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  1. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  2. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  3. IDRC in Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has supported Costa Rican researchers since 1973. The country's history of political stability made ... Costa Rica's Tropical Agricultural. Research and Higher Education Centre. (CATIE) to test intercropping of ... in Chile, Mexico, Brazil, and Uruguay to design schemes that will protect senior citizens without increasing ...

  4. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homedes N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.

  5. Dos nuevos registros de ascidias (Tunicata: Ascidiacea para la costa continental de Chile Two new records of ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea for the continental coast of Chile

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    MARCELA CLARKE

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Las ascidias (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Asterocarpa humilis (Heller, 1878 (Styelidae y Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859 (Molgulidae se registran por primera vez, para la costa de Chile continental. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en los años 1997 y 1998 en tres localidades en los alrededores de la Bahía de Antofagasta, Chile (23º43´S; 70º 26´W, asociados a las agrupaciones de las ascidias Pyura chilensis Molina, 1872 y Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767, que se fijan en sistemas suspendidos de cultivo de ostiones y en mantos intermareales del «piure de Antofagasta», P. praeputialis (Heller, 1878. En el trabajo se describen las especies y se discuten sus distribuciones geográficas y la posibilidad que ambas hayan sido introducidas o invadido costas de Chile. Se destaca el carácter vivíparo para A. humilis. Con este trabajo el número de especies de ascidias descritas para Chile continental se eleva desde 53 a 55The ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Asterocarpa humilis (Heller, 1878 (Styelidae and Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859 (Molgulidae are recorded for the first time for the continental coast of Chile. The specimens were collected during 1997 and 1998 at 3 localities in and around the Bay of Antofagasta (23º 43´ S; 70º 26´ W, Chile, in suspended scallop aquaculture ropes, attached to Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767 and Pyura chilensis Molina, 1872, and in intertidal beds of the sea squirt P. praeputialis (Heller, 1878. This work describes the species and discusses their geographical distribution as well as possibilities for their introduction and/or invasion to Chile. The viviparous condition for A. humilis is communicated. The number of ascidians reported for continental Chile increases from 53 to 55

  6. Estructura de la población antigua de la costa norte de Chile

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    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El poblamiento arcaico del Área Centro Sur Andina, iniciado en los albores del XI milenio AP., es producido por cazadores y recolectores que ocupan progresivamente el área altiplánica, los valles fluviales y las cuencas intermedias derivados de grupos paleoindios. El proceso de dispersión que involucra la exploración, conquista y adaptación a distintos ambientes, biotopos y ecosistemas produjo la fragmentación de la población original de los cazadores holocénicos tempranos (11000-8000 AP y su progresiva divergencia genética posiblemente asociada con diferentes modelos adaptativos propuestos por la arqueología (Núñez y Santoro, 1990. Si bien los registros bioantropológicos de épocas tan tempranas son sumamente escasos, la estructura de la población antigua se proyecta en el tiempo permitiendo explicar la variación geográfica de los grupos arcaicos tardíos y formativos. En el presente informe se analizan los resultados de varios trabajos realizados con materiales bien cronometrados para explicar el poblamiento de la costa norte de Chile. Se emplearon datos métricos y no métricos obtenidos en relevamientos modernos de sitios de la costa de Arica y Valle de Azapa, Pisagua, Norte Semiárido y Zona Central de Chile. Se analizan y discuten distintos modelos elaborados para comprender el proceso microevolutivo a nivel local, suponiendo un desarrollo en relativo aislamiento moderado por eventos demográficos dependientes de acontecimientos económicos y sociopolíticos de rango medio a nivel regional (transhumancia y de rango amplio (migraciones, originados en el área circuntiticaca y en los Andes Centrales que determinaron al final, la configuración de las sociedades multiétnicas del Período Tardío.

  7. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  8. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  9. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  10. Groundwater origin and recharge in the hyperarid Cordillera de la Costa, Atacama Desert, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christian; Gamboa, Carolina; Custodio, Emilio; Jordan, Teresa; Godfrey, Linda; Jódar, Jorge; Luque, José A; Vargas, Jimmy; Sáez, Alberto

    2018-05-15

    The Cordillera de la Costa is located along the coastline of northern Chile, in the hyperarid Atacama Desert area. Chemical and isotopic analyses of several small coastal springs and groundwater reservoirs between 22.5 °S and 25.5 °S allow understanding groundwater origin, renewal time and the probable timing of recharge. The aquifers are mostly in old volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits. All spring waters are brackish, of the sodium chloride type due to intensive concentration of precipitation due aridity and for deep groundwater to additional water-rock interaction in slowly renewed groundwater and mixing with deep seated brines. The heavy δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in spring water are explained by recharge by the arrival of moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean and the originally lighter values in the deep wells can be associated to past recharge by air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. Current recharge is assumed almost nil but it was significant in past wetter-than-present periods, increasing groundwater reserves, which are not yet exhausted. To explain the observed chloride content and radiocarbon ( 14 C) activity, a well-mixed (exponential) flow model has been considered for aquifer recharge. The average residence time of groundwater feeding the springs has been estimated between 1 and 2kyr, up to 5kyr and between 7 and 13kyr for deep well water, assuming that current recharge is much less than during the previous wetter period. The recharge period feeding the coastal springs could have been produced 1 to 5kyr BP, when the area was already inhabited, and recharge in the Michilla mine was produced during the 10 to 14.5kyr BP CAPE (Central Andean Pluvial Event) pluvial events of the central Andes. The approximate coincidence of turnover time with the past wet periods, as revealed by paleoclimate data, points to significant recharge during them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Actitudes del profesorado de chile y costa rica hacia la inclusión educativa Chilean and Costa Rican teacher's attitudes towards inclusive education

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    Susan Sanhueza Henríquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza las actitudes de profesores de Chile (N = 92 y Costa Rica (N = 126 hacia la educación inclusiva. Para ello, plantea como objetivos: a. identificar las medidas que favorecen la educación inclusiva en ambos colectivos de profesorado; b. conocer los recursos y apoyos con que cuenta el profesorado para favorecer la educación inclusiva; y c. valorar los principios de la educación inclusiva que subyacen a sus prácticas docentes. Adoptamos un enfoque cuantitativo a través de un diseño descriptivo de tipo encuesta. Los resultados indican que, en general, los profesores participantes presentan una actitud positiva hacia la inclusión, incorporando diferentes medidas para atender las necesidades educativas especiales del alumnado. Los recursos materiales y el tiempo continúan siendo percibidos por el profesorado como una limitante para el desarrollo de prácticas inclusivas.This study analyses the attitude of teachers from Chile (N = 92 and Costa Rica (N = 126 towards inclusive education. For that purpose, it establishes the following objectives: a. identify those measures facilitating inclusive education with both teachers groups; b. get to know the resources teacher count on to make inclusive education possible; and c. value the principles of inclusive education underlying their teaching practice. We adopted a quantitative approach through a descriptive design consisting of a survey. Results show that in general teachers of this study have a positive attitude towards the inclusion of different measures to attend the students Special Educative Needs. Resources and time continue to be perceived by teachers as restraining the development of inclusive practices.

  12. Determinants of propensity to innovate: evidence for Argentina, Brazil and Chile

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    Thiago Henrique Sousa Caldas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the determinants of propensity to innovate for companies from Argentina, Brazil and Chile, and identify the similarities and differences of the innovative behavior between countries. To perform the empirical analysis, we used the World Bank's database - Enterprises Surveys in the 2000s. Probit models were estimated for product innovation, process innovation and innovation in general. The results show that there is no standard for propensity to innovate when comparing Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The variable ‘cooperation’ stood out because it had a positive and significant coefficient for all estimations.

  13. New species and new records of freshwater ascomycetes from Brazil and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Flavia R; Gusmão, Luis F P; Raja, Huzefa A; Shearer, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    During independent surveys for freshwater ascomycetes in Brazil and Costa Rica, two new species, Torrentispora pilosa and Vertexicola ascoliberatus, and nine previously described species were recovered. Among the described species, Annulatascus biatriisporus, Anthostomella aquatica, Tamsiniella labiosa and Torrentispora crassiparietis are reported for the first time from the western hemisphere, Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Chaetosphaeria lignomollis and Jahnula seychellensis are new records for South America and Annulatascus velatisporus and Ophioceras venezuelensis are reported for the first time for Brazil. The description of the genus Torrentispora is emended to accommodate T. pilosa. The new species are described and illustrated and a brief description is provided for all new records.

  14. What are people thinking about floods? A study in two Mediterranean areas: Costa Brava, Spain and Talcahuano City, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, A.; Ribas, A.; Cifuentes, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Mediterranean areas are not immune to flood problems. The Spanish Mediterranean coast is a reflection of this, where flooding continues to be the greatest natural hazard with negative effects on the territory. The urbanization of coastal watersheds, very pronounced in the last 15 years, has led to the creation of authentic urban continuums in the seafront and the appearance of residential developments therein. The municipalities of Costa Brava, in the province of Girona, are an example of this dynamic of the increasing risk, exposure, and impact of floods. In Chile, floods are considered one of the main natural hazards, especially in the province of Concepcion. One of the most important cities of this area is Talcahuano, which has suffered continual flood episodes during recent years. Flood episodes could yet increase in the future due to the high frequency of extraordinary atmospheric events and a higher exposure to flood risk created by the development of intensive urbanization processes. However, after the February 27th 8.8 degrees earthquake (Richter scale) that affected the center-south of Chile and originated the tsunami which flooded a large percentage of the residential area and military base of the city of Talcahuano, the risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concepts changed. This research looks at the social perception and social knowledge of Mediterranean residents affected and unaffected by floods, emphasizing which is their risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concept and what kind of measures they proposed to reduce their flood vulnerability. The end objective of this research is to become a framework for future local flood policies and a tool that could be reviewed by specialists in other regions that might be affected by this hazard. This social assessment has been carried out through surveys of residents in Costa Brava and Talcahuano whose endogenous and exogenous characteristics have been significant in explaining their

  15. Public policies education and teachers’ evaluation: considerations about Brazil and Chile (1990 – 2010

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    Bruna Carolina Marino Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the teacher evaluation established from the 1990s in Chile and Brazil is in focus. It is organized in the following order: first, we will present an overview of the public policy of teacher training in Latin America over the last 30 years. Second, we will address the common recommendations made by international organizations. Third, we will describe the evaluation systems of public teachers in Brazil and Chile. Finally, we will compare these systems from the point of view of their blessings for continued teacher training. As a result, we suggest a review of Latin American guidelines for evaluation of teaching with the use of information and communication technologies.

  16. [Regulating the internet: a comparative analysis of Brazil, Chile, Spain, the US, and France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Rosemary; Lima, Carolina Silva Mandú de; Ameni, Cauê S

    2015-12-01

    Global governance is of key concern in the current debate over the workings of the world's computer network, and Brazil has played a notable role in this process, especially after approval of the Marco Civil da Internet (law 12.965, april 23, 2014), which defines Brazil's regulatory framework for the internet. Dubbed the internet bill of rights, this law sets out the principles, guarantees, rights, and duties of internet users and providers in Brazil. Based on the fundamental categories of net neutrality, internet users' right to privacy, and copyright discussions from the perspective of intellectual property, the article offers a comparative analysis of regulations in five countries: Brazil, Chile, Spain, the US, and France.

  17. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  18. Saberes ambientales lafkenche en escuelas de la costa de La Araucanía (Chile

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    Marcela Rojas-Maturana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es un acercamiento a la realidad de la transmisión oralde saberes y prácticas acerca del territorio, en familias lafkenche que viven asociadas a espaciosde humedales en el borde costero de La Araucanía (Chile. Para la recolección de datos aplicamosencuestas a niños y niñas, padres y madres, docentes, y asesores y asesoras culturales en cincoescuelas. Visualizamos que existen saberes territoriales que, sin embargo, no encuentran un espaciodónde manifestarse fuera del hogar. Concluimos que la sistematicidad en el acercamiento de losalumnos y alumnas a su cultura originaria, la permanencia en el tiempo de los asesores y asesorasculturales, el compromiso real de los profesores y profesoras no mapuches, y el respeto de estos haciala cultura, puede eventualmente lograr resultados satisfactorios en la preservación de la lengua y delas prácticas culturales en el territorio lafkenche.

  19. Narrativas etnográficas sobre ballenas y balleneros en las costas de Chile

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    Daniel Quiroz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of the commercial hunting of whales in Chile allows us to distinguish three foreign whaling traditions, which we shall call the “Yankee”, the “Norwegian” and the “Japanese”, which inserted themselves into a pre-existing tradition: passive hunting or the butchering of whales stranded on beaches undertaken not only by the native populations but Europeans and their descendants as well. This montage of traditions shapes a sequence of superposed processes which have been narrated by a group of contemporary observers of these events. A review of the accounts written by these observers reveals different conceptual constructions about whales (as a “monster”, “resource” and “scarce resource” and the whale hunters (as “heroes” and “professionals”, linked to the technological evolution of whale hunting in our country (passive hunting, traditional hunting, modern hunting.

  20. Análisis de crecimiento del chile jalapeño (capsicum annuum l. cv. hot), en Alajuela, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    \\u00C1lvaro Azofeifa; Moreira,Marco A.

    2004-01-01

    El patrón de crecimiento de la planta de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum), cv Hot, se analizó durante un ciclo de cultivo, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, de mayo a noviembre de 1995. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 4 repeticiones, los tratamientos fueron las épocas de muestreo. Cada 14 días, a partir del 85% de plántulas emergidas (26 días después de la siembra, DDS), fueron muestreadas 8 plantas, se determinó el área foliar y el peso seco en cada ...

  1. Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e o ensino secundário brasileiro - Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and secondary education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Spitz Alcoforado de Abreu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta a circulação do intelectual paranaense Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa nas discussões sobre os rumos da educação brasileira, em particular, sobre o ensino secundário, nas décadas de1920 e 1930, destacando as conexões e deslocamentos tecidos numa rede de relações, ou seja, suas vinculações com intelectuais de outros estados, em particular com os intelectuais paulistas e cariocas. Esse estudo constatou que a relação entre Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e pessoas pertencentes ao grupo católico deu-se mais por questões políticas, do que por vias religiosas. Pelo que se apreende do estudo de sua sociabilidade, pode-se dizer que conservou, em seu círculo de amizades, católicos, protestantes e pessoas de crenças diversas, desde que essas não se opusessem, diante de circunstâncias de tomada de decisão e partido, aos seus interesses políticos. Palavras-chave: Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa; intelectuais da educação; ensino secundário.   LYSIMACO FERREIRA DA COSTA AND SECONDARYEDUCATION IN BRAZIL Abstract This article presents the insertion of Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa in the discussions concerning the direction of Brazilian education. He was an intellectual born in the state of Paraná. The period of the analysis ranges from 1920 and 1930 and its focus is the discussion of the secondary school. It emphasizes the ties and connections established in Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa’s network of relationships, his associations with intellectuals of other states, mainly from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Through the data obtained in this study, it is possible to say that the affiliation between Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and the Catholic group took place primarily due to political reasons rather than religious grounds. According to the study of his sociability, he maintained in his circle of friends both Catholics, Protestants and people of several beliefs, as long as they did not oppose to his political interests

  2. Is there redundancy in bioengineering for molluscan assemblages on the rocky shores of central Chile? ¿Existe redundancia en la bioingeniería de los ensambles de moluscos de las costas rocosas de Chile central?

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    BRENDAN P KELAHER

    2007-06-01

    través de sus propias estructuras físicas e incrementan la diversidad local. En costas rocosas existen grandes solapamientos en la composición de las comunidades asociadas a bioingenieros que forman habitats frondosos (algas o mitílidos. Nosotros investigamos la potencial redundancia en la provisión de este tipo de habitat comparando ensambles faunísticos asociados a mantos de Perumytilus purpuratus y frondas de Corallina officinalis var. chilenis, Gelidium chilense y Gastroclonium cylindricum. En tres oportunidades, entre septiembre de 2003 y enero de 2004, muestreamos ensambles de moluscos asociados a cada uno de estos bioingenieros, en alturas de mareas similares en dos áreas rocosas de Chile central. De las 31 especies de moluscos identificados, 30 fueron encontrados en Corallina y 19-22 fueron identificados en los otros habitat. El conjunto de especies asociado a cada bioingeniero se sobrepone ampliamente, demostrando el potencial de redundancia en la provisión de habitat y poca especificidad de habitat. Sin embargo, análisis multivariados y univariados mostraron que los bioingenieros, con excepción de Gastroclonium, contenían un ensamble de moluscos único en al menos uno de los periodos de muestreo, ya sea en la variación en la frecuencia de ocurrencia, riqueza y abundancia total. Estudios recientes han destacado diversos procesos antropogénicos y naturales que influencian directamente la diversidad y composición de especies en bioingenieros de costas rocosas. Se demuestra que para la costa de Chile central la pérdida de cualquier de los bioingenieros analizados no alteraría sustancialmente el conjunto total de especies de moluscos, alojados en ellos. Sin embargo, la pérdida de cualquier bioingeniero, excepto Gastroclonium, resultaría en una disminución local de la biodiversidad debido a que cada uno de los ensambles de moluscos en Perumytilus, Corallina y Gelidium, contiene una estructura comunitaria significativamente diferente, en al menos

  3. THE FIRST WORLD WAR AS DEPICTED IN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS (ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, CHILE, MEXICO, AND THE UNITED KINGDOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Justino, Rogério; Gatti Júnior, Décio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper communicates the results of research in the area of the History of School Subjects, the object of which is the way the theme of the First World War has been depicted in textbooks used in Brazil and abroad. A premise of this study is that textbooks are important tools in school life, contributing to the vision students have of the world. As such, five different textbooks used in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and the United Kingdom were analyzed. It was observed that the...

  4. Seminario Regional para el Desarrollo de Materiales Educativos para la Paz (San Jose, Costa Rica, 27-31 de octubre de 1986). Informe Final (Regional Seminar for the Development of Educational Materials on the Theme of Peace--San Jose, Costa Rica, October 27-31, 1986. Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    In conjunction with United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's 40th anniversary, 1986 was named the International Year of Peace. During 1986, UNESCO selected the theme "peace" as an education project to be undertaken in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,…

  5. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives

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    Díaz Soledad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women should be informed about EC, while others viewed it as a method for special situations such as rape and unprotected first sexual intercourse. Concern was expressed that its introduction might be associated with a decrease in condom use, increase in sexually transmitted diseases, and irresponsible or promiscuous sexual behavior among adolescents. The need for EC was clearly perceived by most participants, leading to the conclusion that health authorities have the responsibility of implementing programs for its introduction. Training of health care personnel should include the discussion of reproductive health problems that could be prevented by EC.

  6. Competitive advantages of firms in agro-industrial clusters: Study of wine in Brazil and Chile

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    Mattia Adilene Alvares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore two cases connected to the wine productive chain, emphasizing the process of competitive advantages creation under the logic of industrial clusters. The analyzed experiences deal with agglomerations of companies, where some are already established, while others are consolidated or under expansion: The Vale dos Vinhedos (Brazil, and Valle de Casablanca (Chile. The comparative study was based on the presence of territorial resources, analyzed in categories, of which we can highlight: denomination of origin (D.O., tourism, economy, political situation and unique value. The analysis of both territories allowed the identification of similarities and potentialities, and the attachment of those with the construction of com- petitive advantages. The results show that the competitiveness of companies established on the Vale dos Vinhedos and Valle de Casablanca is determined by the competitiveness of the territory, meaning that the spaces under analysis perform a fundamental role in the process of creation of competitive advantages of the already installed companies.

  7. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles

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    Soledad Díaz

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.

  8. LA RESPUESTA DEL ANTICICLÓN DEL PACÍFICO SUR EN LA COSTA DE CHILE FRENTE AL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO-IMPACTOS

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    Juan Minetti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aprovechando la reconstrucción del índice de posición latitudinal del anticiclón del O.Pacífico Sur sobre la costa de Chile (L durante el período 1901-2004, se analiza su comportamiento de largo plazo como variable anual o mensual en el período más precipitante del clima mediterráneo sudamericano. Existe una importante evidencia del traslado de L hacia latitudes altas desde mediados del Siglo XX al presente, que podría ser justificado con el actual proceso de calentamiento global, sin embargo esto no parece justificar el comportamiento opuesto observado en la primer mitad del Siglo XX. En términos mensuales la tendencia hacia latitudes altas es más evidente en L, pero el mes de Junio (opuesto es el encargado de mostrar que fluctuaciones de media y alta frecuencia pueden torcer una tendencia larga, lo que no hace recomendable el análisis en esta escala. Esto también es válido para series de variables anuales de alrededor de medio siglo o menos. Otra variable importante para el análisis en esta ocasión fue la intensidad anual del flujo de los Oeste en latitudes altas, que sí parece tener un comportamiento tendencial acorde a los cambios del calentamiento global.

  9. Cryptobia neghmei sp. n. (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida in two species of flounder, Paralichthys spp. (Pisces: Paralichthydae off Chile Cryptobia neghmei sp. n (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida en dos especies de lenguados Paralichthys spp. (Pisces: Paralichthydae de la costa de Chile

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    RASUL A. KHAN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptobia neghmei sp.n. is described from the blood of two species of flounder, Paralichthys microps and P. adspersus, inhabiting the Chilean coast in the southern Pacific Ocean. Flagellates were elongate, slender, with two flagella and a conspicuous undulating membrane. It was distinguished from previously described species on the basis of its unusual shape and dimensions. All of 97 flounder were infected upon examination. Developmental stages of kinetoplastid protozoans, perhaps C. neghmei sp. n., were observed in some leeches Glyptonotobdella sp. that were found attached to flounder, which probably represent a mode for transmission among piscine hostsSe describe a Cryptobia neghmei sp.n., un protozoo sanguíneo de dos especies de lenguados, Paralichthys microps y P. adspersus, habitantes de la costa de Chile en el sur-este del océano Pacífico. Los protozoos flagelados son de forma elongada, delgados con dos flagelos y una membrana ondulante conspicua. Esta especie se distingue de aquellas descritas previamente en base a su forma y dimensiones inusuales. Los 97 lenguados revisados estaban infectados. Se observaron otros estados de desarrollo de protozoos kinetoplástidos en la sanguijuela Glyptonotobdella sp. que parasitaba a los lenguados y que probablemente sea el vector del protozoo

  10. The distribution of littoral caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea along the Pacific coast of continental Chile La distribución de caprélidos litorales (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea en la costa del Pacífico de Chile continental

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    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    females as anchored buoys, suggesting that buoys and other floating substrata (litter, macroalgae may facilitate dispersal of caprellids (and other epibiota along the Pacific coast of Chile. Since artificial and natural floating substrata are also abundant at high latitudes it is inferred that the low diversity of littoral caprellids at high latitudes is not due to lack of dispersal vectors, but rather of other factorsMuchas especies de caprélidos del litoral presentan una amplia distribución, algunas han sido citadas a lo largo de todo el mundo. La distribución cosmopolita de muchas especies de caprélidos podría deberse al hecho de que se asocian frecuentemente a las comunidades "fouling" en objetos flotantes, que presentan una capacidad importante de dispersión a largas distancias. Esta capacidad de dispersión puede tener implicaciones en la distribución de caprélidos a escala local y regional. En este estudio, nosotros examinamos la distribución de las especies de caprélidos litorales en dos escalas espaciales, local (decenas de kilómetros y regional (cientos de kilómetros, a lo largo de la costa Pacífico de Chile continental. A escala local se estudió la fauna de caprélidos en distintos hábitats (bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas, comunidades "fouling" de boyas y cuerdas; a escala regional el estudio se centró solamente en los caprélidos asociados a boyas y cuerdas. Se encontraron un total de seis especies de caprélidos, algunos de los cuales fueron muy abundantes a escala local y regional. A escala local, existió una diferencia entre los tres tipos de hábitat con respecto a la fauna de caprélidos, algunos de los cuales estuvieron presentes en más de un hábitat. Los valores más altos de riqueza específica y abundancia se encontraron en la comunidad "fouling" asociada a boyas y cuerdas ancladas. A escala regional, los caprélidos fueron más abundantes y diversos en las comunidades "fouling" de la región norte

  11. Absorción y distribución de nutrimentos en plantas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. CV. HOT en alajuela, Costa Rica

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    Alvaro Azofeifa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la absorción y distribución de los nutrimentos durante el ciclo de cultivo en plantas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Hot, en Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se determinó el peso seco y se analizó el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, y S, en cada sección de la planta. Con base en el peso seco y la concentración de nutrimentos, se estimó la absorción de los elementos por cada tejido y en toda la planta. Se calculó la extracción de los nutrimentos con una densidad de siembra de 20 833 plantas.ha-1 y un rendimiento de 15 t.ha-1 de fruta comercial fresca. El orden de extracción de nutrimentos fue K>N>Ca>S>P y Mg con valores de 79,3, 60, 31,7, 8,2, 7,6 y 7,3 kg.ha-1, respectivamente. Las cantidades de nutrimentos en las distintas partes de la planta variaron durante el ciclo de crecimiento. Al final del ciclo, la planta acumula K, Ca y Mg principalmente en la parte aérea, P y S en la fruta y N en los frutos y la parte aérea. El principal evento fenológico que reguló estas fluctuaciones fue la fructificación.

  12. Absorción y distribución de nutrimentos en plantas de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum cv. UCR 589 en Alajuela, Costa Rica

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    Álvaro Azofeifa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre mayo y noviembre de 1995, se analizó la absorción y distribución de los nutrimentos durante el ciclo de cultivo en plantas de chile dulce, cultivar UCR 589, en Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 4 repeticiones. Se realizaron 11 muestreos a intervalos de 14 días. Se determinó el peso seco y se analizó el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S, en cada sección de la planta. Con base en el peso seco y la concentración de nutrimentos, se estimó la absorción de los elementos por cada tejido y en total de la planta; además, se calculó la extracción de los nutrimentos con una densidad de siembra de 20833 plantas ha-1 y un rendimiento de 46,3 t ha-1 de fruta comercial fresca. El orden de extracción de nutrimentos fue K> N >P >Ca > S y Mg, con valores de 180, 139, 26, 38 y 13 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Las cantidades de nutrimentos en las distintas partes de la planta variaron durante el ciclo de crecimiento. Al final del ciclo, la planta acumula el N, P, Mg, K, y S, en mayor cantidad en los frutos y el Ca especialmente en la parte aérea. El principal evento fenológico que modula estas fluctuaciones es la fructificación. Las mayores tasas de absorción de nutrimentos ocurrieron durante las etapas de formación y llenado de los frutos.

  13. Variación ambiental y patrones di etarios del erizo negro Tetrapygus niger en costas intermareales rocosas del norte de Chile Environmental variation and dietary patterns of the black urchin Tetrapygus niger in rocky intertidal shores of northern Chile

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    ARTURO H NAVARRETE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El rol e impacto de los herbívoros en la trama trófica de comunidades intermareales rocosas podría ser más diverso y complejo de lo considerado hasta ahora, particularmente en el caso de consumidores de mayor tamaño y abundancia como el erizo negro Tetrapygus niger (Molina en la costa de Chile. En este contexto, analizamos la variación en riqueza y composición de la dieta de T. niger en cuatro comunidades intermareales rocosas del norte de Chile, distribuidas en 1.000 km de costa, y muestreadas estacionalmente entre invierno 2004 y primavera 2005. Durante el estudio ocurrió el evento El Niño 2004-2005 cuyo efecto potencial fue incorporado en esta evaluación. En cada comunidad y estación se evaluó la abundancia de las especies presentes en 45 cuadrantes (0,25 m² distribuidos en cinco bloques permanentes, recolectando cerca de 10 individuos de T. niger a los que se midió su biomasa y longitud, determinando el número, identidad y frecuencia de ocurrencia de ítemes en su contenido gástrico. Colectamos un total de 251 individuos de T. niger, que en conjunto consumieron 89 ítemes de algas (64 % e invertebrados (36 %; incluyendo otros herbívoros. Una relación inversa significativa entre el tamaño corporal y el número de ítemes animales ingeridos sugiere que T. niger varía su dieta durante la ontogenia. La amplitud de nicho dietario fue alta y tendió a disminuir hacia latitudes menores. Globalmente, el espectro y frecuencia de ocurrencia de ítemes dietarios no fueron significativamente distintos entre comunidades, pese a marcadas diferencias en intensidad de surgencia entre ellas. Similarmente, no hubo relación clara entre la oferta ambiental de recursos y su frecuencia en la dieta de T. niger, destacando la clorófita Ulva rígida que fue el ítem consumido con más frecuencia en cada comunidad pero no el más abundante en terreno. Sin embargo, la riqueza dietaria de T. niger se relacionó negativa y significativamente con la

  14. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

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    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an

  15. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

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    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such

  16. A new snapping species of the shrimp genus Typton Costa, 1844 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the coast of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alexandre O; Anker, Arthur; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2014-07-09

    A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Typton Costa, 1844, Typton fapespae sp. nov., is described based on several specimens collected in Ubatuba and São Sebastião, northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Most specimens were found in association with sponges, including Mycale (Zygomycale) angulosa (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) (Demospongiae: Mycalidae); however, one paratype from Ubatuba was extracted from a colony of the bryozoan Schizoporella errata (Waters, 1878) (Gymnolaemata: Schizoporellidae). In T. fapespae sp. nov., the posterodorsal margin of the sixth abdominal segment bears a strong median tooth, a feature shared with T. hephaestus Holthuis, 1951, T. holthusi De Grave, 2010 and T. spongicola Costa, 1844. However, the new species can be separated from each of these three species by at least two morphological features. 

  17. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  18. Análisis de crecimiento del chile jalapeño (capsicum annuum l. cv. hot, en Alajuela, Costa Rica

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    Álvaro Azofeifa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El patrón de crecimiento de la planta de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum, cv Hot, se analizó durante un ciclo de cultivo, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, de mayo a noviembre de 1995. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 4 repeticiones, los tratamientos fueron las épocas de muestreo. Cada 14 días, a partir del 85% de plántulas emergidas (26 días después de la siembra, DDS, fueron muestreadas 8 plantas, se determinó el área foliar y el peso seco en cada sección (raíz, parte aérea, flor y fruto, variables con las cuales se determinaron los índices fisiológicos y morfológicos. Las plantas presentaron una curva de crecimiento sigmoidal, con las siguientes fases: a- de 26-82 DDS: esta fase se caracterizó por un crecimiento lento, debido a que la planta era muy pequeña y apenas estaba desarrollando su sistema radical y foliar; bde 83-110 DDS: fase de rápido crecimiento vegetativo y reproductivo de las plantas. La planta presenta los valores de índice de crecimiento relativo (ICR e índice de asimilación neta (IAN más altos y los del índice de área foliar (IAF e índice de cosecha (K son crecientes. Tanto la razón de área foliar (RAF como la de peso radical (RPR presentan las reducciones más importantes; c- de 111-152 DDS: la tasa de crecimiento disminuye gradualmente. El crecimiento vegetativo y reproductivo es menor que en la fase anterior. Presenta valores de ICR, IAN y RAF decrecientes, K permanece constante; d- de 153-166 DDS, la planta alcanza la madurez y las tasas de crecimiento tienden a estabilizarse. El ICR presenta un valor cercano a cero. Los índices IAN, RAF y RPR son bajos y constantes; e- de 167-180 DDS, la planta muestra signos de senescencia y el contenido de materia seca decrece. El ICR muestra valores negativos. La producción de biomasa está ligada a la fenología de la planta, principalmente durante la floración y la fructificación. En estas fases, la planta invierte cantidades similares

  19. Producción más limpia en las Américas: Manejo del recurso energético. Casos de estudio: Chile, Costa Rica y Nicaragua

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    Melanny Zúñiga-Araya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación resalta la importancia que tiene el uso eficiente de Energía en la temática de Producción más Limpia, identificando acciones que se han realizado en Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Chile. Se muestra la situación energética de cada país, evidenciado la importancia de la eficiencia energética, además de resaltar la legislación y la institucionalidad de esta temática. Igualmente, se presentan datos generales del contexto de cada país, lo que permite comprender su situación global.

