WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazil birth cohort

  1. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  2. Cohort profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort follow-up visits in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cf; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana Mb

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  4. The Pelotas birth cohort study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed.

  5. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  6. Repeat cesarean section in subsequent gestation of women from a birth cohort in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Zandonade, Eliana; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas

    2017-08-25

    The current literature indicates increasing concern regarding the number of safe cesarean sections which a woman can undergo, mainly in face of the high cesarean section rates, which are growing in Brazil and worldwide. Aimed to describe the prevalence and associated factors of repeat cesarean section in a cohort of Brazilian women who had a cesarean section in the first birth. This is a prospective cohort study using data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The sample included 480 women who had their first delivery in 2004, regardless of the form of delivery, and who had a second delivery identified in the cohort's follow-ups (in 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2010). Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Poisson regression with robust error variance were carried out. Among the women who underwent a cesarean section in their first delivery (49.47%), 87.44% had a second surgical delivery. The risk factors for repeat cesarean section included ages 21-34 (PR 1.67, CI 95% 1.07-2.60), not being seen by SUS (Public Healthcare System) in 2004 (PR 2.27, CI 95% 1.44-3.60), and the number of prenatal medical visits, i.e., women with ten or more visits were at 2.33 times higher risk (CI 95% 1.10-4.96) compared to those who had five or fewer visits. The proportion of cesarean sections both in the first and in the subsequent delivery is quite high. This high rate may compromise the reproductive future of the women who undergo consecutive cesarean sections with possible consequent complications and changes in care policies for pregnant women should be implemented.

  7. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  8. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Victora, Cesar G; Golding, Jean; Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria; Araujo, Cora L; Smith, George Davey

    2009-01-01

    Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separately for males and females. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between overweight status and two SEP indicators – family income and maternal education. Results A strong positive association was observed in 11-year-old boys from the 1993 Pelotas cohort, with higher prevalence of overweight among the least poor and among those whose mothers had more years of schooling (x2 for linear trend p < 0.001). In ALSPAC study higher prevalence of overweight was seen among boys whose mothers had lower educational achievement (x2 for linear trend p = 0.006). Among 11 year-old girls from 1993 Pelotas cohort study there was a positive association (higher prevalence of overweight in the higher socioeconomic and educational strata, x2 for linear trend p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) while an inverse association was found in the ALSPAC study (x2 for linear trend p < 0.001). Among males from the 1982 cohort study, overweight at 18 years of age showed a positive association with both SEP indicators while among females, the reverse association was found. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the social patterning of overweight varies between and within populations over time. Specific approaches should be developed within populations in order to contain the obesity epidemic and reduce disparities. PMID:19368733

  9. Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson’s regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. RESULTS Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions. PMID:19142347

  10. [Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-12-01

    To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson's regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions.

  11. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  12. Association of socioeconomic position with maternal pregnancy and infant health outcomes in birth cohort studies from Brazil and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Lawlor, D A; Golding, J; Menezes, A M B; Araújo, C L; Barros, A J D; Santos, I S; Barros, F C; Smith, G Davey

    2010-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes are dynamic and vary over time. Differences between countries can provide useful insights into the causes of health inequalities. The study aims to compare the associations between two measures of socioeconomic position (SEP)—maternal education and family income—and maternal and infant health outcomes between ALSPAC and Pelotas cohorts. Methods Birth cohort studies were started in Avon, UK, in 1991 (ALSPAC) and in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 1982, 1993 and 2004. Maternal outcomes included smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section and delivery not attended by a doctor. Infant outcomes were preterm birth, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and breast feeding for <3 months. The relative index of inequality was used for each measure of SEP so that results were comparable between cohorts. Results An inverse association (higher prevalence among the poorest and less educated) was observed for almost all outcomes, with the exception of caesarean sections where a positive association was found. Stronger income-related inequalities for smoking and education-related inequalities for breast feeding were found in the ALSPAC study. However, greater inequalities in caesarean section and education-related inequalities in preterm birth were observed in the Pelotas cohorts. Conclusions Mothers and infants have more adverse health outcomes if they are from poorer and less well-educated socioeconomic backgrounds in both Brazil and the UK. However, our findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the association between SEP and health outcomes. Examining differential socioeconomic patterning of maternal and infant health outcomes might help understanding of mechanisms underlying such inequalities. PMID:20628081

  13. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  14. Infant malnutrition and obesity in three population-based birth cohort studies in Southern Brazil: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Araújo, Cora L; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of nutritional deficits and overweight in one-year-old children from three birth cohorts started in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts and all children from 2004 were weighed and measured, and their mothers interviewed. Anthropometric deficits and overweight were assessed using both NCHS and WHO growth standards. A comparison of the existence of nutritional deficits showed that, after a decline between 1982 and 1993, its prevalence stabilized between 1993 and 2004. Across the whole period, a decrease in all deficits was observed. Obesity, on the other hand, increased. A deficit in the ratio of body length to age was found to be strongly associated with family income. The group with income below one minimum wage was the only to present a significant reduction of stunting during the study period. The most significant improvements in the reduction of nutritional deficits occurred in the first half of the study period, while social differentials remained. Fighting malnutrition is still necessary among the 40% of the population considered poor, and must be accompanied by efforts to combat overweight which is being observed in all social strata.

  15. Sedentary behavior in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M B; Araújo, Cora Luiza

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior and investigate associated factors in adolescents 11 years of age from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sedentary behavior was investigated with a questionnaire, and was defined as spending more than two hours per day watching television, playing videogames, or using the computer. Of the 4,452 adolescents interviewed, 98% reported watching television, 44% playing videogames, and 22% using the computer. The average time spent on each of these electronic media was 197, 36, and 17 minutes per day, respectively. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was 79.7% (95%CI: 78.6; 80.9) and showed a positive association with socioeconomic level and nutritional status and a negative association with well-being. These 11-year-olds spent extensive time at TV viewing, videogames, and the computer. Special attention should be given to the most exposed groups of adolescents, including the more affluent, overweight, and those with limited schooling.

  16. [Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2008-12-01

    Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

  17. Use of Medicines with Unknown Fetal Risk among Parturient Women from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To estimate the exposure to medicines with unknown fetal risk during pregnancy and to analyze the maternal characteristics associated with it. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to 4,189 mothers of children belonging to the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study about use of any medicine during gestation. We evaluated the associations between use of medicines with unknown fetal risk and the independent variables through logistic regression models. Unknown fetal risk was defined as medicines in which studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus, and no controlled studies in women, or studies in women and animals, are available. Results. Out of the 4,189 women, 52.5% used at least one medicine from unknown fetal risk. Use of these medicines was associated with white skin color, high schooling, high income, six or more antenatal care consultations, hospital admission during pregnancy, and morbidity during gestation. Conclusion. The use of unknown fetal risk medicines is high, suggesting that their use must be addressed with caution with the aim of restricting their use to cases in which the benefits are greater than the potential risks.

  18. Consumer demand for caesarean sections in Brazil: informed decision making, patient choice, or social inequality? A population based birth cohort study linking ethnographic and epidemiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2002-04-20

    To investigate why some women prefer caesarean sections and how decisions to medicalise birthing are influenced by patients, doctors, and the sociomedical environment. Population based birth cohort study, using ethnographic and epidemiological methods. Epidemiological study: women living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil who gave birth in hospital during the study. Ethnographic study: subsample of 80 women selected at random from the birth cohort. Nineteen medical staff were interviewed. 5304 women who gave birth in any of the city's hospitals in 1993. Birth by caesarean section or vaginal delivery. In both samples women from families with higher incomes and higher levels of education had caesarean sections more often than other women. Many lower to middle class women sought caesarean sections to avoid what they considered poor quality care and medical neglect, resulting from social prejudice. These women used medicalised prenatal and birthing health care to increase their chance of acquiring a caesarean section, particularly if they had social power in the home. Both social power and women's behaviour towards seeking medicalised health care remained significantly associated with type of birth after controlling for family income and maternal education. Fear of substandard care is behind many poor women's preferences for a caesarean section. Variables pertaining to women's role in the process of redefining and negotiating medical risks were much stronger correlates of caesarean section rates than income or education. The unequal distribution of medical technology has altered concepts of good and normal birthing. Arguments supporting interventionist birthing for all on the basis of equal access to health care must be reviewed.

  19. Relationship between birth weight and overweight/obesity among students in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Elizandra Rossi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Being born heavier than 4 kg is associated with current overweight and obesity over the long term. The objective here was to ascertain whether birth weight was related to overweight or obese status, among 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, taking into consideration the possible interactions between socioeconomic factors and other biological variables.DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study on a probabilistic sample of 2,696 children and adolescents living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.METHODS: The following data were collected: anthropometric (student's weight, height and age; and parents' weight and height, socioeconomic (family income, number of people in house and parental schooling level, birth weight and gestational age. Overweight and obesity were classified using percentiles of body mass index and triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The outcome variables were overweight and obesity and the main explanatory variables were birth weight and birth weight according to gestational age. The control variables were the parents' nutritional status, their schooling level and theper capita family income. Poisson multivariate regressions were carried out.RESULTS: Higher prevalence of high birth weight was observed among overweight male adolescents (PR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02-1.27; P = 0.03, but this was not observed among obese male adolescents. Low birth weight and being born small for gestational age were also not associated with the outcomes. Among overweight and obese children, birth weight was not significantly different from that of normal-weight children.CONCLUSION: No significant association between birth weight and obesity was observed. However, there was a weak but significant association between high birth weight and overweight, among male adolescents.

  20. Caesarean section and adiposity at 6, 18 and 30 years of age: results from three Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Leonardo Pozza; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Ina S; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-14

    Association between caesarian section (C-section) and obesity is controversial and mostly based on body mass index (BMI), which has inherent limitations. Using direct estimates of body fat mass, we aimed to assess the association between C-section and adiposity using fat mass index and BMI z-score in three birth cohort studies from Pelotas, Brazil. We measured weight, height and fat mass (using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) at ages 6, 18 and 30 years among participants in the 2004, 1993 and 1982 population-based Pelotas Birth Cohort Studies, respectively. We used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the crude and adjusted association between C-section and the body composition indicators. We also modelled height as an outcome to explore the presence of residual confounding. We observed that fat mass index and BMI z-score were strongly and positively associated with C-section in the crude analysis. However, when we adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, maternal BMI, parity, age and smoking during pregnancy, effect estimates were attenuated towards the null, except for 30-year-old women. In those women from the 1982 cohort, C-section remained associated with fat mass index (β = 0.82; CI95% 0.32;1.32) and BMI z-score (β = 0.15; CI95% 0.03;0.28), even after adjusting for all potential confounders, suggesting an increase in fat mass index and BMI at 30 years among those born by C-section. We found no consistent association of C-section with fat mass index measured by DXA and BMI z-score in individuals aged 6, 18 and 30 years, except for women in the latter group, which might be explained by residual confounding. Confounding by socioeconomic and maternal characteristics accounted for all the other associations.

  1. Cohort profile update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-10-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php].

  2. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  3. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  4. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...... to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this....

  5. Determinants of preterm birth: Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2004 birth cohort Determinantes de nascimento pré-termo na coorte de nascimentos de 2004, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela F. Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and a global health problem that affects high, middle and low-income countries. Several factors may increase the risk of preterm birth. In this article, we test the hypothesis that different risk factors determine preterm birth in different income groups by investigating whether risk factors for preterm deliveries in the 2004 Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil birth cohort vary among those groups. A total of 4,142 women were included in the analysis. Preterm births were equally common among women who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries as for those with induced or operative births. In the multivariate analysis the factors that remained significantly associated with preterm birth were black skin color, low education, poverty, young maternal age, primiparity, previous preterm birth, inadequacy of prenatal care and reported hypertension. In the analyses repeated after stratification by family income terciles, there was no evidence of effect modification by income and no clear difference between the socioeconomic groups. No association between cesarean section and preterm delivery was found. Further studies are required to understand the causes of the epidemic of preterm births in Brazil.A prematuridade é uma grande causa de morte neonatal e um problema de saúde global, afetando países de alta, média e baixa renda. Vários fatores podem aumentar o risco de parto pré-termo. Neste artigo, testamos a hipótese de que diferentes fatores de risco determinem o parto pré-termo em diferentes grupos de renda, investigando como fatores de risco para prematuridade na coorte de nascimentos de 2004 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, variam entre estes grupos. Foram incluídas na análise 4.142 mulheres. Os nascimentos pretermo foram igualmente comuns entre mulheres com partos vaginais e com partos induzidos ou cesáreas. Na análise multivariada, a cor negra, baixa educação, baixa renda, idade

  6. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Aspectos metodológicos da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.Descrever aspectos metodológicos do estudo da coorte de crianças que podem ser relevantes para pesquisadores que estejam planejando investigações semelhantes. Em 1993, uma coorte de base populacional foi recrutada em Pelotas, RS. Os 5.249 recém-nascidos nos hospitais da cidade foram acompanhados com um, três e seis meses, e com um e quatro anos de idade. Subestudos estão sendo realizados sobre saúde bucal, desenvolvimento psicológico e saúde mental, composição corporal e aspectos etnográficos. Em 2004-5 foi possível entrevistar 87,5% da coorte inicial, com a idade de 10-12 anos. Estudos de coortes de nascimentos são essenciais para investigar os determinantes precoces da morbidade e estado nutricional de adultos. No entanto, há poucos estudos com esta metodologia em países de renda média e baixa, e alguns dos determinantes da situação de saúde podem ser distintos daqueles observados em países ricos.

  7. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  8. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatica Giovanna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were identified with the use of principal component analysis (PCA for each age studied. Results Five components were identified at each age, four of them similar in all time points, namely: beverages, milks, staple, and snacks. A meat & vegetables component was identified at 12 and 24 months and a treats component at 48 months. The greatest nutritional differences were found among children from different socioeconomic levels. With regard to the milks component, higher breast milk intake compared to cow's milk was seen among poorer children (12- and 24-month old and higher milk and chocolate powdered milk drink consumption was seen among more affluent children aged 48 months. Poorer children of less educated mothers showed higher adherence to the treats component (48 months. Regarding to the snack component, poorer children consumed more coffee, bread/cookies while more affluent children consumed proportionately more fruits, yogurt and soft drinks. Child care outside of the home was also a factor influencing food profiles more aligned with a healthier diet. Conclusions The study results showed that very early in life children show food profiles that are strongly associated with social (maternal schooling, socioeconomic position and child care and behavioral characteristics (breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding and pacifier use.

  9. Early feeding practices and severe early childhood caries in four-year-old children from southern Brazil: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Giugliani, E R J; Vigo, Á; Vítolo, M R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between feeding practices in the first year of life and the occurrence of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) at 4 years of age. A birth cohort study (n = 500) was conducted in children who were born within the public health system in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Feeding practices were assessed using standardized methods at 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 340 children were examined at 4 years of age. S-ECC was defined as recommended by an expert panel for research purposes: ≥1 cavitated, missing or filled smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth or d(1+) mfs ≥5. Poisson regression with robust variance was used in order to determine the early feeding practices which represent risk factors for the occurrence of S-ECC at 4 years of age. The multivariable model showed a higher adjusted risk of S-ECC for the following dietary practices at 12 months: breastfeeding ≥7 times daily (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.45-2.68), high density of sugar (RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08-1.89), bottle use for liquids other than milk (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86), as well as number of meals and snacks >8 (RR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.02-1.97). Mother's education ≤8 years was also associated with the outcome. The present study identified early feeding practices which represent risk factors for caries severity in subsequent years. These findings may contribute to developing general and oral health interventions, with special attention to families with low maternal education.

  10. Physical activity throughout adolescence and body composition at 18 years: 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a period of accelerated development and increases in body composition. Physical activity (PA) practice has been associated with the development of major components of body composition (bone, muscle and fat). However, the longitudinal effects of PA of different intensities during adolescence are still not well understood. Thus, the main goal this study has investigate the association between practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout adolescence and body composition, specifically lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), at age 18. In this cohort study, physical activity was measured at 11, 15 and 18 years, using questionnaires. Thresholds of 300, 150 and 75 min per week, were used for MVPA, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Consistent physical activity was defined as reaching the thresholds at the three follow-ups. FM and LM at age 18 were assessed by DXA and expressed as fat mass (FMI) and lean mass (LMI) indexes. To verify the association between the trajectories of MVPA, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity in adolescence and FM and LM at 18, multivariate analyses were performed through multiple linear regressions adjusted for co-variables. A total of 3,176 adolescents were evaluated. The consistent practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity according to thresholds during adolescence were directly related to the LMI in boys (moderate-intensity - β = 0.40 and CI95 % 0.13; 0.68 and vigorous-intensity - β = 0.95 and CI95 % 0.69; 1.21) and girls (Moderate-intensity - β = 0.23 and CI95 % 0.02; 0.45 and vigorous-intensity - β = 0.80 and CI95 % 0.29; 1.32). Practice of vigorous-intensity physical activity alone showed to be inversely associated with the FMI in boys (β = -0.53 and CI95 % -0.96;-0.10). Consistent physical activity practice during adolescence was associated with greater lean mass in both sexes. In boys, vigorous

  11. Can mothers rely on the Brazilian health system for their deliveries? An assessment of use of the public system and out-of-pocket expenditure in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldi Andréa D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a country where comprehensive free health care is provided via a public health system (SUS, an unexpected high frequency of catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure has been described. We studied how deliveries were financed among mothers of a birth cohort and whether they were an important source of household out-of-pocket expenditure. Methods All deliveries occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. All mothers were interviewed just after birth and three months later. Comprehensive data on the pregnancy, delivery, birth conditions and newborn health were collected, along with detailed information on expenses related to the delivery. Results The majority of the deliveries (81% were financed by the public health system, a proportion that increased to more than 95% among the 40% poorest mothers. Less than 1% of these mothers reported some out-of-pocket expenditure. Even among those mothers covered by a private health plan, nearly 50% of births were financed by the SUS. Among the 20% richest, a third of the deliveries were paid by the SUS, 50% by private health plans and 17% by direct payment. Conclusion The public health system offered services in quantity and quality enough to attract even beneficiaries of private health plans and spared mothers from the poorest strata of the population of practically any expense.

  12. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust

  14. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  15. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...

  16. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...

  17. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    2017-05-30

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. The 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study: methods A visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993: métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Luiza Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the methodology of the 2004-2005 follow-up visit of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. All children born in Pelotas in 1993 and whose mothers lived in the city at that time were eligible to be enrolled in a longitudinal study. Between July 2004 and March 2005, all cohort participants were sought for a follow-up visit. Several strategies were used to help trace cohort members, including a census of the city's schools and a census of all households in the municipality. The Mortality Information System was monitored in order to identify deaths among cohort members. Of the 5,249 cohort members, 4,452 were interviewed in 2004-5. When added to the 141 deaths, these represent 87.5% of the original cohort. In spite of the logistic and financial difficulties, it is possible to carry out prospective studies with long-term follow-up in the Brazilian context.O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a metodologia do acompanhamento realizado em 2004-2005 da coorte de nascidos em 1993 na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Todas as crianças nascidas em 1993 nessa cidade, cujas mães residiam no município, foram elegíveis para um estudo longitudinal. Entre os meses de julho de 2004 e março de 2005, todos os participantes da coorte foram procurados para um acompanhamento. Diversas estratégias de busca foram utilizadas para auxiliar na localização dos participantes, sendo as principais um censo em todas as escolas do município e um censo domiciliar. O Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade foi monitorado para detecção de óbitos de participantes da coorte. Dos 5.249 participantes da coorte, 4.452 foram entrevistados em 2004-2005, os quais, somados aos 141 óbitos detectados, representam 87,5% da coorte original. Apesar das dificuldades logísticas e financeiras, é possível realizar estudos prospectivos com altas taxas de acompanhamento em longo prazo no contexto brasileiro.

