improvement. Further surveys are needed to track the new HTA process, its application, and its contribution to health care needs in Brazil.

  13. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  14. Uranium prospecting activities in Brazil from 1966 to 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Ramos, J.R. de; Maciel, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Results of work in uranium prospecting in Brazil, from 1966 to 1977, are described. The availability and the evaluation of monazite and associated heavy minerals along the Brazilian coast are also discussed [pt

  15. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Overcoming obstacles to adoption of Brazil's national Dietary ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brazil has developed a classification system of foods based on the nature, extent, ... to strengthen regulatory action and public policies to improve diets by changing the ... The ultimate goal is to improve population health and environmental ...

  17. All projects related to Brazil | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Colombia, Haiti, North and Central America, Mexico. Program: Governance ... Open Data for Public Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Project ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: ...

  18. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  19. Marketing Malaysian enterprises in Brazil: what is the government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing Malaysian enterprises in Brazil: what is the government doing? ... Marketing products and services abroad is essential for the new ventures growth and continuous existence. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. All projects related to Brazil | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, North and Central America ... NETWORKS, ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Economic integration, REGIONAL ... Land Use, Biofuels and Rural Development in the La Plata Basin (Latin America).