  20. Ensino médio e ensino técnico na América Latina: Brasil, Argentina e Chile Mid level schooling and vocational training in Latin America: Brazil, Argentina and Chile

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    Luiz Antônio Cunha

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa políticas educacionais em três países latino-americanos (Brasil, Argentina e Chile, nos anos 80 e 90, comparando-as, em cada país, com as das décadas anteriores, assim como entre uns e outros. Como foco de análise, o autor tomou a educação intermediária, definida como a posicionada entre a educação obrigatória e a educação superior. As políticas para esse segmento, em cada país, foram examinadas com referência à persistência e/ou à mudança da dualidade estrutural. A conclusão do autor é a de que Brasil e Argentina elaboraram e implementam políticas tendentes ao reforço da dualidade, ao passo que o Chile anuncia políticas de sua atenuação.This article analyzes educational policy in three Latin American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Chile during the 80s and 90s, making comparisons within each country in relation to earlier decades, as well as among the countries. With an analytical focus the author takes mid level schooling defined as that which occurs between obligatory schooling and higher education. The policies for this segment in each country, were examined with reference to the persistence and/or change of the structural duality. The author's conclusion is that Brazil and Argentina have developed and implemented policies tending to reinforce this duality, and that Chile has articulated policies to attenuate it.

  1. Revisiting chlorophyll data along the coast in north-central Chile, considering multiscale environmental variability Reinterpretando datos de clorofila en la costa centro-norte de Chile, considerando variabilidad ambiental de multiescala

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    VIVIAN MONTECINO

    2006-06-01

    ", nutrient supply, mean light exposure and mixing thresholds, including biological interactions, could be more effective in producing a higher phytoplankton biomass, in spite of a larger dispersionLa abundancia de fitoplancton en la capa de mezcla superficial del océano costero responde a cambios ambientales en diferentes escalas de tiempo. Aquí se han considerado conjuntamente las fases "cálida", "fría" y "neutra" de "tres ciclos ambientales" para estimar la variabilidad de la biomasa de la clorofila (Chl-a para las fases activa y relajada de la surgencia costera inducida por el viento local: (i el ciclo interanual ENOS (ii el ciclo anual (estacional y (iii el ciclo intraestacional asociado con ondas oceánicas atrapadas a lo largo de la costa en el norte de Chile. El objetivo principal de este estudio es estimar cuantitativamente la variabilidad de la Cl-a integrada en la zona eufótica (¾Chl-a en términos de una "condición ambiental" conjunta, para la banda costera de 50 km sensible a la surgencia, reinterpretando datos in situ de Chl-a (Cship = Chl-a + Feo pigmentos publicados y no publicados. Todas las combinaciones posibles de las "condiciones ambientales" se ordenaron en siete "indices ambientales" que van desde 0 ("absolutamente frío" a 6 ("absolutamente cálido". Del total de 332 muestras de ¾Chl-a, 198/134 se obtuvieron en condiciones de surgencia activa/relajada, de las cuales 24/38 y 30/36 muestras estuvieron asociadas con al menos dos fases frías/cálidas, de los tres ciclos ambientales (condiciones ambientales "fría"/"cálida" respectivamente. Los menores valores de ¾Chl-a durante las condiciones ambientales "frías" y "cálidas" respecto de las "neutras" alcanzaron significancia estadística tanto en surgencia activa como relajada (144/60 muestras respectivamente. Una mayor mezcla turbulenta durante condiciones ambientales "frías" y una nutriclina más profunda durante las "cálidas" explicarían los menores valores de ¾Chl-a. Datos de clorofila

  2. Latitudinal comparisons of reproductive traits in five Brachyuran species along the Chilean coast Comparaciones latitudinales de aspectos reproductivos en cinco especies de braquiuros a lo largo de la costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO BRANTE

    2004-03-01

    en invertebrados marinos a escalas espaciales grandes es de vital importancia para determinar las variables ambientales críticas que afectan la reproducción, y así poder entender los patrones espaciales de las dinámicas poblacionales. Sin embargo, la información sobre patrones de reproducción en invertebrados marinos a gran escala es escasa, y en algunos casos ha sido generada tomando en cuenta especies con diferentes modos de desarrollo. Los crustáceos braquiuros son un grupo de gran interés para analizar patrones de reproducción a gran escala no solo por la importancia comercial de muchas especies sino también por presentar un único modo de desarrollo larval y un amplio rango de distribución geográfica. En este trabajo reportamos los patrones reproductivos de cinco especies de braquiuros: Cancer setosus, Paraxanthus barbiger, Homalaspis plana, Ovalipes trimaculatus y Taliepus marginatus, a lo largo de la costa de Chile (18-54 ° S. Cinco variables fueron analizadas: peso de la masa de embriones, fecundidad, peso seco del embrión, volumen del embrión y pérdida de embriones. Se realizaron comparaciones entre el norte (20 ° S, centro (29-33 ° S y sur de Chile (35-41 ° S para C. setosus, y entre el centro y sur de Chile para las otras cuatro especies. Se recolectaron y analizaron un total de 378 hembras ovígeras. Aunque no detectamos un patrón bien definido para todas las variables reproductivas en las especies analizadas a lo largo de la costa de Chile, emergieron al menos tres generalidades. Primero, en la mayoría de las especies el peso de la masa de embriones no varió entre el centro y sur de Chile (exceptuando P. barbiger. Segundo, la pérdida de embriones no varió entre el centro y sur de Chile en cuatro de las especies estudiadas. Tercero, el peso seco del embrión tendió a aumentar en poblaciones de latitudes altas en cuatro de las especies analizadas. Proponemos que el costo asociado a la provisión de oxígeno a los embriones puede

  3. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. By-catch associated with fisheries of Heterocarpus vicarius (Costa Rica) and Heterocarpus reedi (Chile) (Decapoda: Pandalidae): a six-year study (2004-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Arana, Patricio M.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Orellana, Juan Carlos; Nielsen Muñoz, Vanessa; Villalobos-Rojas, Fresia

    2013-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR), 2013 Growing concern about the quantity and diversity of by-catch species caught in the bottom trawling nets of crustacean fisheries led us to compare the quantity of by-catch recorded in Chilean and Costa Rican deep-water shrimp fisheries by year, latitude, and bathymetry. We analyzed catches from 2143 trawl hauls between 2004 and 2009 from the fisheries of the northern n...

  5. The genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from the central-south Chilean coast (33° to 41° S, with the description of two new species El género Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa central y sur de Chile (33° a 41° S, con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA ARAKAKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of the species in the genus Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from central-south Chile (33° to 41° S is examined on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. Of the four species originally cited for central Chile, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea and C. laciniata, only the presence of C. variegata has been confirmed in this study. C. pinnata reported from Chile is found to be different from C. pinnata described from California, and it is here newly described as C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea from southern Chile (including C. linguata from the Antarctic Peninsula is distinct from the species called C. atrosanguinea from central-south Chile, the latter which is here described as C. macrostiolata sp. nov. C. variegata, C. concepcionensis and C. macrostiolata are distinguished from one another by their external habit, the nature and distribution of their cystocarps, and the female reproductive morphology. Comparative rbcL sequence analysis corroborates the distinction of these taxa from central-south Chile and their relationships to other species worldwide.Se examina el estatus taxonómico de las especies del género Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa centro-sur de Chile (33° a 41° S en base a caracteres morfológicos y moleculares. De las cuatro especies citadas para Chile central, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea y C. laciniata, solo la presencia de C. variegata ha sido confirmada en este estudio. C. pinnata de Chile muestra diferencias con C. pinnata descrita para California y con el resto de las especies de Callophyllis hasta ahora conocidas, constituyendo así una nueva especie, C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea del sur de Chile (incluyendo C. linguata de la Península Antártica muestra diferencias con la especie llamada C. atrosanguinea de la costa centro-sur de Chile, esta última especie es descrita como C. macrostiolata

  6. Sticky costs in cost behavior of the largest companies in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Pamplona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio investiga el comportamiento de los costos de las 50 mayores empresas que cotizan en las bolsas de Brasil, Chile y México, respectivamente, listadas en la BMF&Bovespa, la Bolsa de Santiago y la Bolsa Mexicana, con énfasis en el análisis de los sticky costs . La investigación se realizó con análisis documental y cuantitativo, llevado a cabo con métodos estadísticos como el análisis de datos en panel. A partir de un análisis longitudinal se procedió a la recopilación de la información económica y financiera de las empresas en los informes publicados entre 2002 y 2013. Se encontró que el comportamiento de costos de las mayores empresas brasile ̃ nas presenta, en el promedio de los 12 a ̃ nos, la menor relación entre costos totales (CT/ingresos líquidos de ventas (RLV, sin embargo, en los últimos 2 a ̃ nos de análisis, 2012/2013, las empresas mexicanas mostraron la mejor relación entre CT/RLV. La tendencia de relación CT/RLV de las empresas brasile ̃ nas es cada vez mayor, con fuerte inclinación, mientras que para las empresas mexicanas está disminuyendo suavemente. Empresas chilenas en su mayoría tuvieron la mayor relación CT/RLV, con tendencia creciente, lo que indica que operan con margen de beneficio operacional menor en comparación con otras empresas de Brasil y México. En cuanto el análisis de los sticky costs , se concluye que el comportamiento de los costos en las empresas que cotizan en bolsa más grandes de Brasil, Chile y México es asimétrico y el aumento de los costos a través del incremento en las ventas líquidas operacionales es mayor en comparación con la reducción de los costos debido a una disminución proporcional de las ventas líquidas, aceptando la comprensión del sticky costs . También los costos totales son menos rígidos en las empresas brasile ̃ nas en comparación con otras empresas; las empresas chilenas son aquellas con mayor rigidez. Por fin, se infiere que los factores

  7. Estimación de la temperatura superficial del mar desde datos satelitales NOAA-AVHRR: validación de algoritmos aplicados a la costa norte de Chile Sea surface temperature estimation from NOAA-AVHRR satellite data: validation of algorithms applied to the northern coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Parra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicaron y compararon tres algoritmos del tipo Split-Window (SW, que permitieron estimar la temperatura superficial del mar desde datos aportados por el sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, a bordo de la serie de satélites de la National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA. La validación de los algoritmos fue lograda por comparación con mediciones in situ de temperatura del mar provenientes de una boya hidrográfica, ubicada frente a la costa norte de Chile (21°21'S, 70°6'W; Región de Tarapacá, a 3 km de la costa aproximadamente. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron por aplicación del algoritmo propuesto por Sobrino & Raissouni (2000. En efecto, diferencias entre la temperatura medida in situ y la estimada por SW, permitieron evidenciar una media y desviación estándar de 0,3° y 0,8°K, respectivamente.The present article applies and compares three split-window (SW algorithms, which allowed the estimation of sea surface temperature using data obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA series of satellites. The algorithms were validated by comparison with in situ measurements of sea temperature obtained from a hydrographical buoy located off the coast of northern Chile (21°21'S, 70°6'W; Tarapacá Región, approximately 3 km from the coast. The best results were obtained by the application of the algorithm proposed by Sobrino & Raissouni (2000. The mean and standard deviation of the differences between the temperatures measured in situ and those estimated by SW were 0.3° and 0.8°K, respectively.

  8. Economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay Impacto económico de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna O. Constenla

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of vaccination with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7 in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. METHODS: A decision analytic model was constructed to compare pneumococcal vaccination of children 0-5 years old with no vaccination in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Costs and health outcomes were analyzed from the societal perspective. Vaccine, demographic, epidemiologic, and cost data were incorporated into this economic analysis. RESULTS: At the rate of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine coverage and a vaccine price of US$ 53 per dose, PCV7 was projected to prevent 23 474 deaths per year in children under 5 years old in the three countries studied, thus averting 884 841 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs yearly. To vaccinate the entire birth cohort of the three countries, total vaccine costs would be US$ 613.9 million. At US$ 53 per dose, the cost per DALY averted from a societal perspective would range from US$ 664 (Brazil to US$ 2 019 (Chile. At a cost of US$ 10 per dose, vaccine cost is lower than the overall cost of illness averted (US$ 125 050 497 versus US$ 153 965 333, making it cost effective and cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the incorporation of PCV7 vaccine at US$ 53 per dose confers health benefits at extra costs. It is unclear whether vaccination at the current price is affordable to these countries.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de la aplicación de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada heptavalente (PCV7 en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. MÉTODOS: Se elaboró un modelo analítico de decisiones para comparar la vacunación antineumocócica de los niños de 0-5 años de edad con la no vacunación, en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. Los costos y los desenlaces para la salud se analizaron desde el punto de vista de la sociedad. Al análisis económico se incorporaron los costos y los datos demográficos, epidemiológicos y de la vacuna. RESULTADOS

  9. The geographic distribution of Argas (Persicargas) miniatus and Argas (Persicargas) persicus (Acari: Argasidae) in America, with morphological and molecular diagnoses from Brazil, Chile and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Reyes, Mercedes; Martins, Thiago F; Leite, Romário C; Vilela, Vinicius L R; Benatti, Hector R; Ríos-Rosas, Daniela; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-01-01

    High similarity of morphological traits has historically overshadowed the identities and distributions of poultry-associated soft ticks Argas (Persicargas) miniatus and Argas (Persicargas) persicus in America. In order to model the occurrence of both parasites in the continent, in the current study we performed morphological and molecular analyses to identify ticks collected in hen houses from Brazil and northern Chile. Combining these results with literature data, and the examination of Argas allotments deposited in the tick collections "Coleção Nacional de Carrapatos Danilo Gonçalves Saraiva" (Brazil), the "Coleção Acarológica do Instituto Butantan São Paulo" (Brazil), and the "Colección Zoológica de la Academia de Ciencia de Cuba" (Cuba), we present a critical list with the localities where A. (P.) miniatus and A. (P.) persicus have been reported in the American continent. Our results confirmed the presence of A. (P.) miniatus in Brazil and Cuba, and A. (P.) persicus in Chile, which in particular, constitutes the first molecularly confirmed report of the later species for South America. Although A. (P.) miniatus and A. (P.) persicus have been documented in 21 American countries, the identity of some reports must still be considered as uncertain until detailed morphological and/or molecular studies are performed. When contrasted to a Köppen-Geiger climate classification, A. (P.) miniatus predominantly occurs in equatorial and A. (P.) persicus in arid climates. However, until undetermined reports of both species are correctly identified, any conclusion on their geo-climatological occurrence throughout the American continent would be rather speculative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the beginning, there was Coca-Cola – or there might as well have been, given the product's huge place in the. Costa Rican psyche and economy. Many Costa Ricans were therefore understandably surprised when the Coca-Cola. Interamerican Corporation — the Coca-Cola Company's. Costa Rican subsidiary — and its ...

  11. Estructura trófica de la asociación de peces intermareales de la costa rocosa del norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    C. Viviana Berrios; F. Mauricio Vargas

    2004-01-01

    Se analizaron las interacciones tróficas de 13 especies de peces intermareales, recolectadas en la región norte de Chile (20°18’S y 20°54’S) durante el período julio 1997 a julio 1998, a partir del contenido estomacal de 820 especímenes. La importancia de los ítemes presa, fue valorada a través de los métodos de frecuencia de aparición y gravimétrico y los índices de Shannon-Wiener (diversidad trófica) y Pianka (sobreposición trófica). Los resultados permitieron reconocer una asociación íctic...

  12. Ideas, pensamiento y política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, entre los cincuenta y los sesenta Ideas, beliefs and politics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, between the fifties and sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Nercesian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la relación ideas-pensamiento-política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay en el período que abarca las décadas de 1950 y 1960. En primer lugar, se reconstruyen los principales debates de la CEPAL de los tempranos años cincuenta y su repercusión en los distintos proyectos y alternativas políticas de la época. En segundo lugar, se analiza cómo el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana obligó a revisar esos mismos problemas latinoamericanos, abriendo un nuevo escenario de alternativas políticas para las izquierdas y para las derechas. El estudio propone reubicar "revolución" y "violencia", tópicos muy propios de la década de 1960, en un mapa integral de circulación de ideas que comenzó a conformarse en la coyuntura crítica de los 1950.This paper intends to analyze the relationship between politics, ideas and beliefs in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay during the period 1950-1960. First, we reconstruct the main debates at CEPAL in the early 1950s and their repercussion on the distinct projects and political alternatives at that time. Second, we analyze how the success of the Cuban Revolution made it necessary to revise these same problems in Latin America, opening the door to a new scenario of political alternatives for the left- and right-wing. The study proposes reconsidering the position of "revolution" and "violence", topics that were highly characteristic of the 1960s, on an integral map of ideas that began to take shape in the critical instance of the 1950s.

  13. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  14. Arbitrage with ADRs: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile Arbitraje con ADRs: un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Mora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de casosectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organizedin two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow investors to obtain a risk free return.El presente artículo es la continuación del artículo “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile” y al igual que este, es un subproducto de la investigación “Arbitraje con ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile”. El artículo se divide en dos partes, en la primera se trata la teoría sobre la ley del precio único y la hipótesis de los mercados eficientes, y en la segunda parte se abarca el tema de arbitraje con activos financieros desde la práctica, haciendo un ejercicio econométrico de arbitraje con ADRs. El objetivo de esta investigación es comprobar la existencia de diferenciales de precio entre las acciones y sus respectivos ADRs, lo que permitiría a los inversionistas obtener una ganancia libre de riesgo.Abstract This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organized in two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow

  15. Coral reef detection using SAR/RADARSAT-1 images at Costa dos Corais, PE/AL, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Moraes Rudorff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to examine the potentials of SAR RADARSAT-1 images to detect emergent coral reefs at the Environmental Protection Area of "Costa dos Corais". Multi-view filters were applied and tested for speckle noise reduction. A digital unsupervised classification based on image segmentation was performed and the classification accuracy was evaluated by an error matrix built between the SAR image classification and a reference map obtained from a TM Landsat-5 classification. The adaptative filters showed the best results for speckle suppression and border preservation, especially the Kuan, Gamma MAP, Lee, Frost and Enhanced Frost filters. Small similarity and area thresholds (5 and 10, respectively were used for the image segmentation due to the reduced dimensions and the narrow and elongated forms of the reefs. The classification threshold of 99% had a better user's accuracy, but a lower producer's accuracy because it is a more restrictive threshold; therefore, it may be possible that it had a greater omission on reef classification. The results indicate that SAR images have a good potential for the detection of emergent coral reefs.O presente trabalho examinou o potencial de imagens SAR do RADARSAT-1 na detecção de recifes de coral expostos na Área de Proteção Ambiental das Costa dos Corais. Filtros de multi-visada foram aplicados e testados para redução do ruído speckle. Uma classificação não supervisionada baseada em uma imagem segmentada foi realizada e a acurácia da classificação foi avaliada através de uma matriz de erro construída entre a imagem classificada e o mapa de referência. Os filtros adaptativos apresentaram os melhores desempenhos para supressão de speckle e preservação de bordas, especialmente os filtros Kuan, Gamma MAP, Lee, Frost and Enhanced Frost. Os pequenos limiares de similaridade e de área (10 e 5, respectivamente foram melhores devido à forma fina e alongada dos recifes. O limiar de

  16. Un modelo de la historia de la vegetación de la Cordillera de La Costa de Chile central-sur: la hipótesis glacial de Darwin A model for the history of vegetation of the Coastal Range of central-southern Chile: Darwin's glacial hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA VILLAGRÁN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Chile central-sur, entre los paralelos 37 y 43º S, existen comunidades aisladas de coníferas y tundras magallánicas, cuya distribución principal es altoandina y/o de latitudes altas. De acuerdo a Darwin (1859, en general, estas "islas" corresponderían a los remanentes de poblaciones glaciales, que ocuparon sitios de menor altitud y latitudes más bajas, durante el avance de los hielos. Se desprende de esta hipótesis que, a lo largo de Chile, se habrían producido desplazamientos de la flora austral y andina hacia el Valle Longitudinal, durante la última glaciación, y en sentido inverso, durante el Tardiglacial (14.600-10.000 14C años AP y Holoceno (después de 10.000 14C años AP. Considerando esta hipótesis, en este trabajo se analizan dos secuencias palinológicas, procedentes de las cimas de la Cordillera de la Costa de la Región de los Lagos (cordilleras de Nahuelbuta y de Sarao, y se correlacionan con registros publicados, tanto de otros sitios de cimas de cerros, como de sitios de baja altitud, todos ellos procedentes de las regiones de Los Lagos y de Los Canales. Los registros de las cimas de la Cordillera de La Costa, analizados en este estudio, muestran la siguiente secuencia cronológica: (1 El registro de la Cordillera de Sarao documenta, para el Holoceno temprano, a partir de 9.040 14C años AP, la colonización del elemento de tundras magallánicas y bosque norpatagónico con coníferas, aunque ambas formaciones alcanzan su máximo desarrollo en el Holoceno medio, sucedidas por el elemento de bosque norpatagónico-valdiviano, en el Holoceno tardío. (2 El registro de la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta muestra que la colonización de estos mismos elementos se produce, recién, en el Holoceno medio, alrededor de 5.430 14C años AP. Otros registros de polen de las cimas de la Cordillera de La Costa (Cordillera Pelada y de Piuchué muestran que el desarrollo de ambas formaciones se produjo en el Tardiglacial y Holoceno temprano

  17. Estructura trófica de la asociación de peces intermareales de la costa rocosa del norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viviana Berrios

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las interacciones tróficas de 13 especies de peces intermareales, recolectadas en la región norte de Chile (20°18’S y 20°54’S durante el período julio 1997 a julio 1998, a partir del contenido estomacal de 820 especímenes. La importancia de los ítemes presa, fue valorada a través de los métodos de frecuencia de aparición y gravimétrico y los índices de Shannon-Wiener (diversidad trófica y Pianka (sobreposición trófica. Los resultados permitieron reconocer una asociación íctica compuesta por 46% de especies carnívoras, consumidoras principalmente de crustáceos porcelánidos, poliquetos y crustáceos menores, 23% de especies herbívoras, consumidoras mayoritariamente de algas clorófitas, feófitas y cianófitas y 31% de especies omnívoras, consumidoras principalmente de algas clorófitas, copépodos y gastrópodos. Los peces carnívoros Cheilodactylus variegatus, Helcogrammoides chilensis y Labrisomus philippii y el omnívoro Oplegnatus insignis registraron una tendencia a la eurifágia (H >2.0 bits, sin embargo la mayor superposicion trófica (>0.90 se observó entre los peces herbívoros y omnívoros. Finalmente se analizó el incremento de especies ícticas hacia latitudes bajas, y el aumento de los niveles de herbivoría y omnivoría en el intermareal rocosoThe trophic relationships of 13 intertidal fish species collected in northern Chile (20°18’S and 20°54’S from July 1997 to July 1998, the stomach content analysis of 820 specimens, were investigated. The importance of the prey items was assessed by means of gravimetric and frequency of ocurrence methods, together with the Shannon-Wiener (trophic diversity and Pianka (trophic overlap indexes. The results allowed to recognize a fish assemblage composed of: 46% of carnivorous species, preying mainly on porcelain crabs, polichaetes and minor crustaceans; 23% of herviborous species, preying mainly on chlorophitic algae; 31% of omnivorous species

  18. Alteraciones por el fuego en la Cordillera de la Costa de Chile mediterráneo. Antecedentes en un parque nacional

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    Quintanilla Pérez, Víctor

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerro de la Campana range, in the central part of Chile, is described. The area has several important features, and parts of it have been declared as National Park. Besides the high taxonomic and ecology diversity, both in animals and in plants, it has the southernmost forests of palm trees, as well as many other subtropical residual forests. Many species reach here the extreme south limit. But the ecosystems of the area are endangered and most of them have been decreasing or even vanishing in the past because of the human pressure. The main dangers come from fire and from slash cutting, although many natural communities there seem to be adapted to periodic burns. The consequences of these dangers and some protective measures are discussed.

    Se describe la cadena del Cerro de la Campana, cuyos recursos naturales han determinado la creación en la zona de un Parque Nacional. Los aspectos más interesantes de la zona se relacionan con la existencia en la misma de bosques subtropicales relictos, así como de bosquetes de palmeras en los que la familia palmáceas alcanza su límite extremo meridional. Por otra parte, la variedad ecológica del área es muy elevada, al igual que su riqueza específica, puesto que alberga 7tiuverosas especies de vertebrados, invertebrados y plantas. Muchas especies encuentran aquí su límite meridional absoluto. Sin embargo la zona se encuentra amenazada por la presión humana, especialmente en la forma de incendios forestales y tala masiva, a pesar de que muchas comunidades naturales parecen estar adaptadas a los incendios repetidos. En el trabajo se analizan las consecuencias de estas amenazas y se sugieren medidas encaminadas a la protección del paraje.

  19. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  20. Peixes recifais da costa da Paraíba, Brasil Reef fishes from Paraíba, Brazil

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    Luiz A. Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef is an ecossystem which evokes great interest, for its beaury, species diversity and fisheries potential. The coast of Paraíba State, northeast Brazil, possesses several natural reefs and shipwrecks which are inhabited by a rich fish fauna. In order to survey the reef fish fauna of Paraíba State, a total of 118 dives, utilizing SCUBA diving techniques, were carriedoutin 27samplingpoints (depths: 0,5-66m, from February/1995 to May/1996. Specimens were collected whenever underwater identification was precluded. A total of 157 known species belonging to 59 families were found. Four unidentified species, one dasyatid, one haemulid, one scarid, and one labrid were recorded. Haemulidae was the most representative family in number of individuais, whereas Carangidae was the most speciose family. This paper is part of a broader study of the northeast Brazilian reef fishes.

  1. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent.

  2. Trophic ecology of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata on Chilean rocky shores Ecología trófica del chitón Acanthopleura echinata en costas rocosas de Chile

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    PATRICIO A CAMUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyplacophorans are common herbivores on rocky shores, but basic aspects of their ecology remain scarcely studied and their role within communities could be more complex than previously considered. Such is the case of Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, one of the largest and most conspicuous chitons in the world, and at the same time, one of the least known intertidal species in the southeastern Pacific. To improve the basic ecological knowledge of this potentially important intertidal consumer, we studied the diet of A. echinata and its variation among sites of varying levels of coastal upwelling spread over 1000 km along the coast of northern Chile. A seasonal evaluation of diet, body size distribution and density at sites expected to vary in overall nutrient loadings, benthic algal productivity and sea surface temperature, allowed us to examine plasticity in Acantholeura diet and body size. Overall, A. echinata consumed 85 items of algae (64.7 %, mainly fleshy and calcified encrusting thalli and invertebrates (35.3 %, mainly barnacles. Diet was always dominated by encrusting corallines, although the proportion of algae increased with body size suggesting an ontogenetic variation in feeding habits. Although the number and occurrence frequency of dietary items varied significantly in time and space, there were no consistent seasonal patterns and the dominant items in the diet remained the same at all places. The density of A. echinata showed no significant spatial variation, but its body size and diet breadth correlated positively among sites and both tended to increase with latitude. Our results show that A. echinata is a generalist, polyphagous consumer with a high potential for affecting the space-occupancy dynamics in the intertidal system, and also that among site variation in diet bears no simple relationship with variation in sea surface temperature and upwelling intensity.Los poliplacóforos son herbívoros comunes en costas rocosas, pero

  3. Fifteen years of occupational and environmental health projects support in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: a report from Mount Sinai School of Medicine ITREOH program, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health created the International Training and Research Program in Occupational and Environmental Health (ITREOH program) in 1995 with the aim to train environmental and occupational health scientists in developing countries. Mount Sinai School of Medicine was a grantee of this program since its inception, partnering with research institutions in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. This article evaluates Mount Sinai's program in order to determine whether it has contributed to the specific research capacity needs of the international partners. Information was obtained from: (a) international and regional scientific literature databases; (b) databases from the three participating countries; and (c) MSSM ITREOH Program Database. Most of the research projects supported by the program were consistent with the themes found to be top priorities for the partner countries based on mortality/morbidity and research themes in the literature. Indirect effects of the training and the subsequent research projects completed by the trained fellows in the program included health policy changes and development of collaborative international projects. International research training programs, such as the MSSM ITREOH, that strengthen scientific research capacity in occupational and environmental health in Latin America can make a significant impact on the most pressing health issues in the partner countries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Seedling density according to structure, dominance and understory cover in old-growth forest stands of the evergreen forest type in the coastal range of Chile Densidad de plántulas de acuerdo a la estructura, dominancia y cobertura del sotobosque en bosques siempreverdes adultos en la cordillera de la Costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Donoso

    2005-03-01

    distribución del tipo forestal siempreverde en Chile. Sin embargo, las variables de rodal que puedan afectar el establecimiento de regeneración avanzada no se han estudiado. En este estudio se evaluaron siete rodales de la cordillera de la Costa, en la parte norte de la distribución del tipo forestal (39°14'-40°16' S. En ellos se midió la densidad de árboles, plántulas y brinzales, y se estimó la cobertura de copas de los árboles así como del sotobosque, con la finalidad de evaluar los efectos de la dominancia, la estructura y la cobertura del sotobosque sobre la densidad de plántulas de especies forestales. Laurelia philippiana fue la especie dominante a nivel arbóreo y de plántulas. El número de plántulas fue en general significativamente más abundante a altitudes menores donde Aextoxicon punctatum fue importante. Chusquea spp. y Lophosoria quadripinnata, ambas especies del sotobosque, tuvieron un efecto negativo significativo en la densidad de plántulas. El área basal y la cobertura de copas mostraron una pobre relación con la densidad de plántulas. La estructura vertical, evaluada a través del índice de copas, tuvo una relación significativa con la densidad de plántulas, pero su dirección dependió de la especie (i.e., L. philippiana y A. punctatum y la estructura de diámetros de las parcelas. Los modelos ajustados con estas variables fueron altamente significativos, y en la mayoría de los casos su significancia aumentó considerablemente (14 a 26 % cuando se ajustaron separadamente para parcelas con distintas estructuras diamétricas

  5. Rare events of stratus clouds on the northeast coast of Brazil Eventos raros de nuvens stratus na costa leste do nordeste do Brasil

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    Helber Barros Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One event of three consecutive days and another of four consecutive days of Stratus clouds were registered at the Maceio airport on the northeast coast of Brazil. This is a very rare phenomenon for equatorial regions and it was analyzed using the high resolution (10km ETA model, NCEP reanalysis, satellite data and conventional data supplied by the Hydrometeorological Directory DHM-SERHI/AL and by the Department of Flight Protection of the Zumbi dos Palmares airport. Wave disturbance in the trade winds and weak ascendant movements at low levels (1000 and 925hPa were identified. At the same time, anticyclonic curvature at high levels formed descendant movements and subsidence inversion. These vertical movements combined with a stable layer between 850 and 700hPa created a very humid layer at the low levels. The precipitation forecasted by the ETA model with 24h antecedence presented a satisfactory result for an average quantity of precipitation. Nevertheless, the spatial distributions of forecasted and observed precipitation were different. Precipitation during all days was not forecasted for the coastal region, and for the west region the forecasted precipitation was more intense than the observed ones.Foram registrados dois eventos de três e quatro dias consecutivos de nuvens Stratus no aeroporto de Maceió na costa leste do Nordeste Brasileiro (NEB. Isto é um fenômeno muito raro para regiões equatoriais e foi analisado usando o modelo ETA (10 km com alta resolução, reanálises do NCEP, dados de satélite e dados convencionais fornecidos pela Diretoria de Hidrometeorologia do estado de Alagoas (DHM-SERHI/AL e pelo Departamento de Proteção ao Vôo (DPV do aeroporto Zumbi dos Palmares. Distúrbios ondulatórios de leste e fraco movimento ascendente nos baixos níveis (1000 e 925 hPa foram observados. Esta estrutura esteve associada a uma curvatura anticiclônica nos altos níveis, que implicou em movimentos descendentes e a inversão de

  6. Institutional effectiveness of energy efficiency national programs: Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay cases; Eficacia institucional de los programas nacionales de eficiencia energetica: los casos del Brasil, Chile, Mexico y el Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchansky, Beno [Division de Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura de la CEPAL (Chile); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Januzzi, Gilberto; Romero, Andres

    2011-05-15

    This work describes the experience of four Latin American countries in the area of energy efficiency (EE), with particular emphasis on the creation and effectiveness of institutional systems needed to develop policies, programs and mechanisms to promote EE. The wide variety of situations presented in the study of national cases in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay, as well as the wealth of their experiences may provide significant contributions to the promotion of EE in the region. Brazil stands out because of its long and rich history in the field of promoting EE, in particular, for work conducted in 1985 by PORCEL, a federal program with its base of operations at ELETROBRAS, which served as the national coordinator of EE activities in the electric sector during a large part of the period and was responsible for the successful implementation of activities to foster EE in various areas. While PROCEL and CONPET continue to fulfill an important role, other actors have become involved over time in the activities related to EE, with a gradual transfer over recent years of the activities of these programs to the primary agencies in the sector, particularly MME, ANEEL, ANP and EPE. Currently, Brazil has an extensive network of public and private institutions involved in the area of EE, as well as norms that encourage EE with sufficient resources and regulatory mechanisms to finance and guide these activities. Although a large variety of initiatives have been implemented, they do not yet constitute a national EE policy. Thus, the need is seen for greater institutional coordination that allows for improving the convergence of results, utilizing economies of scale and creating opportunities to develop a national EE policy. Along the lines of the perspective described, the development is underway of a National Energy Efficiency Plan (PNEf, Spanish acronym), coordinated by the MME, that should include the basic elements needed to define an EE policy. Chile has relatively

  7. Prevalência de dor nas costas e fatores associados em adultos do sul do Brasil: estudo de base populacional Prevalence and associated factors of back pain in adults from southern Brazil: a population-based study

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    Gustavo D. Ferreira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de dor nas costas e fatores associados em uma amostra representativa da cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que avaliou 972 adultos com idade entre 20 e 69 anos, de ambos os sexos, moradores da zona urbana do município. O questionário aplicado incluiu questões socioeconômicas, demográficas, comportamentais e de saúde. Dor nas costas foi definida como qualquer dor ou desconforto em algum local das costas nos últimos 12 meses, seja na região cervical, torácica ou lombar. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dor nas costas foi de 63,1% (IC95% 60,0 a 66,1, sendo a região lombar a mais referenciada (40%. Sexo feminino 1,24 (1,12 a 1,37 e percepção ruim de saúde (pOBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of spinal pain and possible prognostic factors in a representative sample of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluated 972 adults aged between 20 and 69 years, of both sexes, residents in a urban area. The questionnaire included socio-economic, demographics, behavioral and health-related questions. Spinal pain was defined as any pain or discomfort in the spine somewhere in the last 12 months, either in the cervical, thoracic or lumbar area. RESULTS: The prevalence of spinal pain was 63.1% (95% CI 60.0 to 66.1 being lower back the most prevalent condition (40%. Female gender 1.24 (1.12 to 1.37 and poor health status(p<0.001 were the variables that remained associated with the presence of spinal pain in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of back pain is important as it is associated with activity limitation and with health care utilization.