  20. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  1. Infant mortality: comparison between two birth cohorts from Southeast and Northeast, Brazil Mortalidade infantil: comparação entre duas coortes de nascimentos do Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinar S Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain population estimates and profile risk factors for infant mortality in two birth cohorts and compare them among cities of different regions in Brazil. METHODS: In Ribeirão Preto, southeast Brazil, infant mortality was determined in a third of hospital live births (2,846 singleton deliveries in 1994. In São Luís, northeast Brazil, data were obtained using systematic sampling of births stratified by maternity unit (2,443 singleton deliveries in 1997-1998. Mothers answered standardized questionnaires shortly after delivery and information on infant deaths was retrieved from hospitals, registries and the States Health Secretarys' Office. The relative risk (RR was estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In São Luís, the infant mortality rate was 26.6/1,000 live births, the neonatal mortality rate was 18.4/1,000 and the post-neonatal mortality rate was 8.2/1,000, all higher than those observed in Ribeirão Preto (16.9, 10.9 and 6.0 per 1,000, respectively. Adjusted analysis revealed that previous stillbirths (RR=3.67 vs 4.13 and maternal age OBJETIVO: Obter estimativas populacionais e fatores de risco de mortalidade infantil em coortes de nascimentos e comparar esses fatores entre cidades de diferentes regiões do País. MÉTODOS: Em Ribeirão Preto, SP, a mortalidade infantil foi avaliada em 1/3 dos nascidos vivos hospitalares (2.846 partos únicos em 1994. Em São Luís, MA, foi feita amostragem sistemática de partos estratificada por maternidade (2.443 partos únicos em 1997/98. As mães responderam a questionários padronizados logo após o parto e as informações sobre os óbitos foram coletadas nos hospitais, nos cartórios e nas secretarias estaduais de saúde. Risco relativo (RR e intervalo de confiança de 95% foram estimados pela regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de mortalidade infantil (CMI em São Luís foi 26,6/1.000 nascidos vivos, o coeficiente de mortalidade neonata (CMNl 18,4/1.000 e o

  2. Oral health follow-up studies in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study: methodology and principal results Estudos de saúde bucal na coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993: metodologia e resultados principais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Peres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359 and 12 (n = 339 years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6 for the entire sample, ranging from 0.6 (SD = 1.1 for children that were caries-free at age six, 1.3 (SD = 1.5 for those with 1-3 carious teeth at six years, and 1.8 (SD = 1.8 for those with 4-19 carious teeth at six years (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever estudos de saúde bucal em uma coorte de nascimentos. Em 1993, teve início uma coorte de nascimentos de base populacional em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Dois estudos de saúde bucal aos 6 (n = 359 e 12 anos de idade (n = 339 foram realizados. Foi observada uma alta taxa de resposta no período entre 6 e 12 anos de idade; 94,4% das crianças pesquisadas em 1999 foram examinadas em 2005. A média do índice CPO-D aos 12 anos foi de 1,2 (DP = 1,6 para a população como um todo, variando de 0,6 (DP = 1,1 para o grupo livre de cáries aos 6 anos, 1,3 (DP = 1,5 para os que apresentaram 1-3 dentes atacados pela cárie e 1,8 (DP = 1,8 para aqueles com 4-19 dentes atacados pela cárie (p < 0,01. Observou-se um aumento da proporção de indivíduos com oclusopatias muito severas aos 12 anos, conforme o número de oclusopatias presentes aos 6 anos de idade. Problemas bucais no início da adolescência foram mais prevalentes nos indivíduos que apresentaram agravos à saúde bucal na infância.

  3. Effect of birth size and proportionality on BMI and skinfold thickness in early adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C L; Hallal, P C; Nader, G A; Neutzling, M B; deFátima Vieira, M; Menezes, A M B; Victora, C G

    2009-05-01

    To assess the effect of birth weight, length and ponderal index at birth on body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness in early adolescence. Population-based, prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. Out of 5249 cohort members, 87.5% were traced at 11 years of age. Birth weight, length and ponderal index (birth weight/birth length(3) x 100) -- treated as continuous variable and divided into fourths -- were the exposure variables. BMI at 11 years, triceps and subscapular skinfolds were the outcomes. Confounders included sex, gestational age, parity, maternal schooling, family income, maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal BMI. All three exposure variables were significantly associated with BMI in early adolescence, but the strongest effect was observed for birth weight. Each unit (Z-score) increase in birth weight was associated with 0.46 kg m(-2) increase in BMI at 11 years. The equivalent coefficients for ponderal index and birth length were 0.22 and 0.21 kg m(-2), respectively. High birth weight, length and ponderal index were also associated with increased values for triceps and subscapular skinfolds at 11 years, and with increased prevalence of obesity. Of the three birth exposures studied, birth weight presented the strongest effect on anthropometry in early adolescence. Ponderal index, a proportionality indicator associated with infant mortality, hospitalizations and anthropometry in infancy, was also associated with anthropometry in early adolescence, but its predictive value for the latter is lower than that of birthweight alone. All three birth size indicators studied presented poor predictability of the later risk of obesity.

  4. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been ...

  5. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim...... was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish...... National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel...

  6. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials Amamentação e padrões alimentares em três coortes de nascimento no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar G. Victora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 6.8 months in this period. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months was practically non-existent in 1982 and had reached one third of infants by 2004. The increase was faster after 1993, suggesting an important impact made by promotion activities. Up to about 6-9 months, breastfeeding was more prevalent in high-income families, but after this age it became more common among the poor. Low birth weight babies were breastfeed for shorter durations. The duration of breastfeeding is still far short of international recommendations, justifying further campaigns. Special attention should be given to low birth weight babies and those from low-income families.A amamentação é fundamental para a saúde infantil. O artigo compara mudanças na duração da amamentação em três coortes de nascimentos, de 1982, 1993 e 2004, na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Amostras das coortes de 1982 e 1993 e todas as crianças da coorte de 2004 foram visitadas em casa em torno de 12 meses de idade. Foram investigados a duração da amamentação e o momento em que diferentes tipos de alimentos foram introduzidos na dieta regular. A duração mediana da amamentação aumentou de 3,1 para 6,8 meses ao longo do período. O aleitamento exclusivo aos três meses era praticamente inexistente em 1982, mas alcançou um terço dos lactentes em 2004. O aumento foi mais expressivo a partir de 1993, sugerindo um impacto importante das

  7. TP53 gene polymorphism: Importance to cancer, ethnicity and birth weight in a Brazilian cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helena S Thurow; Ricardo Haack; Fernando P Hartwig; Isabel Ode Oliveira; Odir A Dellagostin; Denise P Gigante; Bernardo L Horta; Tiago Collares; Fabiana K Seixas

    2011-12-01

    Arg72Pro SNP of p53 has been associated with many types of cancer as well as with survival and longevity. We evaluated the Arg72Pro SNP frequencies of a Brazilian birth cohort and their association with current, demographic and birth epidemiological parameters available. In 1982, all hospital births of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and studied prospectively. In 2004–5, blood samples were collected and DNA extracted. PCR-RFLP was used to genotype the Arg72Pro SNP in 3794 individual samples of the Brazil birth cohort and DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the genotypes. The genotype distribution, which was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, showed a predominance of the arginine amino acid with a frequency of 46.9% Arg/Arg, 42.2% Arg/Pro and 10.9% Pro/Pro. The allele frequency was 0.68 of Arginine and 0.32 of Proline. The Arg72Pro SNP genotype and allelic frequency were related to skin colour where proline amino acid was observed more among black subjects, while arginine amino acid was observed more among white subjects. The individuals without family history of cancer and those with low birth weight were associated with arginine amino acid. The Arg72Pro SNP was strongly associated with important epidemiological variables confirming that genetic profiles on cohort studies can improve our understanding of the susceptibility of diseases and its risk factors.

  8. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  9. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Aluísio J D Barros; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora,César Gomes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding bre...

  10. Infant mortality and low birth weight in cities of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of low birth weight (LBW, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA, and infant mortality in two birth cohorts in Brazil. METHODS: The two cohorts were performed during the 1990s, in São Luís, located in a less developed area in Northeastern Brazil, and Ribeirão Preto, situated in a more developed region in Southeastern Brazil. Data from one-third of all live births in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 were collected (2,839 single deliveries. In São Luís, systematic sampling of deliveries stratified by maternity hospital was performed from 1997 to 1998 (2,439 single deliveries. The chi-squared (for categories and trends and Student t tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The LBW rate was lower in São Luís, thus presenting an epidemiological paradox. The preterm birth rates were similar, although expected to be higher in Ribeirão Preto because of the direct relationship between preterm birth and LBW. Dissociation between LBW and infant mortality was observed, since São Luís showed a lower LBW rate and higher infant mortality, while the opposite occurred in Ribeirão Preto. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of maternal smoking and better access to and quality of perinatal care, thereby leading to earlier medical interventions (cesarean section and induced preterm births that resulted in more low weight live births than stillbirths in Ribeirão Preto, may explain these paradoxes. The ecological dissociation observed between LBW and infant mortality indicates that the LBW rate should no longer be systematically considered as an indicator of social development.

  11. Uso de medicamentos do nascimento aos dois anos: Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, RS, 2004 Uso de medicamentos desde el nacimiento hasta los dos años: Cohorte de Nacimientos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, 2004 Medicine use from birth to age two years: the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Almeida de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    ógicos. Hubo aumento en la utilización de: medicamentos anti-infecciosos sistémicos, destinados al sistema músculo esquelético, al sistema respiratorio, analgésicos, antiparasitarios, insecticidas y repelentes. CONCLUSIONES: La utilización de medicamentos en esta cohorte fue elevada y remite a la necesidad de priorizar el uso racional de medicamentos en los primeros años de vida.OBJECTIVE: To describe medicine use by children at three, 12 and 24 months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Southern Brazil, including: 3,985 children at three months, 3,907 children at 12 months, and 3,868 children at 24 months of age. The outcome investigated was use of medicine in the 15 days preceding the interview. Information on independent variables (medicine used, who indicated it, how it was obtained, periodicity of use, and therapeutic group were collected using a standardized questionnaire administered during a home interview with the child's parents. RESULTS: Prevalence of medicine use at three, 12, and 24 months was 65.0% (95% CI: 63.5;66.5, 64.4% (95% CI: 62.9;65.9, and 54.7% (95% CI: 53.1;56.2, respectively. As age increased, there was a reduction in the total number of medicines used and an increase in self-medicine, which reached 34% at 24 months. Furthermore, frequency of sporadic medicine use increased, while that of continuous use decreased. Medicine was purchased mainly using private resources, with roughly 10% of drugs being purchased through the Brazilian National Health Care System. The profile of medicine types used also changed with age. The type of medicine most frequently used were dermatological products (36% at three months; respiratory system drugs (24% at 12 months; and analgesics (26% at 24 months of age. Compared to three months, medicine use at 24 months was characterized by decreased use of digestive tract and metabolism drugs, drugs for the sensory organs, cardiovascular system drugs, and dermatological

  12. [Evaluation of the quality of birth registration data in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, R J

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of the quality of data published in "Estatisticas do Registro Civil, 1974-79" (Vital Registration Statistics, 1974-79) concerning children ever born in Brazil and its states is presented. Qualitative analysis of these variables is included: time period between date of birth and date of registration, mother's permanent place of birth, type of delivery, sex, and mother's age at time of delivery. (author's modified)

  13. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  14. Fatores de risco para diabetes mellitus gestacional na coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2004 Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in the birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Souza de Oliveira Dode

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Consensos de diversos países referem idade, obesidade e história familiar de diabetes mellitus como fatores de risco para diabetes mellitus gestacional. Outros fatores permanecem controversos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar fatores associados ao diabetes mellitus gestacional entre mães dos recém-nascidos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 2004. Foram entrevistadas 4.243 puérperas no hospital, havendo 0,5% de recusas. O diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional foi auto-referido. A prevalência de diabetes mellitus gestacional foi 2,95% (IC95%: 2,53-3,64. Análise bruta realizada por meio de testes qui-quadrado mostrou associação direta com aumento da idade, escolaridade, nível econômico e índice de massa corporal (IMC e inversa com altura materna. Cor não branca, história familiar de diabetes mellitus, tabagismo no primeiro e segundo trimestres e atividade física antes da gestação e no primeiro trimestre mostraram-se associados. A análise ajustada hierarquizada realizada através de regressão logística mostrou associação com maior idade, cor não branca, maior escolaridade, história familiar de diabetes mellitus e maior IMC. A altura ficou no limiar da significância. Tabagismo no primeiro e segundo trimestres foi protetor.Consensus statements by various countries have reported age, obesity, and family history of diabetes mellitus as risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Other factors remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with gestational diabetes among mothers of newborns from the birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2004. We interviewed 4,243 postpartum women in hospital, with a 0.5% refusal rate. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes was self-reported. Prevalence of gestational diabetes was 2.95% (95%CI: 2.53-3.64. Crude analysis using the chi-square test showed a direct association with age, schooling

  15. Prevalência e determinantes precoces dos transtornos mentais comuns na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Prevalencia y determinantes precoces de los trastornos mentales comunes en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Prevalence and early determinants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Anselmi

    2008-12-01

    adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study nested in a 1982 birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5, 4,297 subjects were interviewed during home visits. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Report Questionnaire. Risk factors included socioeconomic, demographic, perinatal, and environmental variables. The analysis was stratified by gender and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.0%; 32.8% and 23.5% in women and men, respectively. Men and women who were poor in 2004-5, regardless of their poor status in 1982, had nearly 1.5-fold increased risk for common mental disorders (p<0.001 when compared to those who have never been poor. Among women, being poor during childhood (p<0.001 and black/mixed skin color (p=0.002 increased the risk for mental disorders. Low birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated to the risk of these disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of common mental disorders among low-income groups and race-ethnic minorities suggests that social inequalities present at birth have a major impact on mental health, especially common mental disorders.

  16. Determinantes precoces da glicemia casual em adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Determinantes precoces de la glicemia casual en adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Early determinants of random blood glucose among adults of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    2008-12-01

    para medir la glicemia casual. Fue evaluada la asociación entre glicemia casual y el color de la piel, renta familiar al nacer, escolaridad materna, cambio de renta entre 1982 y 2004-5, peso al nacer y duración del amamantamiento. RESULTADOS: El promedio de la glicemia fue de 97,3±15,1mg/dL, siendo mayor entre los hombres. Ninguna de las variables estudiadas estuvo asociada con la glicemia de los hombres. Entre las mujeres, la escolaridad materna, la renta familiar a los 23 años y el peso al nacer estuvieron inversamente asociados con la glicemia. Aún así, el efecto del peso al nacer perdió la significancia estadística en el análisis multivariable. CONCLUSIONES: El peso al nacer y la duración del amamantamiento no presentaron efecto a largo plazo sobre la glicemia casual, apenas la escolaridad materna y la renta actual estuvieron asociadas con la glicemia casual en las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of socioeconomic variables, birth weight, duration of breastfeeding and income changes on random blood glucose levels among young adults. METHODS: This was a study on the birth cohort from 1982, when the 5,914 hospital births that occurred in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil were identified and the mothers were interviewed. The children whose families lived in the urban area of the city were followed up several times. In 2004-5, 4,927 individuals of the cohort were interviewed and blood was collected from the fingertips of 3,730 of them for random blood glucose measurements. Associations between random blood glucose levels and skin color, family income at birth, maternal schooling, income change between 1982 and 2004-5, birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean blood glucose level was 97.3 ± 15.1mg/dL, and it was greater among the men. None of the variables studied was associated with the men's blood glucose level. Among the women, maternal schooling, family income at 23 years of age and birth weight were

  17. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  18. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Etiology of atopy in infancy: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora

  20. Etiology of atopy in infancy: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora

  1. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  2. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn K Brew

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. METHODS: In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. RESULTS: Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81 and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00. Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71. The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  3. Fatores associados ao sedentarismo no lazer de adultos na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Factores asociados al sedentarismo en el tiempo de ocio de adultos en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R Azevedo

    2008-12-01

    íodo de tiempo de ocio, fueron obtenidas por medio de Cuestionario Internacional de Actividades Físicas. Fueron considerados sedentarios los individuos con tiempo de práctica de actividad física semanal inferior a 150 min. Fueron consideradas variables independientes: sexo, color de la piel, peso al nacer, renta familiar en el año de nacimiento y mudanza de renta entre el nacimiento y los 23 años. La regresión de Poisson con ajuste robusto de la varianza fue utilizada en la evaluación de los factores de riesgo para el sedentarismo. RESULTADOS: Los hombres relataron 334 min de tiempo de actividades físicas en el período de ocio por semana versus 112 min entre las mujeres. La prevalencia de sedentarismo fue de 80,6% entre las mujeres y 49,2% entre los hombres. Se observó tendencia de aumento de tiempo de actividades físicas conforme aumentó la renta al nacer. Individuos actualmente pobres o que se tornaron pobres en la edad adulta fueron más sedentarios. CONCLUSIONES: El sedentarismo en el período de ocio entre adultos jóvenes se mostró elevado, principalmente en el sexo femenino. La actividad física en el tiempo de ocio es determinada por las condiciones socioeconómicas actuales.OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson's regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment

  4. National Child Development Study (or 1958 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Child Development Study (NCDS is one of Britain’s world-renowned national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. The study is an ongoing multi-disciplinary longitudinal study which follows the lives of around 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1958. Over the course of cohort members lives, the NCDS has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. The broad aim of the study is to examine the impact that circumstances and experiences at one stage of life have on outcomes and achievements in later life. Since the birth survey in 1958, there have been ten ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 7, 11, 16, 23, 33, 42, 44/5 (a biomedical collection 46, 50 and most recently at 55. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, teachers, doctors and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability and educational assessments. The information collected forms a high quality data resource for scientific investigations across a full range of domains of individuals’ lives and across different points in time in them. The study has been designed so as to ensure comparability with other major cohort studies so as permit the examination of links between social change and the changing experiences of different cohorts. The majority of NCDS survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors related to preterm birth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. Methods Data are from the 2011–2012 “Birth in Brazil” study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women. We analyzed the variables following a three-level hierarchical methodology. For each level, we performed non-conditional multiple logistic regression for both spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth. Results The rate of preterm birth was 11.5 %, (95 % confidence 10.3 % to 12.9 % 60.7 % spontaneous - with spontaneous onset of labor or premature preterm rupture of membranes - and 39.3 % provider-initiated, with more than 90 % of the last group being pre-labor cesarean deliveries. Socio-demographic factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth were adolescent pregnancy, low total years of schooling, and inadequate prenatal care. Other risk factors were previous preterm birth (OR 3.74; 95 % CI 2.92–4.79, multiple pregnancy (OR 16.42; 95 % CI 10.56–25.53, abruptio placentae (OR 2.38; 95 % CI 1.27–4.47 and infections (OR 4.89; 95 % CI 1.72–13.88. In contrast, provider-initiated preterm birth was associated with private childbirth healthcare (OR 1.47; 95 % CI 1.09–1.97, advanced-age pregnancy (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 1.01–1.59, two or more prior cesarean deliveries (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.19–2.26, multiple pregnancy (OR 20.29; 95 % CI 12.58–32.72 and any maternal or fetal pathology (OR 6.84; 95 % CI 5.56–8.42. Conclusion The high proportion of provider-initiated preterm birth and its association with prior cesarean deliveries and all of the studied maternal/fetal pathologies suggest that a reduction of this type of

  6. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Dubakiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.

  7. Metodologia do estudo da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Metodologia de estudio de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Barros

    2008-12-01

    ínicos fueron realizados en las visitas. Los participantes de la cohorte son descritos de acuerdo con las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y de salud, obtenidas en los primeros acompañamientos, que son utilizadas como variables de exposición. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de los jóvenes de la cohorte fueron acompañados durante 23 años de vida y distintas visitas. Los acompañamientos que obtuvieron mayor éxito fueron aquellos precedidos por un censo de la ciudad. Con éste método fueron localizados 87,2% en 1984 (edad promedio de 19 meses, 84,1% en 2006 (promedio 43 meses, y 77,4% en 2004-5 (promedio 23 años. CONCLUSIONES: Estudios de cohorte de nacimientos pueden ser realizados con éxito en países en desarrollo, y la metodología utilizada en esos estudios de ciclo vital permite estudiar la influencia de exposiciones precoces sobre la determinación de las enfermedades de la vida adulta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months, 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months, and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23

  8. Educação e trabalho na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Educación y trabajo en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2005, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Barros

    2008-12-01

    efecto de las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, peso al nacer y amamantamiento materno sobre los desenlaces. RESULTADOS: La escolaridad promedio fue de 9,4 años (± 3,1 y 42% de los jóvenes estaban frecuentando la escuela en 2004-5. Uno de cada cinco jóvenes había ingresado en la universidad y cerca de dos tercios estaban trabajando en el mes anterior a la entrevista. El ingreso en la universidad fue determinado por las condiciones económicas, y tuvo influencia de peso al nacer en las mujeres y del amamantamiento en los hombres. La inserción en el mercado de trabajo fue más frecuente entre los hombres más pobres, pero no para las mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: La baja inclusión universitaria y la necesidad de inserción en el mercado de trabajo de los jóvenes de familias más pobres mantienen un círculo vicioso que reproduce la jerarquía social dominante.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1 years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more

  9. Neonatal near miss in the Birth in Brazil survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Leite, Alvaro Jorge Madeiro; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-08-01

    This study used data from the Birth in Brazil survey, a nationwide hospital-based study of 24,197 postpartum women and their newborns, collected between February 2011 and July 2012. A three-stage cluster sampling design (hospitals, days, women) was used consisting of stratification by geographic region, type of municipality (capital or non-capital), and type of hospital financing. Logistic regression was used to identify variables that were potential predictors of neonatal mortality and neonatal near miss indicators. After testing nineteen variables, five were chosen to compose a set of neonatal near miss indicators (birth weight of less than 1,500 g, Apgar score of less than 7 in the 5th minute of life, use of mechanical ventilation, gestational age of less than 32 weeks and congenital malformations). The neonatal near miss rate in the Birth in Brazil survey was 39.2 per thousand live births, three and a half times higher than the neonatal mortality rate (11.1 per thousand). These neonatal near miss indicators were able to identify situations with a high risk of neonatal death.