  8. Asociación entre la Corriente de Deriva de los Vientos del Oeste y la abundancia relativa del pez espada (Xiphias gladius frente a la costa de Chile Relationship between the West Wind Drift and swordfish (Xiphias gladius relative abundance off Chile

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    Claudio Gatica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre los niveles de abundancia relativa de pez espada (Xiphias gladius frente a la costa de Chile y la posición latitudinal de la Corriente de Deriva de los Vientos del Oeste (CDO desde una perspectiva de macroescala espacial en el período 1989-1996. La posición del eje del borde oriental de la CDO, fue estimada mediante la determinación de la latitud a la cual se bifurcan las isotermas obtenidas desde promedios mensuales de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM. Se utilizó la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE de la flota artesanal redera como índice de abundancia relativa del recurso. El análisis entre las series de tiempo de la CDO y CPUE fue realizado a escala mensual con diferentes retardos entre las series. Se aplicaron dos enfoques metodológicos para determinar la existencia de relación entre estas dos series de tiempo. Primero, se utilizó la metodología propuesta por Pyper & Peterman (1998 para corrección de los grados de libertad efectivos en la prueba de hipótesis de correlación cruzada y segundo, se analizó la correlación a diferentes retardos de dos series estacionarias. Los dos enfoques metodológicos indicaron una relación significativa entre la posición latitudinal de la CDO y la CPUE en una escala mensual. La relación encontrada entre la CDO y la abundancia relativa de pez espada sugiere que la CDO constituye un posible indicador de macroescala de la variabilidad oceanógrafica meteorológica, frente a la cual este especie presenta patrones de distribución y cambios en su disponibilidad.The relationship between the relative abundance of swordfísh (Xiphias gladius off the Chilean coast and the latitudinal location of the West Wind Drift (WWD was analyzed from a macro scale standpoint for the period between 1989 and 1996. The position of the axis of the eastern boundary of the WWD was estimated by determining the latitude of the bifurcation of the isotherms obtained from the average

  9. Perfil das atitudes de formandos em enfermagem frente aos transtornos mentais no Brasil, Chile e Peru Actitudes de alumnos de enfermería ante trastornos mentales en Brasil, Chile y Perú Attitudes of graduate nursing students towards mental disorders in Brazil, Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jorge Pedrão

    2005-06-01

    , restrictivos y discriminadores que los chilenos y peruanos y, por lo tanto, con mayores posibilidades de desarrollar conductas más terapéuticas ante la persona portadora de los mencionados trastornos.This study aimed to draw a profile of nursing graduate students' attitudes towards mental disorders in three different cultures: Brazil, Chile and Peru. The opinion scale for mental disorders was applied. The results showed statistically significant differences (5% in terms of authoritarianism, mental hygiene ideology, serial restriction and minority vision, which were favorable to Brazilian students. As to the factor interpersonal etiology, the results were favorable to Peruvians, while the results for etiology of mental strain were favorable to Chileans. There was no statistical evidence to confirm any difference in terms of benevolence. These results reveal that Brazilian students present more positive attitudes towards mental disorders, as they showed to be less authoritarian, restrictive and discriminative than the Chilean and Peruvian students. Therefore, they are more likely to develop a more therapeutic behavior towards people with mental disorders.

  10. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer qué, cuánto, cuándo y dónde comen y viven los hospedadores permitiría complementar los estudios parasitarios, ya que la transmisión de los endoparásitos está estrechamente ligada a la dieta, y la de los ectoparásitos al uso del hábitat. Por esto, se describen y comparan la composición y características cuantitativas de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis con datos obtenidos de 108 ejemplares juveniles recolectados desde la zona intermareal de cuatro localidades de la costa de Chile (entre 33º y 40º S, y de 14 adultos recolectados desde el submareal somero de una quinta localidad (36º S, y se discute los resultados a la luz de los cambios ontogenéticos en el nicho de este huésped. Cerca del 70 % de los ejemplares tenía contenido alimentario, en el que se distinguieron 25 ítems presa, de los cuales sólo uno era compartido entre juveniles y adultos. La dieta de los toritos juveniles estuvo compuesta principalmente por anfípodos y la de los adultos por crustáceos decápodos. Cerca de un 40 % de los toritos albergaba un total de 624 parásitos en los que se reconocieron 16 taxa, y sólo cuatro eran compartidos entre juveniles y adultos. En los toritos juveniles muestreados en las cuatro localidades había baja y similar intensidad total, riqueza y diversidad parasitarias, y variaciones geográficas significativas en la prevalencia total, composición de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos. La falta de una relación clara entre la composición de la dieta y del parasitismo en los toritos juveniles puede deberse a que las parasitosis son necesariamente recientes, y a que pueden haber grandes diferencias en el tiempo de residencia de presas y parásitos en el tracto digestivo. En los toritos adultos hubo mayor prevalencia, intensidad y diversidad de parásitos que en los juveniles de una localidad cercana. Se requieren más estudios, en especial en la

  11. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010): the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2012-12-01

    Central America is recognized as a mega diverse "hot-spot" and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world's leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62%) and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  12. Resultados da assistência ao parto no Centro de Parto Normal Dr. David Capistrano da Costa Filho em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Results of childbirth care at a birthing center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Emilie Vogt Campos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da assistência prestada em Centro de Parto Normal (CPN por enfermeira obstetra é amplamente questionada. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo de 2.117 partos ocorridos entre janeiro de 2002 e julho 2003, no CPN Dr. David Capistrano da Costa Filho, em Belo Horizonte. Entre os principais resultados da assistência, destacam-se a taxa de transferência materna com 11,4%; a taxa de cesárea com 2,2%; a taxa de admissão em Centro de Tratamento Intensivo (CTI neonatal de 1,2%; e a taxa de Apgar This was a descriptive and retrospective study of 2,117 deliveries from January 2002 to July 2003 at the Dr. David Capistrano da Costa Filho Birthing Center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Widespread questions have been raised concerning the quality of services provided at birthing centers by obstetric nurses. The results of the current study were: 11.4% maternal transfer rate; 2.2% cesarean sections; 1.2% neonatal ICU admissions; and 1% 5-minute Apgar scores below 7. Delivery dystocia and the request for epidural anesthesia were the main reasons for maternal transfer, and respiratory distress was the main cause of neonatal ICU admission. Corrected neonatal mortality was 2 per 1,000 live births. The results at this birthing center did not differ significantly from those in a review of the international literature. The most striking finding was the low cesarean rate. Comparative studies and more comprehensive national data on low-risk gestations are needed.

  13. Determinantes da estrutura de capital das companhias abertas no Brasil, México e Chile no período 2001-2006 Determinants of the capital structure of publicly-traded companies in Brazil, Mexico and Chile in the period 2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dias Bastos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga os determinantes da estrutura de capital, utilizando a técnica de painel de dados estático, para uma amostra de 297 empresas, de diversos setores, pertencentes ao Brasil, México e Chile, no período entre 2001 e 2006, a fim de determinar a importância relativa dos fatores específicos da empresa. A partir de seis indicadores de nível de endividamento (contábil total e de curto e longo prazo, total a valor de mercado e financeiros onerosos de curto e longo prazo, foi evidenciado que os fatores específicos da firma: liquidez corrente, rentabilidade, market to book value e tamanho apresentaram os resultados mais significantes para a estrutura de capital das empresas dos três países. Dentre as quatro correntes teóricas analisadas (Trade off, Assimetria de informações, Pecking order e Agência, a teoria do Pecking order parece ser aquela que melhor explica os resultados obtidos para o Brasil e México. Para o Chile, além do Pecking order, a teoria do Trade off exerce forte influência sobre a estrutura de capital.The present study investigates the determinants of the capital structure, using the technique of static panel data, for a sample of 297 companies from several sectors in Brazil, Mexico and Chile, between 2001 and 2006, in order to determine the relative importance of the specific factors of the firm. Starting from six indicators of leverage ratio (total book-debt ratio, short-term and long-term book-debt ratio, total market-debt ratio and short-term and long-term financial-debt ratio, it was evidenced that the specific factors of the firm: current liquidity, profitability, market to book value and size presented the most significant results for the capital structure of the companies from the three countries. Among the four theoretical currents analyzed (Trade off, Asymmetry of information, Pecking order and Agency, the theory of Pecking order seems to be the one that best explains the results obtained

  14. Abundance, distribution and feeding patterns of a temperate reef fish in subtidal environments of the Chilean coast: the importance of understory algal turf Abundancia, distribución y patrones alimentarios de un pez de arrecifes templados en ambientes submareales de la costa de Chile: la importancia de la capa de algas del subdosel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO T. PALMA

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheilodactylus variegatus is an abundant carnivorous demersal reef fish that lives in the shallow subtidal of the north-central Chilean coast. Characteristically, these environments are dominated by kelp forests of Lessonia trabeculata. This species preys on a great variety of benthic invertebrates, and shows particularly high consumption rates on amphipod crustaceans. In our study, two widely separated populations of C. variegatus were considered (central and northern Chile. Individuals that form part of these populations show considerable differences in their distribution, abundance and trophic behavior. In the northern zone, the species is abundant and both juveniles and adults are distributed along the whole bathymetric gradient. This contrasts with populations found in central Chile, which are more sparse and lack juveniles. The distribution and abundance patterns appear to be influenced mainly by the great abundance of diverse understory macroalgae in the northern subtidal, which harbors a large number of invertebrates, especially amphipods. In contrast, the understory algal abundance of the central zone is much lower, and does not show a direct relationship with the lesser abundance of amphipods. In general, C. variegatus maintains a high consumption rate on amphipods throughout its ontogeny but it includes several other prey items in later ontogenetic stages. The different understory algal assemblages, and their associated fauna, are likely to be the main factors influencing the patterns of abundance and distribution observed between these two geographically distinct fish populationsCheilodactylus variegatus es un pez demersal abundante que habita el submareal somero de la costa norte y central de Chile. Es característico de estos ambientes el estar dominados por praderas del alga Lessonia trabeculata. Esta especie incorpora en su dieta una variada gama de invertebrados bentónicos, mostrando una tasa particularmente alta de consumo de

  15. Geographic distribution and description of four pelagic barnacles along the south east Pacific coast of Chile - a zoogeographical approximation Distribución geográfica y descripción de cuatro especies de cirripedios pelágicos a lo largo de la costa chilena del Pacífico sur este - una aproximación zoogeográfica

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    IVÁN HINOJOSA

    2006-03-01

    el primer registro para la costa central de Chile. El patrón de distribución de estas especies de cirripedios pelágicos corresponde a las principales zonas geográficas reveladas por la mayoría de estudios previos basados en organismos bentónicos: la Provincia Peruano-Chilena del Norte, la Provincia Magallánica del Sur y una Zona Central de Transición, donde las dos provincias se sobreponen. A pesar que el presente estudio solo considera cuatro especies de cirripedios pelágicos, nuestros resultados apoyan la hipótesis de la importancia de las condiciones oceanográficas (en particular: SST en la modulación del patrón zoogeográfico a lo largo de la costa sur este del Pacífico, Chile

  16. Arqueología subacuática y tafonomía: Recientes avances en el estudio de sitios finipleistocénicos sumergidos en la costa pacífico de Chile central.

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    Isabel Cartajena F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a taphonomic analysis of the site GNLQ1 (32 ° S - 71° W Chile discovered at 13 m of depth below sea level. The site can be characterized as a primary context, conformed by diverse remains of extinct continental fauna (families Camelidae, Cervidae, Cricetidae, Artiodactyla, Equidae, Mylodontidae, Canidae and the Xenarthra Order recovered in concentrations arranged on a stratigraphic unit also assigned to the Late Pleistocene. We deal with taxonomic determination, skeletal units' representations, and surface modifications of the material. We aim to understand paleo-ecological conditions and identify taphonomic factors in terrestrial and sub aquatic contexts.

  17. Perspectivas culturales del desarrollo en las costas australes de Chile: aproximación antropológica a las persistencias y transformaciones de las economías de pesca artesanal en el litoral de Aisén

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Gallo, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    La investigación busca explicar y comprender las perspectivas, las implicaciones y las respuestas económico-culturales de las comunidades costeras del sur austral de Chile frente a los procesos de desarrollo económico y modernización que se despliegan actualmente en sus territorios. La problematización del objeto de estudio, se enmarca en la expansión de la industria productora de salmones en cautiverio y en la promoción local de las mentalidades emprendedoras por parte de las agencias del Es...

  18. All projects related to chile | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION NETWORKS, INFORMATION SERVICES, VALUE ADDED, INCOME GENERATION. Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, North and Central America, Panama. Total Funding: CA$ 696,281.00. Autonomy and Community Management of Protected Areas in ...

  19. All projects related to Chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLICY MAKING, DATA COLLECTING, PUBLIC SECTOR, WOMEN, YOUTH, MOTIVATION, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, PRIVATE SECTOR. Region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 858,000.00. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal ...

  20. All projects related to Chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC THEORY, DEVELOPMENT THEORY, Economic and social development. Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, North and Central America. Total Funding: CA$ 245,200.00. Agency and Women's Choices in Chile. Project. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender ...

  1. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    biotechnology and nanotechnology could help to develop natural resources in a more sustainable way. □ Reconstruction in Haiti. Funding: $300,700. Duration: 2009–2012. Grantee: Pró-Ensino Sociedade Civil, Brazil. Researchers from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Chile have been supporting their coun- tries' efforts to ...

  2. Estudo da infecção e morbidade da doença de Chagas no município de João Costa: Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brasil Study of the infection and morbidity of Chagas' disease in municipality of João Costa: National Park Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brazil

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    José Borges-Pereira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar aspectos da infecção e morbidade da doença de Chagas no município de João Costa, Piauí, Brasil, realizamos pesquisa sorológica para detectar Ig G anti-T. cruzi em 2.080 moradores através dos testes de imunofluorescência indireta, hemaglutinação indireta e ELISA. Em seguida, 189 pacientes soropositivos e 141 soronegativos foram avaliados pelo exame clínico e eletrocardiograma (ECG, enquanto a parasitemia foi pesquisada em 106 chagásicos pelo xenodiagnóstico indireto e teste da reação polimerásica em cadeia (PCR. A soropositividade total para Ig G anti-T.cruzi foi de 9,8%, com variação de 0,5% em menores de 10 anos a 39,4% em maiores de 59 anos, independentemente do sexo. O percentual de ECG alterados foi de 41,3% entre os chagásicos e de 15,6% entre os não-chagásicos (p In order to investigate aspects of the infection and morbidity of Chagas' disease in the municipality of João Costa, Piauí State, Brazil, we carried out a serological survey to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 2,080 individuals, by indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. A total of 189 seropositive and 141 seronegative patients were evaluated by anamnesis, physical exam and electrocardiogram (EKG. The parasitaemia of 106 chagasic patients was evaluated by indirect xenodiagnosis and PCR (polymerase chain reaction. The total seropositivity was 9.8%, with intervals of 0.5% in patients younger than 10 years old, and 39.4% among patients older than 59 years old, independently of the sex. The PCR and xenodiagnosis were positive, respectively in 74.5% and 15.1% of the seropositive patients (p < 0.05. The rate of abnormal EKG was 41.3% in chagasic and 15.6% in non-chagasic patients (p < 0.05. In spite of the high prevalence of infection in the investigated population, the low rate of seropositivity among children is indicative of a possible decrease of the active transmission mediated by triatomines

  3. Metrología de la incertidumbre: un estudio de las estadísticas vitales en Chile y Brasil The metrology of uncertainty: a study of vital statistics from Chile and Brazil

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    Yuri Carvajal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la incertidumbre presente en una de las mediciones más usada para análisis y toma de decisiones en salud pública. Adapta la medida de entropía de Shannon-Wiener para expresar la incertidumbre contenida en el conteo de las causas de muertes en las estadísticas vitales oficiales de Chile. A partir de los hallazgos, discute los requerimientos metrológicos en salud pública, tan importantes como las mediciones mismas. Considera y argumenta la existencia de una incertidumbre adicional, asociada con las propiedades performativas de las estadísticas. Tanto por la forma de estructurar los datos a la manera de una cierta sintaxis de lo real, como por las exclusiones de aquello que queda más allá de la modelación cuantitativa usada en cada caso. Mediante una aproximación a la herencia del pensamiento pragmático, y usando herramientas conceptuales de la sociología de la traducción, destaca que la incertidumbre puede contribuir en salud pública a un debate acerca de la vinculación entre técnica, democracia y la formación de un público.This paper addresses the issue of uncertainty in the measurements used in public health analysis and decision-making. The Shannon-Wiener entropy measure was adapted to express the uncertainty contained in counting causes of death in official vital statistics from Chile. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that metrological requirements in public health are as important as the measurements themselves. The study also considers and argues for the existence of uncertainty associated with the statistics' performative properties, both by the way the data are structured as a sort of syntax of reality and by exclusion of what remains beyond the quantitative modeling used in each case. Following the legacy of pragmatic thinking and using conceptual tools from the sociology of translation, the authors emphasize that by taking uncertainty into account, public health can contribute to a

  4. All projects related to Brazil | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESOURCES EXPLOITATION, AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, FISHERY DEVELOPMENT, FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT, NEW TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS. Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, North and Central America.

  5. Note on the fisheries and biology of the golden crab (Chaceon fenneri off the northern coast of Brazil Nota sobre la biología y la pesca del cangrejo dorado (Chaceon fenneri frente a la costa norte de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barros Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of golden crabs (Chaceon fenneri off the northern coast of Brazil was first reported in 2001. Since then, a few companies and boats have exploited this resource. In the state of Ceará, one company has been fishing for these crabs with a single boat since 2003. The production and fishing effort of this company indicated a decrease in the number of trips and total catches per year. Data collected on one trip in 2006 showed that the CPUE was highest at over 650 m depth. As registered for other geryonid crabs, C. fenneri was segregated by sex along the northern slope of Brazil. Male crabs were significantly larger than females, presenting an isometric relationship between carapace width and length and an allometric relationship between carapace width and body weight.La presencia de cangrejos dorados (Chaceon fenneri frente a la costa norte de Brasil fue primeramente descrita en 2001. Desde entonces, algunas embarcaciones y compañías se han dedicado a explotar este recurso. En el Estado de Ceará, una sola compañía ha estado pescando estos crustáceos desde el año 2003 con una sola embarcación. Se presenta la producción y esfuerzo pesquero aplicado por esa compañía, indicando la disminución en el número de viajes y captura total por año. Registros recolectados en un viaje realizado el 2006 muestran que los mayores valores de CPUE se obtienen a profundidades mayores de 650 m. Al igual que lo registrado en otros Geryonidae, agregaciones por sexo se determinaron en C fenneri a lo largo del talud en la región norte de Brasil. Los machos fueron significativamente más grandes que las hembras, presentando una relación isométrica entre el ancho y longitud del caparazón; como también, una relación alométrica entre el ancho y el peso.

  6. Idades e crescimento da cioba, Ocyururs chrysurus, da Costa Central do Brasil Age and growth of yellowtail snapper, Ocyururs chrysurus, from Central Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Neves de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A idade e o crescimento da cioba da costa central do Brasil foram estudados a partir de leituras de otólitos obtidos em amostragens mensais de desembarques comerciais, realizados nas cidades de Vitória e Vila Velha, entre os anos de 1998 e 1999. Através da análise do incremento marginal, foi verificada a formação anual de uma zona translúcida a partir do final do outono e durante o inverno. Foram observadas ciobas de 2 a 19 anos. Os comprimentos furcais (CF médios retrocalculados variaram de 108 mm para idade 1 a 524 mm para idade 19. A equação de Von Bertalanffy ajustada aos CF médios retrocalculados foi CFt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773. A relação comprimento peso foi P = 2,68x10-5CF2.914, onde P = peso total em gramas. O crescimento é lento, com os incrementos anuais em peso aumentando gradativamente até atingir o máximo de 164 g entre as idades 7 e 8 anos. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que a cioba tem longa expectativa de vida e baixas taxas de crescimento somático, características das espécies mais sensíveis à exploração pesqueira.To age and study the growth of yellowtail snapper, we analyzed readings of otoliths obtained in monthly samplings from commercial landings in the cities of Vitória and Vila Velha, from 1998 to 1999. Marginal increment analysis showed that the formation of a translucent zone occurred in the early fall and during the winter. The observed ages range from 2 to 19 years. Mean back-calculated fork lengths (FL range from 108 mm for age 1 to 524 mm for age 19. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation fitted to the mean back-calculated FL was FLt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773, The length-weight relationship was W= 2,68x10-5FL2.914, where W = whole weight in grams. Yellowtail snapper has a slow growth with annual growth increments in weight raising progressively to the maximum of 164 g between the 7 and 8 years. The yellowtail snapper has long lifespan and slow growth rates, features of

  7. A new species of Ituglanis Costa & Bockmann, 1993 (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) endemic to the Tramandaí-Mampituba ecoregion, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Juliano; Donin, Laura M; Malabarba, Luiz R

    2015-09-22

    Ituglanis boitata, new species, is described from the rio Tramandaí system and rio Mampituba and Araranguá basins, southern Brazil. This new species is distinguished from congeners with the exception of I. bambui, I. boticario,                       I. paraguassuensis and I. proops by the supraorbital canal of the cephalic laterosensory system interrupted between nasal and frontal sections and the presence of pore s2 (vs. supraorbital canal uninterrupted and pore s2 absent). Ituglanis boitata     differs from these species in osteological characters, measurements and body coloration. Ituglanis boitata presents a              noticeable endemism in the Tramandaí-Mampituba freshwater ecoregion, a recognized biogeographic unit for freshwater fishes including other 22 endemic species. A discussion about the intraspecific variation in the cephalic laterosensory system within Trichomycterinae is also provided.

  8. A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin(Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Juruena basin, Central Brazil, with notes on H. loweae Costa & Géry

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    Leonardo F. S. Ingenito

    Full Text Available A new species of Hyphessobrycon, H. peugeoti, is described from the middle portions of the rio Juruena drainage, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. It can be distinguished from all congeners, with the exception of H. loweae and H. heliacus, by a filamentous elongation of the dorsal fin and the approximately straight margin of the anal fin in adult males. It can be distinguished from both H. loweae and H. heliacus by an overall red coloration in life (vs. a golden coloration in life in the latter. Additionally, it can be distinguished from H. heliacus by the lack of chevron-like dark markings along the midline (vs. presence of chevron-like dark-markings in H. heliacus, and from H. loweae by the presence of only five horizontal scale rows between the dorsal-fin origin and the lateral line (vs. 6-7 in H. loweae, and the higher number of branched anal-fin rays (21-24, modally 22, vs. 17-21, modally 20, in H. loweae. Additional meristic, morphometric, and distributional data are provided for Hyphessobrycon loweae, including its first record in the rio Araguaia/Tocantins basin. Comments on a putative monophyletic group including H. peugeoti, H. loweae, H. heliacus, H. elachys, and H. moniliger are presented.

  9. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  10. Electronic Invoice in Costa Rica: Challenges for Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Juan José; De La O-Selva, Mario; Cortés-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the current situation that Costa Rica faces around fiscal issues and high evasion rates. Using actors and multidimensional analysis, it proposes the electronic invoice as an e-government strategic solution that will close the gap around tax evasion and the government incomes. The success achieved by Brazil in this area…

  11. [A scientometric view of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin

    2008-08-01

    During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.

  12. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINGO A. LANCELLOTTI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad de macroinvertebrados marinos ha recibido una atención creciente, no obstante, con un escaso tratamiento en el contexto biogeográfico. Este estudio analiza los registros de 1.601 especies de macroinvertebrados bentónicos pertenecientes a: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, agrupados en 10 zonas y tratados desde una perspectiva zoogeográfica. Mollusca (611 especies, Polychaeta (403 y Crustacea (370 corresponden a los grupos mejor representados a lo largo de la costa chilena, determinantes en el patrón global de la biodiversidad. Este aumenta suavemente de norte a sur, interrumpido por máximos que sugieren esfuerzos diferenciales de estudio más que un comportamiento natural de la biodiversidad. El grado de agrupamiento entre las zonas muestra las tres unidades biogeográficas definidas recientemente por Lancellotti & Vásquez. Este arreglo, que representa lo exhibido por los grupos más diversos, se ve alterado en los grupos menos representados donde las diferencias obedecen al patrón de afinidades mostradas por las zonas comprendidas dentro de la Región Templada Transicional. El quiebre zoogeográfico alrededor de los 41º S, sugerido largamente en la literatura, sólo ocurre en Echinodermata y Demospongiae, evidenciando en los otros taxa la existencia de un área de transición entre los 35º y 48º S, caracterizada por un reemplazo gradual de especies. Dentro de las regiones la biodiversidad muestra homogeneidad, contrario al endemismo, el que alcanza un máximo de 52% en la Región Templada Fría y que parece ser consecuencia del alto número de especies con registros únicos (38,2% de especies citadas para una sóla zona. Esto sugiere un desconocimiento de los macroinvertebrados chilenos (distribución y diversidad, sobrestimando el endemismo regional y distorsionando los patrones locales de biodiversidadThe diversity of marine macroinvertebrates has received increasing

  13. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  14. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México. 2 - Fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar sua introdução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Díaz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.Foram identificados fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar a introdução da anticoncepção de emergência (AE no Brasil, Chile e México. Foram levantadas informações sobre o contexto sócio-cultural, político e legal bem como sobre as características dos serviços da saúde reprodutiva. As opiniões de potenciais usuários e possíveis provedores foram obtidas por meio de grupos de discussão, e as das autoridades e outras pessoas influentes por intermédio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os obstáculos incluíram: percepção da AE como abortiva; oposição da Igreja Católica; pouco reconhecimento dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos; pouca educação sexual; e falta de sensibilidade frente às questões de gênero. Os facilitadores foram: percepção da AE como um método que

  15. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México: 1 - Percepções sobre as pílulas de anticoncepção de emergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Díaz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women should be informed about EC, while others viewed it as a method for special situations such as rape and unprotected first sexual intercourse. Concern was expressed that its introduction might be associated with a decrease in condom use, increase in sexually transmitted diseases, and irresponsible or promiscuous sexual behavior among adolescents. The need for EC was clearly perceived by most participants, leading to the conclusion that health authorities have the responsibility of implementing programs for its introduction. Training of health care personnel should include the discussion of reproductive health problems that could be prevented by EC.Apresentam-se opiniões de potenciais usuárias e possíveis provedores de anticoncepção de emergência (AE no Brasil, Chile e México. As opiniões foram obtidas em grupos de discussão, e a opinião de autoridades e outras pessoas influentes por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. A maioria teve uma opinião positiva sobre a AE, que poderia contribuir para reduzir gravidez não planejadas, o aborto provocado e a gravidez entre adolescentes. Alguns consideraram que todas as mulheres deveriam saber sobre a AE, enquanto outros pensaram que era um método para situações especiais, tais como estupro e uma primeira relação sexual desprotegida. As preocupações foram de que sua introdução poderia estar associada à diminuição do uso do condom, aumento das doenças de transmissão sexual e comportamento sexual

  16. First pathological report of parasitic gastric ulceration in Humboldt penguin(Spheniscus humboldtialong the coast of south-central Chile Primera descripción patológica de úlceras gástricas parasitarias en el pingüino de Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti en la costa centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Yáñez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This report offers a macroscopic and histological description of ulcerative gastric lesions in Humboldt penguins associated with the presence of Contracaecum pelagicum. Parasites of this genus have been isolated from different species of marine mammals and birds, including penguins, demonstrating its capacity to generate ulcerative lesions in the gastrointestinal tracts of many hosts. A bibliographic review revealed no publications on gastric ulceration by nematodes in Humboldt penguins. Studies carried out in Chile concerning gastrointestinal parasitism by nematodes of the Contracaecum genus in S. humboldti only established the parasite's taxonomy. This is the first pathological description of a parasitic ulcerative manifestation in the stomach of S. humboldti in the world. The Humboldt penguin is a vulnerable species. Therefore, this study is relevant as it offers a better understanding of the diseases that affect S. humboldti and facilitates the development of strategies intended to recover the population.El presente trabajo ofrece una descripción macroscópica e histológica de lesiones gástricas de tipo ulcerativas en el pingüino de Humboldt asociadas a la presencia de Contracaecum pelagicum. Parásitos del género Contracaecum han sido aislados de diferentes especies de mamíferos y aves marinas, incluyendo pingüinos, en gran parte del mundo, demostrando una gran capacidad de generar lesiones ulcerativas en un número importante de hospederos. La revisión bibliográfica reveló la ausencia de publicaciones relativas a cuadros ulcerativos gástricos causados por nemátodos en el pingüino de Humboldt. Los estudios realizados en Chile concernientes a parasitismo gastrointestinal por nemátodos del género Contracaecum en S. humboldti sólo han abordado aspectos taxonómicos. Esta publicación constituye la primera descripción patológica de un cuadro de ulceraciones gástricas parasitarias en el pingüino de Humboldt. S. humboldti est

  17. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  18. Redescription of Cateria gerlachi (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Sri Lanka and of C. styx from Brazil, with notes on C. gerlachi from India and C. styx from Chile, and the ground pattern of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Birger; Kegel, Antje

    2015-06-08

    Cateria gerlachi is redescribed based on specimens from the west coast of Sri Lanka by light microscopical observations of 57 adult and 47 juvenile specimens and by SEM investigations of 33 adult and 10 juvenile specimens. Cateria styx from Brazil is redescribed from 33 adult and 5 juvenile specimens mounted for light microscopy (original material). The original material of C. gerlachi from India and new material of C. styx from Chile have been studied for comparison. Cateria gerlachi can be distinguished from C. styx by leaf-like cuticular hairs dorsally but not laterally on the tergal plate of segment 1 and on the midsternal plate of segments 1-2 vs scales with a posterior process on the entire tergal plate of segment 1 and on the midsternal plate of segments 1-2 in C. styx, fewer lines of leaf-like hairs of the secondary fringe on segments 2-10 in C. gerlachi, broader scales in the central part of the segments in C. gerlachi, the blunt tube on segment 5 in a lateral accessory vs a lateroventral position in C. styx, the lack of a midlateral spine on segment 11 vs its existence on segment 11 of C. styx, the lack of a protrusible dorsal organ at the border of segments 5 and 6 vs its existence in C. styx and type-5 sensory spots and gland cell outlets present on different segments and positions in the two species. We report and document for species of Cateria detailed morphological data, including variability within populations, a female and a male life-history stage, as well as moulting of an adult stage to another adult stage. In contrast to previous records, C. gerlachi occurs in sandy intertidal habitats not only deeply buried in the sediment but also at the surface.

  19. Chile : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 27 février 2010. Sujet: COMPUTERS, TOXIC WASTES, WASTE RECYCLING, WASTE MANAGEMENT, WASTE DISPOSAL, RESEARCH NETWORKS. Région: Chile, South America, Colombia, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Peru. Programme: Économies en réseaux. Financement total : CA$ 531,601.00.

  20. chile : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Chile, South America, Colombia, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Peru. Programme: Économies en réseaux. Financement total : CA$ 531,601.00. Transferts intergénérationnels, vieillissement de la population et protection sociale en Amérique latine. Projet. Les pays d'Amérique latine rejoignent rapidement ...

  1. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  2. Coastal uplift and tsunami effects associated to the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule earthquake in Central Chile Levantamiento cosísmico e impacto del tsunami a lo largo de la costa de Chile central asociado al terremoto del Maule Mw8.8 de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On February 27, 2010 at 03:34:08 AM an Mw8.8 earthquake, with epicenter located off Cobquecura (73.24°W; 36.29°S, severely hit Central Chile. The tsunami waves that followed this event affected the coastal regions between the cities of Valparaíso and Valdivia, with minor effects as far as Coquimbo. The earthquake oceurred along the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate. Coseismic coastal uplift was estimated through observations of bleached lithothamnioids crustose coralline algae, which were exposed after the mainshock between 34.13°S and 38.34°S, suggesting the latitudinal distribution of the earthquake rupture. The measured coastal uplift values varied between 240±20 cm at sites closerto the trench along the western coast of the Arauco peninsulaand 15±10 cm at sites located farther east. A maximum valué of 260±50 cm was observed at the western coast of Santa María Island, which is similar to the reported uplift associated with the 1835 earthquake at Concepción. Land subsidence values on the order of 0.5 m to 1 m evidenced a change in polarity and position of the coseismic hinge at 110-120 km from the trench. In four sites along the coast we observed a close match between coastal uplift values deduced from bleached lithothamnioids algae and GPS measurements. According to field observations tsunami heights reached ca. 14 m in the coastal area of the Maule region immediately north of the epicenter, and diminished progressively northwards to 4-2 m near Valparaíso. Along the coast of Cobquecura, tsunami height values were inferior to 2-4 m. More variable tsunami heights of 6-8 m were measured at Dichato-Talcahuano and Tirúa-Puerto Saavedra, in the Biobío and Arauco regions, respectively, to the south of the epicenter. According to eyewitnesses, the tsunami reached the coast between 12 to 20 and 30 to 45 minutes in areas located closer and faraway from the earthquake rupture zone, respectively

  3. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  4. Characterization of phytoplankton biodiversity in tropical shipwrecks off the coast of Pernambuco, Brazil Caracterização da biodiversidade do fitoplâncton em naufrágios tropicais da costa de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Henrique Cavalcanti dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community was studied around two artificial reefs (shipwrecks Servemar-X and Servemar-I, located off the coast of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, aiming to identify and thus, better describe these environments. Water samples were collected with Nansen bottle at three depths (surface, mid-column and bottom for chlorophyll a analysis and salinity; temperature and water transparency were also measured. To collect phytoplankton samples, a diver using SCUBA equipment carried out phytoplankton hauls with a 20 µm net around the shipwrecks, about 1.5 m from the bottom for approximatly 3 minutes. Chlorophyll a concentrations at the bottom varied between 0.61 and 5.97 mg.m-3, with an average that indicates a mesotrophic environment. Temperature and salinity registered small seasonal variation, while water transparency showed a seasonal spatial pattern positively related to Chl-a rates. As regards the phytoplankton community, diatoms were the most representative group in the samples, followed by dinoflagellates, and among the species, the cyanobacteria Trichodesmium thiebautii Gomont ex Gomont prevailed quantitatively. The ecological importance of these ecosystems was confirmed by the high diversity and evenness indexes, with the influence of coastal waters playing an essential role in phytoplankton structure and diversity.A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi estudada nas adjacências de dois recifes artificiais (naufrágios Servemar-X e Servemar-I, na costa de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil, com o intuito de identificá-la e melhor caracterizar esses ambientes. Amostras de água foram coletadas com garrafa de Nansen em três profundidades (superfície, meio e fundo para a análise da clorofila a e salinidade, obtendo-se ainda dados de temperatura e transparência da água. Para coleta do fitoplâncton, um mergulhador utilizando equipamento SCUBA realizou arrastos com uma rede de 20 µm ao redor dos naufrágios a 1,5 m do fundo, por cerca

  5. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  6. IVF in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Carlos; Vargas, Karen; Raventós, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    For 16 years, Costa Rica was the only country in the world that banned IVF, after it had been successfully conducted from 1995 to 2000. It also has been the only country that banned IVF based on the argument that it protects the embryo. After years of conflict, the prohibition has finally been lifted and the first baby girl was born in March 2017. This paper recounts the judicial and legal struggles Costa Rica faced in order to reestablished its IVF program. PMID:28985042

  7. Nicolaou, Prof. Kyriacos Costa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2007 Honorary. Nicolaou, Prof. Kyriacos Costa. Date of birth: 1946. Address: Department of Chemistry & BRC, Rice University, 6100, Main Street, MS 602, Houston, TX 77005, U.S.A.. Contact: Residence: (+1-713) 348 8860. Fax: (+1-713) 348 8865. Email: kcn@rice.edu. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  8. IDRC in Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With its history of political stability, Costa Rica has been a vital Central American partner for research on agriculture, economic policy, democratization ... is funding the Omar Dengo Foundation to identify what new skills are required and devise education strategies to impart them to small business owners and managers.

  9. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers at PUC also studied residential energy use, the need to use wood fuel more efficiently, and the potential for small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power generation. Chile's energy management policies drew on this research. IDRC. IDRC in Chile. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. R.

  10. Vascular alien flora, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte, Eduardo; Lira, Francisco; Fuentes, Nicol; Klotz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We compiled a list of 737 alien plant species growing in continental Chile. Most names were obtained from herbarium specimens (mainly herbarium CONC at Universidad de Concepción, Chile). More than fifty percent of the species are european in origin. Besides, records also include: traits related to life-cycle and brief coments on origin and history of introduction.

  11. All projects related to Uruguay | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Mexico, Uruguay. Program: ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Uruguay. Program: ... Topic: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, Civil society, HEALTH SYSTEM, Evaluation. Region: Argentina ...

  12. Evaluacion base para una eventual Área Marina Protegida (AMP) en el norte de Chile (III Región).

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Julio

    2002-01-01

    En Chile, las áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) constituyen un herramienta de conservación creada recientemente a través de la Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura. A lo largo de más de 4000 km de costa, sólo existe una AMP en el litoral de Chile continental, localizada en la costa de la II Región-Antofagasta. Esta AMP está orientada a la conservación y preservación de Argopecten purpuratus "Ostión del Norte".

  13. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  14. Umweltpolitik in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Önel, Jale; Wittelsbürger, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Im lateinamerikanischen Raum gilt Chile als in vielfacher Hinsicht stabiles, ja vorbildliches Land: Eine gute weltwirtschaftliche Integration, solide Wachstumsdaten und politische Stabilität sprechen für sich. Doch als das Land 2003 der OECD beitreten wollte und von dieser kritisch geprüft wurde, zeigten sich, zumal im Umweltschutzbereich, arge Defizite. In der Tat hat Umweltpolitik in Chile kaum Tradition: Zwar erkannte bereits in den sechziger Jahren Regierungschef Frei Montalva die Umweltb...

  15. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    and the aristocratic tradition. Romanza, opera, operetta, popular folk songs. He became famous thankfully to this last one, when the easy listening music industry was starting its productions. This is the first published biography on the artist and is based on original documents and sources.......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...

  16. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Spanish, although some are of Dutch, German, and Swiss backcrouncl. Nenroen , descendants of Jamacian workers who immigrated to c?onta Hica in the...Languages: Spanish and liiglish. Specializes in penal, Corporation, Real Estate, family and immigration law, Office address; Entrada Principal a la...Canas T>^ Bahia Lirnon Juan Canas R. Bah in.’ 8f \\ Gove iTiwcn c COSTA RICAN SHORT V.’AVE STATIONS APRIL J983 F r e q KHz H .632 5.055 5.95

  17. Lecto- and Paralectotype Designations and Redescription of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaynara S. Martins; Felipe F. F. Moreira; Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2016-01-01

    The lecto- and a paralectotype of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 are designated to enhance nomenclatural stability. A redescription based on the type material from Rio de Janeiro deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil, is presented. Specimens are illustrated and measured in detail for the first time.

  18. Nova espécie do gênero Ptesimopsia Costa (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Policena Rosa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ptesimopsia gracilis sp. nov. coletada em armadilha malaise na Fazenda Jaburu, Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada.New species of the genus Ptesimopsia Costa (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae. Ptesimopsia gracilis sp. nov. collected by malaise trap at Fazenda Jaburu, Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe, Brazil, is described and illustrated.

  19. All projects related to Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, Costa Rica, Canada, Taiwan, Denmark, Germany, Sweden. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 141,700.00. Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches. Project. The highest numbers of dengue cases in Latin America in the last few years have occurred in Brazil, Colombia, and ...

  20. null Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  1. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Con su historia de estabilidad política, Costa Rica ha sido un socio centroamericano vital para la investigación en la agricultura, las políticas económicas, la democratización y la prevención de desastres. El IDRC ha contribuido de manera significativa a la investigación agrícola en. Costa Rica, con resultados notables ...

  2. Le CRDI au Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La stabilité politique du Costa Rica a fait de ce pays un partenaire essen- tiel du CRDI en Amérique centrale pour la recherche portant sur l'agriculture, les politiques économiques, la démocratisation et la prévention des catastrophes naturelles. Le CRDI a beaucoup contribué à la recherche en agriculture au Costa Rica,.

  3. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  4. Abundance, distribution and feeding patterns of a temperate reef fish in subtidal environments of the Chilean coast: the importance of understory algal turf Abundancia, distribución y patrones alimentarios de un pez de arrecifes templados en ambientes submareales de la costa de Chile: la importancia de la capa de algas del subdosel

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Álvaro T.; F. PATRICIO OJEDA

    2002-01-01

    Cheilodactylus variegatus is an abundant carnivorous demersal reef fish that lives in the shallow subtidal of the north-central Chilean coast. Characteristically, these environments are dominated by kelp forests of Lessonia trabeculata. This species preys on a great variety of benthic invertebrates, and shows particularly high consumption rates on amphipod crustaceans. In our study, two widely separated populations of C. variegatus were considered (central and northern Chile). Individuals tha...

  5. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  6. HISTORIA AMBIENTAL DE LOS ARCHIPIÉLAGOS DE LA TRAPANANDA (PATAGONIA SEPTENTRIONAL, CHILE): DESAFÍOS PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA BALLENA AZUL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabian Paillacheo; Magdalena Navarro; Juan Carlos Skewes; María Eugenia Solari

    2012-01-01

    La reaparición de la ballena azul en el sur de Chile constituye un desafío para las políticas de conservación e invita a repensar la historia del mar austral y, en particular, de la costa aysenina...

  7. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    authorities in Chile lack information on work- related psychological problems, which are an underlying cause of disease. The research team — made up of lawyers, sociologists, psychologists, medical doctors, and other specialists — is identifying good practices to promote healthier workplaces. I Reconstruction in Haiti.

  8. Observações sobre a ocorrência de Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae na costa do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Remarks about the Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae occurrence in Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os espécimes foram coletados na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro no inverno. Sua distribuição era conhecida para Off Cape Lookout, Carolina do Norte até a Flórida, Golfo do México, Canal de Yucatan, Honduras, Antilhas, Venezuela e Brasil (Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia.The specimens were collected in Sepetiba Bay during the winter. Their distribution was formerly known from Off Cape Lookout, North Carolina until Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Channel, Honduras, Antilles, Venezuela and Brazil (Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia.

  9. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  10. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  11. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  12. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Jorge

    2004-09-01

    A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children's Hospital (HNN). This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica.

  13. ACOSO LABORAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS MORÚA, ELIZARDA

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  14. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  15. [Euthanasia in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco M, Víctor Hugo; Crispi, Francisca

    2016-12-01

    Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation. In order to have an open discussion in our population about the issue, the debate has to be opened to the citizens, accompanied by clear medical information about the procedure.

  16. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    CERN Document Server

    Segawa, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  17. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    bilateral Economic Complementary Treaty and agreement on the 1951 Pipeline of Bolivian fiscal oilfield of Sicasica, which had serious implications for...Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at...Available from <http://www.rr.ee.gov.bo/ministerio/ POLITICA EXTERIOR/memoria.htm >. Internet. Accessed 28 October 2004. Gray, Colin. “Thinking

  18. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  19. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Desde la década de 2000, la Escuela de. Economía de la Universidad de Costa Rica ... Comunidades urbanas pobres resistan la violencia. □ Empresas locales de alta tecnología prosperen. □ Proveedores de agua se adapten al cambio climático. □ Economistas ambientales enfrenten los problemas del agua.

  20. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  1. Chile : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LEGAL ABORTION, WOMEN'S HEALTH, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS. Région: North and Central America, South America, Brazil, Chile, Mexico. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 851,826.00. Jeunesse sud-américaine : dialogues régionaux en vue du façonnement de la ...

  2. Chile : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 31 mars 2012. Sujet: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, RESEARCH POLICY, EDUCATIONAL POLICY, INDUSTRIAL POLICY, Technological change. Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, North and Central America. Programme: Économies en réseaux. Financement total : CA$ 450,000.00.

  3. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help-Se...

  4. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  5. Divorcio en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto, Cox

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to make an empirical evaluation of what happened in Chile after the 2004 enactment of the new Civil Marriage Act (Law 19,947), which included absolute divorce for the first time in Chilean law. Until that moment, the way that a marriage could formally be ended was by an annulment due to incompetence of the Civil Registry officer, possible only provided there was mutual consent of the spouses and the resources to hire an attorney. The analysis says that althoug...

  6. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  7. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  8. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  9. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  10. Ameaças naturais e avaliação subjetiva na construção da vulnerabilidade social diante de desastres naturais no Chile e Brasil Amenazas naturales y evaluación subjetiva en la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social ante desastres naturales en chile y brasil Naturalhazards and subjective assessment in the construction of social vulnerability to cope with natural disasters in chile and brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguêsSão analisados de pontos de vista objetivo e subjetivo, alguns dos fatores econômicos, políticos, sociais e culturais que participam da construção da vulnerabilidade social com que comunidades do Chile e Brasil têm enfrentado desastres naturais recentes, que incluem inundações, deslizamentos, terremotos e tsunamis. Fatores globais têm gerado restrições econômicas que se manifestam localmente em um aumento da vulnerabilidade social devido à falta de inversões públicas em obras de proteção. Adicionalmente, se observam processos de exclusão e segregação social, traduzidos em uma ocupação humana permanente e sistemática de áreas expostas às ameaças naturais, nas quais se localiza a população de menores recursos. As percepções dos riscos naturais, as formas de organização social e as expectativas e frustrações das comunidades locais constituem valiosas lições que deveriam ser bases do aprendizado social necessário para evitar que estas tragédias continuem repetindo-se em nossos países. Español Se analiza desde los puntos de vista objetivo y subjetivo, algunos de los factores económicos, políticos, sociales y culturales que han participado de la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social con que, comunidades de Chile y Brasil, han enfrentado desastres naturales recientes, que han incluido inundaciones, remociones en masa de sedimentos, terremotos y tsunamis. Factores globales han generado restricciones económicas que se han manifestado localmente en un aumento de la vulnerabilidad social debido a la falta de inversiones públicas en obras de protección. Adicionalmente, se han observado procesos de exclusión y segregación social, traducidos en una ocupación humana permanente y sistemática de áreas expuestas a las amenazas naturales, en las cuáles se ha ubicado a la población de menores recursos. Las percepciones de los riesgos naturales, las formas de organización social y las expectativas y

  11. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  12. Dieta de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae em praias arenosas na costa do Rio de Janeiro Diet of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae in sandy beaches on coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Marcia S. Niang

    variedade de recursos disponíveis no ambiente.We studied the diet of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766 in sandy beaches of Sepetiba Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2000 and April 2001. We tried to evaluate the trophic plasticity of fish this species along a spatial gradient of wave exposure, seasonality, besides to evaluate ontogenetic changes in the diet. The Index of Relative Importance (IRI was used to measure the food items, determined by their frequency of occurrence, numbers and weights. The subphylum Crustacea, mainly the order Mysidacea, Decapoda Emerita brasiliensis (Schmitt, 1935 and Cephalochordata, represented by Branchiostoma platae (Fitzinger, 1862 were dominant in the diet. In the most exposed zone (Barra de Guaratiba beach with predominant sandy substrate, the diet was comprised mainly by Emerita brasiliensis and Cirripedia, this later item common in rocky shores at the beach edge; in the intermediate exposed beach (Muriqui beach, Mysidacea and Branchiostoma platae; in the most protected beach (Itacuruçá beach, Polychaeta, Mysidacea and Branchiostoma platae was predominant. No seasonal change was recorded for the use of Mysidacea, while Branchiostoma platae was the more consumed during the winter, Polychaeta in spring, Cirripedia and Emerita brasiliensis, in summer. Mysidacea was the predominate food in all size classes, while Polychaeta was used predominantly by fish smaller than 20 mm standard length (SL and Emerita brasiliensis and Cirripedia, were consumed mainly by larger individuals than 40 mm in the most exposed beach only. The success in use of surf zones and sand beaches by this fishes species, it can be partly, due the opportunist trophic strategy that uses a wide variety of available resources on environmental.

  13. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  14. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Chile Altiplano Unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This 10.5 by 11 km sub-area in northern Chile was acquired by ASTER on April 7, 2000. Dramatically displayed is a geological angular unconformity: a contact between layers of rock at different angles. On the right side of the image, Cretaceous sediments were tilted upward to an angle of about 50 degrees, then eroded. On this surface volcanic pyroclastic deposits were deposited as a flat sheet. The section of rocks has been eroding from the east, exposing the tilted and flat rock layers. The image is located at 24.8 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  17. Revisão do gênero Opselater Costa (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Policena Rosa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Opselater é formado por elaterídeos bioluminescentes, com vesículas luminescentes laterais, pequenas, localizadas na região posterior do pronoto, e corpo delgado com élitros gradualmente afilados do úmero ao ápice. Distribuem-se do Panamá à Argentina. São redescritas sete espécies, Opselater hebes (Germar, 1841, O. helvolus (Germar, 1841, O. lucens (Illiger, 1807, O. melanurus (Candèze, 1863, O. pyrophanus (Illiger, 1807, O. quadraticollis (Blanchard, 1843 e O. succinus Costa, 1980. O. costae sp. nov. de Linhares, Espírito Santo, é descrita. Também são apresentados uma chave para a identificação das espécies e ilustrações dos principais caracteres, incluindo protórax, pterotórax, asas e metendosternito.Revision of the genus Opselater Costa (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae. The genus Opselater Costa, 1975 is composed by bioluminescent elaterids, with small and lateral luminous spots on the base of pronotum, and slender body with elytra tapering to apices. They are distributed from Panama to Argentina. Seven species are redescribed, Opselater hebes (Germar, 1841, O. helvolus (Germar, 1841, O. lucens (Illiger, 1807, O. melanurus (Candèze, 1863, O. pyrophanus (Illiger, 1807, O. quadraticollis (Blanchard, 1843, and O. succinus Costa, 1980. O. costae sp. nov. is described, from Linhares - Espírito Santo, Brazil. A key to species and illustrations of most characters are also provided, including prothorax, pterothorax, wings and metendosternitum.

  18. All projects related to Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    High salt diets are a major cause of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor for death, and account for close to two-thirds of strokes and one-half of heart disease incidents worldwide. Topic: POLICY MAKING, HEALTH CONDITIONS, FOOD, LATIN AMERICA, HEALTH PROGRAMMES. Region: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, ...

  19. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  20. Lessons from Costa Rica (Omar Dengo Foundation)

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Iglesias, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Since its creation over 25 years ago, the Omar Dengo Foundation (ODF) has played a critical role in developments related to use of educational technologies in schools in Costa Rica. The integration of technology in Costa Rican public schools took off in 1987 with the creation by the Ministry of Public Education of the National Program of Educational Informatics, which became the flagship p...

  1. (Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece un tratamiento sistemático de la familia Apocynaceae, subfamilias Rauvolfioideae y Apocynoideae para Costa Rica. En total, 30 géneros y 80 especies son tratadas. Se presentan claves para los géneros y especies, descripciones y especímenes examinados, así como comentarios adicionales y referencias bibliográficas más importantes. Se incluyen fotografías para la mayoría de los géneros y las especies.

  2. Estágios de desenvolvimento econômico e políticas públicas de empreendedorismo e de micro, pequenas e médias empresas (MPMEs em perspectiva comparada: os casos do Brasil, do Canadá, do Chile, da Irlanda e da Itália Etapas de desarrollo económico y políticas públicas para emprendimiento y micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMEs en una perspectiva comparada: los casos de Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Irlanda y Italia Stages of economic development and public policies for entrepreneurship and for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs from a comparative perspective: the cases of Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ireland, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa explora em perspectiva comparada as políticas públicas de empreendedorismo e Micro, Pequenas e Médias Empresas (MPMEs no Brasil, no Canadá, no Chile e na Itália. A hipótese fundamental é que economias no estágio de inovação tendem a desenvolver mais políticas de empreendedorismo do que as de países no estágio da eficiência. Da mesma forma, países no estágio de inovação tendem a usar menos instrumentos de políticas de MPMEs do que países em estágio de eficiência, quase sempre para incentivar grupos, setores ou regiões em específico. O artigo contribui com a literatura de empreendedorismo ao analisar na prática a convergência/divergência das escolhas de política pública e estágio de desenvolvimento.Esta investigación explora en una perspectiva comparada las políticas públicas para emprendimiento y las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES en Brasil, Canadá, Chile e Italia. La hipótesis subyacente es que las economías en la etapa de innovación tienden a desarrollar más políticas de emprendimientos que los países en la etapa de la eficiencia. Del mismo modo, en los países en etapa de innovación tienden a utilizar menos instrumentos de MIPYMES que países en la etapa de innovación para animar a los grupos, regiones o sectores específicos. El trabajo contribuye a la literatura sobre emprendimiento por analizar la convergencia /divergencia de opciones de política pública y la etapa de desarrollo.This study applies a comparative perspective to the public policies for entrepreneurs and Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs in Brazil, Canada, Chile, and Ireland. The fundamental hypothesis is that economies in the innovation stage of economic development tend to develop more policies for entrepreneurship than countries in the efficiency stage. Similarly, countries in the innovation stage tend to apply fewer policies to MSMEs than countries in the efficiency stage to encourage

  3. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  4. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  5. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  6. TC4 COSTA RICA LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) mission TC4 field experiment was completed during July and August 2007 based out of San Jose, Costa Rica....

  7. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  8. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits that...

  9. [Centruroides Schmidti (scorpiones: Buthidae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Luis F; Montoya, Michel; Víquez, Carlos

    2002-03-01

    Centruroides schmidti Sissom, 1995 is the new identification designate of the scorpions previously known as C. thorelli (Kraepelin, 1891) in Northwest Costa Rica. The geographical distribution of the species in this country is established on the basis of new collected material. Its distribution includes the Pacific slope of the Guanacaste volcanic range, and the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of the Tilarán volcanic range between 50 and 775 m elevation above sea level, within the Costa Rican Guanacaste and Alajuela provinces.

  10. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  11. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  12. A dichotomous species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta is colonizing northern Chile Una especie dicotómica de Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta está colonizando el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA GONZÁLEZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2001 and early 2002, a dichotomous species of Codium appeared colonizing the low intertidal and shallow subtidal bottoms of Caldera Bay, northern Chile (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ W. Due to the ecological and economic impact the species is having in Caldera Bay and its potential spread along the Chilean coastline, we studied the taxonomic identity of the species and examined its relationships with other dichotomous species of Codium reported for temperate Pacific South America. Morphological analyses suggest that the seaweeds from Caldera Bay belong to Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Not only is there strong agreement in internal and external morphological characters, but among all the species reported for Peru and Chile, this is the only one exhibiting utricles with rounded, apiculate tip terminating in a mucron. This species has a broad geographic distribution in temperate waters. In Chile it was known only from the coasts of Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ W to 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ W. This is the first record of C. fragile in northern Chile, and this study discusses several alternative hypotheses for the presence of the species into this area. The morphological characteristics of the material collected in Caldera partially agree with diagnostic characters known for C. fragile subspecies tasmanicum and C. fragile subspecies tomentosoides. However, the rapid population spread of the species in northern Chile, and recent molecular analysis support the identification of this form as the invasive C. fragile subspecies tomentosoidesA fines de 2001 y principio de 2002, apareció en el norte de Chile una especie del género Codium, de morfología dicotómica, colonizando los niveles intermareales y submareales de la Bahía de Caldera (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ O. Debido al impacto ecológico y económico que ha provocado esta especie en la Bahía de Caldera y a su dispersión potencial a lo largo de la costa de

  13. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  14. Polen y esporas de la Formación Navidad, Neógeno de Chile Pollen and spores of the Navidad Formation, Neogene from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIANA BARREDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El análisis palinológico de la Formación Navidad en afloramientos de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile central, brindó asociaciones dominadas por leños, cutículas, algas de agua dulce, esporas y granos de polen (elementos de origen continental con muy escasa participación de quistes de dinoflagelados, acritarcos y cubiertas internas de foraminíferos arenáceos (componentes marinos indicando que estas asociaciones se habrían acumulado en un ambiente marino. Las asociaciones de polen y esporas indican el desarrollo de una vegetación de bosque con participación de elementos gondwánicos (Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, Nothofagaceae y neotropicales (Sapotaceae, Malphigiaceae, Arecaceae, Chloranthaceae, Tiliaceae/Bombacaceae -Paleoflora Mixta- apoyando hipótesis previas basadas en las megafloras. En las márgenes de los bosques se habrían desarrollado parches con vegetación esclerófila con AAnacardiaceae y Fabaceae como componentes principales. Sobre suelos arenosos o marismas salinos se habrían desarrollado elementos herbaceo-arbustivos, xerofíticos y halofíticos, como Chenopodiaceae y Calyceraceae. Se destaca el primer registro de taxones endémicos de las familias Calyceraceae y Asteraceae (Barnadesioideae para la palinoflora de Chile. Estas comunidades vegetales se habrían desarrollado bajo condiciones de clima subtropical, cálido y húmedo. Desde el punto de vista cronoestratigráfico las asociaciones esporopolínicas sustentan una edad neógena para la Formación Navidad.Palynological assemblages recovered from the Navidad Formation in outcrops of the Cordillera de la Costa, central Chile, are dominated by wood remains, cuticles, spores and pollen grains and fresh water algae (continental elements with scarce dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, foraminiferal linnings marine palynomorphs indicating that these assemblages would have been accumulated in a marine environment. Spore-pollen assemblages indicate a forest vegetation

  15. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    35 Esteban A. Mata , “Óscar Arias se opone a exploración petrolera,” La Nación (Costa Rica), March 24, 2009. . Costa Rica: Background and U.S...countries of Guatemala, El Salvador , and Honduras, the surge in organized crime has presented the Costa Rican government with a considerable security...United States Trade Representative (USTR) and the trade ministers from the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador , Guatemala, Honduras, and

  16. de papa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidy Montero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan importantes daños al cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L alrededor del mundo. Su efecto puede ser directo al disminuir el rendimiento o indirecto al infectar los tubérculos y causar agallas o protuberancias, que les confiere una apariencia verrugosa, que afecta su calidad y reduce su valor comercial. En Capellades y Llano Grande de Cartago, Costa Rica, fueron encontrados tubérculos de papa, de la variedad Floresta y del clon Bananito, con numerosas protuberancias en su superficie. De las protuberancias se extrajo hembras ovígeras de Meloidogyne spp. Estudios morfológicos (diseño perineal de las hembras y moleculares (PCR y PCRRFLP mostraron que las hembras extraídas de las protuberancias pertenecen a la especie M. incognita. Se recomienda estudiar las causas que promueven la infección de los tubérculos en ambas localidades, ya que cerca del 90% del área cultivada de papa en el país corresponde a la variedad Floresta. En adición, se debe prestar especial atención a las zonas semilleristas, ya que los tubérculos-semilla podrían servir como fuente de inóculo y contribuir a la diseminación del patógeno a otras áreas.

  17. Costa Rican Children's Perceptions of Their Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined cultural differences in Costa Rican and U.S. fourth and sixth graders' perceptions of their relationships with social network members. Costa Rican children rated their relationships with most persons more positively than did U.S. children. Costa Rican family members and teachers played a relatively more important role than did best…

  18. Rediscovery of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Anura: Centrolenidae) in southeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Brian

    2004-03-01

    The Suretka glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi, has been recently rediscovered in the southeastern region of Costa Rica. This species was last reported in Costa Rica in the 1950's. H. chirripoi is distinguished from H. colymbiphyllum, which appears to be its most closely Costa Rican related taxon, by having extensive webbing between fingers II-III.

  19. La Psicología en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bravo Valdivieso

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of psychology en Chile is reviewed, beginning with its historical development. The main areas of interest of Chilean psychologists are found to be psychometrics, social psychology, clinical, and experimental psychology; according to the chosen areas for thesis at the University of Chile and the Catholic Uiniuersity of Santiago. Professionally, the main fields of specialization are clinical and social psychology. In 1968 the goverment gave legal recognition to professional psychology in Chile.

  20. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Williams Ibarra; Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras.; Leyton, Elia Calderón; Universidad de Santiago de Chile.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE). The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and...

  1. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  2. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Chile. The Costa-Rican component has been coordinated and carried out by the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR since 2009. Sixteen Latin-American and seven European universities are participating in this project. Its general objective is to improve the quality management of higher education both on the national level, and on the individual level of each institution, as well as to generate acquaintances and mutual trust among Latin-American and European countries regarding the quality of their higher education. As a part of the activities of the project, 7 studies were made in 5 Latin-American and 2 European countries to evaluate the impact of the quality assurance processes that have been implemented in their universities. In Costa Rica, the study considered two state universities and two private ones. There, 26 interviews and 8 group sessions were carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 with the populations of interest for the study. Additionally, 652 active students and graduates from accredited careers of the selected universities were interviewed. A summary of the main results from the qualitative and quantitative interviews made in Costa Rica, are presented in this article

  3. New data on some species of Monogenea and Digenea parasites of marine fish from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos dados sobre algumas especies de Monogenea e Digenea parasitas de peixes marinhos da costa do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenice M. M. Fernandes; Anderson D. N. Arci; Simone C. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented...

  4. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  5. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  6. Brazil : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les régimes à teneur élevée en sel sont une cause majeure de l'hypertension artérielle et un facteur prédominant des décès, et comptent pour près des deux tiers des accidents vasculaires cérébraux et de la moitié des incidents de maladie cardiaque dans le monde. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru.

  7. Mercúrio total em músculo de cação Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 e de espadarte Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil e suas implicações para a saúde pública Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. L. Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as concentrações de mercúrio total (THg em tecido muscular do tubarão azul Prionace glauca e do teleósteo Xiphias gladius, vulgarmente conhecido como espadarte, provenientes das regiões sul e sudeste da costa brasileira, para verificar se estas se encontram dentro dos padrões legais para consumo humano. As amostras foram obtidas utilizando-se o programa REVIZEE, de agosto a setembro de 2001, e por intermédio de uma empresa de pesca em Itajaí, Santa Catarina. Foi analisado um total de 95 espécimes, testando-se as correlações entre THg, comprimento (cm e peso (kg. As concentrações de mercúrio total em todas as amostras variaram de 0,13 a 2,26µgg-1 (peso úmido. A média de mercúrio total em P. glauca foi de 0,76 ± 0,48µgg-1 (p.u., e em X. gladius foi de 0,62 ± 0,31µgg-1 (p.u. com diferença não significativa (teste Mann-Whitney, p Total mercury (THg was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca, and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26µgg-1 (fresh weight, and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 ± 0.48µgg-1 (f.w. and X. gladius, 0.62 ± 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. In 16% of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, namely 1µgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO limit of 0.5µgg-1. The ingestion of 100g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990 suggested limit.

  8. Constructive connections in Costa Rica | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-18

    Oct 18, 2017 ... WEConnect International matches businesses owned by women with multinational corporations that want to buy more services from women. Madelaine Artavia Sotela of Costa Rica is a prime example of how the initiative can vastly improve women's livelihoods. This article is part of an ongoing series of ...