  10. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  11. How are European birth-cohort studies engaging and consulting with young cohort members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J; Allnock, Debra; Jessiman, Tricia

    2013-04-11

    Birth cohort studies, where parents consent for their child to be enrolled in a longitudinal study prior to or soon after birth, are a powerful study design in epidemiology and developmental research. Participation often continues into adulthood. Where participants are enrolled as infants, provision should be made for consent, consultation and involvement in study design as they age. This study aims to audit and describe the extent and types of consultation and engagement currently used in birth cohorts in Europe. Seventy study groups (representing 84 cohorts) were contacted to ask about their practice in engaging and involving study members. Information was gathered from study websites and publications, 15 cohorts provided additional information via email and 17 cohorts were interviewed over the phone. The cohorts identified confirm the growth of this study design, with more than half beginning since 1990, and 4 since 2011. Most studies maintain a website open to the general public, although many are written for the scientific community only. Five studies have web pages specifically for young cohort members and one study provides a dedicated page for fathers. Cohorts send newsletters, cards, and summaries of findings to participants to stay in touch. Six cohorts use Facebook for this purpose. Five cohorts provide feedback opportunities for participants after completing a round of data collection. We know of just 8 cohorts who have a mechanism for consulting with parents and 3 a mechanism for consulting with young people themselves, although these were 'one off' consultations for some groups. Barriers to further consultation with cohort members were: concerns about impact on quality of research, ethical constraints, resource limitations, lack of importance, and previous adverse experiences. Although the children in some of the cohorts are still young (born in the last 10 years) many are old enough to include some element of consultation. Barriers to greater

  12. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) is a consortium of 26 leading European research centres committed to establish a European research area of excellence in the field of allergy and asthma. AIM: One of the GA2LEN work packages was designed to identify and compare...... asthma and atopic diseases. Data were collected by visiting most of the participating research teams and interviewing all relevant study personnel. For each study, the type of objective/subjective outcome parameters and potentially influential factors were recorded precisely for every time point during...... the existing European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review compares their subjective and objective outcomes as well as exposure variables. METHODS: A common database was established to assess study characteristics of observational birth cohort studies designed to examine...

  13. Determinantes precoces da pressão arterial em adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Determinantes precoces de la presión arterial en adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Early determinants of blood pressure among adults of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    2008-12-01

    cohorte con todos los niños nacidos en 1982 en las maternidades de la ciudad de Pelotas (Sur de Brasil. Las madres residentes en área urbana fueron entrevistadas y los niños, acompañados en diferentes ocasiones. En 2004-5, se buscó acompañar todos los individuos de la cohorte. La presión arterial fue medida dos veces, en el inicio y al final de la entrevista, con esfigmomanómetro digital de pulso. Fue evaluada la asociación entre presión arterial y las siguientes variables: color de la piel, escolaridad materna, renta familiar al nacer, cambio de renta entre el nacimiento y los 23 años de edad, peso al nacer y duración del amamantamiento. El análisis de varianza fue utilizado para la comparación de promedio y los modelos lineares generalizados en el análisis ajustado. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo la medida de presión arterial para 4.291 individuos, 2.208 del sexo masculino y 2.083 del sexo femenino. El promedio de las medidas de presión arterial sistólica fue de 117,5±15,0 mmHg y de la diastólica, de 73,6±11,5 mmHg. Entre los hombres, la presión arterial sistólica fue mayor en los individuos de color de piel negra o parda y en aquellos que nunca fueron considerados pobres. La presión diastólica estuvo asociada apenas con el peso al nacer. Entre las mujeres, la presión arterial sistólica fue mayor en las de color de piel negra o parda, cuya escolaridad materna era mayor o igual a 12 años o con peso al nacer menor de 4.000 g. CONCLUSIONES: Para ambos sexos apenas el color de la piel estuvo asociado con la presión arterial. El amamantamiento no tuvo efecto a largo plazo sobre la presión arterial, y para el peso al nacer y el nivel socioeconómico, las asociaciones no fueron consistentes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of exposure occurring during pregnancy or the first years of life on blood pressure. METHODS: Cohort study on all children born in 1982 in maternity hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. The mothers living in the urban

  14. Tabagismo na coorte de nascimentos de 1982: da adolescência à vida adulta, Pelotas, RS Tabaquismo en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982: de la adolescencia a la vida adulta, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Smoking prevalence in the 1982 birth cohort: from adolescence to adult life, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M B Menezes

    2008-12-01

    2000-1. En el seguimiento de 2005, la variable dependiente fue tabaquismo actual. El análisis ajustado fue realizado por medio de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias de tabaquismo entre hombres fueron de 5,9%, 20,2% y 27,6% en los seguimientos de 1997, 2000-1 y 2005, respectivamente. Los respectivos valores para las mujeres fueron 9,3%, 27,5% y 23,6%. La edad promedio de inicio de fumar fue de 15,1 años (dp=2,5. En el análisis multivariable, menor escolaridad materna, baja renta familiar en 1982, haber sido pobre durante todo el período acompañado y el fumar de la madre durante el embarazo estuvieron significativamente asociados con mayores prevalencias de fumar en ambos sexos. El color de la piel no blanca se asoció con mayor riesgo de fumar entre las mujeres. El amamantamiento no mostró asociación con el tabaquismo. En las mujeres, el fumar estuvo inversamente asociado con el peso al nacer en el análisis bruto, pero perdió la significancia en el ajustado. CONCLUSIONES: La mayor concentración de tabaquismo en los grupos más pobres sugiere que conductas como el combate al fumar en la gestación y el aumento de precio del cigarro podrían tener importante impacto poblacional.OBJECTIVE: To assess smoking prevalence in adolescents and young adults of a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Prospective birth cohort study of infants born in 1982, in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and interviewed in 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005. In the 1997 and 2000-2001 follow-up visits, the outcome studied was smoking, defined as the consumption of at least one cigarette in the previous week. In the 2005 follow-up visit, the dependent variable was current smoking. Adjusted analysis was performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalences among males were 5.9%, 20.2% and 27.6% in the 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005 follow-up visits, respectively. Among females, respective values were 9.3%, 27.5% and 23.6%. Mean age of smoking onset was 15.1 years (SD=2

  15. Intrauterine exposure to smoking and wheezing in adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhmeister, F C; Nunes, B P; Loret de Mola, C; Gómez-Cofré, N; de Oliveira, P D; Marco, P L; Assunção, M C F; Gonçalves, H; Horta, B L; Menezes, A M B

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and asthma symptoms such as wheezing during childhood. However, few have evaluated this association in adolescence, especially in populations with high prevalence of wheezing as in Brazil. Using the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort, a longitudinal study set in southern Brazil of 5249 urban live births, we aimed to evaluate the association between maternal and the partner's smoking during pregnancy and wheezing at 11 and 15 years of age. We evaluated smoking during pregnancy using number of cigarettes/day, and our main outcomes were as follows: wheezing in the last year and number of wheezing crises, at both 11 and 15 years of age, as well as persistent wheezing (having crises at 11 and 15 years of age) and medical asthma diagnosis at age 15. In addition, other socio-demographic variables were included as possible confounders and mediators of this association. We used Poisson regression models to evaluate crude and adjusted associations. Of the 5249 live births in 1993, 87.5% and 85.7% were followed-up to 11 and 15 years of age, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy showed a dose-response association with number of wheezing crises at age 15 (P = 0.023), presence of persistent wheezing (P = 0.034) and asthma diagnosis (P = 0.023). Partner's smoking was not associated with any wheezing variables. Maternal smoking during pregnancy appears to exert an effect on respiratory morbidity of adolescents, evaluated by wheezing symptoms.

  16. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    pregnancy in randomized controlled trials are included in the study to prevent disease and to be able to establish causal relationships. Pregnant women from eastern Denmark were invited during 2008–2010 to a novel unselected ‘COPSAC2010’ cohort. The women visited the clinic during pregnancy weeks 24 and 36....... Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high‐dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin...... for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...

  17. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  18. Development of atopic dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Høst, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SThe aim was to describe the relapsing pattern, sensitization and prognosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the first 6 yr...... was measured by objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). Point-prevalence of AD peaked at 18 months of age (10%) and decreased at 36 and 72 months to slightly below 7%. The 6-yr cumulative incidence was 22.8% and sensitization was found in 43% of children with AD. It was predominately sensitization...

  19. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    L.C. Coimbra; Figueiredo,F.P.; Silva,A.A.M.; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol,H.; Caldas,A.J.M.; Mochel,E.G.; V.S. Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differ...

  20. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP > 12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTP 12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS: Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  1. Survey of motivation to participate in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Midori; Fujita, Misuzu; Mori, Chisato; Hata, Akira

    2016-09-01

    For a longitudinal prospective cohort study to be successful, participants' motivation to provide information must be maintained. Therefore, this study aimed to identify items that effectively promote participants' motivation. Questionnaires were mailed to 4541 mothers and expectant mothers in Chiba Prefecture, Japan who participated in a nationwide birth cohort. A total of 2387 (52.6%) responses were received. The following items were identified as primary motivating factors among our cohort: "benefits to the participants' children", "monetary compensation" and "contribution to a better future environment". More than 30% of the respondents expressed a lack of understanding regarding the study purpose and requirements for participation. About 14% were concerned about the leakage of personal information, and 13% felt burdened by having to make a long-term commitment to the study. Cluster analysis identified four groups, two of which, one with extremely low levels of motivation and the other motivated by only money or goods, lacked an understanding of the study and tended to be concerned about the associated risks and burdens. Participants in these groups were considered to be at a high risk of dropout. Therefore, implementing measures to provide participants with a better understanding of cohort studies could lead to more successful results.

  2. Determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce de jovens pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimentos. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados em 2004-5 os indivíduos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas (RS, em 1982 (N=4.297. A iniciação sexual precoce (OBJETIVO: Analizar las determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz de jóvenes pertenecientes a una cohorte de nacimientos. MÉTODOS: Fueron entrevistados en 2004-5 los individuos de la cohorte de nacimientos de Pelotas (Sur de Brasil, en 1982 (N= 4.297. La iniciación sexual precoz (OBJECTIVE: To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297 were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (<13 years of age was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult's level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5. Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS: Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health

  3. Prevalência de chiado no peito em adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Prevalencia del silbido en el pecho en adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M B Menezes

    2008-12-01

    colectados por medio de entrevista, utilizando el cuestionario ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee. La asociación entre el resultado "ocurrencia de silbido en el pecho en los 12 meses anteriores a la entrevista" y variables socioeconómicas, demográficas y características al nacimiento fue calculada por análisis multivariable utilizando regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia del silbido en el último año fue de 24,9%. Entre aquellos que relataron silbido, 54,6% refirieron dificultad para dormir y 12,9% para hablar debido al silbido. La prevalencia del silbido en el pecho fue significativamente mayor entre las mujeres, manteniendo asociación en el análisis ajustado con color de piel no blanca, con historia familiar de asma y nivel socioeconómico bajo. Entre los hombres, no hubo asociación significativa en el análisis ajustado para color de la piel y renta familiar al nacer; historia familiar de asma y pobreza durante la vida mostraron asociación significativa con silbido en el pecho. Para ambos sexos, no hubo asociación con las variables peso al nacer y duración del amamantamiento. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia del silbido en el pecho fue alta y las personas con renta familiar baja al nacer tuvieron mayor riesgo de silbido en el pecho en el último año.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee questionnaire. Associations between the outcome "occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview" and the variables of socioeconomic

  4. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. Participants MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts—the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Findings to date Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Future plans Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. PMID:27591025

  5. Birth cohort effect on the obesity epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...... examined at ages 7-11 years and for 708,342 male draftees examined at age 19 years. Obesity was defined according to age-specific criteria for boys and as BMI >or=31 kg/m for men. We examined trends in the prevalence of obesity from 1930 through 1999, expressing time as the subjects' year of measurement...... and as year of birth. RESULTS: When expressed by year of measurement, 4 phases in the prevalence of obesity emerged for the boys and the young men, but they occurred at different times. However, when expressed by year of birth, the 2 stable periods and the 2 periods with sharp increases in obesity occurred...

  6. Cohort fertility in Western Europe: comparing fertility trends in recent birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopflinger, F

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of fertility levels among cohorts of women born in 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955, and 1960 in 16 European countries was undertaken using vital statistics data. The average number of live birth/woman for each of the 5 cohorts by age 20, 25, 30, and 35 was computed by cumulating age-specific fertility rates of women born in specific years. Median age at childbirth and completed fertility were estimated for the 3 oldest cohorts (1940, 1945, and 1950). 2 estimations of completed fertility were made. 1 was based on the assumption of a constant age-specific fertility rate, and the other was based on a relational Gompertz model. Where possible cohort fertility was disaggregated by birth order. Since the data for the countries was not fully comparable, it was not possible to use sophisticated analytical techniques. Other limits of the study were that fertility, especially for the more recent cohorts was incomplete, parity specific data was not available for all the countries, and open cohorts rather than closed cohorts were used. The analysis indicated that completed cohort fertility was lower for the 1950 cohort than for the 1940 cohort in all 16 countries. For the 1940 cohort, only Germany's estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00. For the other 15 countries, estimated completed fertility ranged from 2.04 (Finland) to 3.36 (Ireland). For the 1950 cohort, estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00 in 8 of the countries. Estimated completed fertility was lowest in Finland and Switzerland (1.82) and highest in Ireland (3.33). No marked increase in childlessness was observed, and for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts, childlessness did not exceed 20% in any of the countries and was considerably less than 20% in most of the countries. There was a trend toward delayed childbearing in most of the countries. An examination of available parity data for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts lead to the conclusion that the major factor contributing toward the decline in

  7. Developmental origins of physical fitness: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40 and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28 higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with -0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI -0.91 to -0.24 lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF.

  8. Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Forsén, Tom; Ylihärsilä, Hilkka; Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Barker, D. J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. Methods/Principal Findings This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study) includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40) and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with −0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI −0.91 to −0.24) lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. Conclusion/Significance We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF. PMID:21799817

  9. Urinary Biomarkers of Prenatal Atrazine Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in the PELAGIE Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Gwendolina; Monfort, Christine; Rouget, Florence; Garlantézec, Ronan; Petit, Claire; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite evidence of atrazine toxicity in developing organisms from experimental studies, few studies—and fewer epidemiologic investigations—have examined the potential effects of prenatal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the association between adverse birth outcomes and urinary biomarkers of prenatal atrazine exposure, while taking into account exposures to other herbicides used on corn crops (simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and acetochlor). Methods: This study used a case-cohort design nested in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the Brittany region of France from 2002 through 2006. We collected maternal urine samples to examine pesticide exposure biomarkers before the 19th week of gestation. Results: We found quantifiable levels of atrazine or atrazine mercapturate in urine samples from 5.5% of 579 pregnant women, and dealkylated and identified hydroxylated triazine metabolites in 20% and 40% of samples, respectively. The presence versus absence of quantifiable levels of atrazine or a specific atrazine metabolite was associated with fetal growth restriction [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0–2.2] and small head circumference for sex and gestational age (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). Associations with major congenital anomalies were not evident with atrazine or its specific metabolites. Head circumference was inversely associated with the presence of quantifiable urinary metolachlor. Conclusions: This study is the first to assess associations of birth outcomes with multiple urinary biomarkers of exposure to triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides. Evidence of associations with adverse birth outcomes raises particular concerns for countries where atrazine is still in use. PMID:21367690

  10. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  11. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  12. Late preterm birth is a risk factor for growth faltering in early childhood: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of preterm birth are increasing worldwide and this increase is mostly due to infants born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestational age, the so-called "late preterm" births. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of late preterm birth over growth outcomes, assessed when children were 12 and 24 months old. Methods In 2004, all births taking place in Pelotas (Southern Brazil were recruited for a cohort study. Late preterm (34/0-36/6 weeks of gestational age and term children (37/0-42/6 weeks were compared in terms of weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores. Weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores below -2 were considered, respectively, underweight, stunting and wasting. Singleton newborns with adequate weight for gestational age at birth, successfully followed-up either at 12 or 24 months of age were analyzed and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals calculated through logistic regression. Results 3285 births were included, 371 of whom were late preterm births (11.3%. At 12 months, prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were, respectively, 3.4, 8.7 and 1.1% among late preterm children, against 1.0, 3.4 and 0.3% among term children. At 24 months, correspondent values were 3.0, 7.2 and 0.8% against 0.8, 2.9 and 0.4%. Comparing with the term children, adjusted odds of being underweighted among late preterm children was 2.57 times higher (1.27; 5.23 at 12 months and 3.36 times higher (1.56; 7.23 at 24; of being stunted, 2.35 (1.49; 3.70 and 2.30 (1.40; 3.77; and of being wasted, 3.98 (1.07; 14.85 and 1.87 (0.50; 7.01. Weight gain from birth to 12 and 24 months was similar in late preterm and term children, whereas length gain was higher in the former group in both periods. Conclusion Late preterm children grow faster than children born at term, but they are at increased risk of underweight and stunting in the first two years of life. Failure to thrive in

  13. Maternidade e paternidade na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Maternidad y paternidad en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P Gigante

    2008-12-01

    , en Pelotas (Sur de Brasil y entrevistados en 2004-5. Fueron considerados elegibles los jóvenes que señalaron haber tenido uno o más hijos, nacidos vivos o muertos. Dos cuestionarios fueron aplicados para colectar informaciones sobre salud reproductiva, datos socioeconómicos y demográficos. Las variables independientes fueron sexo y color de la piel, renta familiar en 1982 y 2004-5, cambio de renta, peso al nacer del joven y escolaridad a los 23 años. Los análisis brutos y ajustados fueron realizados por medio de regresión de Poisson para investigar los efectos de las variables independientes sobre la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. RESULTADOS: De 4.297 jóvenes entrevistados, 1.373 (32% eran madres o padres, de los cuales 842 (19,6% habían experimentado la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. La planificación del embarazo del primer hijo mostró relación directa con la edad del joven. Relación inversa fue observada entre las variables socioeconómicas y la ocurrencia de maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. La probabilidad de ser mamá en la adolescencia fue mayor entre las mujeres negras o pardas, pero el color de la piel no estuvo asociado con la paternidad en la adolescencia. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo fuerte relación entre la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia y condiciones socioeconómicas, la cual debe ser considerada en el delineamiento de acciones preventivas en el campo de la salud pública.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic

  14. Dietary assessment in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study: comparing energy intake with energy expenditure Avaliação dietética da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993: uma comparação da ingestão e do gasto de energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P. Gigante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe and compare two methods of energy intake assessment and one measure of energy expenditure applied in adolescents from a birth cohort. In a sub-sample of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort, followed up in 2006-7, information on intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ and three 24-hour-recalls (24hR, while energy expenditure was assessed using an accelerometer. Bland & Altman plots were used in the analyses in order to compare the methods. The mean difference between FFQ and 24hR was 592 ± 929cal/day. Compared to energy expenditure, intake was overestimated when measured by FFQ (357 ± 968cal/day and underestimated by 24hR (-278 ± 714cal/day. In spite of the great differences between energy intake obtained using the two methods, lower differences were observed when these methods were compared to expenditure.O objetivo do estudo foi descrever e comparar dois métodos de avaliação de consumo calórico e uma medida de gasto energético aplicados em adolescentes de uma coorte de nascimentos. Em uma subamostra da coorte de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, acompanhada em 2006-2007, informações sobre consumo calórico foram obtidas através de questionário de frequência alimentar (QFA e três recordatórios de 24 horas (R24h, enquanto gasto energético foi avaliado por acelerômetro. Gráficos de Bland & Altman foram usados na comparação dos métodos. A diferença média entre QFA e R24h foi 592 ± 929cal/dia. Ao comparar com gasto energético, o consumo foi superestimado se medido pelo QFA (357 ± 968cal/dia e subestimado pelo R24h (-278 ± 714cal/dia. Apesar da grande diferença no consumo, menores diferenças foram observadas quando os dois métodos foram comparados ao gasto energético.

  15. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llop, S.; Casas, L.; Santa-Marina, L.; Estarlich, M.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Jimenez, A.; Zock, J.P.; Tardón, A.; Marco, A.; Ballester, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2 456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the begi

  16. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material

  17. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material compri

  18. Life-Course Relationship between Socioeconomic Circumstances and Timing of First Birth in a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Sharples, Katrina; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the influence of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood (childhood SES) and adulthood (adult SES) on timing of first birth by age 37. Methods A longitudinal study of a 1972–1973 New Zealand birth cohort collected information on socioeconomic characteristics from age 3–32 and reproductive histories at 21, 26, 32 and 38; information on first birth was available from 978 of the original 1037. Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression to examine first live birth prior to age 21, from 21–25, from 26–31, and from 32–37, by socioeconomic characteristics at different ages. Results Overall, 68.5% of men had fathered a child and 75.9% of women had given birth, by age 37; with overall differences in parenthood to age 31 for men, and 37 for women evident by childhood SES. While parenthood by age 20 was strongly associated with lower childhood SES for both sexes, first entry into motherhood from 32–37 was more likely with higher adult SES at age 32 (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0 for medium and RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3 for high compared with low). Education also differientated age at parenthood, with those with higher education more likely to defer fatherhood past age 31, and motherhood past age 25 followed by a period of increased likelihood of motherhood for women with higher levels of education from age 32–37 (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.87–2.2 and RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6 for medium and high respectively compared with low). Conclusions SES varies across the lifecourse, and SES at the time has the strongest association with first births at that time. Low childhood SES drives adolescent parenthood, with resulting cumulative differences in parenthood past age 30. Those with more education and higher adult SES are deferring parenthood but attempt to catch up in the mid to late thirties. PMID:28085935

  19. The influence of high birth weight on the blood pressure during childhood-a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight(HBW) on blood pressure(BP) during childhood. Meth-ods A total of 1 435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007. A questionnaire survey was

  20. Change in social status and risk of low birth weight in Denmark: population based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, O; Olsen, J.; Johansen, A. M.; Christensen, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of having a low birthweight infant associated with changes in social, environmental, and genetic factors. DESIGN: Population based, historical cohort study using the Danish medical birth registry and Statistic Denmark's fertility database. SUBJECTS: All women who had a low birthweight infant (< 2500 g) (index birth) and a subsequent liveborn infant (outcome birth) in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 (exposed cohort, n = 11,069) and a random sample of the populatio...