  9. Education in Costa Rica: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Zaher

    Costa Rican education, although fairly successful compared to other Third World or Latin American countries, has serious problems needing action, including (1) large discrepancies between educational ideals and the realities of urban privilege, with regard to access and quality, and (2) a rote, narrow, superficial, impractical education. Other…

  10. Entrevista com Horácio Costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geylson Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p213   Entrevista com Horácio Costa a respeito da tradução do poeta José Gorostiza e de outras questões da tradução da literatura mexicana no Brasil.

  11. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  12. Neurobrucellosis in stranded dolphins, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María; Moreno, Edgardo

    2008-09-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission.

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  14. Esquema de Multifondos en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Berstein; Olga Fuentes; Nicolás Torrealba

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el sistema de multifondos para el caso de Chile, describiendo su evolución desde su creación, en lo que respecta a inversiones, la elección de tipo de fondo por parte de los afiliados, y su composición por tramos de edad. Se describen los aspectos más relevantes de la normativa vigente y se analiza el desempeño de los multifondos durante la crisis financiera. Respecto a este último punto, se detallan las medidas adoptadas y se analizan las características del sistema a l...

  15. What we do | Page 146 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Intergenerational Transfers, Population Aging and Social Protection. Latin American countries are rapidly catching up to the industrialized countries of the North in terms of birthrate and lifespan. Brazil, South America, Chile, Costa Rica, North And Central America, Mexico, Uruguay. PROJECT ...

  16. All projects related to | Page 398 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL SECURITY, RETIREMENT PENSIONS, HEALTH SYSTEM, SOCIAL SERVICES. Region: North and Central America, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico. Program: Employment and Growth.

  17. All projects related to | Page 602 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-02

    End Date: July 2, 2011. Topic: SOCIAL REFORM, HEALTH SYSTEM, HEALTH FINANCING, HEALTH EXPENDITURE, HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE, HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS. Region: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru. Program: Maternal and Child ...

  18. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Political and Economic Environment; Natural Resources; The Financial Situation; Argentina; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Columbia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guyana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Surinam; Uruguay; Venezuela. (Author)

  19. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  20. Ash contents of Costa Rican peat deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Cohen, A.D.; Bish, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen sites within 6 Costa Rican peat localities were sampled using MacCaulay samplers and soil augers. Sample localities included high mountain (>2500 meters), river floodplain, and Gulf coastal plain. Peat deposits ranged from as thin as 20 cm to greater than 460 cm. Within the peat deposits, ash (that material which will remain following combustion) occurs both dispersed within the peat layers and as layers containing nearly 100% inorganic material interstratified with the peat layers. Ash in Costa Rican peats includes material derived from both organic and inorganic origins. The predominant inorganically derived material is volcanic and may result from direct volcanic ashfall into the peat environment or as detritus transported into the peat areas. Volcanic ash is rapidly altered within the peats, leaving little if any relict structures. Alteration products are pedominantly kaolin and smectite clays and gibbsite. Unaltered minerals identified by x-ray diffraction include quartz, cristobalite, plagiolase feldspar, and anatase. Hematite and bassanite (identified by x-ray diffraction) are present but result from the alteration of iron-bearing minerals and organic sulfur or gypsum during sample preparation. Pyrite is present as a very minor component of some Costa Rican peats. Organically-derived ash constituents in Costa Rican peats include siliceous diatoms, siliceous sponge spicules, and silica phytoliths. The type and abundance of ash constituents within Costa Rican peats can be evaluated based on geographic location of the peat deposits, the geologic conditions affecting their deposition, and the plant communities existing during deposition. 6 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta na costa de Pernambuco e Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta on the coast of Pernambuco State and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Brayner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identifica e fornece a distribuição do gênero Caulerpa na costa de Pernambuco (07º30' S e 09º00' W e no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (03º51' S e 32º25' W. As coletas foram realizadas em 32 praias da costa de Pernambuco no período entre abril/2004 a novembro/2005, na região entre-marés. Em Fernando de Noronha as coletas foram feitas em junho/2006, na região entre marés e no infralitoral (10, 15 e 21 m de profundidade, em oito praias. Foram, também, analisadas as exsicatas de Caulerpa depositadas no Herbário Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEUFR da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostram que o gênero Caulerpa está representado na costa de Pernambuco, por 19 táxons infragenéricos. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição restrita como C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh e C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha foram registrados três táxons infragenéricos.This paper analyzes the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa on the coast of Pernambuco (07º30'S; 09º00'W and in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (03º51'S; 32º25'W. Sampling was carried out on the coast of Pernambuco from April/2004 to November/2005, in the intertidal zone of 32 beaches. On Fernando de Noronha collections were made in June/2006 in the intertidal and infralittoral (10, 15 and 21m depth regions of eight beaches. Exsiccata of Caulerpa from the Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho Herbarium (PEUFR were also examined. The results showed that the genus Caulerpa is represented on the coast of Pernambuco state by 19 infrageneric taxa. Some species had restricted distributions such as C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh and C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Three infrageneric taxa were registered for the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

  2. First records of pelagic polychaetes in southern Chile (Boca del Guafo - Elefantes Channel Primeros registros de poliquetos pelágicos en el sur de Chile (Boca del Guafo - Canal Elefantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bilbao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelagic polychaetes collected at 29 oceanographic stations in the southern channels of Chile between Boca del Guafo and Elefantes Channel (spring 1998, summer 1999 were analyzed. Seven species of pelagic polychaetes were identified: Tomopterisplanktonis Apstein, T. septentrionalis Steenstrup, Pelagobia longicirrata Greeff, Lopadorhynchus krohnii (Claparede, Maupasia caeca Viguier, Typhloscolex muelleri Busch, and Phalacrophorus pictus Greeff. Seven species were collected in spring and five in summer. All the identified species are cosmopolitan and were recorded for the first time in this sector of southern Chile's interior waters. Maupasia caeca, Lopadorhynchus krohnii, and Typhloscolex muelleri are recorded for the first time in the southeastern Pacific Ocean and the southern distribution limit of Phalacrophorus pictus was extended to the coast of Chile.Se analizaron los poliquetos pelágicos colectados en 29 estaciones oceanógraficas en canales australes chilenos localizados entre la boca del Guafo y el estero Elefantes, en primavera de 1998 y verano de 1999. Se identificaron siete especies de poliquetos pelágicos: Tomopteris planktonis Apstein, T. septentrionalis Steenstrup, Pelagobia longicirrata Greeff, Lopadorhynchus krohnii (Claparede, Maupasia caeca Viguier, Typhloscolex muelleri Busch y Phalacrophorus pictus Greeff. Siete especies se colectaron en primavera y cinco en verano. Todas las especies identificadas son cosmopolitas y se registran por primera vez en este sector de aguas interiores del sur de Chile. Maupasia caeca, Lopadorhynchus krohnii y Typhloscolex muelleri se registran por primera vez en aguas del Pacífico suroriental y Phalacrophorus pictus extiende su límite de distribución sur hasta la costa de Chile.

  3. Golpe, autoritarismo e transição: uma análise comparativa de Brasil e Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Aggio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to accomplish a comparative analysis of Brazilian and Chilean political histories parting from the moment both countries experienced breaks in the democratic constitutional order, in Brazil, on 1964 and in Chile, on 1973. The article initiates about the utilization of comparison in political history studies in order to define an interpretative board concerning the conjunctures that preceded the coups d’État and, then, discuss about the main characteristics of the authoritarian regimes, analyzing especially the economic, social and political transformations that were occurring. It continues with the analyzes of the democratic transition process and its governments, in Brazil, from 1985, and, in Chile, on 1990. Lastly, it analyzes, comparatively, the reach as the deadlocks of both democratic experiences.

  4. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  5. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  6. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  7. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil.

  8. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  9. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  10. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  11. Homicidio doloso en Costa Rica, 1993-2005: magnitud, tipología y tasas por país de origen del imputado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mata, Leonardo J.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se calculó la tasa bruta de homicidio doloso (intencional en la población total de Costa Rica y las tasas de las poblaciones de costarricenses y de nicaragüenses, residentes en el país. Para ello se empleó la casuística de personas imputadas por homicidio, disponible en el acervo del Poder Judicial, y las estimaciones y proyecciones poblacionales de Costa Rica del INEC y del CCP, ambas ajustadas a 15 a 49 años de edad. La tasa bruta de homicidio doloso de Costa Rica en el período del Estudio (1993-2005 ha experimentado un incremento sutil y sostenido hasta alcanzar una cifra preocupante en el 2005. Aún así, la tasa costarricense – en el Continente Americano - sólo es superada por las del Canadá, Argentina y Chile. Las tasas de homicidio de los costarricenses, por año, son en magnitud como la mitad, y a veces menos, de las tasas de los nicaragüenses que residen en Costa Rica. Una mayor proclividad hacia el homicidio doloso en los nicaragüenses parece estar relacionada con su pasado histórico, similar al de otras naciones del Istmo, exceptuando Panamá y Costa Rica. Aunque este Estudio no incursiona en la causalidad del homicidio doloso, es lógico plantear que su prevención y control solo puede darse cuando se corrijan o mejoren sus determinantes, a saber, pobreza, equidad, educación, desempleo, consumo de drogas y tenencia de armas.

  12. [Social security nursing in Costa RICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, I; de González, E G

    1979-01-01

    This article reviews the development of social security in Costa Rica throughout the various stages of its growth starting in 1941, with special reference to the scope of the health and maternity insurance system and to disability, old-age, and life insurance. After describing the institutional setting of the social security system, the authors analyze the changes that have taken place in the training and performance of duties of nursing staff in the health services, all of which are now part of the Costa Rican Social Security Fund. Lastly, they present the two-year curriculum for training the graduate nurse, and refer to the practice of nursing in the social security system and to the duties performed by the nurse in health education, the actual care of the well and the sick, administration, and research.

  13. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa. La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas.Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts. Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific. The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  14. Hojas, flores y tallos comestibles no tradicionales en Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez Montero, Francisco; Barrantes Corrales, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    64 variedades de hojas, flores y tallos comestibles no tradicionales estudiadas en 14 comunidades del valle central, litorales y fronteras de Costa Rica, aparecen siguiendo lineas isogonicas paralelas...

  15. Hemogregarinas en serpientes de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, E.; Bolaños, R.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of 216 venomous and non-venomous captive snake of Costa Rica were parasitized with hemogregarines (Protozoa: Sporozoa). The species most affected were Lachesis muta, Crotalus durissus and Boa constrictor with scores above 50%. None of the arboreal species harbored hemogregarines.Five morphological blood types were demonstrated and frequently more than one type occurred in a single host.Lung and liver sections of the parasitized snakes showed cysts similar to those of schy...

  16. Las laderas inestables de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Castro, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Particular conditions of topography, climate and geology in Costa Rica, make chis country prone to slope instability. At present, this situation has been accelerated by direct or indirect influence of human activity. Inatability is shown by a wide variety of forms, intensities and extention. Affected zones are not ussually limited to where slope instability occurs but to wider arcas such as river margine, net lawlands and in general, those arcas where the deposits arrive with important amount...

  17. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ibarra Figueroa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE. The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and devices in the proper relationship of individuals, in order to establish criteria by biopsychosocial processes from the identity the Other and You as host in the plural diversity of human beings, with aim is to recommend  a public policy with an emphasis on multicultural values of each community, enriching the human condition and biopolitics regarding the integration from the educational training and the role that fits the state.

  18. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  19. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  20. [Current estate of biotechnology in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marta; López, Rebeca; Jiménez, Luis

    2004-09-01

    A study was carried out on the construction of indicators in biotechnology in Costa Rica as part of the project "SYMBIOSIS, Cooperative Program for the Construction of Indicators in Biotechnology adapted to Latin American and Caribbean countries, to motivate the application and transference of industrial technologies". The study focused on two units: researchers and research projects developed in Costa Rica, between 1998 and 2002. For researchers, information was collected about indicators related to sex, age, teaching activities, number of projects, academic degree, area of speciality and number of publications. For research projects we obtained information about: speciality, sector of application, duration of projects and number of researchers per project. Very interesting results include the high participation of the women in this area of investigation (54%); the low participation of young researchers (13% younger than 30), and a high proportion of the investigators that are responsible for 4 or more projects (42%). With relation to the specialities of the projects, the majority are in the category Bio-Agro (39%) whereas in Acuaculture only 1% was found. The sectors of application with the most number of projects are: Agriculture and Livestock (37%) and Human Health (35%). The main strengthts and limitatations for the development of biotechnology in Costa Rica are discussed.

  1. HISTORIA AMBIENTAL DE LOS ARCHIPIÉLAGOS DE LA TRAPANANDA (PATAGONIA SEPTENTRIONAL, CHILE): DESAFÍOS PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA BALLENA AZUL

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Paillacheo; Magdalena Navarro; Juan Carlos Skewes; María Eugenia Solari

    2012-01-01

    La reaparición de la ballena azul en el sur de Chile constituye un desafío para las políticas de conservación e invita a repensar la historia del mar austral y, en particular, de la costa aysenina. El paisaje social de este litoral corresponde a un ecosistema de tránsito y marginalizado entre dos regiones conocidas: Chiloé y Patagonia austral. Es ambiente extremo en el que diversas poblaciones humanas han desplegado variadas estrategias adaptativas asociadas al bosque y a los sistemas marinos...

  2. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto

    2000-01-01

    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  4. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  5. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  6. Sobre as políticas externas da Argentina, do Brasil e do Chile com relação à Alemanha, aos Estados Unidos e à Itália entre a Conferência de Lima e a entrada do Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (1938-1942)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luiz Pereira Ferrer; Alexander Zhebit; Francisco Carlos Teixeira da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Este trabalho analisa o impacto das políticas externas de Argentina, Brasil e Chile com as Potências do Eixo (Alemanha e Itália) e os Estados Unidos entre os dois anos anteriores à deflagração do conflito (1938-1939) até a entrada do Brasil na guerra (1942), depois que navios brasileiros foram afundados pelos alemães na costa do Nordeste do Brasil. Por fim, esta pesquisa apresenta os fatos políticos, comerciais e ideológicos que fizeram com que o Brasil e o Chile ficassem ao lado dos aliados ...

  7. Brazil : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Date de début : 1 avril 2010. End Date: 1 octobre 2013. Sujet: WASTE WATERS, WATER TREATMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, Honduras, North and Central America, Mexico. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 494,500.00.

  8. Brazil : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Guatemala, North and Central America, Mexico, Uruguay ... Ce projet permettra de mener une analyse comparative des perceptions qu'ont les jeunes des pays du MERCOSUR (Argentine, Brésil, Paraguay et Uruguay) des droits, de la démocratie et de l'intégration régionale. Date de ...

  9. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  10. Los moluscos marinos de la Costa Atlántica de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David G; Montoya, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Research on the malacological fauna of the Caribbean Province on the Atlantic coast of Central America, and particulary in Costa Rica, is reviewed. A list of marine mollusks collected in ten localities of the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica, is presented. This inventory has 395 species: 288 Gastropoda, 100 Pelecypoda, 5 Polyplacophora, and 2 Cephalopoda. Se analizan las investigaciones sobre la fauna malacológica de la Provincia Caribe en el litoral Atlántico de Centroamérica y en especial en...

  11. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  12. Sustainable Banana Production and Pesticides in Costa Rica | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Banana Production and Pesticides in Costa Rica. Producing bananas for export is an important economic activity in Costa Rica. Large multinational producers employ thousands of workers, who live near plantations, and smallholders grow banana as a cash crop. But, pesticide use in the banana industry is ...

  13. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  14. Insects that feed on Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Hanson; K. Nishida; P. Allen; E Chacón; B. Reichert; A. Castillo; M. Alfaro; L. Madrigal; E. Rojas; F. Badenes-Perez; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Research at the University of Costa Rica on potential biological control agents of Miconia calvescens was initiated in 2000. Although M. calvescens can be fairly common at certain sites, it is generally uncommon in Costa Rica and appears to be incapable of becoming established in forests with a closed canopy. Over fifty insect...

  15. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  16. Gender Differences in Computer Education: A Costa Rican Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Brad R.; Scaglion, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes a time allocation study that was designed to determine how two types of teachers spent their time regarding gender differences in a primary school computer laboratory in Costa Rica. Topics include the sociocultural context of gender roles in Costa Rica, hypothesis testing, and the domination of boys in computer labs. Contains 101…

  17. [USJ Herbarium of Costa Rica: history and contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos O

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized.

  18. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  19. Rediscovery of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Anura: Centrolenidae in southeastern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kubicki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Suretka glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi, has been recently rediscovered in the south-eastern region of Costa Rica. This species was last reported in Costa Rica in the 1950’s. H. chirripoi is distinguished from H. colymbiphyllum, which appears to be its most closely Costa Rican related taxon, by having extensive webbing between fingers II-IIILa rana de vidrio de Suretka, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi, fue redescubierta recientamente en la región sureste de Costa Rica. Esta especie fue reportada por última vez en Costa Rica en los años cincuentas. H. Chirripoi puede ser distinguida de H. colymbiphyllum, la rana de vidrio costarricense a la que más se le asemeja, por la presencia de membranas extensivas entre dedos II-III

  20. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rita; Cortés, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts). Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast) and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific). The range often species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species.

  1. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Class Polychaeta (Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan K Dean

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred and thirty two species of polychaetes belonging to 50 families are reported for Costa Rica based on previously published reports. In a few families, available material was re-examined and appropriate changes in species identifications were made. Only three species, (Glycera oxycephala Ehlers, 1887; Hemipodia pustulata (Friedrich 1956; and Scolepis (Scolepis squamata (Müller, 1806 have been reported from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, and these three species have also been reported from the Pacific Coast. The families with more than 15 species are the Spionidae (26, Cirratulidae (24, Nereididae (21, Lumbrineridae (19 and Paraonidae (16. Despite extensive sampling on the Pacific coast over the last 25 years, the Costa Rican polychaete fauna, especially that of the Caribbean coast, remains poorly knownUn total de 332 especies de poliquetos pertenecientes a 50 familias han sido informados para Costa Rica con base en publicaciones. En unas pocas familias, el material disponible fue re-examinado y se hizo los cambios apropiados en la identificación de las especies. Solamente tres especies (Glycera oxycephala Ehlers, 1887; Hemipodia pustulata (Friedrich 1956; y Scolepis (Scolepis squamata (Muller, 1806 han sido reportados para la costa del Caribe de Costa Rica y estas especies también están presentes en la costa Pacifica. Las familias con más de 15 especies son: Spionidae (26, Cirratulidae (24, Nereididae (21 , Lumbrineridae (19 y Paraonidae (16. No obstante el intenso esfuerzo de colecta hecho en la costa Pacífica durante los últimos 25 años, la fauna de poliquetos de Costa Rica, especialmente la de la costa Caribe, permanece poco conocida

  2. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  3. A Partnership for a Community College in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Carmen L.; Whitford, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the results of case study research on a partnership between a community college in the United States and a university in Chile that attempted to develop the first community college system in Chile.

  4. Two (cosoccurring new Karllangia species (Copepoda: Ameiridae) from the Caribbean mast of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Se halló dos especies nuevas de copépodos del género Karllangia coexistiendo en playa Manzanillo,' costa caribeña de Costa Rica Se halló dos especies nuevas de copépodos del género Karllangia coexistiendo en playa Manzanillo,' costa caribeña de Costa Rica

  5. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime García

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades in...

  6. Costa Rica 1986. Una democracia amenazada

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rojas Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983)La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986)Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985) Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983) Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986) Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984)Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984) Estados Unidos. Estrategi...

  7. Litispendencia internacional y costas del proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FRANCISCO CARRILLO POZO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on costs of proceedings in cases of international lis pendens can not be an automatic result of the application of the rule that costs follow the event, but must take into account the regulatory environment in which it arises, because there are so many rules on lis pendens as disciplines on international jurisdiction. La condena en costas en los casos de litispendencia internacional no puede ser resultado automático del criterio del vencimiento, sino que debe tener en cuenta el ámbito normativo en el que se plantea, porque existen tantas reglas sobre litispendencia como disciplinas sobre competencia judicial internacional.

  8. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  9. Chile Earthquake: U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    clear plan for international assistance, and the United States and more than 20 other nations have begun to provide Chile with the aid it has...5 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Chile Earthquake: Situation Report #2,” March 1, 2010; Gobierno de Chile...Un Techo Para Chile” (A Roof For Chile) that plans to use the funds for the construction of 23,000 small wooden shelters in the affected areas

  10. New data on some species of Monogenea and Digenea parasites of marine fish from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos dados sobre algumas especies de Monogenea e Digenea parasitas de peixes marinhos da costa do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice M. M. Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented. The monogeneans Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi and Gotocotyla acanthura are reported in new hosts. The digeneans Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi and Lampritrema miescheri are reported in new hosts, and the latter two species are also reported for the first time in Brazil.Cinquenta e quatro espécimens de peixes marinhos pertencentes a sete espécies coletados do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil foram examinados para helmintos, os resultados referentes a Monogenea e Digenea são apresentados. Os monogenéticos Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi e Gotocotyla acanthura são apresentados em novos hospedeiros. Os digenéticos Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi e Lampritrema miescheri são registrados em novos hospedeiros, as duas últimas espécies são também registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  11. Análisis de necesidades educativas curriculares en la educación primaria dirigida a niños (as nicaragüenses migrantes en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Mejía-Arias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the article is to announce the needs of a curriculum Identified in the Nicaraguan migrant children that study at the rural primary school “Los Angeles” in the location of Los Chiles Costa Rica. They actually are in an exclusion, discrimination and indifference situation from the local institutions. There are strong obstacles for the effective learning and development of positive attitudes, lack of responsible participation of the educative community; the methodological procedure used at the classrooms and the curricular adjustment at the pedagogical official model from Costa Rica, divorced those, from the sociocultural conditions of the children, their families and the rural community where they live. This situation affects the children motivation, for not achieve educational goals, the few that register at primary school doesn´t end it and those that complete it have academic difficulties to enter at high school. The time has come for the educational systems from both countries –Nicaragua and Costa Rica– to consider joint educational strategies that can give an answer to the educational curricular needs that the Nicaraguan migrant children presents at the rural schools in Costa Rica.

  12. A contribution to the Campylopus flora of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter

    2005-01-01

    A key to the species of Campylopus known from Chile is given, completed by records of Campylopodioideae of the author in southern Chile. Campylopus acuminatus Mitt. var. kirkii (Mitt.) J.-P. Frahm is reported for the first time for Chile.

  13. Chile: the Mapuche and the Bicentennial

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    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right political wing chilean political parties. During the last 20 years the Goverment of Chile was in the hands of the center left coalition, after the dictatorship period of Gral Augusto Pinochet end in 1990. During two decades the state aplied social policies in order two develop the indigenous comunities, specially the mapuche comunities of the south of Chile. During 2010 the research proyect named “Conmemoraciones y memorias subalternas” tried to understand the current situation of the comunities, the conflict and others aspects of the indigenous situation. This paper is part of those research.

  14. Ideology drives health care reforms in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, S

    1996-01-01

    The health care system of Chile evolved from rather unique historical circumstances to become one of the most progressive in Latin America, offering universal access to all citizens. Since the advent of the Pinochet regime in 1973, Chile has implemented Thatcherite/Reaganite reforms resulting in the privatization of much of the health care system. In the process, state support for health care has been sharply curtailed with deleterious effects on health services. As Chile emerges from the shadow of the Pinochet dictatorship, it faces numerous challenges as it struggles to rebuild its health care system. Other developing nations considering free-market reforms may wish to consider the high costs of the Chilean experiment.

  15. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

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    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  16. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  17. LA DEUDA PUBLICA INTERNA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conejo Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El déficit fiscal es una de las variables macroeconómicas que ha adquirido mayor importancia desde la década de los años ochenta y particularmente en los años noventa, en la economía costarricense. Una consecuencia directa de la existencia de déficits fiscales sostenidos es la acumulación de una deuda pública creciente.Antes de los años ochenta el déficit fiscal en Costa Rica se cubrió fundamentalmente con deduda externa; la cual era de fácil acceso en los mercados financieros internacionales, ante la existencia de una sobre oferta de fondos prestables, generado por los petrodólares. Sin embargo, con la crisis económica que experimentó Costa Rica en los primeros años de la década pasada y con el endurecimiento del acceso al financiamiento externo, el país empezó a recurrir cada vez con más frecuencia al endeudamiento interno.

  18. [The health system of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards.

  19. [Fresh water macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Monika; Ramirez, Alonso; Hanson, Paul

    2010-12-01

    This is the first in a series of three volumes on the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica. The present volume includes an introductory chapter summarizing the major types of freshwater environments, the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates (habitats, food, respiration, osmoregulation, etc.), ecological and economic importance, conservation and a synopis of the major groups, followed by a simplified key. The next two chapters discuss collecting methods and biomonitoring. These are followed by chapters on mayflies (Ephemeroptera: 10 families), dragonflies (Odonata: 13 families), stoneflies (Plecoptera: 1 family) and caddisflies (Trichoptera: 15 families). Both in this volume and in those to follow, the chapters treating individual taxa include a summary of the natural history, importance, taxonomy, collecting methods, morphology and an illustrated key to the families; each family is discussed separately and an illustrated key to genera is provided; each chapter ends with a bibliography and a table listing all the genera with information on number of species, distribution, habitat and tolerance to water pollution. While the emphasis is on families and genera known from Costa Rica, additional taxa occurring elsewhere in Central America are mentioned. The present volume also includes numerous color plates of aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  20. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  2. Documents from Chile Public Participation Training – Chile – March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Santiago, Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.

  3. World pineapple production: an overview | M F | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thailand, Philippines, Mexico, Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil, China, Indonesia, Hawaii, India, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Dominican Republic and South Africa are the leading pineapple producing countries. Among the countries Philippines, Thailand, Costa Rica, Indonesia, ...

  4. Cyberbullying: un análisis comparativo en estudiantes de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México, Perú y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Río-Pérez, J. (Jorge) del; Bringué, X. (Xavier); Sádaba, Ch. (Charo); González, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the issue of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México, Peru, Venezuela tweens and adolescents’ experiences of cyberbullying. A survey study of 21.000 students from 10 to 18 years. In this paper, “cyberbullying” refers to bullying via electronic communication tools: mobile phone/video/picture/text message, Internet/gaming/instant messaging.

  5. A solar radiation database for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  6. Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Vaneechoutte M, Claeys G, Steyaert S, De Baere T, Peleman R, Ver- schraegen G. Isolation of. Moraxella canis from an ulcerated meta- static lymph node ...assistant professor at the Pontifi cia Universidad Católica de Chile School of Medicine. Her research interests include tuberculosis diagnosis and

  7. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

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    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  8. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  9. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L; Dasch, Gregory A; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal(2) in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis.

  10. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  11. Forest Structure and Biomass Data, La Selva, Costa Rica: 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides field measurements of diameter, tree height, and crown dimensions for 1,513 trees in 30 plots at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa...

  12. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  13. [Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marta; Rodríguez, Iris; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in a sample (n=750) of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modem biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of negative acceptances to biotechnology and GMOs when their opinions were compared with those of students from life sciences and technologies.

  14. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  15. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

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    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  16. Anomalias ósseas congênitas em Sotalia guianensis (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae da costa centro-norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Congenital bone defects in Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae in the northcentral coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Laeta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcaças de botos-cinza Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864 foram recuperadas entre 20 de agosto de 2001 e 13 de fevereiro de 2006, na costa centro-norte fluminense. A maior parte delas (85% entre Barra de São João (22º35'S 41º59'W e Quissamã (22º06'S 41º28'W. Foram estudadas as colunas vertebrais dos 20 exemplares que apresentavam mais de 60% das vértebras presentes. A coleção é formada por 75% de animais imaturos, e todos os esqueletos mostram alterações tafonômicas mínimas. Duas categorias de anomalias congênitas foram diagnosticadas, ambas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento do mesoderma paraxial. A sétima vértebra cervical (C7 foi a única afetada, as costelas cervicais e o não fechamento do arco neural atingiram 15 (75% dos indivíduos analisados, dos quais três (15% apresentam ambas as anomalias. Nove (45% indivíduos apresentaram costelas cervicais uni ou bilateral, e nove (45% indivíduos apresentaram não fechamento do arco neural; em todos os casos as vértebras contíguas eram normais. A ocorrência de anomalias nesta série do Rio de Janeiro é maior do que as referidas na literatura brasileira para outras séries de Sotalia do Amazonas, Ceará e Santa Catarina. A série de Sotalia descrita vem de uma região do litoral muito limitada e provavelmente representa uma população local. As costelas cervicais são geneticamente determinadas e podem estar concentradas por uma condição de grande proximidade biológica entre os animais; o não fechamento do arco pode ter também um componente ambiental, a ser investigado futuramente.Carcasses of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864 were recovered from August 20, 2001 to February 13, 2006 along the north-central coast of Rio de Janeiro state. Most of the animals (85% were found between Barra de São João (22º35'S 41º59'W and Quissamã (22º06'S 41º28'W. We studied the vertebral columns of all the 20 specimens that had more than 60% of the

  17. El arrecife coralino de Punta Cocles, costa Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cindy Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe al arrecife de Punta Cocles (Limón, Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen por medio de un muestreo con nueve transectos, paralelos a la costa y por observaciones directas durante buceos a pulmón entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre del 2002. Este arrecife consta aproximadamente de 10.5 hectáreas, en las que se identifican 13 especies de corales, 39 de macroalgas, dos de pastos marinos, dos de zoántidos, una anémona, un coralimorfario y una esponja. Se observa un incremento en la cobertura de corales vivos (16% con respecto a otros años (5% en 1985, y 13.2% en 1995, y una baja cobertura de coral muerto (0.2%. Las macroalgas presentan la cobertura más alta (59%, particularmente las algas pardas con una distribución en parches de Sargassum y Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta constituye una nueva adición para la flora ficológica de Costa Rica. El arrecife de Punta Cocles, funciona como un refugio para los organismos, debido a la ausencia de centros de población y desembocaduras de los ríos, además, del tipo de formación costera, lo que se ve favorecido por la conciencia ambiental que viven cerca del arrecifeThis paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica. Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%, was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995, and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%. Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%, particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns

  18. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  19. Los insectos invasores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta una recopilación preliminar de los insectos introducidos en Costa Rica. Se estima que existen al menos 300 especies exóticas. Los medios más comunes de introducción son: suelo y hojarasca, desechos, madera, granos almacenados, plantas, vertebrados y otros insectos. Se nota la escasez de especies exóticas entre los insectos acuáticos y ciertos grupos de insectos fitófagos (Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera, Chrysomelidae). Los insectos introducidos pueden tener un impacto negativo o pos...

  20. Costa Rica 1986. Una democracia amenazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rojas Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985 Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983 Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986 Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984 Estados Unidos. Estrategia de Comunicación:la elección presidencial. En la sección NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS se habla de los flujos de datos transfrontera (FDT y cuestiones afines.

  1. La apertura comercial en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Bustos Alvarado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los diferentes modelos contemporáneos implementados en Costa Rica, cuyo objetivo ha sido el de generar un desarrollo hacia fuera, es decir, basado en un fuerte impulso a las exportaciones y a la búsqueda de nuevos mercados. Todas estas medidas tomadas por las distintas administraciones, unas con más convicción que otras, han desembocado en un proceso de apertura comercial que ha quedado plasmado en la negociación y firma de diferentes tratados de libre comercio con países y regiones, como una manera de ampliar el mercado y de esta forma acelerar el desarrollo económico del País.

  2. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  3. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

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    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  4. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

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    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  5. The venomous coral snakes (genus Micrurus) of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jay M.; Vial, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Four species of venomous coral snakes (Micrurus) occur in Costa Rica. The single bicolor species, M. mipartitus has previously been defined as two subspecies; however, variations in diagnostic characters clemonstrate dinal shift that precludes recognition of geographic races.Presence of the tricolor M. clarki is concluded from but a single Costa Rican specimen, although the species is otherwise definitely known from adjacent areas in Panamá.Variation among tricolor coral snakes allied to M. n...

  6. La descentralización productiva en Costa Rica

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    Marco Durante Calvo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la forma en que la jurisprudencia de Costa Rica ha reglado las distintas formas de descentralización: trabajo autónomo, subcontratación y suministro de mano de obra temporal, y presentar una propuesta de reforma al actual Código de Trabajo de Costa Rica para incorporarle normas más específicas a esas realidades.

  7. Erradicación de helmintos intestinales en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1985-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1985 In order to assess possible changes in prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in Costa Rica, which could be related to the marked socioeconomic improvement of the country in the 1960's and 1970's, a national survey was carried out in 1982, using similar design and field and laboratory methodologies as those employed in the previous national survey of 1966. The comparison of the two surveys sho...

  8. Checklist of the helminth parasites of vertebrates in Costa Rica

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    Beatriz Rodríguez-Ortíz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of vertebrates have been studied in Costa Rica for more than 50 years. Survey work on this group of parasites is far from complete. We assembled a database with all the records of helminth parasites of wild and domestic vertebrates in Costa Rica. Information was obtained from different sources such as literature search (all published accounts and parasite collections. Here we present a checklist with a parasite-host list as well as a host-parasite list. Up to now, 303 species have been recorded, including 81 species of digeneans, 23 monogeneans, 63 cestodes, 12 acanthocephalans, and 124 nematodes. In total, 108 species of vertebrates have been studied for helminths in Costa Rica (31 species of fishes, 7 amphibians, 14 reptiles, 20 birds, and 36 mammals. This represents only 3.8% of the vertebrate fauna of Costa Rica since about 2,855 species of vertebrates occur in the country. Interestingly, 58 species (19.1 % were recorded as new species from Costa Rica and most of them are endemic to particular regions. Considering the valuable information that parasites provide because it is synergistic with all the information about the natural history of the hosts, helminth parasites of vertebrates in Costa Rica should be considered within any initiatives to accomplish the national inventory of biological resources. Starting with this compilation work, the Colección de Helmintos de Costa Rica (CHCR, hosted at the Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, has reemerged and it is our hope that it will have the standards of quality to assure that it will become the national depository of helminths in the country

  9. Patterns of stress field orientations, structures, basement structural heritage and tectonic evolution of the Camamu and Reconcavo South Basins, Palm Tree's coastline, Bahia, Brazil; Padroes de orientacao dos campos de tensao, estruturas, heranca do embasamento e evolucao tectonica das bacias de Camamu e porcao sul do Reconcavo, Costa do Dende, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Gomes, Luiz Cesar [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Aplicadas]. E-mails: gomes@cefetba.br, lccgomes@ufba.br; Dominguez, Jose Maria Landim; Barbosa, Johildo Salomao Figueiredo; Silva, Idney Cavalcanti da; Pinto, Moises Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mails: jose_landim@uol.com.br; johildo@cpgg.ufba.br; idney25@ig.com.br

    2005-12-15

    The Camamu and Reconcavo South Basins are located near the passive continental margin of the Bahia State, Brazil, and have high potential for hydrocarbon exploration. In these basins and surrounding basement, brittle and ductile structures were studied, which resulted in 3D stress field orientations by use of inversion methods. From this study, the following results are relevant: important control of the basement structural heritage on the basin formation and evolution; local strike-inversion of {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} orientations in transtensive settings; vertical {sigma}{sub 1} typical of extensional regime precedes sub horizontal {sigma}{sub 1} of transtensive one; in relation to basin's long axes, at least four main horizontal {sigma}{sub 1} orientations were obtained, involving parallel, orthogonal and two diagonal sets. This could be related to: parallel and orthogonal flexural stress due to the sedimentary load, local elastic rebound of fault blocks, stress channeling, density contrasts between oceanic and continental crusts and ridge pull of the adjacent oceanic plate; diagonals, due to a combination of first order regional and second order local stress fields. This suggest that the continental margin of the Bahia State evolves from a typical passive into a transtensive margin, with transpressive regime that have been observed in some places, in a classical evolution of the Wilson Cycle. (author)

  10. 75 FR 17031 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... effect for the domestically produced commodities. ] The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this... the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the embassies of Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica...

  11. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

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    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un

  12. Natural history of Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Anomura, Hippidae in a sandy beach of northern Chile Historia natural de Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Anomura, Hippidae en una playa arenosa del norte de Chile

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    HERALDO CONTRERAS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samplings were carried across the intertidal of the beach at Hornitos, northern Chile (22°26´S during August and November 1996 and March, July and November 1997 for a study of the reproductive and population biology of Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Decapoda, Anomura in a region of the Chilean coast characterized by persistent upwelling. The highest abundances of E. analoga occurred during March and December 1997. During November 1996, March and December 1997, the highest abundances occurred below the effluent line, while in July 1996 and August 1997, most of the stages of E. analoga occurred in higher abundances above the effluent line. Ovigerous females were recorded over the entire study period. Juveniles were also present during all sampling months, peaking during March 1997. Body size of ovigerous females varied between 12.6 and 26.4 mm. Fecundity increased significantly with body size of females in all samples analyzed. The analyses of recruitment pattern for males and females suggest the existence of two pulses in the recruitment of E. analoga at Hornitos: one between October and December, and another one between February and March. Growth analyses show that females have growth rates a maximum body sizes higher than males. Comparisons with similar studies carried out at the coast of south central Chile (ca. 39° S, a region where upwelling occurs occasionally, show that E. analoga from this region have similar growth rates but attain a greater maximum body size than in Hornitos. It is concluded that proximity to areas of persistent upwelling seems not to affect life history of E. analoga in northern ChileSe realizaron muestreos de sedimentos en la playa de Hornitos, norte de Chile (ca. 22°26´S durante Agosto y Noviembre de 1996 y Marzo, Julio y Noviembre de 1997, con el objetivo de estudiar la biología reproductiva y poblacional de Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Decapoda, Anomura en una región de la costa Chilena, caracterizada por

  13. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  14. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  15. NOTAS PARA UNA HISTORIA DE LAS RELACIONES VECINALES DE CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX

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    Eduardo Araya Leüpin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En una retrospectiva histórica sobre las relaciones de Chile con sus países vecinos a lo largo del siglo XX hay algunas tendencias que resaltan y que pese a los cambios en el sistema internacional han tendido a permanecer a lo largo del tiempo, adquiriendo por tanto rasgos de “larga duración” o aquello que la Escuela Francesa de Historia de las Relaciones Internacionales denominó corrientesprofundas. Lo primero es que en la construcción mutua de nuestras identidades, estas se han basado durante períodos prolongados en la imagen del otro como un vecino amenazante, con lo cual las relaciones bilaterales tienden a ser percibidas como un juego en donde alguien pierde a costa de las ganancias del otro. Lo segundo es que la relación con nuestros vecinos, incluso con aquellos como en el caso de Argentina han tenido una mejoría significativa al menos desde la década de los 90s con la recuperación de la democracia en ambos países, ha mantenido cursos zigzagueantes entre la cooperación y el conflicto. Lo tercero es un notorio contraste entre la tendencia a la continuidad en la política exterior de Chile en relación a los temas vecinales, independiente del tipo de gobierno que exista, esta continuidad se ha explicado como política de estado, sin embargo, por sus características, esta difícilmente cumple con los estándares de una efectiva política de estado. De manera contrastante, las fluctuaciones en las políticas exteriores de nuestros vecinos han dependido del alto grado de personalismo en las decisiones, la menor institucionalización de la política interna y/o de las fluctuaciones en la popularidad de los gobernantes.

  16. ALTERACIONES DEL FUEGO SOBRE LA BIODIVERSIDAD DE BOSQUES TEMPLADOS. EL CASO DEL BOSQUE PLUVIAL COSTERO DE CHILE

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    Víctor Quintanilla Pérez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian efectos del fuego en el bosque pluvial siempre verde del sur de Chile (39º-42º S. La vegetación predominante corresponde al bosque mixto siempre verde de la cordillera de la costa. Este es un bosque templado subpolar siempre verde ombrófilo rico en taloepífitas y en helechos que enraizan en el suelo. Las plantaciones de Pinus insigne, el desmantelamiento del bosque para terrenos de cultivo y los incendios forestales son los principales elementos responsables del retroceso del bosque valdiviano de Chile. Estamos estudiando las transformaciones espaciales y temporales que está provocando el fuego en estos bosques. Con el apoyo de fotos aéreas, análisis estadístico de datos de incendios, imágenes satelitarias y observaciones de campo; establecemos áreas piloto para estudiar fases de cambio en las áreas quemadas en los bosques de la montaña costera. Se determinan algunas reacciones de comunidades frente al fuego: por ejemplo los bosques de Fitzroya cupressoides no demuestran regeneración después de los incendios.

  17. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-06-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil.

  18. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

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    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  19. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begoniadelicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begoniaelianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begoniapaganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status.

  20. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda de Souza Gregório

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: B. delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; B. elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and B. paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status.

  1. El rápido descenso de la fecundidad en Costa Rica

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    Gómez Barrantes, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gómez Barrantes es profesor emérito de la Escuela de Estadística de la Universidad de Costa Rica con estudios de postgrado en demografía en CELADE, Santiago de Chile, y de sociología y muestreo en la Universidad de Michigan, donde fue discípulo favorito de posiblemente el muestrista más importante que ha existido en la ciencias sociales: el Profesor Leslie Kish. Pero Miguel es más que estos títulos. Es el maestro y mentor de prácticamente todos los estadísticos, muestristas, encuestadores (en el sentido de pollsters, politólogos y opinionólogos cuantitativos de Costa Rica. Y también de los demógrafos. Una época de la vida profesional de Miguel, hace como 40 años, estuvo dedicada a la investigación demográfica, en particular, al estudio de la fecundidad en el país. En 1964, por ejemplo, Miguel dirigió la primera encuesta científica poblacional que se atrevió a preguntar a una muestra de 2.000 mujeres josefinas intimidades de las que muy pocas personas se atrevían a hablar en público en ese entonces, como el uso de anticonceptivos.El manuscrito que se reproduce a continuación, que data de1970, resume algunas de las investigaciones de la fecundidad de Costa Rica que Miguel, a veces con la ayuda de sus estudiantes, efectuó en esa época. Lo presentó en el Quinto Seminario Nacional de Demografía que se llevó a cabo en ese año en el Centro de Recreación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Miguel es un investigador extremadamente cuidadoso que por exagerado pudor dejó sin publicar mucho material de su trabajo de esa época. Este manuscrito es casi una excepción y es una suerte que haya visto la luz pública en un volumen (difícil de conseguir en la actualidad con los trabajos presentados en dicho Seminario. La Revista Población y Salud en Mesoamérica rescata este trabajo considerándolo visita obligada para investigadores que traten de entender una de las revoluciones más importantes ocurridas en Costa Rica en

  2. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

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    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  3. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  4. Weak recognition: Indigenous rights in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After seventeen years of debate, the Chilean Congress approved the ilo 169 Convention on indigenous rights that compels the State to consult indigenous communities on issues that directly affect them. As the political and economic conditions were unfavourable, this political outcome is surprising. Indeed, the legal status of the indigenous people in Chile is weaker than in the rest of Latin America. This article explains this outcome through a detailed description of institutional changes as well as social pressures from the indigenous movement. These factors made right-wing sectors to adapt their discourses in order to accept Chile as a multicultural society. Moreover, a relevant part of the story is related to territorial differences among legislators. Discourse adaptation toward a soft recognition of indigenous rights is a likely outcome in a very conservative environmental setting.

  5. Medical genetics and genetic counseling in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Sonia B; Alvarado, Mónica; Alvarez, Karin; Lay-Son, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    In the South American Republic of Chile genetic counseling is not currently recognized as an independent clinical discipline, and in general is provided by physicians with training in clinical genetics. At present only one genetic counselor and 28 clinical geneticists practice in this country of over 16 million inhabitants. Pediatric dysmorphology constitutes the primary area of practice in clinical genetics. Although the country has a universal health care system and an adequate level of health care, genetic conditions are not considered a health care priority and there is a lack of clinical and laboratory resources designated for clinical genetics services. Multiple educational, cultural and financial barriers exist to the growth and development of genetic counseling services in Chile. However, during the last 10 years increased awareness of the importance of identifying individuals at risk for inherited cancer syndromes led to growing interest in the practice of cancer genetics.

  6. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  7. Multinationals and plant exit: evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Espinoza, Roberto; Görg, Holger

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the link between multinational enterprises and plant exit in Chile. We investigate three main questions: are affiliates of foreign multinationals more likely to exit than domestic firms? Does the exit probability of multinationals depend on its export orientation?, and Does the presence of multinationals affect the survival of other firms in the economy? Our results show that foreign plants are more likely to exit the economy, controlling for other firm and industry charac...

  8. Weak recognition: Indigenous rights in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Fuentes; Maite Cea, de

    2017-01-01

    After seventeen years of debate, the Chilean Congress approved the ilo 169 Convention on indigenous rights that compels the State to consult indigenous communities on issues that directly affect them. As the political and economic conditions were unfavourable, this political outcome is surprising. Indeed, the legal status of the indigenous people in Chile is weaker than in the rest of Latin America. This article explains this outcome through a detailed description of institutional changes as ...

  9. Strengthening Chile's Rule-Based Fiscal Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Daban Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of Chile’s impressive fiscal performance has been its structural balance rule. By insulating public spending from short-term copper price fluctuations and the business cycle, the rule has helped preserve fiscal discipline. However, the implementation of the rule in recent years has revealed certain challenges, and in May 2010, the government established a high-level commission to recommend reforms that could make the rule even more effective. This paper assesses the scope fo...

  10. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Lord 23 Cochrane, 1973, pp. 103-108. See also Page 8 for a photograph of Allende...Rothenberg, Soviet Penetration, p. 144. 18. The letter in Castro’s handwriting is published in the Libro Blanco, p. 101- 102. In the UN debates after the...a Via Chilena a la Via Insurreccional, Santiago: Editorial del Pacifico, 1974, pp. 296ff. 19. Libro Blanco includes (pp. 192 and 197) what appear to

  11. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  12. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  13. Cultivo protegido de hortalizas en Costa Rica

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    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La horticultura en Costa Rica se ha desarrollado principalmente a campo abierto y se ha concentrado en el Valle Central donde predominan las actividades de expansión urbanística y comercial. Muchos de los problemas asociados a la producción hortícola se centran en la alta presencia de plagas y enfermedades que obligan al productor a utilizar plaguicidas químicos con consecuencias nocivas para el ambiente: la horticultura a campo abierto se vuelve muy contaminante e insostenible. Una alternativa productiva pueden ser los sistemas de cultivos protegidos, en los que se usan estructuras, materiales y equipo; posibilitan la producción de hortalizas en climas adversos y facilitan el control de plagas y enfermedades. Estos sistemas se han usado ampliamente a nivel mundial con gran éxito, pero a nivel del trópico es necesaria la investigación en este campo con el objetivo de implementar o modificar el sistema para que favorezca la producción sostenible de hortalizas.

  14. WEEE Resource Management System in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica followed different steps in order to organise and implement a waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE management system. This paper summarises the challenges, successes, and limitations of its implementation. Two phases were needed to set up the system. The first phase created a baseline followed by the designing of a strategy. The second phase promoted a Decree for WEEE management that prohibits discarding WEEE together with household waste, as well as the creation of a National Executive Committee with representatives of importers, consumers, and government, which will establish the quotes and treatment fees, and so on. Another outcome was the development of a strategy for the implementation of WEEE management for the country, the promotion of population awareness about their responsibility for WEEE management, and an example set up for other Latin American countries. This paper draws conclusions from the regulation and notes the required consistency with the existing national waste legislation in order to reduce approval times. Additionally, the importance of the participation of stakeholders representing different electric and electronic equipment (EEE sectors with the purpose of obtaining consensus on agreements is highlighted.

  15. los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas es el más visitado de Costa Rica, dado su fácil acceso, cercanía relativa a los grandes centros de población del país y buenas carreteras. Entre Marzo y Abril del 2006 producto de unas erupciones intra-cratéricas el parque tuvo que ser cerrado por tres semanas. El estudio reportado estima el impacto económico del cierre del parque en los negocios que sirven a los turistas en las comunidades vecinas, durante las tres semanas que el parque permaneció cerrado. Los resultados presentados son producto de un censo económico efectuado a los 28 negocios directamente afectados. Esta clase de información y metodología permite a las comunidades que pasará en términos de impacto económico en pequeñas comunidades y así evitar frustraciones en las mismas en materia de beneficios económicos esperados y no materializados.

  16. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  17. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

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    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  18. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY: Defense... Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica, and the United... Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the...

  19. Some intertidal and shallow water polychaetes of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Harlan K

    2017-03-01

    The polychaete fauna of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica has been inadequately characterized with only nine species previously reported. Collections of polychaetes from intertidal coralline rocks and several shallow sub-tidal sites on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been examined and 68 species were identified. Of these, 66 are new records for Costa Rica.

  20. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  1. MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN, TERREMOTOS Y TSUNAMIS: LOS CASOS DE CHILE Y JAPÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Gómez Quezada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El 27 febrero del año pasado, un terremoto grado 8,8 en la escala Richter, azotó la zona centro sur de Chile en lo que se considera uno de los seis terremotos más fuertes y destructivos medidos instrumentalmente en el mundo. El sismo provocó un desastre de dimensiones gigantescas, aterrador. Todo ocurrió de noche, a oscuras. 30 minutos después, numerosas zonas costeras experimentaron varios maremotos, conocidos como tsunamis, lo que aumentó la destrucción, la muerte y el pánico. El epicentro se ubicó en la provincia de Ñuble, Región del Bío Bío, bajo el mar a doce kilómetros de la costa de Cobquecura y su fuerza se sintió en gran parte de Sudamérica. Seis regiones chilenas fueron afectadas, zona donde se concentra el 80 por ciento de la población nacional...(Continúa

  2. Brazil : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Americas, Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Uruguay. Programme: Économies en réseaux. Financement total : CA$ 303,800.00. Lutter contre la pollution dans les zones côtières. Project. Au Brésil, la pollution organique et inorganique croissante découlant à la ...

  3. International politics and primary health care in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L M

    1990-01-01

    Costa Rica's internationally-renowned rural health program exemplifies the principles put forth by the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care with one exception: the government has not succeeded in achieving active community participation in health. This paper uses a historical and political-economic perspective to explain why the Costa Rican government failed in its efforts to enhance community participation after Alma Ata. International agencies have been closely involved in the design and implementation of rural health services in Costa Rica since the early 1900s, yet community participation did not figure in these programs until the mid-1970s. The demise of community participation in the early 1980s is attributed to a combination of factors including partisan conflicts, social class conflicts, interest group politics and, particularly, to the shifting priorities of international health and development agencies.

  4. [Factors related to using health services in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Amada A; Morera-Salas, Melvin; Barber-Pérez, Patricia; Hernández, Karla; Xirinach-Salazar, Yanira; Varga, Juan R

    2009-01-01

    Determining Costa Ricans' behaviour patterns when using health services. The Costa Rican Health Survey was used. Central tendency, dispersion, percentages, frequencies, Ji-Square and Kruskal-Walis test measurements were analysed. Area of residence and income level were the predisposing factors in both out-patient and emergency services whereas educational level was so in terms of hospitalisation service. Health insurance status and the area of residence were the enabling factors associated with using out-patient and hospitalisation services. The need factors associated with outpatient services were the individuals' perceived state of health, having remained in bed at least until noon and suffering some chronic disease; chronic disease was associated with hospitalisation and remaining in bed when using the emergency service. Most variables postulated by Andersen and Newman's model as being determinants for using health services were present in Costa Rica. Nevertheless, the significance of its factors varied between outpatient, hospitalisation and emergency services.

  5. Primary Health Care That Works: The Costa Rican Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesec, Madeline; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    Long considered a paragon among low- and middle-income countries in its provision of primary health care, Costa Rica reformed its primary health care system in 1994 using a model that, despite its success, has been generally understudied: basic integrated health care teams. This case study provides a detailed description of Costa Rica's innovative implementation of four critical service delivery reforms and explains how those reforms supported the provision of the four essential functions of primary health care: first-contact access, coordination, continuity, and comprehensiveness. As countries around the world pursue high-quality universal health coverage to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, Costa Rica's experiences provide valuable lessons about both the types of primary health care reforms needed and potential mechanisms through which these reforms can be successfully implemented. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  7. Escuela Normal (Normal School of Costa Rica: History and Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Carvajal-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the centennial of the Escuela Normal (Normal School of Costa Rica, this paper discusses its role and its legacy in teacher training.  It is structured in three parts. Firstly, it presents a brief historical background of the origin and profile of normal schools in various parts of the world. Secondly, it describes the development of the Escuela Normal (Normal School in Costa Rica, refers to various personalities and significant elements that have set the course and prestige of the institution, and places the emphasis on its key role in the humanistic training of teachers, which helped to establish the foundations of Costa Rican educational development. Finally, it presents some remarks about the educational legacy of this noble institution that has remained to this day, particularly in tertiary education, in the teacher training career at the National University, the major historical heir of the Escuela Normal (Normal School.

  8. Una especie nueva de tisanóptero del género Frankliniella (grupo cephalica;Thysanoptera:Thripidaede Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Frankliniella para el grupo cephalica: Frankliniella morerai. La nueva especie es similar a F. sandovalensis en el cuerpo translúcido, pero se distingue por las setas io III en posición 1/2, su peine completo en el segmento abdominal VIII, los segmentos antenales sin coloración y la seta po IV de mayor longitud. Se encontró en baja densidad en cultivos de chile, tomate, lechuga, camote y culantro. Se presenta un cuadro comparativo con las especies del grupo y se incluyen ilustraciones de la nueva especieA new species of thrip,genus Frankliniella (group cephalica ; Thysanoptera: Thripidae from Costa Rica. A new species of the Frankliniella cephalica group, from Central Costa Rica, is described under the name "Frankliniella morerai n.sp.". It is closely related to Frankliniella sandovalensis. Both species have translucent bodies, but the new species can be distinguished by these characteristics: setae io III in position 1/2, a complete comb on abdominal segment VIII, antennal segments without coloration and setae po IV longer. It was found in low density in crops of chilli, tomato, lettuce, sweet potato and coriander. A comparative table with other species of this group is included to facilitate diagnosis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:191-194.Epub 2005 Jun 24

  9. Characteristics of the bological cycle of Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima & Antunes, 1936 (Diptera: Psychodidae under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936 is found in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, in areas of visceral and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and follows the same geographic distribution of L. longipalpis. The biological cycle, oviposition, morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species were studied under experimental conditions. The average number of eggs per wild caught female varied from 21 to 50 eggs along the year, with a peak occurring between January and March and another in August, with oviposition lasting for 4 to 12 days. The mean larval phase was 24 days. Ovipositing rates were influenced by rainfall and temperature indexes, with an increase of eggs per oviposition at the beginning and at the end of the rainy season, and a decrease at the peak of the rainy season.

  10. Panbiogeographical analysis of Costa Rican freshwater fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herrera-Vásquez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Track analysis and Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE were performed to analyze the distribution pattern of Costa Rican freshwater fishes. A basic matrix (presence/absence was prepared using the distribution of 77 freshwater fish. The data were analyzed with CLIQUE software in order to find generalized tracks (cliques. Data also were analyzed with the software NONA and Winclada version 1.00.08 in order to perform the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE. Fourteen equally probable cliques were found with 31 species in each and the intersection of the amount was selected as a generalized track dividing the country in two main zones: Atlantic slope from Matina to Lake Nicaragua and Pacific slope from the Coto River to the basin of the Tempisque River connected with some branches oriented to the central part of the country. PAE analysis found ten cladogram areas (72 steps, CI=0.45, RI=0.64, using the "strict consensus option" two grouping zones were identified: Atlantic slope and Pacific slope. Both PAE and Track Analysis show the division of the two slopes and the orientation of the generalized track suggests new biogeographical evidence on the influence of both old and new southern elements to explain the migrations of freshwater fish into Central America during two different geological events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 165-170. Epub 2008 March 31.Con el objetivo de analizar el patrón de distribución de peces de agua dulce de Costa Rica se aplicó un análisis de trazos y de parsimonía de endemismos (PAE. Se construyó una matriz básica utilizando la distribución de 77 especies. Se utilizó el programa CLIQUE con la intención de encontrar los trazos generalizados y NONA y Winclada, versión 1.00.08, con el fin de llevar a cabo el PAE. Se encontró un total de 14 cliques igualmente probables con 31 especies. De esta cantidad se construyó un trazo generalizado que constituye la intersección del total, dividiendo el país en dos zonas: Atl

  11. Rehidratación oral en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1982-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1982 Alrededor de 1963 reinaba una anarquía en los hospitales de Costa Rica en cuanto a la rehidrataci6n intravenosa para tratar la diarrea severa. Las normas existentes fueron revisadas entonces por el Dr. Rodrigo Loría Cortés con el fin de lograr cierto ordenamiento en los esquemas de tratamiento. En 1972 bajo la guía del Dr. Edgar Mohs y otros galenos se logra impulsar en el país la preparación de tres solucio...

  12. La competencia electoral en Costa Rica y Nicaragua: diferencias multinivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Cascante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación describe el modo en que se estructura la competencia electoral en los sistemas de partidos en territorios unitarios y explica porqué en contextos similares existen estructuras y dinámicas de competencia diferentes. La investigación muestra que la competencia electoral de Costa Rica es incongruente, a diferencia de Nicaragua donde la competencia es congruente. Se exploran hipótesis de tipo institucional y sociológico para explicar las diferencias entre Costa Rica y Nicaragua.

  13. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  14. Hemoglobinopatías poco comunes en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Elizondo, Jorge; Sáenz, German F.; Páez, Carlos A.; Arroyo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Entre las hemoglobinopatías poco comunes detectadas en Costa Rica se encuentran las de cadenas alfa, beta y delta. Dentro de ellas se destaca en particular la Hb Cubujuquí como una variante hemoglobínica no descrita hasta el momento. Existe una asociación entre los diversos síndromes talasémicos y sus combinaciones con hemoglobinas anormales presentes en nuestra población. Among the rare hemoglobinopathies found in Costa Riea are those of the Alfa, Beta, and Delta chains. Among these, Hb C...

  15. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. Buddleja filibracteolata se diferencia por sus hojas sesiles, láminas foliares amplexicaules y por sus inflorescencias espiciformes con numerosas y conspicuas brácteas filiformes.

  16. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  17. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  18. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  19. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    Pascuenses y Gobierno instalan mesas de trabajo ,” El Mercurio, August 25, 2010. 56 Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Facing the Challenge of...Chile is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking in persons for commercial sexual and labor exploitation. While Chile has made

  20. All projects related to chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LATIN AMERICA, BRAIN, CANADA, MENTAL HEALTH, MICROBIOLOGY, MICROORGANISMS, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH. Region: Chile, Canada, Israel. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 625,500.00. Evaluating New Chilean National Regulations on the Food Supply. Project. In Chile ...

  1. All projects related to Chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth ... The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Project. Alcohol consumption in the ...

  2. All projects related to Chile | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in Chile. Project. Latin American and Caribbean countries fare poorly in international comparisons of learning assessments. Region: Chile. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 350,800.00. Business Cooperation and Regional Productive ...

  3. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Stuckrath, R, Virgilio, R. Salmonella en cecinas de la provincia de Nuble y probable fuentes de contaminacion . Bol Inst. Bacteriolog. Chile 1973; 15:58...Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura

  4. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de... panamericana .’ Santiago, Chile. 12. Morris JG Jr., Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Lobcs H, Black RE, Rodriguez H, Levine MM. (1984) TypAhoid fever in Santiago

  5. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTER NETWORKS, CHILE, Democracy, Civil society, Technological change, Internet. Region: Chile, South America, North and ... There is also limited understanding of the risks faced by rural communities to climate change and how they are adapting. Start Date: March 1, 2011.

  6. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  7. Education for development under the skies of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Cecilia; Fischer, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    We report on an educational program initiated in Chile in the year 2010 on the frame of an excellence research and graduate exchange program between the University of Heidelberg and the Pontfica Catlica University in Chile, funded by the German International Exchange Office (DAAD).

  8. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  9. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    that help the government promote creativity and entrepreneurship. □ Wage inequalities in Brazil and India. Funding: $247,200. Duration: 2013–2015. Grantee: Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento, Brazil. Although poverty in Brazil and India has diminished, inequality among wage earners remains high. Think tanks ...

  10. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  11. Taxonomic identification of appendicularians collected in the epipelagic waters off northern Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia Identificación taxonómica de las apendicularias capturadas en aguas epipelágicas de la zona norte de Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO ARAVENA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a first taxonomic description of appendicularians collected during September and August of 1995 in the north coast of Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Fifteen species were identified. They belong to the families Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum, and Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. All the species are first records for waters of northern Chile, thus broadening their previous distribution in the southeast Pacific. The most abundant species were Oikopleura longicauda (56.1 %, O. gracilis (10.4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6.7 %; O. albicans (5.0 %; F. pellucida omani (4.7 %; O. cophocerca (4.4 % and F. venusta (4.1 %, whereas the eight remaining species, constituted 8.6 % of the total appendicularians collectedEl presente trabajo proporciona una primera descripción taxonómica de las apendicularias colectadas durante septiembre y agosto de 1995 en la costa norte de Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Se identificaron 15 especies de apendicularias pertenecientes a las familias Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum y Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. Todas las especies identificadas se registran por primera vez para aguas del norte de Chile y se amplía su distribución en esta área del Pacífico Suroriental. Las especies más abundantes fueron Oikopleura longicauda (56,1 %, O. gracilis (10,4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6,7 %; O. albicans (5,0 %; F. pellucida omani (4,7 %; O. cophocerca (4,4 % y F. venusta (4,1 %, mientras que las ocho especies restantes constituyeron el 8,6 % del total de apendicularias

  12. THE COST OF DIRECT TAXATION ON INVESTMENT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper analyzed the impact of taxation on the investment in Brazil, focusing on the taxation of corporate income. Following the literature, it was used an economic model to calculate two indicators of effective tax rates - Effective Marginal Tax Rate (EMTR and Effective Average Tax Rate (EATR. The EMTR measures the increase of the cost of capital due to corporate income tax. The EATR represents a measure of the average tax rate levied on an investment that has a pre-defined economic profit. The results suggest Brazil may face some difficulties to attract foreign investment. The country presents high rates for EATR and EMTR, higher than the average of the rich countries and well above the figures of development countries like Chile, Mexico, South Africa, Russia and China, potential competitors in attracting investments.

  13. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  14. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  15. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research conducted in Chile on reading, reading proficiency and reading news on politics shows that negative values around 50. These data add to the forty million illiterates in Latin America, so this article rejects the death of the book and the frivolous faith in the replacement of the book by the use of information technology and communication (schools full of computers Instead, he insists on paying serious attention to the links between reason, book, and reading in the development of the individual and society

  16. Pobreza Multidimensional en Chile: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Sanhueza; Angela Denis; Francisca Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de medición multidimensional de la pobreza para Chile. Siguiendo el enfoque conceptual de Amartya Sen, pobreza no es meramente insuficiencia de ingresos, sino se define como privación de capacidades para la realización de funcionamientos valiosos en la vida. Medimos carencias individuales en tres grupos de la población: niños, población económicamente activa y adultos mayores, y en cinco dimensiones: educación, salud, vivienda, empleo e ingresos. La justifi...

  17. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  18. The Death of Socialism in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    him to return. During his absence Chile was ruled by a junta lead by General Carlos Ibanez del Campo . Welcomed back in March 1925, Alessandri kept...dictatorship of Colonel (later General) Carlos Ibanez del Campo in 1931-32. The first two were the product of divisions within the political community; the last...the Investigaciones detachment, and tanks were lined up in front of the palace. At 1:30 P.M. shortly after the Air Force bombed the presidential palace

  19. SISTEMAS SANITARIOS Y REFORMA AUGE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Fajuri,Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    A partir de la clasificación de los sistemas sanitarios en términos de su financiamiento, número de actores y consecuencias en equidad, este ensayo pretende analizar algunas de las transformaciones producidas en Chile con la reforma del sistema de salud llamada "Plan AUGE" (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas). Se examinan las tareas pendientes para la conversión de un sistema que, manteniendo su carácter mixto, sea capaz de superar sus actuales consecuencias fuertemente regresivas

  20. Pentecostalism and Politics in Neoliberal Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las relaciones históricas y contemporáneas entre el Pentecostalismo y la política en Chile. La primera parte del artículo provee un resumen histórico del crecimiento y consolidación de la religión Pentecostal en relación a diferentes ambientes políticos. En este artículo se esclarecen además las diferentes posturas Pentecostales hacia la esfera política. En particular hago hincapié, en cómo surge una cultura de desencanto político en el Chile post-dictatorial que crea un vacío simbólico, el cual trae como consecuencia el nacimiento de movimientos religiosos. En la segunda parte de este artículo se discute las posibles afinidades entre el Pentecostalismo, como una cultura religiosa, y los principios democráticos. El argumento es que a pesar de que el Pentecostalismo puede contener algunas cualidades democráticas, también existe una compatibilidad notable entre la visión teísta e individualista Pentecostal acerca de los cambios sociales, y un orden social neoliberal, en donde la indolencia política se expande y en donde predomina un sentido de progreso individual y no colectivo. English: This article explores historical and contemporary relationships between Pentecostalism and politics in Chile. The first part of the article provides an historical account of the growth and consolidation of Pentecostal religion within changing political environments and sheds light on Pentecostal stances to and involvements with the political sphere. In particular, it focuses on how a culture of political disenchantment has emerged in post-dictatorial neo-liberal Chile, creating a symbolic void that can be filled by religious movements. The second part of the article discusses possible affinities between Pentecostalism as a religious culture and democratic principles and values. It argues that although Pentecostalism may contain certain democratic qualities, there is also a striking compatibility between, on the one

  1. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  2. Receptive Vocabulary Measures for EFL Costa Rican High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Garcia, Damaris

    2017-01-01

    The study offers a glimpse of the current situation of foreign language education in the Costa Rican context from the perspective of vocabulary knowledge, particularly passive vocabulary size. Students from two institutions participated: one school implements Content Based Teaching while the other follows traditional, Foreign Language Teaching…

  3. Des liens constructifs au Costa Rica | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2017 ... WEConnect International jumelle des entreprises dirigées par des femmes à des multinationales désireuses de recourir davantage aux services offerts par des femmes. Madelaine Artavia Sotela de Costa Rica est un exemple qui illustre parfaitement la façon dont l'initiative est susceptible d'améliorer ...