  1. Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164346.html Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016 ... despite the continued spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus. Researchers predicted 1,133 cases of microcephaly ...

  2. Asthma and occupation in the 1958 birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rebecca Elisabeth; Cullinan, Paul; Fishwick, David; Hoyle, Jennifer; Warburton, Chris J; Strachan, David P; Butland, Barbara K; Jarvis, Debbie

    2013-04-01

    To examine the association of adult onset asthma with lifetime exposure to occupations and occupational exposures. We generated lifetime occupational histories for 9488 members of the British 1958 birth cohort up to age 42 years. Blind to asthma status, jobs were coded to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and an Asthma Specific Job Exposure Matrix (ASJEM) with an expert re-evaluation step. Associations of jobs and ASJEM exposures with adult onset asthma were assessed in logistic regression models adjusting for sex, smoking, social class at birth and childhood hay fever. Of the 7406 cohort members with no asthma or wheezy bronchitis in childhood, 639 (9%) reported asthma by age 42 years. Adult onset asthma was associated with 18 occupations, many previously identified as risks for asthma (eg, farmers: OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.06 to 8.80; hairdressers: OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.85; printing workers: OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.49 to 6.18). Four were cleaning occupations and a further three occupations were likely to use cleaning agents. Adult onset asthma was associated with five of the 18 high-risk specific ASJEM exposures (flour exposure: OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.85; enzyme exposure: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.42; cleaning/disinfecting products: OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.22; metal and metal fumes: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.07; textile production: OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.61). Approximately 16% (95% CI 3.8% to 27.1%) of adult onset asthma was associated with known asthmagenic occupational exposures. This study suggests that about 16% of adult onset asthma in British adults born in the late 1950s could be due to occupational exposures, mainly recognised high-risk exposures.

  3. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  4. Generations, reproduction and birth outcome. A registry-based cohort study in Norway 1967-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nordtveit, Tone Irene

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Our aim was to describe associations between birth outcomes across two generations. Hypotheses were proposed about how genetic and environmental, behavioural and socioeconomic factors may act on reproduction and birth outcomes through generations. Methods. Population-based cohort studies for two generations. Data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) based on all births in Norway between 1967 and 2006 (Paper I 1967-2004), more than 2.3 million b...

  5. The Danish National Birth Cohort: selected scientific contributions within perinatal epidemiology and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    , physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has...

  6. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  7. Undernutrition in early life and body composition of adolescent males from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosângela C

    2007-05-01

    The evidence for an association between poor nutrition in early life and subsequent obesity is inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the associations between stunting, wasting and underweight at 2 and 4 years of age, and body composition in adolescence in male subjects studied since birth. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study included all children born in maternity hospitals and living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All males born in 1982 were legally required to enlist in the army between January and April 2000. We were thus able to track 2250 subjects in 2000 (78.9% of the original cohort). Anthropometric measurements were collected in 1984 and 1986, and body composition was assessed in 2000. In the present analysis, we used as predictors the nutritional indices height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age presented in six categories. Outcomes included fat, lean and body mass indices and fat:lean mass ratio, derived from anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. ANOVA and linear regression were used in the analyses to adjust for confounding. All predictors were positively associated with fat and body mass indices. Height-for-age Z score at age 2 or 4 years was not associated with lean mass index, but all other predictors were associated. Fat:lean mass ratio was associated only with weight-for-height Z score. Our results suggest that undernutrition is not a risk factor for overweight and obesity in our population and may partially protect against fatness in adolescence.

  8. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  9. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexsandra da S. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life.METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care.RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76, they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%.CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low.

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Marlowe Gates Dieckmann; Laura Gottlieb; Jessica Chow; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO ...

  11. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  12. Trajectories of dental anxiety in a birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. M.; Broadbent, J. M.; Locker, D.; Poulton, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine predictors of dental anxiety trajectories in a longitudinal study of New Zealanders. Methods Prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand, with dental anxiety scale (DAS) scores and dental utilization determined at ages 15, 18, 26 and 32 years. Personality traits were assessed at a superfactor and (more fine-grained) subscale level via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire at age 18 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify dental anxiety trajectories. Results DAS scores from at least three assessments were available for 828 participants. Six dental anxiety trajectories were observed: stable nonanxious low (39.6%); stable nonanxious medium (37.9%); recovery (1.6%); adult-onset anxious (7.7%); stable anxious (7.2%) and adolescent-onset anxious (5.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that males and those with higher DMFS at age 15 years were more likely to be in the stable nonanxious low trajectory group. Membership of the stable nonanxious medium group was predicted by the dental caries experience at age 15 years. Participants who had lost one or more teeth between ages 26 and 32 years had almost twice the relative risk for membership of the adult-onset anxious group. Personality traits predicted group membership. Specifically, high scorers (via median split) on the ‘stress reaction’ subscale had over twice the risk of being in the stable anxious group; low scorers on the traditionalism subscale were more likely to be members of the recovery trajectory group; and high scorers on the ‘social closeness’ subscale had half the risk of being in the stable anxious group. Dental caries experience at age 5 years was also a predictor for the stable anxious group. Membership of the late-adolescent-onset anxious group was predicted by higher dental caries experience by age 15 years, but none of the other predictors was significant. Conclusion Six discrete trajectories of dental anxiety

  13. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, L C; Figueiredo, F P; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Caldas, A J M; Mochel, E G; Ribeiro, V S

    2007-09-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

  14. Patterns in mortality among people with severe mental disorders across birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Osby, Urban;

    2013-01-01

    Mortality among patients with mental disorders is higher than in general population. By using national longitudinal registers, we studied mortality changes and excess mortality across birth cohorts among people with severe mental disorders in Denmark and Finland....

  15. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Health and function assessments in two adjacent Danish birth cohorts of centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Skytthe, Axel;

    2016-01-01

    Using the results from measures of functional ability, cognitive and physical performance from two adjacent birth cohorts of 100-year-old adults, we aimed to elucidate the possible impact of difference in participation rates, design, and interviewer mode. Participants were birth cohort members born...... in terms of ADL and cognitive functioning. Caution is warranted when comparing studies of centenarians with different participation rates, design, and interviewer mode, and further studies of these methodological issues are required....

  17. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 yea...

  18. Disease activity in pregnant women with Crohn's disease and birth outcomes: a regional Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Hundborg, Heidi H; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: CD is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, but existing studies have not assessed the impact of disease activity during pregnancy. We examined the impact of disease activity on birth outcomes: LBW, preterm birth, LBW at term, and CAs. METHODS: All births by CD women...... of clinical details (including disease activity and drug therapy during pregnancy). The exposed cohort (N = 71) constituted pregnancies with low/moderate-high disease activity during pregnancy, and the unexposed cohort (N = 86) those with inactive disease. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate...... the adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence intervals) for adverse birth outcomes associated with disease activity in CD pregnancies. In subanalysis, we examined the impact of moderate-high activity. RESULTS: In women with disease activity, the adjusted risks of LBW, LBW at term, preterm birth, and CAs...

  19. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  20. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  1. [Rate of incidence of divorce in birth cohorts classified by age difference between married couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, E; Iki, M; Fukui, M; Ogata, A; Takayama, S; Yamazaki, K; Ooida, T; Yajima, T

    1990-08-01

    We examined the situation concerning divorce in Japan from the view-point of age difference between married couples using vital statistics from the year 1952 to 1985. Annual and cumulative divorce rates were introduced as rate of incidence of divorce. We studied these indices by age difference between couples in birth cohorts of husbands. Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The cumulative divorce rate was lower in early birth cohorts than in late birth cohorts. 2) The cumulative divorce rate for young adult couples (aged 20-30) was higher than that for middle-aged couples (aged more than 30) in every cohort. 3) The cumulative divorce rate was lowest when husbands were 1 to 4 years older than wives. This tendency was quite similar in different ages and cohorts. 4) The same conclusions were reached when the annual divorce rate was substituted for the cumulative divorce rate.

  2. Unchanged prevalence of Down syndrome in the Netherlands: results from and 11-year nationwide birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M.; Buitenijk, S.E.; Bilardo, C.M.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Wouwe, J.P. van; Mohangoo, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate trends in prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) births in the Netherlands over an 11-year period and how they have been affected by maternal age and introduction of prenatal screening.METHOD: Nationwide data of an 11-year birth cohort (1997-2007) from the

  3. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more...

  4. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  5. The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Valgerdur Lisa; Gamble, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2017-05-03

    Several risk factors for negative birth experience have been identified, but little is known regarding the influence of social and midwifery support on the birth experience over time. The aim of this study was to describe women's birth experience up to two years after birth and to detect the predictive role of satisfaction with social and midwifery support in the birth experience. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with a convenience sample of pregnant women from 26 community health care centres. Data was gathered using questionnaires at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy (T1, n=1111), at five to six months (T2, n=765), and at 18-24 months after birth (T3, n=657). Data about sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, birth outcomes, social and midwifery support, depressive symptoms, and birth experience were collected. The predictive role of midwifery support in the birth experience was examined using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of negative birth experience was 5% at T2 and 5.7% at T3. Women who were not satisfied with midwifery support during pregnancy and birth were more likely to have negative birth experience at T2 than women who were satisfied with midwifery support. Operative birth, perception of prolonged birth and being a student predicted negative birth experience at both T2 and T3. Perception of negative birth experience was relatively consistent during the study period and the role of support from midwives during pregnancy and birth had a significant impact on women's perception of birth experience. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J L; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians wer...

  7. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todberg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0-7 years born in 1996-2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection...

  8. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886–1994. Although genetic v...

  9. Experimental use of alcohol in early adolescence: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Uso experimental de álcool no início da adolescência: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Noal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of experimental alcohol intake and associated factors in early adolescence. The overall sample consisted of 4,452 adolescents (mean age = 11.3 years; SD = 0.3 from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Experimental use of alcohol was reported by 17.5% of the interviewees (95%CI: 16.3-18.6, and 5% reported having tried alcohol at nine years of age or younger. Prevalence of experimental alcohol use was higher among adolescents whose mothers had consumed alcohol during pregnancy, whose parents consumed alcohol, who worked outside the home themselves, and who had ever tried smoking. Family strife, parental alcohol intake, and adolescent smoking were strong predictors of experimental alcohol use in early adolescence. Special attention should be targeted to these groups in order to avoid heavy and premature alcohol use in early adolescence.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de uso experimental de bebidas alcoólicas e fatores associados no início da adolescência. Compuseram a amostra 4.452 adolescentes (média = 11,3 anos; DP = 0,3 da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O uso experimental de álcool foi referido por 17,5% dos entrevistados (IC95%: 16,3-18,6 e 5% referiram ter experimentado com nove anos ou menos. O risco de uso experimental de álcool foi maior nos adolescentes cujas mães referiram ter bebido na gestação, quando ambos os pais usavam bebidas alcoólicas, entre os adolescentes que trabalhavam fora e naqueles que já experimentaram cigarro ou outras drogas. As relações familiares, o uso de álcool pelos pais, e o tabagismo do adolescente são os fatores fortemente associados ao uso experimental de álcool no início da adolescência. Mais atenção deveria ser dada especialmente a esses grupos, a fim de combater o consumo precoce de álcool.

  10. Self-reporting versus parental reporting of physical activity in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Auto-relato de atividade física na adolescência comparado ao relato dos pais: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. Reichert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the agreement between different approaches for estimating levels of physical activity in adolescents. One questionnaire was administered to parents and two were administered to the adolescents. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. Parents or guardians answered the following question: "Compared to most children the same age, would you say that your child exercises more, less, or the same amount?" A similar question was addressed to adolescents, as was a detailed questionnaire on physical activity. Agreement between the questionnaires was measured by the weighted kappa statistic. A total of 4,254 adolescents and parents/guardians answered the questionnaires. Kappa values indicated low agreement for all comparisons (kappa O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a concordância entre diferentes formas de se estimar o nível de atividade física de adolescentes. Um questionário foi aplicado aos pais e outros dois aos adolescentes. O estudo foi transversal aninhado ao acompanhamento de 2004-2005 da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Pais ou responsáveis responderam à questão: "Comparando com a maioria das crianças da mesma idade, o(a Sr(a. diria que o seu filho faz mais exercícios que elas, menos exercícios que elas ou a mesma quantidade que elas?". Questão análoga foi aplicada aos adolescentes. Os adolescentes também responderam a um questionário mais detalhado sobre a prática de atividades físicas. A concordância entre os questionários foi avaliada pelo teste kappa ponderado. Um total de 4.254 adolescentes e responsáveis responderam aos questionários. Os valores de kappa indicaram concordância baixa para quaisquer das comparações (kappa < 0,33 para todas as análises. A mensuração de atividade física em adolescentes é complexa e os instrumentos disponíveis devem ser

  11. Sedentary behavior in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Comportamento sedentário em adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Dumith

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior and investigate associated factors in adolescents 11 years of age from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sedentary behavior was investigated with a questionnaire, and was defined as spending more than two hours per day watching television, playing videogames, or using the computer. Of the 4,452 adolescents interviewed, 98% reported watching television, 44% playing videogames, and 22% using the computer. The average time spent on each of these electronic media was 197, 36, and 17 minutes per day, respectively. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was 79.7% (95%CI: 78.6; 80.9 and showed a positive association with socioeconomic level and nutritional status and a negative association with well-being. These 11-year-olds spent extensive time at TV viewing, videogames, and the computer. Special attention should be given to the most exposed groups of adolescents, including the more affluent, overweight, and those with limited schooling.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e investigar os fatores associados ao comportamento sedentário em adolescentes de 11 anos, pertencentes à coorte de nascimentos de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O comportamento sedentário foi coletado por meio de questionário, e definido como ficar mais de duas horas por dia assistindo à televisão, jogando videogame ou usando computador. Dos 4.452 adolescentes entrevistados, 98% assistiam à televisão, 44% jogavam videogame e 22% usavam computador. O tempo médio na frente de cada um desses meios eletrônicos foi, respectivamente, 197, 36 e 17 minutos por dia. A prevalência de comportamento sedentário foi de 79,7% (IC95%: 78,6; 80,9, e teve uma associação positiva com nível socioeconômico e com estado nutricional, e negativa com a escala de bem-estar. O tempo despendido em atividades como ver televisão, jogar videogame e usar computador

  12. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study (n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  14. Cesarean Outcomes in US Birth Centers and Collaborating Hospitals: A Cohort Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Patrick; McFarlin, Barbara L; Park, Chang; Rankin, Kristin; Schorn, Mavis; Finnegan, Lorna; Stapleton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    High rates of cesarean birth are a significant health care quality issue, and birth centers have shown potential to reduce rates of cesarean birth. Measuring this potential is complicated by lack of randomized trials and limited observational comparisons. Cesarean rates vary by provider type, setting, and clinical and nonclinical characteristics of women, but our understanding of these dynamics is incomplete. We sought to isolate labor setting from other risk factors in order to assess the effect of birth centers on the odds of cesarean birth. We generated low-risk cohorts admitted in labor to hospitals (n = 2527) and birth centers (n = 8776) using secondary data obtained from the American Association of Birth Centers (AABC). All women received prenatal care in the birth center and midwifery care in labor, but some chose hospital admission for labor. Analysis was intent to treat according to site of admission in spontaneous labor. We used propensity score adjustment and multivariable logistic regression to control for cohort differences and measured effect sizes associated with setting. There was a 37% (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.79) to 38% (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79) decreased odds of cesarean in the birth center cohort and a remarkably low overall cesarean rate of less than 5% in both cohorts. These findings suggest that low rates of cesarean in birth centers are not attributable to labor setting alone. The entire birth center care model, including prenatal preparation and relationship-based midwifery care, should be studied, promoted, and implemented by policy makers interested in achieving appropriate cesarean rates in the United States. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Maternal smoking in successive pregnancies and recurrence of low birthweight: the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil Tabaquismo materno en sucesivas gestaciones y recurrencia de bajo peso al nacer: cohorte de nacimientos de Pelotas, Río Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2004 Tabagismo materno em sucessivas gestações e recorrência de baixo peso ao nascer: coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iândora Krolow Timm Sclowitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the frequency of maternal smoking in successive pregnancies and its association with repetition of low birthweight, a study was conducted of a subsample of mothers from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort in Brazil. Only women with previous histories of low birthweight newborns were included. Women with ≥ 2 previous births were eligible only if at least one of the two births immediately preceding the 2004 birth had low birthweight. From 4,458 births, 565 were included in this study. Frequency of smoking was 32.4%. Considering past pregnancies, 67.1% of mothers never smoked, 21.4% smoked during all pregnancies, 6.5% were ex-smokers, and 5% smoked only during the current pregnancy. In the adjusted analyses, when compared to mothers who never smoked, those who smoked during all pregnancies had 2.5 times greater probability of low birthweight recurrence in 2004 (PR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.32-4.80. Smoking persistence is an important factor for the recurrence of low birthweight in successive pregnancies.Este estudio fue realizado en una submuestra de madres de la cohorte de nacimientos de Pelotas, Río Grande do Sul, Brasil, de 2004 para evaluar la frecuencia y asociación del tabaquismo en sucesivas gestaciones con el fenómeno de repetición del bajo peso al nacer. Se incluyeron solamente mujeres con antecedentes en el historial médico de recién nacidos con bajo peso al nacer. Se elegían a mujeres con ≥ 2 partos anteriores, solamente, si por lo menos uno de los dos partos inmediatamente anteriores al de 2004 hubiera sido de bajo peso al nacer. De los 4.458 nacimientos, 565 fueron incluidos en la muestra. La frecuencia de tabaquismo fue de un 32,4% y, teniendo en consideración las gestaciones anteriores, un 67,1% nunca fumaron; un 21,4% siempre fumaron; un 6,5% eran ex-fumadoras; y un 5,0% fumaron solamente en la gestación actual. En el análisis multivariable, las madres que fumaron en todas las gestaciones tuvieron una probabilidad 2

  16. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil.This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR.A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 -an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93-with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24-20.92, inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51-3.15, Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55-4.67 and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71-15.36, low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72-44.55 and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14-4.74 were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90, as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase. Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year and low birth weight (-1.43% decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year.Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic...... variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height...... variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent...

  18. Avaliação nutricional de adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Evaluación nutricional de adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Nutritional evaluation follow-up of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P Gigante

    2008-12-01

    medidas de peso y estatura colectadas para cálculo del índice de masa corporal (IMC. Se definió bajo peso por el valor de IMC inferior a 18,5 kg/m²; exceso de peso por el IMC entre 25 y 30 30kg/m²; y obesidad por el IMC>30kg/m². Los efectos de variables socioeconómicas (renta familiar y escolaridad, demográfica (color de piel, peso al nacer y amamantamiento sobre bajo peso, exceso de peso y obesidad fueron analizados utilizando regresión de Poisson separadamente para hombres y mujeres. RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias de bajo peso, obesidad y exceso de peso fueron 6,0%, 8,2% y 28,9%, respectivamente. En el análisis ajustado solamente el peso al nacer se mantuvo asociado con bajo peso en hombres y mujeres. Hombres pobres tuvieron mayor riesgo de bajo peso, pero estuvieron protegidos de la obesidad y del exceso de peso. Por otro lado, el riesgo de obesidad y exceso de peso fue mayor entre las mujeres pobres. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados refuerzan la importancia de la determinación socioeconómica sobre el estado nutricional, llamando la atención de cómo esos factores actúan de forma distinta en hombres y mujeres de diferentes situaciones nutricionales, indicando atención en lo que se refiere a medidas específicas en la prevención, mejorando el acceso a la información sobre educación alimentar y nutricional para toda la población.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of over/underweight and its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of youths born in 1982 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5 we interviewed 4,198 of the 5,914 cohort subjects, obtaining weight and stature measurements that were used to calculate body mass index (BMI. Underweight was defined as BMI lower than 18,5 kg/m²; overweight as BMI between 25 and 30kg/m²; and obesity as BMI IMC > 30kg/m². The effects of socioeconomic (family income and schooling and demographic (skin color variables, birthweight, and breastfeeding on underweight

  19. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 19...

  20. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Fernando C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011, 1993 (5,304, and 2004 (4,287 were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored through vital registration, visits to hospitals and cemeteries. The analyses were restricted to women younger than 30 years who delivered singletons (72%, 70% and 67% of the original cohorts, respectively. Maternal age was categorized into three groups ( Results There were no interactions between maternal age and cohort year. After adjustment for confounding, pooled ORs for mothers aged 12-19 years were 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4; 1.0 for fetal death, 0.9 (0.6; 1.3 for perinatal death, 1.0 (0.7; 1.6 for early neonatal death, 1.6 (0.7; 3.4 for late neonatal death, 1.8 (1.1; 2.9 for postneonatal death, and 1.6 (1.2; 2.1 for infant death, when compared to mothers aged 20-29 years. Further adjustment for mediating variables led to the disappearance of the excess of postneonatal mortality. The number of mothers younger than 16 years was not sufficient for most analyses. Conclusion The slightly increased odds of postneonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers suggest that social and environmental factors may be more important than maternal biologic immaturity.

  1. Infant malnutrition and obesity in three population-based birth cohort studies in Southern Brazil: trends and differences Desnutrição e obesidade infantis em três coortes de nascimentos no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J. D. Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of nutritional deficits and overweight in one-year-old children from three birth cohorts started in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts and all children from 2004 were weighed and measured, and their mothers interviewed. Anthropometric deficits and overweight were assessed using both NCHS and WHO growth standards. A comparison of the existence of nutritional deficits showed that, after a decline between 1982 and 1993, its prevalence stabilized between 1993 and 2004. Across the whole period, a decrease in all deficits was observed. Obesity, on the other hand, increased. A deficit in the ratio of body length to age was found to be strongly associated with family income. The group with income below one minimum wage was the only to present a significant reduction of stunting during the study period. The most significant improvements in the reduction of nutritional deficits occurred in the first half of the study period, while social differentials remained. Fighting malnutrition is still necessary among the 40% of the population considered poor, and must be accompanied by efforts to combat overweight which is being observed in all social strata.O estudo teve como objetivo comparar a evolução dos déficits nutricionais e sobrepeso em crianças de um ano, com base em três coortes de nascimentos iniciadas em 1982, 1993 e 2004 em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Amostras das coortes de 1982 e 1993 e todos as crianças da coorte de 2004 foram pesadas e medidas, e suas mães foram entrevistadas. Déficits antropométricos e sobrepeso foram analisados utilizando os padrões de crescimento definidos pelo NCHS e OMS. A comparação dos déficits nutricionais mostrou que, depois de declinar entre 1982 e 1993, a prevalência se estabilizou entre 1993 e 2004. Durante o período inteiro, foi observada uma diminuição em todos os déficits. Inversamente

  2. Labor and birth care by nurse with midwifery skills in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Viellas, Elaine Fernandes; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Bastos, Maria Helena; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Correa; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2016-10-17

    The participation of nurses and midwives in vaginal birth care is limited in Brazil, and there are no national data regarding their involvement. The goal was to describe the participation of nurses and nurse-midwives in childbirth care in Brazil in the years 2011 and 2012, and to analyze the association between hospitals with nurses and nurse-midwives in labor and birth care and the use of good practices, and their influence in the reduction of unnecessary interventions, including cesarean sections. Birth in Brazil is a national, population-based study consisting of 23,894 postpartum women, carried out in the period between February 2011 and October 2012, in 266 healthcare settings. The study included all vaginal births involving physicians or nurses/nurse-midwives. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between the implementation of good practices and suitable interventions during labor and birth, and whether care was a physician or a nurse/nurse-midwife led care. We developed another model to assess the association between the use of obstetric interventions during labor and birth to the personnel responsible for the care of the patient, comparing hospitals with decisions revolving exclusively around a physician to those that also included nurses/nurse-midwives as responsible for vaginal births. 16.2 % of vaginal births were assisted by a nurse/nurse-midwife. Good practices were significantly more frequent in those births assisted by nurses/nurse-midwives (ad lib. diet, mobility during labor, non-pharmacological means of pain relief, and use of a partograph), while some interventions were less frequently used (anesthesia, lithotomy position, uterine fundal pressure and episiotomy). In maternity wards that included a nurse/nurse-midwife in labour and birth care, the incidence of cesarean section was lower. The results of this study illustrate the potential benefit of collaborative work between physicians and nurses/nurse-midwives in labor

  3. Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi Juliana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  4. Impact of Perinatal Different Intrauterine Environments on Child Growth and Development in the First Six Months of Life--IVAPSA Birth Cohort: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Nunes, Marina; da Silva, Clécio Homrich; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran

    2012-04-02

    In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls) will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  5. Methods used in the 1982, 1993, and 2004 birth cohort studies from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and a description of the socioeconomic conditions of participants' families Métodos utilizados nos estudos das coortes de nascimentos de 1982, 1993 e 2004 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e descrição das condições sócio-econômicas das famílias de participantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J. D. Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three birth cohorts are currently being followed in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in order to assess changes in birth conditions, growth, development, morbidity, and infant mortality, as well as the influence of pre- and perinatal factors on the subsequent morbidity of participants in their adult lives. We provide a description of the methodology used for the cohort studies that began in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Pelotas, and a description of the economic conditions of the families involved. For the three cohorts, similar strategies were used to recruit babies born to mothers living in the municipality's urban area. These included daily visits to maternity hospitals where births were identified, mothers interviewed, and newborns examined. Over this time frame, there has been a significant reduction in the number of births due to declining fertility rates amongst the target population. Salaries (measured as a multiple of the minimum wage were stable across cohorts, but quality of life indicators - such as the availability of piped water, flushing toilets and refrigerators - showed clear improvements. Mothers' levels of education improved markedly. Important changes in the demographic profile of risk factors and health outcomes are being recorded by the Pelotas cohorts.Três coortes de nascimento estão sendo acompanhadas em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, para avaliar mudanças nas condições de parto, crescimento, desenvolvimento e morbi-mortalidade infantil, assim como a influência de fatores pré e perinatais sobre a morbidade dos participantes na idade adulta. O artigo descreve a metodologia utilizada para os estudos de coorte que se iniciaram em 1982, 1993 e 2004 em Pelotas, além das condições econômicas das famílias dos participantes. Nas três coortes, foram utilizadas estratégias semelhantes para recrutar crianças cujas mães residiam na área urbana do município, inclusive visitas diárias às maternidades para identificação dos

  6. Trends in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among birth cohorts of 1926-1970 in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Mons, U

    2005-10-01

    This study examines temporal differences in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among male and female birth cohorts of 1926-1970 born in Germany. Based on the German Federal Health Survey 1998 the sample is divided into a series of 5-year sex-birth cohorts, beginning with those born between 1926 and 1930 and extending to those born between 1966 and 1970. The final data file consists of a sample of 5110 people. Ever-smoking prevalence among men varies from 60 to 70% between the birth cohorts, while in women born 1926-1930 ever-smoking increases from 20 to about 50% in those born 1966-1970. A reduction of the median age at starting smoking also takes place between the cohorts. With 8.5 years this decrease is more incisive among women, compared with a drop of 2 years among men. Regarding cessation patterns the analysis shows a shift towards a shorter duration of smoking with succeeding birth cohorts, again this shift is more incisive in women. But even in the youngest cohort still more than 50% of ever-smokers smoke regularly for more than 25 years. In Germany tobacco-control activities are required in order to take antismoking actions that especially prevent youth from starting to smoke and that support smokers in quitting.

  7. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  8. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk.This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services.Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8% when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%, regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6 for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3 for women of high obstetric risk.The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  9. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort using a job exposure matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emina Mocevic

    Full Text Available We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM.For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates.We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal death, we found a hazard ratio (HR of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01 for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80 for total loads >200 kg per day. These findings correspond to an excess fraction of 11% for stillbirth and 10% for preterm birth.We found an increased risk of stillbirth among women with a prior fetal death, who lifted >200 kg/day, and an exposure-response relationship between occupational lifting and preterm birth among primigravid women. The study adds to a large body of prospective studies on occupational lifting and adverse pregnancy outcomes by refined exposure assessment.

  10. Retrospective cohort of trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Denardin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Trisomy 18 (T18, or Edwards syndrome, is a chromosomal disease characterized by a broad clinical picture and a poor prognosis. Our aim was to describe clinical, radiological and survival data of a cohort of patients prenatally diagnosed with T18.DESIGN AND SETTING:Retrospective single cohort in the Fetal Medicine Service of Hospital Materno Infantil Presidente Vargas (HMIPV.METHODS:All sequential patients with T18 registered at the Fetal Medicine Service of HMIPV between January 2005 and September 2013 were considered. We gathered their clinical, radiological and survival data and used the Kaplan-Meier test for survival analysis.RESULTS:Ten patients were diagnosed with T18, of whom seven (70% were female. The majority (90% were referred due to malformations seen on ultrasound. The mean gestational age at the first evaluation was 25.5 weeks. At karyotyping, the defects were considered multiple in only four patients (40%. All the fetuses presented full trisomy of chromosome 18. The main abnormality observed was congenital heart disease (n = 7. Intrauterine death occurred in half of the patients (50%. All live patients (n = 5 were born through cesarean section presenting low weight and low Apgar scores. The median length of survival after birth was 18 days.CONCLUSIONS:T18 is associated with a high risk of fetal and neonatal death. The majority of the patients present major malformations identified through ultrasound, such as congenital heart defects, which could help in identifying such cases prenatally.

  11. Multiple births and maternal mental health from pregnancy to 5 years after birth: A longitudinal population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Ystrom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of population-based studies on multiple births and maternal mental health. Having a high-risk pregnancy by bearing two or more children is a stressful life event, and the challenges of parenting two or more children probably also lead to a high level of parental stress. There are a few results on multiple births and maternal mental health from studies on in vitro fertilization samples. The only previous cohort study on multiple birth and maternal mental health included a single measure of depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum. We aim to estimate the relative risk for depression and anxiety after multiple birth in a population-based prospective cohort study while adjusting for factors prior and subsequent to fertilization.Methods: We used data from 87,807 pregnancies included in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Information on multiple birth was retrieved from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry, and maternal mental health was assessed at 17th and 30th week of gestation and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. There were 1,842 plural births included in the study (i.e. 1,821 twin births and 21 higher order births. We predicted maternal mental health at each time point, subsequently adjusting for 1 factors prior to fertilization (e.g. maternal age and in vitro fertilization; 2 factors during pregnancy (e.g. hypertensive states; 3 factors at delivery (e.g. cesarean section; 4 child-related postnatal complications (e.g. intracranial hemorrhage; and 5 concurrent depression or anxiety after pregnancy.Results: Adjusted for antecedents of plural birth, mothers expecting a plural birth had a normal risk for anxiety (RR=1.05; 95% CI 0.92-1.20 and depression (RR=1.02; 95% CI 0.89-1.16 at 17th week of gestation. However, plural birth was associated with maternal depression at 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum and maternal anxiety at 3 years postpartum. The trend was for the association to increase across time, and

  12. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children – results of a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...

  13. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared...... to the general population [relative risk (RR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-3.77], which also represented a significant excess risk compared with all other admitted maternal disorders (p=0.018). Risk of death from causes other than birth defect was no higher with schizophrenia than with other maternal...... conditions. There was no elevation in risk of fatal birth defect if the father was admitted with schizophrenia or any other psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There are many possible explanations for a higher risk of fatal birth defect with maternal schizophrenia and affective disorder. These include...

  14. Early-life environment and adult stature in Brazil: an analysis for cohorts born between 1950 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Victor Hugo; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2014-12-01

    We study the relationship between environmental conditions at birth (GDP per capita and infant mortality rate) and adult stature using cohort-state level data in Brazil for the period 1950-1980. We find that GDP per capita, whose annual percentage growth rate was 4.8% during this period, not infant mortality rate, is a robust correlate of population stature in Brazil. Our results are robust to a battery of robustness checks. Using a useful bracketing property of the (state) fixed effects and lagged dependent variables (heights) estimators, we find that an increase in GDP per capita of the magnitude corresponding to that period is associated with 43-68% of the increase in adult height occurring in the same time span. Income, not disease, appears to be the main correlate of Brazilian population heights in the second half of the 20th Century.

  15. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  16. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adjOR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  17. Pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) was used to examine pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers and neurodevelopment in their offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted of 550 hairdressers and 3216 shop assistants (reference group) by using data from......, gender ratio, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, congenital malformations, or achievement of developmental milestones among the children of hairdressers and shop assistants. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not indicate that children of hairdressers in Denmark currently have a high risk of fetal...

  18. Maternal tobacco use and extremely premature birth - a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, S; Gunnerbeck, A; Wikström, A-K; Cnattingius, S; Edstedt Bonamy, A-K

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal tobacco use (smoking or use of snuff) and risk of extremely preterm birth, and if tobacco cessation before antenatal booking influences this risk. To study the association between tobacco use and spontaneous or medically indicated onset of delivery. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. All live singleton births, registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1999-2012. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks of gestation), very preterm birth (28-31 weeks), moderately preterm birth (32-36 weeks). Maternal snuff use (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.14-2.21) and smoking (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39-1.87 and OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.53-2.39 for moderate and heavy smoking, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of extremely preterm birth. When cessation of tobacco use was obtained there was no increased risk of preterm birth. Snuff use was associated with a twofold risk increase of medically indicated extremely preterm birth, whereas smoking was associated with increased risks of both medically indicated and spontaneous extremely preterm birth. Snuff use and smoking in pregnancy were associated with increased risks of extremely preterm birth. Women who stopped using tobacco before the antenatal booking had no increased risk. These findings indicate that nicotine, the common substance in cigarettes and snuff, is involved in the mechanisms behind preterm birth. The use of nicotine should be minimized in pregnancy. Tobacco use increases risk of extremely preterm birth. Cessation is preventive. Avoid nicotine in pregnancy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence-A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence...

  20. Active commuting throughout adolescence and central fatness before adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martinez-Gomez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. METHODS: Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants. Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. RESULTS: Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years were associated with -2.09 cm (95%CI: -3.24; -0.94 of waist circumference and -1.11 kg (95%CI: -1.74; -0.48 of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood.

  1. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  2. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. METHODOLOGY: Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. RESULTS: About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7, depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6, and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (<20 cigarettes/day OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.03; 1.84] and ≥ 20 cigarettes/day OR = 2.11[95% CI 1.31; 3.40]. Smoking by the partner was associated with decreased offspring happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  3. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... through questionnaires and on covariates through telephone interviews and ascertained birth outcomes through registry linkages. Findings were adjusted for mother's parity, age, height, prepregnant BMI, gestational weight gain, smoking status, and total energy intake; father's height; and family...... and mean birth weight (P for trend women drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P...

  4. The impact of thalidomide use in birth defects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales Luiz Vianna, Fernanda; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Although the thalidomide tragedy occurred more than 50 years ago, the medication is still being used worldwide for different reasons, and several aspects regarding its teratogenicity remain unsolved. Despite the strict regulation implemented, new cases of thalidomide embryopathy (TE) are still being registered in Brazil. Furthermore, the molecular processes that lead to malformations when the embryo is exposed to thalidomide have not yet been fully identified. In this article, we perform a critical analysis of thalidomide's history in Brazil, highlighting aspects of the occurrence of TE over the decades. Finally, we present the main perspectives and challenges for ongoing surveillance and prevention of TE in Brazil. The effective control of dispensing thalidomide, especially in areas where leprosy is endemic, is one of the most important and challenging points. Furthermore, the emergence of thalidomide analogues is fast approaching, and their availability would pose additional concerns. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms and targets of thalidomide in both experimental and human models is essential for generating new insights into teratogenic mechanisms, so that safer thalidomide analogues can be developed.

  5. Padrões de sibilância respiratória do nascimento até o início da adolescência: coorte de Pelotas (RS Brasil, 1993-2004 Wheezing phenotypes from birth to adolescence: a cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, 1993-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muiño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência dos padrões de sibilância respiratória e suas associações com variáveis independentes. MÉTODOS: Coorte de nascidos vivos, 1993, Pelotas (RS; subamostra sistemática de 20% da coorte original acompanhada aos 6 e 12 meses e 4 anos; aos 10-12 anos localizou-se 87,5% da coorte original. Definição dos padrões: transitório: chiado até 4 anos e ausência de chiado aos 10-12 anos; persistente: chiado em todos acompanhamentos; início tardio: chiado aos 10-12 anos. Variáveis independentes: gênero; cor da pele; renda familiar; fumo/asma na gravidez; amamentação; infecção respiratória/diarréia (1º ano; alergia e asma na família (4 e 10-12 anos; diagnóstico médico de rinite/eczema (10-12 anos. RESULTADOS: O total da subamostra foi de 897 adolescentes. Prevalência (IC95% dos padrões de sibilância: transitório 43,9% (40,7-47,2;persistente 6,4% (4,8-8,0; de início tardio 3,3% (2,2-4,5. O transitório foi mais freqüente em crianças de famílias de baixa renda, com menor duração da amamentação, relato de infecções respiratórias (1º ano e história familiar de asma (4 anos; o persistente foi quase duas vezes mais freqüente em meninos, em filhos de mulheres com asma na gravidez, com infecções respiratórias (1º ano e história familiar de asma (4 e 10-12 anos; de início tardio mostrou maior prevalência naqueles com asma na família (10-12 anos e diagnóstico médico de rinite (10-12 anos; menor prevalência em quem relatou infecções respiratórias (1º ano e diagnóstico médico de eczema (10-12 anos. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento das associações dos padrões sibilantes permite a adoção de medidas preventivas e terapêuticas.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of wheezing patterns and their associations with independent variables. METHODS: Cohort study of live births in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. A systematic subsample (20% of the original cohort was evaluated at 6 months, 12 months and

  6. [Inclusion of traditional birth attendants in the public health care system in Brazil: reflecting on challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, Christine Ranier; Viana, Ana Paula de Andrade Lima; Miranda, Margarida Araújo Barbosa; Pedrosa, Mayane Vilela; Villela, Wilza Vieira

    2015-05-01

    The present article describes an experience with traditional birth attendants carried out in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, between 2010 and 2014. The experience was part of a diagnostic project to survey home deliveries in the state of Tocantins and set up a registry of traditional birth attendants for the Health Ministry's Working with Traditional Birth Attendants Program (PTPT). The project aimed to articulate the home deliveries performed by traditional birth attendants to the local health care systems (SUS). Sixty-seven active traditional birth attendants were identified in the state of Tocantins, and 41 (39 indigenous) participated in workshops. During these workshops, they discussed their realities, difficulties, and solutions in the context of daily adversities. Birth attendants were also trained in the use of biomedical tools and neonatal resuscitation. Based on these experiences, the question came up regarding the true effectiveness of the strategy to include traditional birth attendants in the SUS. The present article discusses this theme with support from the relevant literature. The dearth of systematic studies focusing on the impact of PTPT actions on the routine of traditional birth attendants, including perinatal outcomes and remodeling of health practices in rural, riverfront, former slave, forest, and indigenous communities, translates into a major gap in terms of the knowledge regarding the effectiveness of such initiatives.

  7. Patterns of deliveries in a Brazilian birth cohort: almost universal cesarean sections for the better-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J D Barros

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of deliveries in a birth cohort and to compare vaginal and cesarean section deliveries. METHODS: All children born to mothers from the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. Mothers were contacted and interviewed during their hospital stay when extensive information on the gestation, the birth and the newborn, along with maternal health history and family characteristics was collected. Maternal characteristics and childbirth care financing - either private or public healthcare (SUS patients - were the main factors investigated along with a description of C-sections distribution according to day of the week and delivery time. Standard descriptive techniques, Χ² tests for comparing proportions and Poisson regression to explore the independent effect of C-section predictors were the methods used. RESULTS: The overall C-section rate was 45%, 36% among SUS and 81% among private patients, where 35% of C-sections were reported elective. C-sections were more frequent on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, reducing by about a third on Sundays, while normal deliveries had a uniform distribution along the week. Delivery time for C-sections was markedly different among public and private patients. Maternal schooling was positively associated with C-section among SUS patients, but not among private patients. CONCLUSIONS: C-sections were almost universal among the wealthier mothers, and strongly related to maternal education among SUS patients. The patterns we describe are compatible with the idea that C-sections are largely done to suit the doctor's schedule. Drastic action is called for to change the current situation.

  8. Assessing the effect of a guideline change on prevalence of benzodiazepine use by including the birth cohort dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten J.; Hak, Eelko; Bos, Jens H.; De Jong-Van Den Berg, Lolkje T.; Janssen, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of guideline changes on trends of prescription drug use are commonly studied by age and over time period. This masks the birth cohort dimension which affects the age-specific trends in each time period. Objectives: We investigated whether including the birth cohort dimension i

  9. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  10. Genotype × Cohort Interaction on Completed Fertility and Age at First Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Microevolutionary projections use empirical estimates of genetic covariation between physical or psychological phenotypes and reproductive success to forecast changes in the population distributions of those phenotypes over time. The validity of these projections depends on relatively consistent heritabilities of fertility-relevant outcomes and consistent genetic covariation between fertility and other physical or psychological phenotypes across generations. However, well-documented, rapidly changing mean trends in the level and timing of fertility may have been accompanied by differences in the genetic mechanisms of fertility. Using a sample of 933 adult twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the United States study, we demonstrate that genetic influences on completed fertility and age at first birth were trivial for the 1920 to 1935 birth cohort, but rose substantially for the 1936 to 1955 birth cohort. For the 1956 to 1970 birth cohort, genetic influences on completed fertility, but not age at first birth, persisted. Because the heritability of fertility is subject to change dynamically with the social context, it is difficult to project selection pressures or the rate at which selection will occur. PMID:25491394

  11. Clinical prediction rule for RSV bronchiolitis in healthy newborns: prognostic birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Bont, L.; Wilbrink, B.; Belderbos, M.E.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Visser, G.H.; Rovers, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine predictors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among healthy newborns. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, 298 healthy term newborns born in 2 large hospitals in the Netherlands were monitored throughout the

  12. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999 (a

  13. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...

  14. Subfecundity as a correlate of preeclampsia: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    . By using interview data collected during the second trimester of pregnancy (1998–2001) from women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, they identified 20,034 and 24,698 singleton livebirths to primiparous and multiparous women, respectively, for whom preeclampsia information was available...

  15. Air pollution and development of asthma, allergy and infections in a birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M.; Hoek, G.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; Brunekreef, B.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have addressed associations between traffic-related air pollution and respiratory disease in young children. The present authors assessed the development of asthmatic/allergic symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 4 yrs of life in a birth cohort study (n=similar to 4,000).