  4. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  5. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    American soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora meibomiae, has been reported to occur in several legume species in the tropical regions of Central and South America. In Costa Rica, this pathogen was initially reported as P. pachyrhizi; however, to our knowledge P. pachyrhizi has not been detected in the...

  6. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  7. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  8. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic…

  9. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  10. El Camino Inca de la Costa en Tumbes

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Carrasco, Carolina; Ministerio de Cultura

    2015-01-01

    Artículo descriptivo sobre el camino inca de la costa de Tumbes y sus tres subtramos: en la cordillera de Amotapes, en las colinas miocénicas y en la planicie litoral. Abarca temas como el medio geográfico, los antecedentes del estudio y la historia del tramo.

  11. [Migration and employment in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguid, A

    1986-04-01

    The relationship between rural-urban migration and employment in Costa Rica is explored. "The main purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions in which immigrants are absorbed in the labour market." The data are from the Survey on Migration and Employment in Metropolitan Areas carried out by the Ministry of Planning and Political Economics in 1982. (summary in ENG) excerpt

  12. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  13. The Marine Education Programme and ESD Schools in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Alejandrina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,…

  14. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  15. Citizenship, Wealth, and Whiteness in a Costa Rican High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the democratic rhetoric taught in a Costa Rican High School and the ways in which that rhetoric clashed with school practices that revealed hierarchies based on race, ethnicity, class, and religion. This contradiction was rendered visible through student elections, the Independence Day celebration, and civic acts. Through…

  16. Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Costa Rica. Occasional Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston

    To assist the Costa Rican Social Security Systems in designing a Rural Community Comprehensive Health Model, a study identified functional limitations among 1253 persons over age 7; assessed functional development of 293 children, ages 0-6; identified possible preventive factors of disability; and explored practices and resources in the districts…

  17. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  18. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  19. Variabilidad genética y morfológica y estructuración poblacional en Alstroemeria hookeri subsp. hookeri (Alstroemeriaceae, endémica de Chile Genetic and morphological variation and population structure in Alstroemeria hookeri subsp. hookeri (Alstroemeriaceae, endemic to Chile

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    EDUARDO RUIZ

    2010-12-01

    genética intrapoblacional en esta subespecie. Los resultados del AMOVA indican que la variabilidad se da principalmente entre poblaciones. Sin embargo, estos resultados variaron cuando se analizan las poblaciones de ambos rangos de distribución separadamente. La similitud genética no coincide con la divergencia morfológica entre individuos de la costa e interior, indicando que algunas poblaciones del interior están más relacionadas genéticamente, con poblaciones costeras que con aquellas de su mismo rango geográfico.The genus Alstroemeria consists of 82, exclusively South American taxa that are distributed mainly in Chile and Brazil. The great economic relevance, that has acquired the Chilean Alstroemeria species, as ornamentáis, has aroused great interest in the morphological variability of their flowers and genetic variability in those species with potential economic valué. One of these species is Alstroemeria hookeri which has four subspecies, of which A. hookeri subsp. hookeri, is endemic to the Maule and Biobio Regions. Its geographic distribution consists of two ranges, separated by the Coastal Mountain. Thus, there are populations growing in the coastal range, between 5-20 m high, in the provinces of Arauco, Concepción, Nuble, and Cauquenes, and populations of the Central Valley, growing between 100-150 m in the Biobio and Nuble provinces. Preliminary evidence indicated phenotypic differences between coastal and Central Valley populations, principally in colour and shape of the tepals. For this reason, a comparative morphological study was carried out in the complete geographic distribution of this subspecies and a population genetics study was conducted also, especially to determine the levéis of population structure. Thirty three floral characters were analyzed through ordination methods. The morphological study shows a slight tendency to separate the populations into two groups, which coincide with the extremes of morphological variation and both

  20. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

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    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  1. La música en los inicios de los cultos cristianos no católicos en Chile: El caso de la Union Church (Iglesia Unión de Valparaíso, 1845-1890 Music in the Beginnings of non-Catholic Churches in Chile: The Valparaiso Union Church case, 1845-1890

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    Cristián Guerra Rojas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la relación entre protestantismo, modernidad y música en los inicios de las iglesias cristianas no católicas en el Chile decimonónico. Se examina el caso de la Iglesia Unión (Union Church de Valparaíso, primera iglesia cristiana no católica edificada en Chile y en la costa sur del Pacífico, y de su fundador, David Trumbull. De este modo, se tratan los comienzos del protestantismo en Valparaíso, la obra de Trumbull, su influencia y pensamiento sobre la música en los cultos de adoración de la Iglesia Unión, la Escuela Dominical, los vínculos con otras iglesias, la música en las escuelas protestantes y en las asociaciones civiles modernasThis articles deals with the relationship between Protestantism, modernity and music during the time of non-catholic churches in 19th century's Chile. It considers the case of the Union Church of Valparaiso, the first protestant chapel built in Chile and the South Pacific Coast, along with the activity of his founder, David Trumbull. It presents a panorama of the beginnings of Protestantism in Valparaiso, the work of Trumbull, his influence and thoughts about music in the Union Church's worship services, Sunday School, the relations with other Christian churches, as well as the role of music in protestant schools and in modern civil associations

  2. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  3. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

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    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  4. [Present situation of hepatitis B in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira S, Ana; Valenzuela B, María Teresa; Mora, Judith; Vera, Lilian

    2008-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection generates carriers and 8% will evolve to a chronic phase. To perform a compilation of studies on hepatitis B in Chile and other sources of information to estimate the impact of this disease in our country. Published and unpublished evidence about the infection, in the general population and risk groups in our country, was compiled and reviewed critically. Informal interviews with experts, revision of the mandatory notification book of the Ministry of Health and collection of data from laboratories that study hepatitis B virus, were also carried out. The seroprevalence of chronic carriers in blood donors is nearly O.3%. Among risk groups such as health care personnel, the figure is O.7%, among homosexuals 29%, among HIV positive patients 30%, among sexual workers 2% and among children with chronic hemodialysis, 9%. Prevalence rate according to notified cases in 2004 was 1.8 x 100,000 inhabitants. Detection of viral hepatitis B surface antigen in laboratories occurs in 0.2% of donors and 1.396 of non donors. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, the lack of notification, and the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine to our Regular Program of Immunizations, are arguments to develop in Chile a hepatitis B and C surveillance system.

  5. [The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate

  6. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

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    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  7. Monitoreo del manglar de Gandoca, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

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    Ana C Fonseca E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El manglar de Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribe de Costa Rica, se ha monitoreado desde 1999. La especie dominante es el mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle. El pico de productividad y producción de flores a lo largo de los años se dio en julio. La productividad del manglar disminuyó desde el 2001 y la temperatura del agua aparentemente aumentó. La biomasa (14 kg/m² y densidad (9 árboles por 100 m² en Gandoca son relativamente bajas comparados con otras manglares dentro del Programa CARICOMP, mientras que la productividad encontrada para julio en Costa Rica (4 g/m²/día es intermedia, similar a lo que se encontró en la mayoría de los sitios CARICOMP.Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m² and density (9 trees/10 m² in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m²/day was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 23-31. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  8. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

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    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  9. Geographic variation in diversity of wave exposed rocky intertidal communities along central Chile Variación geográfica de la biodiversidad en hábitats intermareales rocosos de Chile central

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    BERNARDO R BROITMAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Along the coast of central Chile, geographic trends of diversity have been inferred from literature compilations and museum collections based on species range limits for some taxonomic groups. However, spatially-intensive field-based assessments of macrobenthic species richness are largely missing. Over the course of a multiyear study (1998-2005, we characterized latitudinal patterns of rocky intertidal diversity at 18 sites along the coast of central Chile (29-36° S. At each site, the number of sessile and mobile macrobenthic species was quantified in 0.25 m² quadrats. Two estimators of local (alpha diversity were used: observed local species richness, calculated from the asymptote of a species-rarefaction curve, and the Chao2 index, which takes into account the effect of rare species on estimates of local richness. We identified a total of 71 species belonging to 66 genera for a total of 86 taxa. The most diverse groups were herbivorous mollusks (27 taxa and macroalgae (43 taxa. Diversity showed a complex spatial pattern with areas of high species richness interspersed with areas of low richness. In accordance with previous work, we found no trend in the number of herbivorous mollusks and an inverse and significant latitudinal gradient in the number of algal species. Our results highlight the need for taxonomically diverse assessments of biodiversity of the dominant taxa that conform intertidal communities.A lo largo de la costa de Chile central, los patrones geográficos de diversidad han sido inferidos a partir de revisiones literarias y colecciones de museos para algunos grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aun no contamos con una evaluación integral, y en terreno, de la riqueza de especies macrobentónicas intermareales. En un estudio de largo plazo conducido entre 1998 y 2005 caracterizamos los patrones latitudinales en la biodiversidad del intermareal rocoso en 18 sitios a lo largo de la costa de Chile central (29-36° S. En cada sitio

  10. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

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    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; en tanto, desde mediado de los 70's los desembarques de sardina (Sardinops sagax aumentan notablemente. Un segundo cambio de régimen se observa a finales de los 80's, representado principalmente por la notable recuperación de anchovy y disminución de sardina. Se presenta un modelo conceptual integrador de los diferentes fenómenos locales y de gran escala que afectan el ambiente marino del norte de Chile, y la distribución y abundancia de recursos pelágicos. El modelo considera análisis de datos ambientales y bio-pesqueros a distintas escalas, y describe como las fluctuaciones interdecadales (asociadas a cambios de régimen e interanuales (asociadas a los eventos El Niño del Pacífico Ecuatorial se manifiestan en el Pacífico Sur Oriental y por tanto en la zona norte de Chile, afectando el ciclo anual, la dinámica de las ondas atrapadas a la costa y la surgencia costera. En este marco, las fluctuaciones interdecadales estarían jugando un rol importante en la secuencia del reemplazo anchoveta-sardina-anchoveta.

  11. Enfermedad de Chagas en poblaciones prehistóricas del norte de Chile Chagas disease in prehistoric populations of northern Chile

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    NANCY ORELLANA-HALKYER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Chagas es producida por el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi, el cual afecta tanto a seres humanos como a animales, en particular mamíferos marsupiales y placentarios. Las vías de transmisión son diversas, siendo una de las más importantes la vía vectorial, en la que participan insectos infectados con este parásito, animales y humanos. En este artículo de revisión discutimos los postulados sobre la vía de transmisión oral, los hallazgos de T. cruzi en momias de América y especialmente en las del norte de Chile. Presentamos además información que apunta a que la enfermedad de Chagas estuvo presente mucho antes de la conquista europea y de la construcción de viviendas de adobe. Comentamos las hipótesis sobre el vector domiciliado más importante de Sudamérica, Triatoma infestans, su antigüedad en la costa de Arica y los reportes más recientes de otros vectores silvestres. También se discute la información relacionada a la participación en el ciclo de T. cruzi de distintos mamíferos silvestres de Chile y asimismo proponemos el estudio paleoparasitológico en restos zooarqueológicos para conocer las especies de mamíferos reservónos de T. cruzi en la antigüedad.Chagas diseases is produced by a parasite named Trypanosoma cruzi, that affects humans and other marsupial and placental mammals. Transmission routes are diverse, but the most important transmission is the vector route, which involves the triatomine insects, wild and domestic infected animáis, and humans. Here we review the data about oral transmission route and the evidences of the etiological agent (Trypanosoma cruzi of Chagas disease in pre-Columbian American mummies, making a critical review of the infection in northern Chile. Moreover, we comment on the hypotheses suggested in relation to the most important vector of the infection in South América Triatoma infestans, its antiquity in the Arica coast, and the recent reports about other wild infected

  12. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

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    Gabriel Alvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú.The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office

  13. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

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    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  14. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

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    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.Con 51 100km2 de área terrestre y 589 000km² de aguas jurisdiccionales, Costa Rica es considerado uno de los países con mayor biodiversidad. Posee aproximadamente 3.5% de las especies marinas del mundo. En las últimas cuatro décadas, Costa Rica ha dedicado un esfuerzo significativo para la creación de Áreas Protegidas (AP, principalmente terrestres. Aquí presentamos un diagnóstico de la situación actual de las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMP en Costa Rica, a través de un análisis histórico, su distribución, cobertura y categorías de manejo. Costa Rica posee 166 áreas protegidas que cubren 50% de la l

  15. Exotic plant invasions to the mediterranean region of Chile: causes, history and impacts Invasión de plantas exóticas en la región mediterránea de Chile: causas, historia e impactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-09-01

    exotics in Chile, independent of their biogeographic origin. Exotic species may cause strong disruptions of ecosystem processes and functions in Chile, as exemplified by exotic tree plantations, which have altered soil chemistry, nutrient cycling, water cycle, hydrology, microclimate, and fire frequency and intensityRevisamos la literatura sobre patrones, causas, procesos e impactos de las plantas exóticas, principalmente en la región mediterránea de Chile, considerando tres factores determinantes del proceso de invasión: (a Disponibilidad de propágulos de las especies exóticas, (b atributos de las comunidades locales en las cuales las especies exóticas se establecen y a partir de las cuales eventualmente se expanden, y (c atributos de las especies exóticas que facilitan o restringen su expansión a nuevos sitios. Con relación a la disponibilidad de propágulos, el matorral de Chile central presenta las comunidades con la mayor incidencia de hierbas naturalizadas, seguido por el bosque esclerófilo y el espinal de la Cordillera de la Costa. En contraste, las comunidades al norte de Chile central tienen menores números y proporciones de hierbas naturalizadas en sus bancos de semilla. La disponibilidad y persistencia de hierbas naturalizadas no difiere entre la vegetación emergida y el banco de semillas. En cuanto a los atributos de las comunidades locales, asociadas al establecimiento y expansión de las especies exóticas, tanto el régimen de pastoreo como el uso de la tierra emergen como los factores más prominentes en hacerlas susceptibles a la invasión por exóticas. La evidencia sobre el efecto del régimen de incendios es contradictoria y la riqueza de especies nativas tampoco aparece como un factor importante. Con relación a la atributos de las especies exóticas, los resultados sugieren que las anuales naturalizadas germinan dentro de un amplio rango de temperaturas, que son altamente resistentes a las condiciones frías y secas, y que muestran un

  16. Homicide in Chile: Trends 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara

    2015-12-15

    Homicide, an external cause of morbidity and mortality, caused 473,000 deaths worldwide in 2012, a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to describe homicide mortality trends in Chile between 2000 and 2012 by year, gender, age group, geographic distribution (by zone and by region) and type of homicide. This was a population-based study. Data for homicide mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used and they were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health's Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS) and PAHO/WHO. The homicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The study variables were year, geographic distribution, gender, age group and type of homicide. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates was analyzed, and a logarithm of the rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. In addition, relative risks (RR) were calculated. 95% confidence intervals were considered in all the analyses. The average yearly rate of homicide (HMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 4.9. The rates were higher in men (8.7) than in women (1.1), with a RR of 8.2. The rates were higher in the country's central zone (5.0), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC of 1.1%. The Aisén Region had the highest rate (7.6), although Antofagasta was the region with the most significant APC (3.1%). The highest rate (9.2) was verified in the 25 to 39 age group. The highest rate (5.5) was recorded in 2005. The most frequent type of homicide was assault with an object (44.8%). Although the homicide rates are higher in the southern zone of the country, the northern zone is showing a tendency to increase, becoming an even more serious problem, which not only affects those directly involved, but society as a whole.

  17. Biological control of Miconia calvescens with a suite of insect herbivores from Costa Rica and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Perez; M.S. Alfaro-Alpizar; A. Castillo-Castillo; M.T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered the most serious threat to the natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. We evaluated nine species natural enemies that feed on inflorescences or leaves of  M. calvescens for their potential as biological control agents, comparing their...

  18. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas, insistiendo en cambio en atender seriamente a los lazos entre razón, libro y lectura en el desarrollo individual y de la sociedad

  19. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  20. Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

  1. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  2. PUDRICIÓN BASAL CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN PLANTAS DE CHILE TRATADAS CON VERMICOMPOST

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    Lidieth Uribe-Lor\\u00EDo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudrición basal causada por Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile tratadas con vermicompost. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar a nivel de invernadero el efecto de vermicompost sobre la incidencia y severidad de Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile (Capsicum annuum. Esta investigación se realizó entre febrero y marzo del 2012 en el Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y ocho plantas por unidad experimental en un arreglo factorial con los factores de dosis (0, 25% y 50% v/v vermicompost:suelo e inoculación (0 y 500 zoosporas por gramo de suelo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de 35 días, que fueron inoculadas dos semanas después del trasplante. La aplicación de vermicompost provocó un aumento significativo del peso fresco foliar y del peso seco foliar y radical; a mayor dosis, mayor fue el incremento. Las plantas de todos los tratamientos que incluyeron inoculación con P. capsici presentaron síntomas de la enfermedad en la raíz. Los valores de incidencia y severidad fueron mayores para el tratamiento con 50% de abono. En este tratamiento se presentaron síntomas de marchitez. La ausencia de diferencias en las variables de peso fresco y seco entre los tratamientos inoculados y sin inocular, a los que se adicionó abono al 25%, sugiere que esta dosis podría compensar el daño causado por el patógeno. Se observó una menor concentración de nutrimentos en los tejidos de las plantas inoculadas lo que indica que el daño causado a la raíz pudo haber afectado la adquisición de nutrimentos.

  3. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this studyConcholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan

  4. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica - an updated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%).

  5. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  6. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Food, Environment, and Health ... Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTER NETWORKS, CHILE, Democracy, Civil society, Technological change, Internet ... Understanding an increasingly complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data from a wide range of sources.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  8. All projects related to Chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , EMPLOYMENT, LATIN AMERICA, FOOD, POLICY MAKING. Region: Chile, Colombia, Mexico. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 5,230,900.00. The Role of the Private Sector in Reducing Corruption in Latin America.

  9. Sustentabilidad empresarial, seguridad energetica y etica ambiental en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suarez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    ... de una economia internacionalizada como la chilena. Asimismo, analiza conflictos recientes originados en Chile para la provision de energia y las dificultades en la definicion de una matriz energetica, y, finalmente, la influencia de la etica...

  10. New records to Chile of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

    2002-06-01

    The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.

  11. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Decapoda (Penaeoidea, Sergestoidea, Stenopodidea, Caridea, Thalassinidea, Palinura del Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se informan para la costa Caribe de Costa Rica un total de 30 especies de camarones y langostas. Estas se clasifican en el Suborden Dendrobranchiata (Penaeoidea, 6 spp.; Sergestoidea, 2 spp.; y en el Suborden Pleocyemata (Stenopididea, 2 spp.; Caridea, 15 spp.; Thalassinidea, 2 spp. y Palinura, 3 spp.. Del total de especies, 22 son informadas por primera vez para Costa Rica, y adicionalmente una, informada previamente para la costa Pacífica, se informa para el Caribe. Además, se amplia la distribución geográfica de Pontonia domestica, previamente informada de Carolina del Norte, Golfo de México y Bahamas; y Rhynchocinetes rigens, de Florida, Bahamas, islas Vírgenes, Bermuda, Madeira y Azores, a la costa Caribe de Costa Rica. De 218 especies de Penaeoidea, Sergestoidea, Stenopodidea y Caridea mencionadas por Chace (1972 para el Caribe, solo 25 (11.5% se han encontrado hasta ahora en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica.A total of 30 species of shrimp and lobster are reported from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. They belong to the Suborder Dendrobranchiata: Penaeoidea, 6 spp. and Sergestoidea, 2 spp.; and Suborder Pleocyemata: Stenopodidea, 2 spp.; Caridea, 15 spp.; Thalassinidea, 2 spp.; Palinura, 3 spp. Of these, 22 species are reported for the first time for Costa Rica, and one species previously known from the Pacific coast is informed from the Caribbean coast. Distribution ranges are extended for: Pontonia domestica Gibbes, from North Carolina, Gulf of Mexico and Bahamas; and Rhynchocinetes rigens Gordon, from the northern Caribbean, Bermuda and eastern Atlantic, to the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Of 218 species of Penaeoidea, Sergestoidea, Caridea and Stenopodidea mentioned for the Caribbean by Chace (1972, only 25 (11.5% have been reported from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

  12. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pue...

  13. La intervención cambiaria y los flujos de capital: evidencia empírica para Brasil, Colombia, Chile y México, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rosas Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines inconsistencies in the assumptions on which the new macroeconomic consensus is based, before going on to propose an alternative theoretical framework for understanding how exchange rate interventions work, and the compensatory effect of capital flows in the emerging markets of Latin America. Basing its analysis on data from Brazil, Colombia, Chile and Mexico for the period between 2001-4 and 2013-3, it is inferred that sterilizedintervention in the foreign exchange markets has been successful in stabilizing the nominal exchange rate, but with three serious consequences: loss of competitiveness, high levels of public indebtedness and slow economic growth.

  14. Gallbladder cancer and nutritional risk factors in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2016-02-16

    Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.

  15. [Abnormal haemoglobins in the newborn human population of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Gabriela; Navarrete, Marta; Trejos, Rafael; de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary autosomic recessive diseases. A total of 70 943 samples of whole blood collected by heel prick in filter paper (S&S 903) from throughout Costa Rica (October 2005-October 2006) were analyzed to detect variants of hemoglobin by the iso-electric focusing technique. Eight hundred ninety one cases presented some variant, for a frecuency of 1/79. Five cases are homozygous for hemoglobin S (sickle cell disease) and one shows the double heterozygous genotype SC. In this study the S and C variants of hemoglobin, although with some local differences, are widespread all over the country. Thus, the prevention of new cases is important through the testing of hemoglobin in the Costa Rican National Newborn Screening Program, together with a Interdisciplinary National Program of Education for the disease and carrier status (AS/AC) for patients, families and medicar personnel. This is the basis for proper genetic counseling, to improve treatment and to reduce morbi-mortality.

  16. Cáncer de piel en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-Antillón, Orlando; de la Cruz-Martínez, Rafael; Sierra-Ramos, Rafaela

    1986-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1986 Se describe la incidencia del cáncer de la piel por sexo, edad y localización de todos los casos notificados en el Registro Nacional de Tumores de Costa Rica, en el periodo 1979-1980. El cáncer de piel presentó el 7,6 % del total de cánceres reportados en 1979 y el 14,5% en 1980. Después del cáncer gástrico, el cáncer de piel fue el más frecuente en 1980. Las provincias de San José, Alajuela y Her...

  17. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  18. Análisis de dieta y movilidad en un campamento arcaico del Norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available L'auteur de cet article identifie un établissement archaïque précoce, situé dans la vallée de Tiliviche (Nord du Chili, à 40 Km de la côte, daté entre 7.810 et 4.110 av. J.C. et où les fouilles ont révélé des composants locaux et maritimes. Il analyse les premiers tests avec des échantillons de coprolithes et des dépôts de déchets, pour proposer un modèle singulier de déplacement côte-oasis intérieurs. Il synthétise le contenu culturel du campement et les évidences de transferts primitifs de ressources, comme l'une des réponses d'adaptation les plus efficientes qui se serait produites sur les terres basses de l'aire centre-sud-andine. Ces événements dynamiques auraient couvert un vaste espace vital, intégré grâce à l'accès à des ressources complémentaires extra-côtières. Se identifica un asentamiento arcaico temprano en la quebrada de Tiliviche (Norte de Chile, a 40 km. de la costa, datado entre los 7.810 a 4.110 años A.C., con componentes locales y marítimos. Se analizan los primeros tests con muestras de coprolitos y depósitos de desperdicios, para proponer un singular patrón de movilidad costa-oasis interiores. Se sintetiza el contenido cultural del campamento y las evidencias de tempranos traslados de recursos como una de las respuestas adaptativas más eficientes ocurridas en las tierras bajas del área Centro-Sur andino. Estos eventos dinámicos habrían cubierto un amplio espacio vital, integrado a través del acceso a recursos complementarios extra-costeños. An early archaic settlement is identified in Tiliviche Valley (Northern Chile, at a distance of 40 kilometers from the coast, dated 7.810 to 4.110 B.C. with local and maritime components. The first tests on coprolite samples and garbage deposits are analysed, to propose a singular mobility pattern, from the coast to interior oases. A synthesis is made of the cultural content of the settlement and evidence of early shifts of resources as one of

  19. Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1990, p. 22. 27. Ibid, p. 44. 28. Riberio, Sergio Costa, La Educacion , Organization of American States, Washington...GERMANY 4 17 4.4 9.2 97 2171 JAPAN 6 23 5.0 17.7 100 1602 MEXICO 6 32 3.4 16.7 69 NO DATA UNITED STATES 8 22 6.7 21.0 NO DATA 3934 VENEZUELA 6 26 5.4

  20. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro Victor M; Jiménez Maurico; Dias JC Pinto; Zeledón Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females) from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. ...

  1. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  2. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  3. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz; Néstor Chaves-Barrantes; Alberto Hernández-Díaz; Franklin Herrera-Murillo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient contro...

  4. Child malnutrition and deprivation - observations in Guatemala and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1980-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado), Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA). 1980 Traditional populations consisting of small tribal groups living in close contact with nature may be virtually free from endemic malnutrition owing to the relative absence of infectious diseases. Transition toward modern ways of life and population growth, leading to crowding and underdevelopment, favours ,endemic malnutrition due to the interaction of malnutrition and infec...

  5. Sedentarism in Costa Rican children: yes, there is a solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez Bogantes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review the nature of physical activity patterns of children in order to relate them to the recommendations provided regarding the physical activity that children must have.  Additionally, these recommendations are compared to what has been done traditionally in Costa Rica.  In another section of the article, games are mentioned as an alternative for making movement fun for children and creating active lifestyles mainly using physical education classes.

  6. Efectos de la tectónica y el clima en la configuración morfológica del relieve costero del norte de Chile Tectonic and climatic effects in the morphologic configuration of the coastal relief of northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Quezada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el relieve de la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera de la Costa del norte de Chile, la cual está caracterizada por la ocurrencia del gran Acantilado Costero. El objetivo central de este estudio es establecer los controles tectónico-climáticos en la configuración del relieve del borde costero del norte de Chile. La metodología utilizada consiste básicamente en un estudio detallado del relieve mediante índices geomorfológicos cuantitativos tales como grado de incisión, curvas e integrales hipsométricas, perfiles de thalweg e índice de sinuosidad. Estos índices se aplicaron a modelos de elevación digitales e imágenes satelitales. Los resultados más relevantes muestran que el relieve de la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera de la Costa exhibe creciente incremento de la intensidad de la erosión al aumentar la latitud. Este incremento no es uniforme; procesos relacionados con la tectónica como subsidencia/alzamiento litoral y actividad de fallas, y por otra parte la erosión de la paleotopografía de la Cordillera de la Costa debido a los procesos ligados a la construcción del Acantilado Costero y el aumento de la precipitación, afectan la morfología del relieve del borde costero del norte de Chile. La existencia y excelente preservación del Acantilado Costero resulta de un marcado desequilibrio entre las tasas de alzamiento y las tasas de erosión, cuya diferencia es de una a dos órdenes de magnitud, controlada por el marco climático de hiperaridez extrema del Desierto de Atacama que se ha mantenido por lo menos desde los últimos 2 Ma. Las variaciones en la intensidad de la erosión desde el norte hacia el sur se interpretan como resultado del incremento en la tasa de precipitación en un orden de magnitud en esa misma dirección.This work analyzes the morphological features of the western margin of the northern Chile Coastal Cordillera, character-ized by the presence of a major Coastal Cliff

  7. Cinco milenios de evolucion en Arica (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Una serie de trabajos realizados durante la última década, en Arica y Valle de Azapa, empleando variables métricas y no métricas, prueban la existencia de diferencias significativas entre los antiguos habitantes de la costa y del valle, desde 4000 aC hasta 1450 dC. Esto fue explicado por un incremento gradual del parentesco local, moderado por migraciones de rango medio y amplio. Posibles corrientes de poblamiento altiplánicas y transaltiplánicas, fueron establecidas por evidencias craneométricas y moleculares (DNAmt. El modelo final propuesto, concuerda con la información arqueológica y etnohistórica disponible. Sin embargo, la unidad biológica de esta subárea es sostenida por Sutter (2000, 2003 y Sutter y Mertz (2004 a partir del análisis de rasgos no métricos. Por esta razón, en este trabajo se revisa la información existente y los argumentos que sustentan ambas posiciones. Se empleó una muestra de 300 individuos de los períodos Arcaico Tardío, Formativo, Medio y Tardío de sitios de la Costa y Valle de Azapa. Se utilizan pruebas χ 2 para analizar la asociación de estos rasgos con distintos factores (sexo, edad, deformación y grupo, el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman para evaluar la asociación entre rasgos y Análisis de Correspondencia junto con MMD para el estudio de la variación temporal. Los nuevos resultados confirman el proceso de diferenciación cronológica y permiten concluir que la discrepancia planteada, entre la unidad y la diversidad del desarrollo biológico de Arica, refleja sin dudas la existencia de problemas vinculados tanto con la naturaleza, la definición y la observación de estas variables, como con el diseño experimental y la construcción de las muestras. Trabajo realizado con fondos UNRC, CONICET y FONDECYT

  8. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening and treatment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarez-Carvajal, Ana Catalina; Montes-Cantillo, Milagro; Unkrich, Kelly H; Trivedi, Rupal H; Peterseim, Mae Millicent Winfrey

    2017-12-01

    To determine the recent demographic data, risk factors and results of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and treatment in Costa Rica. The medical records of all preterm infants meeting ROP screening criteria (≤34 weeks' gestational age (GA) or birth weight (BW) ≤1750g, and those determined at risk by neonatologists) in the national healthcare system, Costa Rica, January 2010-December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. The numbers and percentages of infants with ROP, risk factors, percentage of patients treated and treatment outcomes were determined. Comparison is made with screening criteria and literature reports of ROP incidence in other countries. The study population included 3018 preterm infants. Overall, 585 patients (585/3018, 19.4%) were found to have ROP. Of these, 15.4% (90 patients) required laser treatment, and 53% of those requiring treatment had BW Costa Rica allowing assessment and comparison of screening criteria and protocol. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Walter; Lewis, Jonathan C; Araya, Maria Cristina

    2017-05-11

    Recent studies have shown that the Nicoya Peninsula of northwestern Costa Rica is moving northwestward ~11 mm a -1 as part of a tectonic sliver. Toward the northwest in El Salvador the northern sliver boundary is marked by a dextral strike-slip fault system active since Late Pleistocene time. To the southeast there is no consensus on what constitutes the northern boundary of the sliver, although a system of active crustal faults has been described in central Costa Rica. Here we propose that the Haciendas-Chiripa fault system serves as the northeastern boundary for the sliver and that the sliver includes most of the Guanacaste volcanic arc, herein the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver. In this paper we provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the boundary of the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver that are timely and essential to any models aimed at resolving the driving mechanism for sliver motion. Our results are also critical for assessing geological hazards in northwestern Costa Rica.