  16. Helicobacter pylori and the birth cohort effect: Evidence for stabilized colonization rates in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); A.J. Vila (Anne J.); I.L. Holster (Ingrid); G.I. Perez-Perez (Guillermo I.); M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has declined over recent decades in developed countries. The increasing prevalence with age is largely because of a birth cohort effect. We previously observed a decline in H. pylori prevalence in 6- to 8-year-old Dutch children from 19%

  17. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands), DUISB

  18. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  19. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999 (a

  20. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  1. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires......, the relative size of the effects suggests that either (a) a positive effect of period is neutralized by a negative effect of birth cohort, resulting in a zero net effect for the period under investigation, or (b) that both effects are peripheral, caused by an underlying biological-ageing effect. Total...... consumption of lean fish, on the other hand, is clearly falling in Norway, whereas total consumption of processed fish is rising, suggesting clear areas for marketing action. Abstract is published in Appetite, 2002, vol. 39, p. 258...

  2. Infant feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes in two large scandinavian birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Sander, Stine Dydensborg; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our aimwas to study the relation between the duration of full and any breastfeeding and risk of type 1 diabetes. Research Design and Methods: We included two population-based cohorts of children followed from birth (1996-2009) to 2014 (Denmark) or 2015 (Norway).We analyzed data froma...... total of 155,392 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Parents reported infant dietary practices when their child was 6 and 18months old. The outcomewas clinical type 1 diabetes, ascertained fromnationwide childhood...... had a twofold increased risk of type 1 diabetes compared with those who were breastfed (HR 2.29 [95% CI 1.14-4.61] for no breastfeeding vs. any breastfeeding for ≥12 months). Among those who were breastfed, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes was independent of duration of both full...

  3. Fear of childbirth and risk for birth complications in nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Johansen, C; Hedegaard, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section and between fear of childbirth and dystocia or protracted labour and fetal distress. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish National Birth Cohort. POPULATION: A total of 25 297 healthy...... for emergency caesarean section of women who feared childbirth; risk for dystocia/protracted labour or fetal distress of women who feared childbirth. RESULTS: Fear of childbirth in early (16 weeks, 6 +/- 29 days) and late (31 weeks, 4 +/- 21 days) pregnancy was associated with emergency caesarean section: OR, 1.......23 (1.05-1.47) and 1.32 (1.13-1.55), respectively. When fear of childbirth was expressed at both interviews, the OR was 1.43 (1.13-1.80). Women who feared childbirth had an increased risk for dystocia or protracted labour (OR, 1.33; 1.15-1.54), but not for fetal distress (OR, 0.94; 0...

  4. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  5. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Botton, Jérémie; Chévrier, Cecile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hohmann, Cynthia; Keil, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Tischer, Christina G; Toft, Gunnar; Wickman, Magnus; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2013-01-23

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  6. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  7. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marie-Pier; Boivin, Michel; Junker, Anne; Bocking, Alan; Kramer, Michael S; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2012-10-29

    A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants.Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such information provides a valuable

  8. Infertility and preterm delivery, birthweight, and Caesarean section: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 10% of babies are born to couples taking >1 year to conceive (a common definition of infertility). Some evidence indicates that such pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery and other adverse birth outcomes, but the problem has rarely been addressed in large......, longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy....... Among couples with a TTP >1 year, infertility treatment was associated with added risk only among multiparas. CONCLUSION: Infertile women are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes even if they conceive without treatment. With >10% of babies born to infertile couples, it is important to consider...

  9. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated.......82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: -5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth...

  10. Explorando as múltiplas trajetórias de causalidade: colaboração entre antropologia e epidemiologia na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Explorando las múltiples trayectorias de causalidad: colaboración entre antropología y epidemiología en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique P Béhague

    2008-12-01

    : The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

  11. Associations of anthropometry since birth with sagittal posture at age 7 in a prospective birth cohort: the Generation XXI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Fábio A; Lucas, Raquel; Simpkin, Andrew J; Heron, Jon; Alegrete, Nuno; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D; Barros, Henrique

    2017-07-26

    Adult sagittal posture is established during childhood and adolescence. A flattened or hypercurved spine is associated with poorer musculoskeletal health in adulthood. Although anthropometry from birth onwards is expected to be a key influence on sagittal posture design, this has never been assessed during childhood. Our aim was to estimate the association between body size throughout childhood with sagittal postural patterns at age 7. Prospective cohort study. A subsample of 1029 girls and 1101 boys taking part in the 7-year-old follow-up of the birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal) was included. We assessed the associations between anthropometric measurements (weight, height and body mass index) at birth, 4 and 7 years of age and postural patterns at age 7. Postural patterns were defined using latent profile analysis, a probabilistic model-based technique which allows for simultaneously including anthropometrics as predictors of latent profiles by means of logistic regression. Postural patterns identified were sway, flat and "neutral to hyperlordotic"in girls, and "sway to neutral", flat and hyperlordotic in boys; with flat and hyperlordotic postures representing a straightened and a rounded spine, respectively. In both girls and boys, higher weight was associated with lower odds of a flat pattern compared with a sway/"sway to neutral"pattern, with stronger associations at older ages: for example, ORs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88) per SD increase in birth weight and 0.36 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.68) per SD increase in weight at age 7 in girls, with similar findings in boys. Boys with higher ponderal index at birth were more frequently assigned to the hyperlordotic pattern (OR=1.44 per SD; p=0.043). Our findings support a prospective sculpting role of body size and therefore of load on musculoskeletal spinopelvic structures, with stronger associations as children get older. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  12. Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina K; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study in Denmark and Finland from 1997 to 2001. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 2,496 boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth (cryptorchid/healthy: 128/2,368) and three months......, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (OR (95%CI)) 3.04 (95%CI 1.00-9.27) and 3.01 (95%CI 1.27-7.15), respectively. No association was seen for mothers (n = 79) who had infertility treatment in form of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment (OR 0.71 95%CI...

  13. The Danish National Birth Cohort--its background, structure and aim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  14. Daily birth numbers in Passo Fundo, South Brazil, 1997-1999: trends and periodicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikulecky

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Between October 6, 1997 and April 30, 1999, 5011 births (mean: 8.76 per day were registered in the city of Passo Fundo, South Brazil. The sequence of 572 daily birth numbers was not random (iteration test. Neyman distribution (m = ¥ showed the best fit. Clusters of days with higher birth numbers alternated with days with low numbers of births. Periodogram analysis revealed a significant periodicity of 6.98 days. The cosinor regression, testing 10 a priori supposed period lengths, found significant seasonality peaking in August-September and significantly highest birth numbers on Thursdays. Among the lunar and solar rotation cycles, the tropic lunar cycle and its 4th harmonic were most pronounced, in agreement with results concerning natality in Germany obtained by Svante Arrhenius in the 19th century. These findings confirm Derer-Halberg's concept of multiseptans. In addition to cycling, a significantly increasing linear trend with a daily increase of 0.0045 births was encountered. This documents a growth of the population in agreement with national statistical data.

  15. Birth by caesarean section and prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in young adults: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200, fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004-2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297, and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood. RESULTS: In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25 higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m(2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71. After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67. Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section. CONCLUSION: Caesarean section was associated with a small

  16. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A Nohr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and

  17. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants by domestic water hardness and season of birth: Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane A; Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Melbye, Mads; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to be more common in regions with hard domestic water and in children with a fall/winter birth. However, it is unknown whether a synergistic effect exists. We sought to evaluate the association between domestic water hardness and season of birth, respectively, with onset of AD within the first 18 months of life in a large Danish birth cohort. Of children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, 52,950 were included. History of physician-diagnosed AD and population characteristics were obtained from interviews. Birth data were obtained from the Civil Registration System, and domestic water hardness data were obtained from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The relative prevalence (RP) of AD was calculated by using log-linear binomial regression. The prevalence of AD was 15.0% (7,942/52,950). The RP of AD was 5% (RPtrend, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) higher for each 5° increase in domestic water hardness (range, 6.60-35.90 German degrees of hardness [118-641 mg/L]). Although the RP of AD was higher in children with a fall (RP, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.31) or winter (RP, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25) birth, no significant interaction was observed with domestic water hardness. The population attributable risk of hard domestic water on AD was 2%. We observed that early exposure to hard domestic water and a fall/winter birth was associated with an increase in the relative prevalence of AD within the first 18 months of life. Although the 2 exposures did not interact synergistically, a dose-response relationship was observed between domestic water hardness and AD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  19. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  20. Smaller kidney size at birth in South Asians: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Paul J; Jeffrey, Robin F; Yuen, Ho M; Godfrey, Keith M; West, Jane; Wright, John

    2016-03-01

    Rates of advanced chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are higher in South Asian than in white British populations. Low birth weight is also more frequent in South Asian populations and has been associated with increased risks of kidney disease, perhaps due to a reduced nephron endowment. Using ultrasound scans at 34 weeks of gestation, we measured fetal kidney dimensions (transverse and anteroposterior diameters, length and circumference) and derived volume in a random sample of 872 white British and 715 South Asian participants in the Born in Bradford cohort study. Kidney measurements were compared between ethnic groups. Birth weight for gestational age at 40 weeks was 200 g less in South Asian babies compared with white British babies. The mean kidney volume for gestational age was 16% lower in South Asian than in white British babies [8.79 versus 10.45 cm(3), difference 1.66 cm(3) (95% confidence interval 1.40-1.93, P < 0.001)]. The difference was robust after adjustment for maternal age, socio-economic factors, marital status, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use in pregnancy, parity, baby's gender and birth weight for gestational age [adjusted difference 1.38 cm(3) (0.97-1.84), P < 0.001]. There were smaller reductions in other fetal measures. South Asian babies have smaller kidneys compared with white British babies, even after adjusting for potential confounders including birth weight. This finding may contribute to increased risks of adult kidney disease in South Asian populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for preterm births in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão Vânia Maria de Farias; Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da; Aragão Lívia Farias de; Barbieri Marco Antônio; Bettiol Heloísa; Coimbra Liberata Campos; Ribeiro Valdinar Sousa

    2004-01-01

    Preterm birth continues to be one of the main causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The sample consisted of hospital births at 10 public and private hospitals from March 1, 1997 to February 28, 1998. A total of 2,443 live births were randomly selected, excluding multiple deliveries and stillbirths. Preterm birth rate in São Luís was 12.7%. Risk factors for preterm delivery we...

  2. Body Mass Index and Risk of Infections Among Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Nielsen, Nete M; Friis-Møller, Nina;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the possible association between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and hospitalization or treatment for acute infection in a prospective cohort study. We linked 75,001 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002, who had information on BMI...... and a broad range of confounders, to data on infectious diseases and use of antimicrobial agents from the National Patient Register and the Danish Prescription Register. Associations were tested using Cox proportional hazards models. During 12 years of follow-up, we observed a U-shaped association between...

  3. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Albert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity to traffic is a proxy for traffic-related exposures that takes into account within-city contrasts. Methods We investigated the association between residential proximity to traffic and various birth and pregnancy outcomes in 7,339 pregnant women and their children participating in a population-based cohort study. Residential proximity to traffic was defined as 1 distance-weighted traffic density in a 150 meter radius, and 2 proximity to a major road. We estimated associations of these exposures with birth weight, and with the risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Additionally, we examined associations with pregnancy-induced hypertension, (preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Results There was considerable variation in distance-weighted traffic density. Almost fifteen percent of the participants lived within 50 m of a major road. Residential proximity to traffic was not associated with birth and pregnancy outcomes in the main analysis and in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Mothers exposed to residential traffic had no higher risk of adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy complications in this study. Future studies may be refined by taking both temporal and spatial variation in air pollution exposure into account.

  4. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  5. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort: background, aims and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke;

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth...... mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort...... in early life, birth dimensions, and childhood cognition on adult health experience are at various stages of completion. A questionnaire-based postal follow-up survey is planned. Thus, the Metropolit study provides an important opportunity to examine the processes by which factors that operate over...

  6. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko-Klement, A; Sukenik-Halevy, R; Biron Shental, T; Miller, N; Berkovitz, A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to study the birth defect rates in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) pregnancies. A cohort of couples presenting male factor infertility between January 2006 and January 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Discharge letters and a telephone interview were performed for assessing pregnancy outcome. All clinical data were reviewed by a board certified medical geneticist. Main outcomes were fetal/birth defect and chromosomal abnormality rates. Two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pregnancies were available for analysis, of them, 1669 (73.9%) resulting from ICSI and 2258 (26.1%) achieved by IMSI. Pregnancy outcome distribution did not show a significant difference. For the fresh embryo transfer cohort, fetal/birth defect rate was 4.5%, chromosomal aberration rate was 1.0%, and structural malformation rate was 3.5%. IMSI vs. ICSI pregnancies were less likely to involve a fetal/birth defect: 3.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively, but did not reach a statistical significance OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.39-1.22). Split by multiplicity, this trend existed only for singleton pregnancies; 1.4% structural malformations rate vs. 3.8%, respectively, OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.11-0.9). The frozen cohort demonstrated a significantly lower birth defect rate (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.58). We conclude that IMSI procedure does not involve an increased malformation rate and may offer a reduced anomaly incidence. Further studies are required. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Subfecundity as a correlate of preeclampsia: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    A long interpregnancy interval is associated with preeclampsia. If some women experiencing a long interval between births had difficulty conceiving, subfecundity and preeclampsia may share a common etiology. Therefore, the authors examined the association between subfecundity and preeclampsia....... By using interview data collected during the second trimester of pregnancy (1998–2001) from women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, they identified 20,034 and 24,698 singleton livebirths to primiparous and multiparous women, respectively, for whom preeclampsia information was available...... from hospital birth records. Among women with no known hypertension, the authors estimated a higher risk of preeclampsia in those with longer times to pregnancy (TTPs), after adjustment for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, and smoking. Compared with primiparas who became pregnant right away...

  8. Electronic data collection in epidemiological research. The use of REDCap in the Pelotas birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Cauane; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes the use of Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) to conduct one of the follow-up waves of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort. The aim is to point out the advantages and limitations of using this electronic data capture environment to collect data and control every step of a longitudinal epidemiological research, specially in terms of time savings and data quality. We used REDCap as the main tool to support the conduction of a birth cohort follow-up. By exploiting several REDCap features, we managed to schedule assessments, collect data, and control the study workflow. To enhance data quality, we developed specific reports and field validations to depict inconsistencies in real time. Using REDCap it was possible to investigate more variables without significant increases on the data collection time, when comparing to a previous birth cohort follow-up. In addition, better data quality was achieved since negligible out of range errors and no validation or missing inconsistencies were identified after applying over 7,000 interviews. Adopting electronic data capture solutions, such as REDCap, in epidemiological research can bring several advantages over traditional paper-based data collection methods. In favor of improving their features, more research groups should migrate from paper to electronic-based epidemiological research.

  9. Twenty Years of Schizophrenia Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Jääskeläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966, which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother’s mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4% had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia.

  10. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pobesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pobesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  11. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y < 140 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 y < 90 mm Hg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 y/o PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Se aplicó modelo de regresión logística politómica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de PAL fue de 13,5% (hombres 23,2% y la de HT, 9,5% (hombres 17,7%. PAL fue independientemente asociada con sexo masculino (Riesgo Relativo - RR 8,84; 95%IC: 6,09;12,82, estatura al nacer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de masa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 y circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, mientras el HT se asoció con sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1,77;4,05 y glicemia elevada (RR 2,55; 1,27;5,10, pero no con estatura al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de PAL y HT entre los adultos jóvenes de la cohorte fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Mayor estatura al nacer fue asociado con PAL, pero no con HT, mientras que el peso al nacer no estuvo asociado con PAL o HT. Factores de riesgo de adulto explicaron la mayoría de los aumentos de PAL o HT.

  12. BIRTH ORDER AND ANDROPHILIC MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSSEXUALISM IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Zucker, Kenneth J; Massuda, Raffael; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Borba, André Oliveira; Costa, Angelo Bradelli; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; Da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-11-07

    Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.

  13. [Evaluation of information systems on live births and mortality in Brazil in the 2000s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Paulo Germano de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2014-10-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health's mortality and live birth information systems (SIM and SINASC) are valuable tools for measuring population health status. The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of vital information systems from 1999-2001 to 2008-2010 in the States and major geographic regions of Brazil. Indicators were constructed to assess data coverage, regularity, and quality for SIM and SINASC. The municipalities (counties) were divided into three categories according to adequacy of data on deaths and live births by calculating an adequacy index based on the proportion of the population living in each category. The adequacy index for Brazil increased from 73.9 to 89.1 in the SIM and from 80.5 to 90.9 in the SINASC from the first to the second triennium, respectively. Improvements occurred in all the indicators, in all regions of the country, and in most States. Analysis of the adequacy of vital information in Brazil showed clear improvement throughout the country, particularly in States of the North and Northeast regions.

  14. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, Linda S.; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Aryeh D. Stein; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guate...

  15. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study Efeitos da amamentação e dos hábitos de sucção sobre as oclusopatias num estudo de coorte

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Glazer Peres; Aluísio J D Barros; Marco Aurélio Peres; César Gomes Victora

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastf...

  16. Associação entre o padrão de atividade física materna, ganho ponderal gestacional e peso ao nascer em uma coorte de 118 gestantes no município de Campina Grande, Nordeste do Brasil Association between maternal physical activity, gestational weight gain and birth weight in a cohort of 118 pregnant women in Campina Grande, Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jousilene de Sales Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito da atividade física sobre o ganho ponderal e peso ao nascer em gestantes do Programa Saúde da Família no município de Campina Grande, (PB. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo de coorte abrangendo 118 gestantes, entre 2005 e 2006. A avaliação do estado nutricional inicial seguiu os critérios de Atalah e o ganho ponderal materno foi avaliado de acordo com o Institute of Medicine. Analisou-se o padrão de atividade física de acordo com o medidor de estimativa de gasto calórico total (METs e sua associação com o ganho ponderal e o peso ao nascer. RESULTADOS: o padrão de atividade física predominante na 16ª semana foi o leve, alcançando 85,6% das gestantes. Observou-se uma redução importante do nível de atividade física com a evolução da gestação, com 98,3% das gestantes sendo consideradas sedentárias na 24ª semana e 100% na 32ª semana. No momento da captação, cerca de 50% das gestantes eram eutróficas, 23% com baixo peso e as demais com sobrepeso/obesidade. No segundo e no terceiro trimestres, aproximadamente 45% das gestantes ganharam peso excessivo. A distribuição do peso ao nascer mostrou um predomínio do peso adequado (85,6%, e uma alta prevalência de macrossomia (8,5%. Dentre os desfechos avaliados, foi observada associação apenas entre os valores de METs da 24ª.semana e o ganho ponderal materno no segundo trimestre gestacional (p=0,045. CONCLUSÃO: Todas as gestantes estavam sedentárias no terceiro trimestre; observou-se uma associação entre o padrão de atividade física e o ganho ponderal materno no segundo trimestre, mas não houve associação deste padrão com o peso ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: This survey evaluated the effects of physical activity on gestational weight gain and birth weight of pregnant women attended by the Family Health Program in Campina Grande, Northeast of Brazil. METHODS: A cohort study enrolling 118 pregnant women was conducted between 2005 and

  17. The Impact of Parental Personality on Birth Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Morisaki

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of parental personality on birth outcomes.Prospective cohort study.727 pregnant women and 579 spouses receiving antenatal care at a single-center in rural Tokyo, Japan during 2010-2013.We measured the association between maternal effect of parental personality traits assessed by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory on birth outcomes, using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics.Maternal self-transcendence personality was inversely associated with gestational age [-0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.51 to -0.01 weeks per unit] and positively associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.00 to 6.75 per unit], while paternal self-transcendence personality was positively associated with gestational age [0.31 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.55 weeks per unit]. Maternal reward dependence was positively associated with fetal growth [0.30 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.59 per unit]. Other maternal and paternal personality traits associated with adverse maternal behavior, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-directedness, were not associated with birth outcomes.We found that specific parental personality traits can be associated with birth outcomes.

  18. Simulated growth trajectories and blood pressure in adolescence: Hong Kong's Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Freeman, Guy; Lin, Shi Lin; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, Catherine M

    2013-09-01

    Patterns and amounts of growth may determine adult blood pressure. Growth at different phases is correlated and affects current size, making effects on blood pressure difficult to distinguish. We decomposed growth to 13 years into independent associations with blood pressure and estimated how reaching the same size by different routes could affect adolescent blood pressure. Using estimates from partial least squares for the associations of birth weight, height, and BMI at 3 months, growth at 3-9 months, 9-36 months, 3-8 years and 8-13 years and size at 13 years with SBP and DBP in 5247 term births (67% follow-up) from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' Birth Cohort, we estimated SBP and DBP at 13 years for 99 simulated growth trajectories resulting in the same size using nonparametric bootstrapping. High birth weight followed by slower growth was associated with lower SBP in both sexes and DBP in boys. Greater height to 3 years followed by slower height growth was associated with lower SBP in boys. Higher BMI until 9 months followed by slower BMI growth was associated with lower blood pressure in boys. High birth weight or larger early size was associated with lower blood pressure if followed by slower later growth, consistent with the fetal origin hypothesis. However, whether these patterns are due to fetal and infant metabolic programming or to allowing slower growth at periods when rapid growth is harmful is unknown.

  19. Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism in a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida N Damgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk factors for congenital cryptorchidism were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study in Denmark and Finland from 1997 to 2001. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 2,496 boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth (cryptorchid/healthy: 128/2,368 and three months old (33/2,215. Information on risk factors was obtained antenatally (questionnaire/interview or at birth from birth records. Use of nicotine substitutes during pregnancy (n = 40 and infertility treatment by intrauterine insemination (n = 49 were associated with an increased risk for cryptorchidism, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval (OR (95%CI 3.04 (95%CI 1.00-9.27 and 3.01 (95%CI 1.27-7.15, respectively. No association was seen for mothers (n = 79 who had infertility treatment in form of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI or in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment (OR 0.71 95%CI 0.21-2.38. In total, 728 (29% reported to have smoked during pregnancy, however, no increased risk among maternal smokers was found. Furthermore, we found statistically significant associations between cryptorchidism and low birth weight, prematurity, being small for gestational age, substantial vaginal bleeding, and breech presentation, which are in accordance with other studies. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed two novel risk factors for cryptorchidism: intrauterine insemination and the use of nicotine substitutes in pregnancy. This suggests that cryptorchidism may not only be associated to genetic factors, but also to maternal lifestyle and exposure.

  20. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas......Family-based studies, including intergenerational, sibling, and twin studies, are increasingly being used to explore life course epidemiology. However, there are issues relating to study design and the statistical analysis of family-based studies that are still not well understood...

  1. The Association Between Childhood Seizures and Later Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings From a Nationally Representative Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Symon; Newton, Charles; PRINCE, Martin James; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Emotional/behavioral disorders are often comorbid with childhood epilepsy, but both may be predicted by social disadvantage and fetal risk indicators (FRIs). We used data from a British birth cohort, to assess the association of epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures with the later development of emotional/behavioral problems.Methods: A total of 17,416 children in the 1958 British birth cohort were followed up until age 16 years. Logistic and modified Poisson r...

  2. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  3. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  4. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, R; Lawlor, D A; Black, S; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  5. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and increased risk of schizophrenia in a national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Leiviskä, Jaana; Kellendonk, Christoph; McKeague, Ian W; Brown, Alan S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate an association between early gestational C-reactive protein, an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and schizophrenia in a large, national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. A nested case-control design from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort was utilized. A total of 777 schizophrenia cases (schizophrenia, N=630; schizoaffective disorder, N=147) with maternal sera available for C-reactive protein testing were identified and matched to 777 control subjects in the analysis. Maternal C-reactive protein levels were assessed using a latex immunoassay from archived maternal serum specimens. Increasing maternal C-reactive protein levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio=1.31, 95% confidence interval=1.10-1.56). This finding remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including maternal and parental history of psychiatric disorders, twin/singleton birth, urbanicity, province of birth, and maternal socioeconomic status. This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinantes sociais e biológicos da cárie dentária em crianças de 6 anos de idade: um estudo transversal aninhado numa coorte de nascidos vivos no Sul do Brasil Effects of Social and biological factors on dental caries in 6-year-old children: a cross sectional study nested in a birth cohort in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Peres

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os determinantes sociais e biológicos, medidos no período perinatal e na infância, sobre a ocorrência de cárie dentária em crianças de 6 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal de cárie dentária em 1999, em uma subamostra de 400 crianças pertencentes a uma coorte de nascidos vivos iniciada em 1993, em Pelotas, RS. Os índices e critérios de diagnóstico adotados foram os preconizados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997. Os resultados do estudo de cárie foram inseridos no banco de dados da coorte, que continha informações sobre as condições sociais e de saúde coletadas ao nascimento, no primeiro, terceiro, sexto e décimo segundo meses e no sexto ano de vida da criança. O índice de cárie (ceo-d = 0 ou > 1 foi a variável dependente. Foram realizadas análises univariada e de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, tendo como base um modelo teórico hierárquico de determinação. RESULTADOS: Escolaridade materna abaixo ou igual a 8 anos, renda familiar menor que 6 salários mínimos, não freqüentar pré-escola e consumo de doces pelo menos uma vez ao dia aos 6 anos de idade foram fatores de risco à cárie. CONCLUSÕES: Os fatores de risco sociais, como baixa escolaridade materna e baixa renda familiar, não freqüentar a pré-escola e dieta inadequada são comuns à cárie dentária e outras doenças e agravos infantis, sugerindo que medidas de intervenção dirigidas a estes fatores seriam mais adequadas à prevenção da cárie do que medidas específicas.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the social and biological conditions experienced in early life and dental caries in 6-year-old children, using a life course approach. METHODS: An oral health cross-sectional study was nested in a birth cohort study initiated in Pelotas, Brazil in 1993. In 1999, a sample of 400 6-year-old children was selected

  8. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, G K; Prynne, C J; Almoosawi, S; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M

    2015-07-01

    As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically, and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Food consumption of participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey on Health and Development, a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5-day estimated food records at 60-64 years (2006-11), 53 years (1999), 43 years (1989) and 36 years (1982). Only those who recorded ⩾3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (Pmeats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be because of ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years.

  9. The Autism Birth Cohort: a paradigm for gene-environment-timing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, C; Schjølberg, S; Bresnahan, M; Hornig, M; Hirtz, D; Dahl, C; Lie, K K; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Schreuder, P; Alsaker, E; Øyen, A-S; Magnus, P; Surén, P; Susser, E; Lipkin, W I

    2010-07-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased by 5- to 10-fold over the past 20 years. Whether ASDs are truly more frequent is controversial; nonetheless, the burden is profound in human and economic terms. Although autism is among the most heritable of mental disorders, its pathogenesis remains obscure. Environmental factors are proposed; however, none is implicated. Furthermore, there are no biomarkers to screen for ASD or risk of ASD. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) was initiated to analyze gene x environment x timing interactions and enable early diagnosis. It uses a large, unselected birth cohort in which cases are prospectively ascertained through population screening. Samples collected serially through pregnancy and childhood include parental blood, maternal urine, cord blood, milk teeth and rectal swabs. More than 107,000 children are continuously screened through questionnaires, referral, and a national registry. Cases are compared with a control group from the same cohort in a 'nested case-control' design. Early screening and diagnostic assessments and re-assessments are designed to provide a rich view of longitudinal trajectory. Genetic, proteomic, immunologic, metagenomic and microbiological tools will be used to exploit unique biological samples. The ABC is a paradigm for analyzing the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders.

  10. Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated by the food frequency questionnaire used in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina B.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Rasmussen, Salka E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To validate the fruit and vegetable intake estimated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Subjects and setting: The DNBC is a cohort of 101,042 pregnant women in Denmark, who received a FFQ by mail in gestation week 25. A validation...... the FFQ correlated significantly with urinary flavonoids ( r=0.39, p...

  11. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Alastalo, Hanna; Leskinen, Jukka T; Nyman, Kai; Henriksson, Markus; Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Pyhälä, Riikka; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4) at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5) years at the second cognitive testing. The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72) and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19). Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79) and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99). Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  12. Early Life Origins Cognitive Decline: Findings in Elderly Men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Alastalo, Hanna; Leskinen, Jukka T.; Nyman, Kai; Henriksson, Markus; Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Pyhälä, Riikka; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. Design and Setting A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. Participants Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4) at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5) years at the second cognitive testing. Main Outcome Measures The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. Results Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04–1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72) and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07–0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19). Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22–1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79) and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99). Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. Conclusions Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical. PMID:23382945

  13. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  14. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth

  15. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  16. Rotavirus seasonality and age effects in a birth cohort study of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sarkar

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the temporal patterns in disease occurrence is valuable for formulating effective disease preventive programs. Cohort studies present a unique opportunity to explore complex interactions associated with emergence of seasonal patterns of infectious diseases. METHODS: We used data from 452 children participating in a birth cohort study to assess the seasonal patterns of rotavirus diarrhea by creating a weekly time series of rotavirus incidence and fitting a Poisson harmonic regression with biannual peaks. Age and cohort effects were adjusted for by including the weekly counts of number of children in the study and the median age of cohort in a given week. Weekly average temperature, humidity and an interaction term to reflect the joint effect of temperature and humidity were included to consider the effects of meteorological variables. RESULTS: In the overall rotavirus time series, two significant peaks within a single year were observed--one in winter and the other in summer. The effect of age was found to be the most significant contributor for rotavirus incidence, showing a strong negative association. Seasonality remained a significant factor, even after adjusting for meteorological parameters, and the age and cohort effects. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology for assessing seasonality in cohort studies is not yet developed. This is the first attempt to explore seasonal patterns in a cohort study with a dynamic denominator and rapidly changing immune response on individual and group levels, and provides a highly promising approach for a better understanding of the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases, tracking emergence of pathogenic strains and evaluating the efficacy of intervention programs.

  17. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  18. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  19. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more...... associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM...... less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58) compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk...

  20. Hypothyroxinemia During Gestation and Offspring Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W; Brown, Alan S

    2016-06-15

    Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that thyroid hormone deficiency during early gestation alters brain development. As schizophrenia is associated with prenatal brain insults and premorbid cognitive deficits, we tested the a priori hypothesis that serologically defined maternal thyroid deficiency during early gestation to mid-gestation is associated with schizophrenia in offspring. The investigation is based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia, a nested case-control study that included archived maternal sera from virtually all pregnancies since 1983 (N = >1 million). We identified all offspring in the cohort with a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the national inpatient and outpatient register and matched them on sex, date of birth, and residence in Finland at time of onset of the case to comparison subjects (1:1) from the cohort. Maternal sera of 1010 case-control pairs were assessed for free thyroxine, and sera of 948 case-control pairs were assessed for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Maternal hypothyroxinemia (free thyroxine ≤10th percentile, normal thyroid-stimulating hormone) was associated with an increased odds of schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-2.50, p = .002). When adjusted for maternal psychiatric history, province of birth, and maternal smoking during pregnancy, the association remained significant (odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.55, p = .010). In a large, national birth cohort, prospectively documented hypothyroxinemia during early gestation to mid-gestation was associated with increased odds of schizophrenia in offspring. This information can inform translational studies of maternal hypothyroxinemia examining molecular and cellular deviations relevant to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birth weight, and gestational age: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957

  2. Cohort birth order, parity progression ratio and parity distribution trends in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Sardon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major changes in childbearing patterns are continuously taking place in the majority of low-fertility populations with postponement being virtually universal. Almost everywhere the two-child family became dominant. Proportions of childless women and one-child families were increasing recently. Changes in childbearing patterns in Central and Eastern Europe have been profound justifying the label of an historic transformation. Young women are bearing considerably fewer children compared to older cohorts. Especially proportions of women having second births in most CEE countries were declining rapidly and these were lower than in western countries. Postponement of childbearing might be nearing cessation in some western countries.

  3. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2005-01-01

    ) 0.86-1.02] for all pregnancies and 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.13) for first pregnancies. A healthy worker effect was found for the laboratory technicians working with the work processes under study. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not suggest that laboratory work in Denmark at present impairs female fecundity.......OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...

  4. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  5. Labour Force Participation and the Likelihood of Abortion in Finland over Three Birth Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Heini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies on the association between labour force participation and abortion. This study examined how the likelihood of having an abortion depends on being employed, unemployed, student or outside the workforce using Finnish register data from three birth cohorts (born in 1955-59, 1965-69 and 1975-79 of nearly 260,000 women. The results differed depending on whether all women or only pregnant women were studied and on the cohort analysed. Unemployed women had a high likelihood of abortion when all women were studied, but among pregnant women students had the highest likelihood. The direction and strength of the association varied by relationship status, age, and parity. The results show that the likelihood of abortion depends on women’s economic position. More studies on contraceptive use and pregnancy intentions in Finland are needed to identify the mechanisms behind these findings.

  6. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National BirthCohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP>12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTPwith TTP>12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  7. Fear of childbirth: predictors and temporal changes among nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M.; Hedegaard, M.; Johansen, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between fear of childbirth and social, demographic and psychological factors in a cohort of 30 480 healthy nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth Cohort....... POPULATION: Healthy nulliparous women (n= 30 480) with singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Data from computer-assisted telephone interviews twice in pregnancy linked with national health registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of women with fear of childbirth in early (mean, 16 weeks) and late...... pregnancy (mean, 32 weeks) and changes in fear of childbirth between 1997 and 2003. RESULTS: Low educational level, lack of a social network, young age and unemployment were associated with fear of childbirth, as were being a smoker and having low self-rated health. The odds ratio for fear of childbirth...

  8. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Consumo de alimentos com alto teor de gordura e fibras entre adolescentes, segundo posição socioeconômica: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda B. Neutzling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%, butter or margarine (74.6%, beans (66.4% and milk (48.5%. Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber.O estudo descreve alimentos consumidos por adolescentes pertencentes à coorte de nascimentos de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, conforme o nível socioeconômico. Foi feita uma análise transversal com dados coletados no acompanhamento de 2004-2005. A freqüência alimentar no último ano foi avaliada pelo questionário Block. A posição socioeconômica foi verificada com base no índice de bens, dividido em quintis. Os alimentos mais consumidos diariamente foram: pão branco (83%, manteiga ou margarina (74,6%, feijão (66,4% e leite (48,5%. O consumo de manteiga ou margarina, pão e feijão foram mais freqüentes entre adolescentes pertencentes ao primeiro (menor quintil do índice de bens, e o consumo de leite foi maior no último quintil. Frutas, vegetais e salada verde tiveram baixo consumo principalmente entre os mais pobres. Todos os grupos socioeconômicos apresentaram consumo elevado de alimentos ricos em gordura e baixo consumo de alimentos ricos em fibra.

  9. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. METHODS: We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. RESULTS: In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  10. Growth of a cohort of very low birth weight infants in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Peter A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the growth of VLBW infants in South Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the growth of a cohort of VLBW infants in Johannesburg. Methods A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort was conducted on 139 VLBW infants (birth weight ≤1500 g admitted to Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. Growth measurements were obtained from patient files and compared with the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS and with a previous cohort of South African VLBW infants. The sample size per analysis ranged from 11 to 81 infants. Results Comparison with the WHO-CGS showed initial poor growth followed by gradual catch up growth with mean Z scores of 0.0 at 20 months postmenstrual age for weight, -0.8 at 20 months postmenstrual age for length and 0.0 at 3 months postmenstrual age for head circumference. Growth was comparable with that of a previous cohort of South African VLBW infants in all parameters. Conclusions Initial poor growth in the study sample was followed by gradual catch up growth but with persistent deficits in length for age at 20 months postmenstrual age relative to healthy term infants.

  11. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Lifetime growth and blood pressure in adolescence: Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Michelle; Lin, Shi Lin; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure tracks from adolescence to adulthood and is positively associated with low birth weight and faster infant growth. Most observations are from Western populations; it is unclear whether these are biologically based or contextually specific. We examined the associations of growth with blood pressure in adolescence. Multivariable partial least squares regression was used to assess the associations of growth to ~11 years with blood pressure at ~11 years in 5813 term births from Hong Kong's Children of 1997 birth cohort. Growth was considered as gender- and age-specific z-scores for birth weight, BMI, and length at 3 months; change in z-scores for BMI and height at 3 to 9 months, 9 to 36 months, 3 to 7 years, and 7 to 11 years; and BMI and height at 11 years. Birth weight was weakly inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in girls -0.58 mm Hg 95% confidence interval -1.05 to -0.12 (boys -0.21, -0.71 to 0.30). Childhood growth, particularly linear growth at 7 to 11 years (girls: 1.27, 0.56 to 1.98; boys 2.11, 1.39 to 2.83), as well as current height (girls: 2.40, 2.04 to 2.76, boys: 2.65, 2.29 to 3.01) and BMI (girls: 2.72, 2.35 to 3.09, boys: 2.72, 2.09 to 3.36) were associated with higher systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was also positively associated with current size. In the first study to examine simultaneously the role of pre- and postnatal growth in adolescent blood pressure, the role of late childhood growth predominated.

  13. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence - Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-04-20

    Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory

  14. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  15. Early determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Determinantes precoces de problemas de atenção e hiperatividade na adolescência: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Anselmi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess early determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescents. In 1993, all hospital births in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were monitored and mothers were interviewed (N = 5,249. At 11 years of age, 4,423 mothers answered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in order to evaluate attention and hyperactivity problems in the adolescents. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalence of attention and hyperactivity problems was 19.9%. Factors associated with the outcome in the adjusted analysis were: male gender, low family income, smoking during pregnancy, minor psychiatric disorders in the mother, and history of child's behavioral/emotional problems at four years of age. Early life events impacted attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescence. Risk factors for attention and hyperactivity problems found in this study were similar to those reported in other cultures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar determinantes precoces dos problemas de atenção e hiperatividade em adolescentes. Em 1993, os nascimentos foram recrutados e as mães entrevistadas (n = 5.249. Aos 11 anos, 4.423 mães responderam ao Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ para avaliar problemas de atenção e hiperatividade nos adolescentes. Variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, biológicas e psicológicas foram investigadas como prováveis fatores de risco. Razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas foram calculadas com regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de problemas de atenção e hiperatividade foi 19,9%. Sexo masculino, baixa renda familiar, tabagismo materno na gestação, transtornos psiquiátricos maternos e problemas de comportamento/emocionais do adolescente aos quatro anos permaneceram associados na análise ajustada. Eventos do início da vida influenciaram os problemas de atenção e hiperatividade na adolescência. Os

  16. Changes in leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian pregnant women: comparison between two birth cohort studies (2004 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Hallal, Pedro Curi; da Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam; Bassani, Diego Garcia; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio; Santos, Iná S; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2017-01-25

    Low levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy have been shown in studies conducted worldwide. Surveillance is extremely important to monitor the progress of physical activity patterns over time and set goals for effective interventions to decrease inactivity among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate time changes in LTPA among Brazilian pregnant women in an 11-year period (2004-2015) by comparing data from two birth cohort studies. Two population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, in 2004 and 2015. A total of 4244 and 4271 mothers were interviewed after delivery. Weekly frequency and duration of each session of LTPA in a typical week were reported for the pre-pregnancy period and for each trimester of pregnancy. Trends in both recommended LTPA (≥150 min/week) and any LTPA (regardless of weekly amount) were analysed overtime. Changes were also calculated separately for subgroups of maternal age, schooling, family income, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and pre-pregnancy LTPA. The proportion of women engaged in recommended levels of LTPA pre-pregnancy increased from 11.2% (95%CI 10.0-12.2) in 2004 to 15.8% (95%CI 14.6-16.9) in 2015. During pregnancy, no changes were observed over the period for the first (10.6 to 10.9%) and second (8.7 to 7.9%) trimesters, whereas there was a decrease from 3.4% (95%CI 2.9-4.0) to 2.4% (95%CI 1.9-2.8) in the last trimester. Major decreases in LTPA in the last trimester were observed among women who were younger, with intermediate to high income, high schooling, primiparous, pre-pregnancy obese and, engaged in LTPA before pregnancy. Changes in any LTPA practice followed the same patterns described for recommended LTPA. Despite the increase in the proportion of women engaged in LTPA before pregnancy between 2004 and 2005, LTPA levels remained stable during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and declined during the third

  17. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ching Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  18. Secular trends and birth cohort effects in unprovoked seizures: Rochester, Minnesota 1935-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegers, J F; Hauser, W A; Lee, J R; Rocca, W A

    1995-06-01

    The incidence of idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy and isolated unprovoked seizures has been relatively stable in the population of Rochester, Minnesota, for the 50-year period 1935 through 1984. In each decade, the age-specific rates exhibited a consistent U-shaped pattern of decreasing rates from infancy to age 40-49 and a progressive increase thereafter to a second peak at age 70 years. Males had a 15% higher incidence of cryptogenic unprovoked seizures than females. The most pronounced secular trend was a decrease in the incidence in children aged seizures in individuals aged > or = 50 from 1965 through 1984. This decrease paralleled the decrease in cerebrovascular disease in the community. The decrease in idiopathic unprovoked seizures may be related to a concurrent trend in "silent stroke." Plots and Poisson regression analysis did not show patterns in the incidence of idiopathic unprovoked seizures related to successive birth cohorts. However, significantly lower incidence rates were observed for the 1930-1934 birth cohort, about half that of all others, between the ages of 5 and 54 years.

  19. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  20. Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lee-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland. Methods We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads. Results There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001. Conclusions Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

  1. Prenatal health, educational attainment, and intergenerational inequality: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Juho; Kaymakçalan, Hande; Mäki, Pirjo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the effects of prenatal health on educational attainment and on the reproduction of family background inequalities in education. Using Finnish birth cohort data, we analyze several maternal and fetal health variables, many of which have not been featured in the literature on long-term socioeconomic effects of health despite the effects of these variables on birth and short-term health outcomes. We find strong negative effects of mother's prenatal smoking on educational attainment, which are stronger if the mother smoked heavily but are not significant if she quit during the first trimester. Anemia during pregnancy is also associated with lower levels of attained education. Other indicators of prenatal health (pre-pregnancy obesity, mother's antenatal depressed mood, hypertension and preeclampsia, early prenatal care visits, premature birth, and small size for gestational age) do not predict educational attainment. Our measures explain little of the educational inequalities by parents' class or education. However, smoking explains 12%-and all health variables together, 19%-of the lower educational attainment of children born to unmarried mothers. Our findings point to the usefulness of proximate health measures in addition to general ones. They also point to the potentially important role played by early health in intergenerational processes.