  11. Arcobacter Isolation from Minced Beef Samples in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Calderón, Oscar; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Castro-Arias, Eduardo; Arias-EchandI, María Laura

    2017-04-03

    The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained. A total of 75 different Arcobacter strains were isolated from minced beef samples, for a final frequency of 48.3%. After species PCR identification, the strains were classified as A. butzleri (37.3%), A. cibarius (14.7%), A. thereius (12%), and Arcobacter spp. (36%). All samples were sensitive to gentamicin but were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained in this study show that the frequency of isolation of Arcobacter in minced beef samples is high and that there is a high resistance rate for antibiotics in common use. This suggests that Arcobacter represents a health risk for Costa Rica and that control measures should be developed to decrease its potential impact.

  12. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  13. Socioeconomic development, health interventions and mortality decline in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica, whose life expectancy was 74 years by 1985, has reached a health level comparable to a developed country. The health achievements of this country are product of political and socioeconomic circumstances as well as of right public health policies. Until about 1970 the features of Costa Rica mortality, although somewhat better than the Latin American average, evolved in a similar way to the rest of the region. In particular, the decades of 1940s and 1950s saw dramatic improvements in life expectancy, thanks mainly to the import of low-cost, high-effectiveness health technologies. In the 1970s, however, Costa Rica departed from a regional pattern of stagnation and managed to close the gap with developed countries in terms of mortality levels. A dramatic decline in the infant mortality rate from 60 to 19 per 1,000 took place in this decade. The main determinants of this breakthrough were health interventions, notably a primary health care program, even though favorable socioeconomic conditions and a reduced fertility also played a role. Ecological data and other evidence suggest that up to three fourths of the mortality decline was accounted for contemporary improvements in public health services, with about 40 percent attributable to primary health care interventions. Furthermore, by targeting interventions on the less privileged population, these interventions had the merit of reducing geographic and socioeconomic differentials in child mortality.

  14. Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica (1966-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Fonseca

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica are reported for a period of 33 years, with a total of 35 strandings, 13 species and 247 individuals involved. The vast majority of documented strandings occurred on the Pacific coast and correspond to single individuals (32 and 28 strandings respectively. The highest stranding number was in the period from 1990 to 1999 (n=24. Physeter catodon (cachalot or sperm whale is the species with the highest frequency of strandings (n=8 and the family Delphinidae has the majority of species (n=8 and strandings (n=22. No other general tendencies were determined with the existing data.Se informan los casos de encallamientos de cetáceos en Costa Rica. Un total de 35 casos conocidos para 13 especies involucradas y un total de 247 individuos. La gran mayoría de los casos provienen de la costa Pacífica (32 y 28 corresponden a encallamientos individuales. El cachalote, Physeter catodon, es la especie con mayor frecuencia de encallamientos (8 y la familia Delphinidae abarca la mayor cantidad de especies involucradas (8 y de casos de encallamientos (22. No se determinó ninguna otra tendencia general con la información disponible.

  15. [Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera Salas, Melvin; Aparicio Llanos, Amada

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor) in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that there is no problem with access in the public - almost universal - Costa Rican health system. No conclusive results were obtained on the influence of the physician on the frequency of use of health care services, as postulated by the principal-agent model. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Pudrición basal causada por Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile tratadas con vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidieth Uribe-Lorío

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar a nivel de invernadero el efecto de vermicompost sobre la incidencia y severidad de Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile (Capsicum annuum. Esta investigación se realizó entre febrero y marzo del 2012 en el Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y ocho plantas por unidad experimental en un arreglo factorial con los factores de dosis (0, 25% y 50% v/v vermicompost:suelo e inoculación (0 y 500 zoosporas por gramo de suelo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de 35 días, que fueron inoculadas dos semanas después del trasplante. La aplicación de vermicompost provocó un aumento significativo del peso fresco foliar y del peso seco foliar y radical; a mayor dosis, mayor fue el incremento. Las plantas de todos los tratamientos que incluyeron inoculación con P. capsici presentaron síntomas de la enfermedad en la raíz. Los valores de incidencia y severidad fueron mayores para el tratamiento con 50% de abono. En este tratamiento se presentaron síntomas de marchitez. La ausencia de diferencias en las variables de peso fresco y seco entre los tratamientos inoculados y sin inocular, a los que se adicionó abono al 25%, sugiere que esta dosis podría compensar el daño causado por el patógeno. Se observó una menor concentración de nutrimentos en los tejidos de las plantas inoculadas lo que indica que el daño causado a la raíz pudo haber afectado la adquisición de nutrimentos.

  17. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  18. Bibliografia sobre organismos, ambientes y procesos marinos y atmosfericos en Bahia Culebra, Pacifico norte, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cortes, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Bahia Culebra se locoaliza en la parte norte de la costa Pacifica de Costa Rica. Es una region de afloramiento estacional, rica en ambientes y organismos marinos, y ademas, la zona de mayor desarrollo turistico del pais...

  19. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  20. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  1. Outraged governance. Brazil : a route of Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusalém Gonçalves Pimenta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the risks taken by Brazil for not fulfilling an Inter- national Resolution. The research method chosen was the systemic / comparative. In regard to Pilotage, the International Maritime Organization (IMO adopted the A-960 (23 Resolution, and has upheld it ever since towards a global governance, approach and positioning. The authors of this article have chosen to focus in five fundamental princi- ples, extracted from the Resolution. It has been established that these principles remain paramount to almost all member countries, and, whenever they choose to uphold them, all undertake a standpoint of good governance. This work initially analyses and compa- res the sub studio Resolution standards towards the present brazilian pilotage model. Moreover, it identifies some discrepancies that lead to non-compliances. Furthermore, it correlates the violation of fundamental principles to three massive maritime accidents that mankind shall not be proud of, i.e. Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress and Costa Concordia. Lastly, final conclusion is that, whenever the international IMO standards are disregarded by Brazilian Authorities, they endanger - most unacceptably - the maritime environment, the safety of navigation, and of human life at sea.

  2. Demography and development: the lessons of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on demography and development in Costa Rica. In a 15-year period, during the 1960s and the 1st years of the 1970s, Costa Rica achieved the fastest and steepest fertility decline yet recorded in Latin America. The crude birthrate dropped from a high point in 1959 of 48.3/1000 to a low of 29.9/1000 in 1973. During the same period, the death rate declined from 9.2/1000 to 5.2/1000 by 1973. Because of this, the drop in the rate of natural increase, from 3.9% a year in 1959 to 2.47% in 1973, was not quite as pronounced in percentage terms. During those same years infant mortality dropped from 74/1000 to about 45/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 7.3 children in 1960 to 5.5 in 1968 and to just above 4 children in 1973. The major thrust of the decline originated primarily in popular perception of the imbalance between an unnecessarily high birthrate and changed socioeconomic conditions toward the end of the 1950s, of which improvements in health and general social care were among the most influential. It is not so much the economic performance of Costa Rica that distinguishes it from its neighbors as its social condition. What keeps Costa Rica from being a "banana republic" is its comparatively much higher level of social indicators: newspaper circulation per capita and the amount of newsprint consumption, the extraordinary number of bookstores in San Jose, the number of physicians and hospital beds per person, the number of teachers and students enrolled at all levels of education, and its extremely low mortality rate and very high longevity. The total fertility rate appears to have entered a period of stagnation or pause, with virtually no decline since 1974 and even a slight increase since 1976. In the 5-year period since 1973, the decline through 1978 amounted to only 5%. In the preceding 1968-73 period it wasmore than 26%. The number of births/1000 women in the 15-19 year old age group remains constant and is comparatively very

  3. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country.

  4. Propuesta de un Modelo Alternativo para Mejorar la Rentabilidad de los Fondos Captados por el Régimen Obligatorio de Pensiones Complementarias de Costa Rica (A proposal for an alternate model to increase the profitability of supplementary pension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marchena Segura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación plantea unapropuesta de un modelo alternativo para mejorar larentabilidad de los fondos captados por el RégimenObligatorio de Pensiones Complementarias de CostaRica, a partir del modelo de Multifondos implementadoen Chile y Colombia, para un manejo más eficiente delas inversiones de los Fondos de Pensiones. El modelode Multifondos propuesto consiste en un conjuntode tres fondos de pensiones, los cuales se diferencianen cuanto a sus límites de inversión en renta variable.La ley y reglamentos en relación con el ROP, permitenadoptar el modelo Multifondos, ya que las modificacionesa realizar son a nivel de funcionamiento operativode la administración de las cuentas individuales y delas inversiones, para lo cual sería necesario modificarúnicamente el Reglamento. Los Multifondos puedenayudar a resolver las deficiencias del Régimen Obligatoriode Pensiones Complementarias vigente, principalmente enmateria de diversificación de los portafolios de inversión.   ABSTRACT This study proposes an alternate model to increasethe profitability of supplementary pension funds gatheredby the Costa Rican mandatory pension system based onthe multiple funds model applied in Chile and Colombia,for a better and efficient way to manage the investmentsof Pension Funds. The proposed multiple funds modelis comprised by three pension funds, differentiatedonly by their variable rate investing limits. The rulesand regulations of the Mandatory Pension System(MPS allow the adoption of a multiple funds model,as the modifications to be done for the management ofindividual accounts and investments are at the operationallevel, requiring only a modification of the regulations.Multiple funds can help clear out current deficiencies ofthe Supplementary Pension Fund Mandatory System,mainly regarding investment portfolio diversification.

  5. Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

  6. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  7. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  9. Chile menos volátil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Larraín B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde fines de 1998 la economía chilena se desaceleró mucho. Si entre 1988 y 1998 la tasa de crecimiento promedio alcanzó un 7.8%, durante el período postcrisis asiática fue de sólo un 3.7%. Sin embargo, junto con la desaceleración del crecimiento, la volatilidad de la economía se redujo prácticamente a la mitad.Este trabajo investiga, mediante un análisis empírico formal, el papel que tuvieron la introducción de la flotación cambiaria y la utilización de la regla de superávit estructural en transformar a Chile en una economía menos volátil. Nuestros resultados muestran que la introducción de la regla fiscal parece haber reducido en un tercio la volatilidad del crecimiento del PIB. Por su parte, la flotación cambiaria contribuyó a reducir esa volatilidad adicionalmente en alrededor de un cuarto. Así, en conjunto, ambas medidas aparecen como responsables de haber disminuido la volatilidad del crecimiento de la economía chilena en casi 60%. Estos resultados son robustos ante especificaciones y posibles problemas de endogeneidad en algunas de las variables explicativas.

  10. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  11. Family allowance and family planning in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, S J

    1978-10-01

    Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child.

  12. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F.; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C. P.; Malik, Javed K.; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  13. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and... Republic--Central America-- United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica, the United... rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country''. The rule...

  14. As relações entre Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Estados Unidos: política exterior e Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma reflexão de teoria e política, que busca inserir a análise da política exterior de Argentina, Brasil e Chile no quadro das relações hemisféricas (Estados Unidos e do Mercosul. No caso dos três países latino-americanos, apresenta-se uma identificação das tendências predominantes na interpretação da inserção possível, da visão de si mesmos no atual sistema internacional e uma aproximação geral das agendas bilaterais, sub-regionais e da agenda hemisférica norte-americana.The article presents a reflection about theory and politics, a reflection that look forward to insert the analysis of Argentina's, Brazil's and Chile's foreign policy in the context of hemispheric relations (with the United States and of Mercosur. In the case of the three Latin-American countries, the article identifies the major tendencies on the interpretation of the possible insertion, of these countries own view in the nowadays international system and a general approximation of the bilateral, sub-regional and North-American hemispheric agendas.

  15. Teacher Expectations and Students from Low Socioeconomic Background: A Perspective from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' academic expectations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) in Costa Rica for the purpose of cross-cultural comparison. A group of 17 teachers from two different elementary schools located in a small town in Costa Rica were questioned about their expectations of low SES students enrolled in their classes.…

  16. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  17. [A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica. The presence of a small specimen of the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (84 mm total length) in the stomach contents of an adult coral snake Micrurus alleni with 692 mm total length from the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica is reported. This eel was swallowed headfirst.

  18. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  19. Educational Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica. [Working Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Torres, Carlos

    In the 1960s and 1970s, steady economic growth helped the Costa Rican government expand its education system rapidly. The 1979 oil shocks, the U.S. 1981-82 recession, and other factors ended this prosperity and exposed the fragility of Costa Rica's late 1970s debt-financed development. To restore economic growth, new economic policies were…

  20. Exploring Integrative Curriculum for More Effective Learning by Primary Students in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Rafael A. Espinoza

    The purpose of this thesis was to review a number of integrated curriculum models developed in the United States and examine their suitability for implementation in primary schools in Costa Rica. The primary objectives of this study were to analyze the Costa Rican primary school structure and the feasibility of establishing an integrated…

  1. Predictors of diabetes-specific knowledge and treatment satisfaction among Costa Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Daniel N; Jiménez-Briceño, Luis; Reimann, Joachim O; Talavera, Gregory A; Polonsky, William H; Edelman, Stephen V

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of disease-specific knowledge and patient satisfaction among adult Costa Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Knowledge differences between Costa Ricans and Spanish-speaking US Latinos also were tested. The psychometric viability of a Spanish-language diabetes knowledge and client satisfaction measure with Costa Ricans was reviewed. The Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) were administered to 162 Costa Rican adults with type 2 diabetes who were receiving services in the greater San Jose area. Sociodemographic, medical history, and anecdotal information also was collected. More years of education, younger age, longer diabetes duration, and home glucose monitoring predicted diabetes knowledge. Home glucose monitoring and treatment with only oral hypoglycemics predicted significantly lower patient satisfaction. Costa Ricans exhibited greater diabetes knowledge than respondents in an earlier study with Spanish-speaking Latinos. CSQ psychometric limitations with Costa Ricans were identified. The greater diabetes knowledge among Costa Ricans than US Latinos is likely due to more consistent, stable, and accessible care. Older, less educated, and newly diagnosed Costa Rican diabetes patients require more focused attention.

  2. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  3. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  4. [Abundance of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Echinoidea: Diadematidae) in the Costa Rican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan José

    2004-12-01

    Centrostephanus coronatus reaches a density of 0.06 individuals/m2 in shallow reef waters in Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, Pacific of Costa Rica, in the same habitat occupied by the urchin Diadema mexicanum. It is the fourth species of diadematoid urchins reported for Costa Rican and a first new report for Central America.

  5. Cross-Correlation Properties of Costas Arrays and Their Images under Horizontal and Vertical Flips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Drakakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cross-correlation of a Costas array with its image under a horizontal and/or a vertical flip. We propose and prove several bounds on the maximal cross-correlation and on its value at the origin, for both general Costas arrays and for algebraically constructed ones.

  6. Three new species of Spiladarcha Meyrick, 1913 (Lepidoptera: Urodidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon

    2014-11-12

    Three new species of Spiladarcha are described from Costa Rica, including S. puravida n. sp., S. septifera n. sp., and S. tuberculata n. sp. The genus Spiladarcha is reported from Costa Rica for the first time. Synapomorphies of Spiladarcha are revised. Photos of adult habitus and genitalia of known sexes are provided.

  7. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  8. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  9. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  10. Desarrollo de la educación parvularia en Chile - Preschool education development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo, Chile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available DESENVOLVIMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NO CHILEResumoA educação pré-escolar no Chile tem início na segunda metade do século 19, especialmente por influência alemã, trazida ao país por José Abelardo Núñez. No começo se deu de forma particular, formando-se os primeiros jardins de infância. Somente em 1906 foi fundado o primeiro jardim da infância mantido pelo Estado, anexo à Escola Normal n. 1. Para isso foi contratada a educadora austríaca Leopoldina Maluschka, que usou metodologias inspiradas em Fröebel. Na Universidad de Chile, a partir da década de 1930, teve início um movimento de renovação pedagógica orientado por Irma Salas, que havia se doutorado nos Estados Unidos com Dewey e trouxe o pensamento da Escola Nova para o país. Ela conduziu a criação da Escola de Educadoras de Pré-Escolares em 1944. A primeira diretora dessa escola foi a destacada professora Amanda Labarca. Isto facilitou a criação de berçários e creches no país. Neste texto, de caráter histórico, em que se recorrerá a documentos primários e secundários, se pretende descrever o desenvolvimento que o Estado do Chile tem mostrado pela educação pré-escolar no país, reconhecendo os direitos das crianças.Palavras-chave: jardins de infância, educação pré-escolar, Escola Nova, Junji/Integra. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILEAbstractPreschool education in Chile has its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century due to the German influence brought to Chile by José Abelardo Núñez. The first kindergarten was formed in a particular way. After that, the first public kindergarten, attached to the Normal School No. 1, was founded in 1906. At the same time, the austrian educator Maluschka Leopoldina was hired and the Froebelian method was used. At the University of Chile, in the 30s of the twentieth century, an improved movement was carried out by Irma Salas who studied for her doctorate in The United States with Dewey

  11. New species of Edessa Fabricius, 1803 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin; Silva, Valeria Juliete Da; Correia, Andre Oliveira; Nunes, Benedito Mendes

    2015-08-12

    The edessines from Costa Rica are little known; only 18 species have been registered or described from this country so far. Mainly based in a large sample from Instituto Nacional de Biodiverdidad (INBio), Costa Rica, we decided to update the information concerning Edessinae from Costa Rica. We present a list of species from Costa Rica raising the number of known species from Costa Rica to 65. We are also describing nine new species: Edessa bella Fernandes & Silva, E. bruneolineata Fernandes & Correia, E. curvata Fernandes & Nunes, E. lewisi Fernandes & Silva, E. nigroangulata Fernandes & Silva, E. osae Fernandes & Nunes, E. oxcarti Fernandes & Correia, E. pallidoangulata Fernandes & Nunes and E. puravida Fernandes & Correia. Species were described, illustrated and photographed. Distribution maps for the species are also provided.

  12. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...

  14. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States... duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission... orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...

  15. COSTA a problem solving environment for data assimilation applied for hydrodynamical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velzen, N. van [Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands); Verlaan, M. [National Inst. for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    A problem solving environment for data assimilation called COSTA is developed at Delft University of Technology. The goal of COSTA is to offer a modular framework where simulation models can be combined with various data assimilation methods. COSTA defines a number of building blocks called components. Examples of components are model, method, stochastic observer and state-vector. New data assimilation systems can be created by combining these components. This paper describes the application of COSTA to the WAQUA/TRIWAQ shallow water simulation model. In the past a model specific RRSQRT Kalman filter has been implemented for WAQUA/TRIWAQ. However, this implementation cannot be used in combination with other models. The WAQUA/TRIWAQ model is changed into a COSTA model component and the original RRSQRT Kalman filter is changed into a generic filter that can be used for other models as well. The new filter is now a part of the COSTA environment. The original filter contained a number of WAQUA/TRIWAQ specific aspects e.g. the drying and flooding of areas in the model. These model specific issues are identified, isolated and moved into the model component. A COSTA based implementation of WAQUA/TRIWAQ with the RRSQRT Kalman filter is realized and compared to the original system in a number of experiments. The experiments show that the COSTA based system produces the correct results and the computational overhead for using COSTA is low. The new RRSQRT Kalman filter is also combined with other COSTA models including the LOTOS-EUROS model for atmospherical transport, chemistry (chemical reaction) and deposition of air pollution on the scale of Europe. (orig.)

  16. Familial breast cancer in Costa Rica: an initial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Monge, Adriana; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Loáiciga Vega, Kenneth

    2004-09-01

    Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records), in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease.

  17. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  18. The National Immunization Plan for Chile: is it a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, Chile has an expanded immunization program. Target population is all infants and children in the country, along with the elderly at age 65. If we review available World Health Organization data on the immunization monitoring system, in 2011 all vaccines had below 95% coverage. With the exception of BCG, vaccines are primarily applied in the primary care setting. One way to understand organizational priorities is to identify how present they are in the management systems. Thus, it is possible to determine the priority of the National Immunization Plan in Chile by looking into sectoral planning. A review of the most recent policy documents of the Ministry of Health of Chile, one titled “National Health Strategy to Achieve the Health Objectives of the 2011-2020 Decade" stands out. Upon reviewing this policy paper, the National Immunization Plan is not considered as an outcome as a whole, but only some of the vaccines it includes.

  19. FESTUCA RIGESCENS (POACEAE, POOIDEAE, LOLIINAE EN ARGENTINA Y CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Ospina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Festuca rigescens es conocida para la flora de Perú y Bolivia y en esta contribución se amplia su distribución para Argentina y Chile. Se recircunscriben los límites específicos de Festuca nardifolia, especie comúnmente confundida con la anterior, y se la excluye de Chile. Se ilustran y se describen detalladamente la morfología y anatomía de ambas especies y se presenta una clave para distinguirlas de las especies morfológicamente más afines en Argentina y Chile. Se seleccionan lectotipos para F. deserticola y F. paupera. Se establecen nuevos sinónimos bajo F. rigescens: Festuca deserticola, F. paupera, F. petersonii y F. saltana.

  20. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctezuma Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  1. Chile y los Desafíos Globales de Seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Griffiths Spielman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende abordar el tema "Chile y los desafíos globales de seguridad", asumiendo a modo de propuesta una noción de seguridad relativa a todo fenómeno violento e intencional, que como producto de su actuación provoca mortalidad, y ello desde la perspectiva de un país pequeño, tal y como Chile, si bien notablemente interconectado a nivel global. En consecuencia, Chile debería asumir un efecto potencialmente mayor de las principales amenazas globales. En síntesis, se expresa que en el actual escenario de seguridad, la lejanía geográfica de los fenómenos ya no es necesariamente un factor que prevenga los efectos de dichas amenazas sobre la seguridad de un Estado.

  2. Neoliberalism in Argentina and Chile: common antecedents, divergent paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Undurraga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper contrasts the experiences of neoliberalism in Argentina and Chile, exploring why two countries that implemented apparently similar market reforms came to different stances on marketization: a post-neoliberal politics in Argentina, and a tempered neoliberalism in Chile that has only recently come under scrutiny. The paper traces the common antecedents that inspired these reforms and the different outcomes and reactions that they produced. In contrast to recent literature, which emphasizes one or another explanatory factor, this article offers a synthetic comparison of the historical, political, economic, and ideological factors in play, helping to understand how capitalists achieved a hegemonic class position in Chile and not in Argentina.

  3. [Penicillin production in Chile between 1944 and 1954].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Cecilia; Parada, Mirtha

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production in Chile was a pioneering development; however there is not much information to learn about it. The Chilean Institute for Bacteriology (Instituto Bacteriológico de Chile) produced penicillin between 1944 and 1973. The stage starting in 1953 is better known since there was an agreement with United Nations. Our research focused on building a story about production between 1944 and 1954 based on archival information and the national and international historic context. Our results place Chile amongst the pioneer countries in the successful industrialization of the drug. Our conclusions are that this was a proper industrial production as opposite to a pilot plant - a name commonly used to call the early factory. We explain the production plant trajectory by making relations between technological change and governance. Finally, we believe the later expansion of the plant, in the context of the agreement with the United Nations, took place under unpromising governance conditions, which called for passive innovation and technology management.

  4. Triple Helix influence on competitiveness factors: Comparison between wine clusters in Brazil and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Armando, Eduardo; Boaventura, João Maurício Gama; Todeva, Emanuela; Pereira, Cristina Espinheira Costa

    2017-01-01

    Clusters have been studied linking their performance to the historical and geographical context, as well as to the drivers that shape the competitive strength of the nations. Among these drivers, the human factor and the university have a key role in the competitiveness of nations, as well of industries, regions and firms. In the new knowledge economy, the Triple Helix model is a mechanism of coordination that brings together government, industry and universities. The main objective of this p...

  5. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429 BNP CABA (Argentina); Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J. [Universidad Nacionald de La Plata, Av. 7 No. 1776, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stuck O, M. [Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valdivia, P., E-mail: lbdnet@googlegroups.co [Comision Chilena de Energia, Amutanegui 95, Santiago Centro, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-10-15

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  6. Inversión en Bitcoins Modelo para Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Vásquez, Marinelly

    2016-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Administración de Empresas) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Administración de Empresas, 2016. Descentralizado, transparente, de uso voluntario, digital, abierto, infalsificable, universal, libre de intermediarios, blindado contra la inflación; Bitcoin, desafía hoy el monopolio sobre la emisión de la moneda. Bitcoin es al mismo tiempo una moneda y un sistema monetario cuyo excelente comportamiento desde el 2009 no depende de una autorid...

  7. Dr. Oscar Costa Mandry: a life in the tropics revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Oscar Costa-Mandry, "The Father of Medical Technology in Puerto Rico"; his lifetime achievements in the tropics are revealed in the context of his influential role in the School of Tropical Medicine and his clear visionary perspective for the creation of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. With his unique and diverse contributions for more than 40 years in the fields of clinical laboratory medicine, public health and medical education, and as an insightful historian, he dramatically influenced and reshaped the Puerto Rican medical and social landscape for future generations to come.

  8. Effectiveness of the Costa Rican Central Bank forex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Espinoza Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an empirical approach to assess the effectiveness of foreign exchange interventions following the criteria by K. Domínguez (1998 using a GARCH model based on the work by C. Broto (2012. Analyses are conducted to evaluate the FOREX rules of intervention followed by the BCCR, and the probability of occurrence of an intervention is estimated using a LOGIT model.  In addition, the paper attempts to analyze what happened to the exchange arrangements applied in Costa Rica as a result of the 2006 exchange rate flexibility and transition to inflation targets.

  9. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    OpenAIRE

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-01-01

    La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG) con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuici...

  10. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C.; Alvarado, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitor...

  11. [The Purruja mangrove, Golfito, Costa Rica: a management model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Margarita; Carrillo, Norma Natalia

    2004-12-01

    The Purruja mangrove (Golfito, Costa Rica) has an estimated area of 70 ha. A socio-biological research was the ground to set initial goals to manage the resources and to identify the mangrove biological condition. Community participation and the local organization were key factors in developing an integrated model for the management of natural resources. Constant monitoring and institutional networks were the other two factors to manage the mangrove. The constant profesional support was a tool to facilitate the acomplishment of goals and to establish an institucional network to promote local group iniciatives for collaborative management of the Purruja mangrove.

  12. La nutrición en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Céspedes-Montealegre, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1991 El nuevo Hospital Nacional de Niños se había inaugurado cinco años atrás; sus flamantes instalaciones contrastaban con la incómoda construcción de madera del Hospital San Juan de Dios, nuestro Hospital General. No obstante las mayores comodidades para los pacientes y el personal, los arraigados problemas de desnutrición severos y de parasitosis intestinal persistían en forma preocupante entre quie...

  13. El Arrecife Coralino del Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés, Jorge; Risk, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The coral reef at Parque Nacional Cahuita, Limón, Costa Rica, is a reef under stress due to siltation. The amount of suspended sediments is high and resuspension of bottom sediments is also high. Growth rates of corals, live coral coverage and diversity were low. Colonies are generally larger than in other areas studied, and recruitment of planulae seems to be low. Most of the corals present are good at rejecting sediments and morphologies of some change to better resist the sediments (vertic...

  14. HOJAS, FLORES Y TALLOS COMESTIBLES NO TRADICIONALES EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Montero, Francisco; Barrantes Corrales, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    64 variedades de hojas, flores y tallos comestibles no tradicionales estudiadas en 14 comunidades del valle central, litorales y fronteras de Costa Rica, aparecen siguiendo líneas isogónicas paralelas al sistema montañoso del país. Existe mayor variedad de hojas durante la estación lluviosa y de flores, durante la seca. Los tallos son perennes todo el año. Motivos culturales, urbanismo y prácticas agrícolas frenan su consumo actual, aunque la población les reconoce gran beneficio para la salu...

  15. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient

  16. Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, Cecilia; Vio, Fernando; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies. This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE), the Ministries of Planning, Health and Education surveillance systems, and national surveys. As malnutrition decreased during the 1980s, obesity increased rapidly in all age groups. In adults, currently about 25% of women are obese (body mass index >30 kg m(-2)); particularly those from low socio-economic levels. Among preschoolers, obesity is now 10% while in 6-year-old children it is 17.5% (weight/height greater than two standard deviations (>2SD) of the World Health Organization reference). Nutritional risk factors are prevalent, diet is changing to a 'Western diet' with an increasing fat consumption, and sedentarianism is constant in all groups. High blood pressure (>140/90) is greater than 10% in adults. Diabetes is increasing in urban areas, including in the indigenous population, and more than 40% of adults have a cholesterol level of more than 200 mg ml(-1). Promotion of healthy lifestyles is the main strategy to cope with this situation, particularly changing behaviour in food habits, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Changes in lifestyles will not only allow the prolonged life expectancy to be of better quality, but also will favour a decrease in the morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Volatile carbonylic compounds in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, María A; Zamorano, Natalia; Lissi, Eduardo; Rojas, Alicia; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich

    2006-02-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butenal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde were measured during six spring days at downtown Santiago de Chile. Measurements were performed 24h/day and averaged over three hour periods. The averages of the maxima (ppbv) were, formaldehyde: 3.9+/-1.4; butanal: 3.3+/-3.4; acetaldehyde: 3.0+/-0.9; acetone: 2.4+/-1.0; 2-butenal: 0.56+/-0.52; propanal: 0.46+/-0.21; benzaldehyde: 0.34+/-0.3; 3-butanal: 0.11+/-0.05; hexanal: 0.11+/-0.08; 2-methylbenzaldehyde: 0.08+/-0.05; 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde: 0.05+/-0.03. Aliphatic aldehydes (C1-C3) are strongly correlated among them and weakly with primary (toluene) and secondary (ozone plus nitrogen dioxide or PAN) pollutants. In particular, the correlation between acetaldehyde and propanal values remains even if diurnal and nocturnal data are considered separately, indicating similar sources. All these aldehydes present maxima values in the morning (9-12h) and minima at night (0-3h). The best correlation is observed when butanal and 2-butenal data are considered (r=0.99, butanal/2-butenal=6.2). These compounds present maxima values during the 3-6h period, with minima values in the 0-3h period. These data imply a strong pre-dawn emission. Other aldehydes show different daily profiles, suggesting unrelated origins. Formaldehyde is the aldehyde whose concentration values best correlate with the levels of oxidants. The contribution of primary emissions and photochemical processes to formaldehyde concentrations were estimated by using a multiple regression. This treatment indicates that (32+/-16)% of measured values arise from direct emissions, while (79+/-23)% is attributable to secondary formation.

  18. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  19. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Costa Rica: Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McClure, Roy; Gregg, Edward W; Barcelo, Alberto; Sanabria-Lopez, Laura; Lee, Kahye; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Cervantes-Loaiza, Marvin; Luman, Elizabeth T

    2016-09-01

    The projected rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in developing countries warrants careful monitoring. The aim of this study was to present the results of the Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Surveillance System, which provides the first national estimates of diabetes and IFG prevalence among adults in Costa Rica. A cross-sectional survey of 3653 non-institutionalized adults aged ≥20 years (87.8% response rate) following the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was built on a probabilistic sample of the non-institutionalized population during 2010. Known diabetes was defined as self-reported diagnosis, the use of insulin, or hypoglycemic oral treatment as consequence of diabetes during at least the previous 2 weeks before the survey. Unknown diabetes was defined no self-reported diabetes but with venous blood concentrations of fasting glucose >125 mg/dL determined by laboratory testing. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG prevalence was estimated according gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), educational level, and physical activity level. Overall diabetes prevalence was 10.8% (9.5% known and 1.3% unknown diabetes) and IFG prevalence was 16.5%. The prevalence of known diabetes was higher among women >65 years compared with men of the same age group. Both known and unknown diabetes were significantly associated with higher BMI, increased WC, and low education level (P = 0.01). The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Costa Rica is comparable to that in developed countries and indicates an urgent need for effective preventive interventions. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena (PNMB, en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica, mediante tres transectos por sitio, de 10 m de largo cada uno y paralelos a la costa, utilizando una cuadrícula de 1 m2. Se encontró un total de 15 especies de corales (11 hermatípicas y 4 ahermatípicas, las que sumadas a informes previos para el parque hacen un total de 18 especies. El coral Porites lobata presentó la mayor cobertura coralina (36.5 ± 3.7% y fue el único presente en todos los sitios. Las otras especies de coral presentaron bajas coberturas (<10% y sólo fueron observadas en pocos sitios. El porcentaje de coral muerto fue de 1.8 ± 0.6% y el porcentaje de blanqueamiento (0.7 ± 0.2% está dado por P. lobata en un solo sitio. El PNMB y la Isla del Caño poseen el mayor número de especies de coral (18 especies de la región sur de Costa Rica; sin embargo, difieren en su composición. La baja diversidad y la baja cobertura coralina de varios sitios del parque se atribuyen al impacto del fenómeno de El Niño en los últimos años, a la sedimentación y a la dilución de las aguas en época de lluvias. Se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un monitoreo a largo plazo sobre estos ecosistemas y determinar futuras estrategias de manejo y conservación.