  2. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  3. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Is fetal macrosomia related to blood pressure among adolescents? A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wu, J; Yu, J; Gao, E; Meads, C; Afnan, M; Ren, J; Rong, F

    2013-11-01

    Birth weight (BW) has effects on blood pressure (BP). In order to explore the effects of macrosomia on BP in childhood and in adolescence, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Wuxi, China. Subjects with BW ≥4000 g, born in 1993-1995, were the exposed group; the unexposed comparisons were matched by year of birth and sex of infant, with BW of 2500-4000 g. Follow-ups in 2005-6 and 2011-12 were conducted, and height, weight and BP were measured by trained doctors. Multi-mixed models in SAS were used to control for repeated measures to explore the effects of fetal macrosomia on BP. At the inception of the cohort, 1595 pairs of participants were recruited. At the end, 1112 in the exposed group and 1126 in the unexposed group finished both follow-ups. Among adolescents, mean (s.d.) of systolic BP (SBP) was 110.83 (9.43)  mm  Hg, which was statistically significantly higher than that in the unexposed group (mean ± s.d.: 109.33 ± 9.26)  mm  Hg (P=0.0002). After adjusting the repeated measures and birth year, sex, mother's occupation and delivery age, adding weight during pregnancy, hypertension during delivery, gestational age and parity, being a picky eater in childhood, the macrosomia group had higher SBP than the normal BW group; the parameter estimate value was 1.03 (s.e.=0.30). When BMI in childhood and BMI in adolescence were added in the multi-model, the estimated β was 0.71 (s.e.=0.29). No statistically significant effect of macrosomia was found on diastolic BP among adolescents in the multianalysis.

  5. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and macrosomia in a Canadian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinturache, Angela E; Chaput, Kathleen H; Tough, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    To compare demographic characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of term macrosomic infants of obese and non-obese mothers. A sample of 1996 singleton, term deliveries was drawn from the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort. Maternal self-reported socio-demographic and anthropometric information was linked to the clinical data on pregnancy and birth events abstracted from electronic health records. Demographic, obstetrical characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of macrosomic infants in obese, overweight, and normal weight women were compared. Multinomial regression analysis assessed the risk factors of macrosomia in primiparous and multiparous women stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, controlling for confounding variables. Macrosomia affected 10% of pregnancies in the study. Mothers whose infants were macrosomic were more likely to be Caucasian, obese, have had previous deliveries, undergo induction of labour and delivery by emergency C-section, particularly for labour abnormalities. Macrosomic infants were more likely to be delivered postdates, have meconium stained liquor and require resuscitation at birth. There were no significant differences in birth and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies between obese, overweight and normal weight women. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational age at delivery were risk factors for macrosomia in all women. Ethnicity and history of delivery of a macrosomic infant were additional independent risk factors in multiparas. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of delivery of a macrosomic infant in both primiparous and multiparous women. The maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies are similar in obese and normal weight women.

  6. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Casas, Lidia; Santa Marina, Loreto; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Jimenez, Ana; Zock, Jan-Paul; Tardón, Adonina; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2,456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy between 2003 and 2008 in four regions of Spain. Socio-demographic, environmental and lifestyle information was obtained at two interviews during pregnancy, one at the first (mean:13.8±2.6 weeks of gestation) and the other at the third trimester (mean: 33.3±2.3 weeks of gestation). Information about prenatal use of indoor and outdoor insecticides (type, timing, place of application, place of storage) was obtained from the second interview. In a 3rd interview (mean: 16.2±6.9 months of age of children), information about postnatal indoor and outdoor insecticide use was obtained. Regression models examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and pesticide use to determine which characteristics predicted use prenatally and postnatally. Fifty-four percent of women reported using indoor insecticides during pregnancy, 45% in their bedroom and 47% elsewhere in the house. Plug-in devices were the most frequent application methods used in the pregnant woman's bedroom and insecticide sprays elsewhere in the house. The maternal factors related to prenatal use of indoor insecticides were parity, country of birth, educational level, region of residence, having a garden or yard with plants, and living near an agricultural area. These products continued to be used postnatally, although 20% of the women stopped using them. Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to pesticide exposure; thus knowing how pesticides are used during pregnancy and infancy may be a starting point for the study of their potential effects on health as well as useful for designing preventive actions.

  7. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  8. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young

  9. Medicine use among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Utilização de medicamentos por adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa D. Bertoldi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate medicine use and associated factors among adolescents. This was a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Information on medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interviews was collected from the mothers. Overall prevalence of medicine use was 30.9%, and 64.7% of the medicines had been prescribed by a physician. The most frequently used pharmacological groups were medicines for the nervous (35.9% and respiratory systems (25.7%. Medicine use was directly associated with socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, complications during pregnancy or delivery, and neonatal problems resulting in the need for intensive care. Underweight and obese adolescents were more likely to use medicines as compared to those with normal body mass index. A direct association was observed between maternal use of hypnotic drugs and sedatives and adolescent medicine use. It is essential to implement educational policies aimed at promoting rational use of medicines by adolescents.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o uso de medicamentos e fatores associados em adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo 4.452 adolescentes nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. As informações sobre o uso de medicamentos pelo adolescente nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista foram fornecidas pelas mães. A prevalência global de uso de medicamentos foi de 30,9%, sendo que destes, 64,7% foram indicados por médicos. Os grupos farmacológicos mais utilizados foram os medicamentos que atuam nos sistemas nervoso (35,9% e respiratório (25,7%. O uso de medicamentos esteve diretamente associado ao nível econômico, escolaridade da mãe, intercorrência na gravidez ou parto que gerou doença até a adolescência, problema de saúde no momento do nascimento que levou o recém-nascido à UTI, magreza e obesidade. Foi observada uma rela

  10. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, N A; Greenwood, D C; Simpson, N A B; McArdle, H J; Cade, J E

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. A prospective birth cohort. Leeds, UK. One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18-45 years. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P = 0.02). Regular multivitamin-mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study's findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries.

  11. Confirmation of microevolutionary increase in spina bifida occulta among Swiss birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Chao; Solomon, Lucian Bogdan; Rühli, Frank Jakobus; Schiess, Regula; Öhrström, Lena; Sullivan, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Henneberg, Maciej

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of spina bifida occulta have indicated a microevolutionary increase in its frequency and possible population differences in the prevalence of the condition. We studied the frequencies of closed and open sacral canals at each sacral level among two birth cohorts in Switzerland. Transverse CT scans and multiplanar reconstruction images of sacra of 95 males and 96 females born in 1940-1950 and 99 males and 94 females born in 1970-1980 in Switzerland were reviewed. We found that individuals born later have significantly more open sacral arches at all sacral levels compared to those born 30-40 years earlier. When results were related to previously published data on Australian cohorts, the trend was the same, but Swiss in both cohorts were less likely to have an open section than Australians at all locations apart from S2. This study confirmed a microevolutionary trend in the opening of sacral canal among two different generations in Switzerland and demonstrated a population difference in the prevalence of spina bifida occulta.

  12. Use of antiepileptic or benzodiazepine medication and suicidal ideation--The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, I; Jääskeläinen, E; Isohanni, M; Koponen, H; Ansakorpi, H; Miettunen, J

    2015-05-01

    Both antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) have previously been associated with an increased risk of suicidality. Our aim was to study the association between the use of conventional AEDs and BZDs and suicidal ideation in a large population-based cohort. Information on the medications used in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was collected from the subjects at the age of 31 years, using a postal questionnaire (N=8211). The presence of suicidal ideation and other symptoms of depression and anxiety was assessed via the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 questionnaire. The associations between medications and suicidal ideation were studied in different diagnostic groups and adjusted for symptoms of depression and anxiety. No difference was observed in suicidal ideation between AED users (n=54) and nonusers (n=8157). Subjects using BZDs (n=147) had greater suicidal ideation compared with nonusers (n=8064). Antiepileptic drug and benzodiazepine users more often exhibited other depression and anxiety symptoms. After adjustment for these symptoms, both AED and BZD users had less suicidal ideation compared with nonusers. In conclusion, in this population-based cohort, neither the use of AEDs nor that of BZDs was found to be associated with increased suicidal ideation when the symptoms of depression and anxiety were taken into account.

  13. 17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone caproate did not reduce the rate of recurrent preterm birth in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; McIntire, Donald D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Gard, John; Turrichi, Paula; Leveno, Kenneth J

    2017-06-01

    17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of recurrent preterm birth is recommended for use in the United States. We sought to assess the clinical effectiveness of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent recurrent preterm birth ≤35 weeks compared to similar births in our obstetric population prior to the implementation of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. This was a prospective cohort study of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate in our obstetric population. The primary outcome was the recurrence of birth ≤35 weeks for the entire study cohort compared to a historical referent rate of 16.8% of recurrent preterm birth in our population. There were 3 secondary outcomes. First, did 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate modify a woman's history of preterm birth when taking into account her prior number and sequence of preterm and term births? Second, was recurrence of preterm birth related to 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentration? Third, was duration of pregnancy modified by 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate treatment compared to a prior preterm birth? From January 2012 through March 2016, 430 consecutive women with prior births ≤35 weeks were treated with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Nearly two thirds of the women (N = 267) began injections ≤18 weeks and 394 (92%) received a scheduled weekly injection within 10 days of reaching 35 weeks or delivery. The overall rate of recurrent preterm birth was 25% (N = 106) for the entire cohort compared to the 16.8% expected rate (P = 1.0). The 3 secondary outcomes were also negative. First, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate did not significantly reduce the rates of recurrence regardless of prior preterm birth number or sequence. Second, plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were not different (P = .17 at 24 weeks; P = .38 at 32 weeks) between women delivered ≤35 weeks and those delivered later in pregnancy. Third, the mean (

  14. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC...... separately in men and women, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox...... regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg...

  15. Polymorphisms in FTO and MAF Genes and Birth Weight, BMI, Ponderal Index, Weight Gain in a Large Cohort of Infants with a Birth Weight below 1500 Grams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haller

    Full Text Available The FTO gene, located on chromosome 16q12.2, and the MAF gene, located on chromosome 16q22-23, were identified as genes harboring common variants with an impact on obesity predisposition. We studied the association of common variants with birth weight, gain of body weight, body mass index (BMI, Ponderal index and relevant neonatal outcomes in a large German cohort of infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams.The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO gene and rs1424233 (MAF gene were genotyped using allelic discrimination assays in a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 15 neonatal intensive care units in Germany from September 2003 until January 2008. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs according to standard protocols.1946 infants were successfully genotyped at FTO and 2149 infants at MAF. Allele frequencies were not significantly different from other European cohorts. The polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms did not show associations with birth weight, BMI and Ponderal Index at discharge, and weight gain, neither testing for a dominant, additive nor for a recessive model.Since an association of the polymorphisms with weight gain has been demonstrated in multiple populations, the lack of association in a population of preterm infants with regular tube feeding after birth and highly controlled feeding volumes provides evidence for the hypothesis that these polymorphisms affect food intake behavior and hunger rather than metabolism and energy consumption.

  16. Bisphenol A and Adiposity in an Inner-City Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Widen, Elizabeth M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Mueller, Noel T.; Diaz, Diurka; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Objectives: We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (β = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (β = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (β = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05). Conclusions: Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Citation: Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644–1650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205 PMID:27187982

  17. [Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and fetal outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, X; Xu, Y Q; Huang, S H; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Hao, J H; Niu, Y; Yan, S Q; Tao, F B

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the relations between the second and third trimesters intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and the fetal outcomes, in order to provide medical advice for early detection and intervention on ICP. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Ma' anshan, Anhui, China (Ma'anshan Birth Cohort, MABC). Pregnant women within 14 weeks of gestation were consecutively recruited when standards were met. Anthropometrics were collected in early pregnancy. Maternal serum total bile acid level (TBA) was collected in the second and third trimesters, and women were viewed as cases if the results were accorded with clinical diagnosis. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations of the second and third trimester ICP, and fetal outcomes. A total of 2 978 pregnant women were included in this study. The rate of ICP was 6.5% (n=196), and the rates of the second and third trimesters were 1.4% (n=43) and 5.1% (n=153) respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, we found that ICP from both the second and third trimesters could increase the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), fetal distress and meconium-stained amniotic fluid.OR values (95% CI) were 6.42 (2.59-15.93) and 3.73 (2.07-6.72) for preterm birth while 6.52 (2.19-19.45) and 4.90 (2.43-9.90) for LBW, 2.91 (1.27-6.67) and 1.88 (1.11-3.19) for fetal distress and 2.34 (1.19-4.61) and 1.66 (1.11-2.48) for meconium-stained amniotic fluids, respectively. The risk of adverse fetal outcomes caused by the second trimester ICP appeared significantly higher than the third trimester ICP. ICP from the second and third trimesters significantly increased the risk of adverse fetal outcomes, suggesting that clinicians should put more attention to the second trimester ICP. Both early detection and intervention were of great importance in reducing the adverse fetal outcomes.

  18. A study of the birth weight-obesity relation using a longitudinal cohort and sibling and twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Natalie S; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-09-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994-2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11-21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Among persons with a nonobese mother, high birth weight (>4 kg) participants were more likely than normal birth weight (>/=2.5-the authors examined longitudinal within-pair differences. Birth weight difference was positively associated with body mass index difference later in life for female monozygotic pairs only (beta = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 4.35). Given the null associations observed in the sibling sample, the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity from cohort analyses may be attributed to confounding by maternal characteristics. Further research is needed to identify specific factors that contribute to the birth weight-obesity relation.

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Genes Are Associated with Measures of Cognitive Ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease patients have deficits in specific cognitive domains, and susceptibility genes for this disease may influence human cognition in nondemented individuals. To evaluate the role of Alzheimer's disease-linked genetic variation on cognition and normal cognitive ageing, we investigated two Scottish cohorts for which assessments in major cognitive domains are available: the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 and the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936, consisting of 505 and 998 individuals, respectively. 158 SNPs from eleven genes were evaluated. Single SNP analyses did not reveal any statistical association after correction for multiple testing. One haplotype from TRAPPC6A was associated with nonverbal reasoning in both cohorts and combined data sets. This haplotype explains a small proportion of the phenotypic variability (1.8%. These findings warrant further investigation as biological modifiers of cognitive ageing.

  20. [Evaluating the implementation of Information System on Live Births in municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Meira, Antônio José de; Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta da

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of implementation of the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) and its relationship to the organizational context in municipalities (counties) of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2010. The sample included 132 municipalities that had healthcare facilities providing childbirth care and the decentralized SINASC. Data collection used a semi-structured questionnaire. Degree of implementation was defined by a scoring system with different weights for each indicator, according to the respective levels of importance assigned to them, using the following classification: adequate, inadequate, and critical. Data analysis used the median as the summary measure and the Pearson chi-square test for comparison of proportions. SINASC is not adequately implemented in the majority of the municipalities in the sample. Population size and quality of the municipal administration did not influence the degree of implementation. In terms of organization of information in the SINASC, the structure was evaluated as better than the process. Limitations included lack of qualified staff, unsatisfactory collection and completion of certificates of live birth, underutilization of data, and limited publication of the information.

  1. The right to have a family: 'legal trafficking of children', adoption and birth control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the 'child-trafficking scandals' that occurred in Brazil in the 1990s. Ethnographic research was carried out between 2000 and 2001 within a movement of poor families formed in São Paulo to put pressure on the authorities to review the legal procedures that had led to their children being placed for national and international adoption. Fieldwork was supplemented by other data, including reports by legislative bodies, articles in the press, and case files involving the termination of parental rights. This paper explores views on international adoption among members of the Brazilian elites such as judges, agents in the field of child protection and journalists, in the context of old but persistent neo-Malthusian ideas. Although the Brazilian birth rate is now below the replacement level, it is still common to blame 'irresponsible' reproduction among the urban poor for violence in large cities. Drawing a parallel with the routine sterilization of women that prevailed for decades and was encouraged by Brazilian physicians, the paper examines how, in a 'struggle against poverty', judicial agents took it upon themselves to enforce 'birth control' through adoption, bypassing family consent and the law in the process. The paper concludes by arguing that discrimination against poor families who are viewed as disorganized, immoral and irresponsible - characteristics frequently associated with criminality by a sector of the elites - has contributed to the view that lower-class families do not have the right to bear children, or to keep them.

  2. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Tessa J Roseboom; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a n...

  3. Critical assessment of the research outcomes of European birth cohorts: linking environmental factors with non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piler, P; Kandrnal, V; Bláha, L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this review paper was to stimulate collaborative discussions toward the development of a general concept of an open source protocol for a feasible and efficient longitudinal birth cohort study exploring non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their multifactorial etiology and relations between various risk factors. The present paper systematically reviews the design of existing birth cohorts in Europe containing environmental exposure data, and assesses a quantity and quality of their research outcomes as their potential to be an effective tool for studying non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. European birth cohorts with more than 3000 participants have been included in the study. A total number of scientific papers published in the internationally recognized journals and their impact factors and citation records were evaluated for all cohorts as surrogates for their efficiency to contribute to NCDs understanding and thus their prevention. The birth cohorts contributing most significantly to the NCD understanding shared common features: (i) study size between 10,000 and 15,000 mother-child pairs; (ii) repeated assessment of children from prenatal into adulthood; and (iii) availability of biological samples. Smaller cohorts and cohorts with a specific focus generated a lower number of publications; however, these often received considerably a higher number of citations. General cohort studies with 10,000-15,000 mother-child pairs allow a broader context interpretation, publish a higher number of articles, and often lead to the formation of infrastructures for 'spin-off (nested) studies'. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. METHOD: Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.

  5. Multilevel analysis of the association between posterior restorations and gingival health in young adults: a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Horta, Bernardo; Barros, Aluísio J; Peres, Karen Glazer; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the association of direct posterior restorations with gingival bleeding and dental calculus in young adults from a birth cohort. A representative sample (n = 720) of 5914 infants born live in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1982, were prospectively investigated, and posterior restorations and periodontal health outcomes assessed when they were 24 years of age. Tooth-level exploratory variables included the presence and number of restoration's surfaces. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics, oral health instructions, dental floss usage, dental caries presence and smoking were also considered whilst gingival bleeding and dental calculus were the outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression was carried out. Class I cavities were found in 15.2% (95% CI 14.5-15.9) of the teeth and class II in 3.6% (3.3-4.0). Percentage of teeth with gingival bleeding was 6.1% (5.6-6.6) and that with dental calculus 22% (21.2-22.8). Even after all the individual variables were controlled for, the presence of a class I [OR1.51 (1.14-2.00)] and class II [OR 1.76 (1.04-2.97)] cavities was positively associated with gingival bleeding. Class I [OR1.36 (1.13-1.65)] and Class II [OR1.80 (1.28-2.53)] cavities were associated with dental calculus also. Posterior restoration and higher number of restored surfaces was associated with a higher prevalence of gingival bleeding and dental calculus around the restoration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: a comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Messer, Lynne C; Laraia, Barbara A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    Birth records are an important source of data for examining population-level birth outcomes, but questions about the reliability of these vital records exist. We sought to assess the reliability of birth certificate data by comparing them with data from a large prospective cohort. Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort study participants were matched with their birth certificates to assess agreement for maternal demographics, health behaviours, previous pregnancies and major pregnancy events. Agreement among categorical variables was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa statistics; for continuous variables, Spearman's correlations and concordance correlation coefficients were used. The majority of variables had high agreement between the two data sources, especially for maternal demographic and birth outcome variables. Variables measuring anaemia, gestational diabetes and alcohol consumption showed the lowest correlations. Number of cigarettes smoked and number of previous pregnancies differed by education categories. For most variables, birth records appear to be a good source of reliable information. With the exception of a few variables that differed by education, most variables did not differ by stratum of race or education. Our research further supports the use of birth certificates as a reliable source of population-level data.

  7. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  8. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife: the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the association between social disadvantage in childhood and adult mortality could come about through processes related to the family environment in which the child is raised. This study examines the relationship of fathers' social class with health behaviour...... in middle age and assesses the potential mediating role of cognitive function, educational status and social integration in young adulthood in these relationships. METHODS: We used data from the Metropolit cohort which includes 11 532 Danish men born in 1953 with information on fathers' social class...... at participants' birth and assessments of cognitive performance, education and social integration in early adulthood. In 2004, 6292 of these men participated in a follow-up survey on health and behaviour. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of father's social class with smoking, alcohol...

  9. Association of bacteria and viruses with wheezy episodes in young children: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stokholm, Jakob; Baty, Florent; Skytt, Nanna Lassen; Aniscenko, Julia; Kebadze, Tatiana; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2010-10-04

    To study the association between wheezy symptoms in young children and the presence of bacteria in the airways. Birth cohort study. Clinical research unit in Copenhagen. Children of asthmatic mothers, from age 4 weeks to 3 years, with planned visits and acute admissions to the research clinic. Frequency of bacteria and virus carriage in airway aspirates during wheezy episodes and at planned visits without respiratory symptoms. 984 samples (361 children) were analysed for bacteria, 844 (299 children) for viruses, and 696 (277 children) for both viruses and bacteria. Wheezy episodes were associated with both bacterial infection (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.3; Pvirus infection (2.8, 1.7 to 4.4; Pbacteria and viruses were independent of each other. Acute wheezy episodes in young children were significantly associated with bacterial infections similar to but independent of the association with virus infections.

  10. Correlation between the Cogstate computerized measure and WAIS-IV among birth cohort mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataja, Eeva-Leena; Karlsson, Linnea; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Parsons, Christine; Schembri, Adrian; Kiiski-Mäki, Hanna; Karlsson, Hasse

    2017-03-01

    Large studies, with limited resources call for cost-effective cognitive assessment methods. Computerized tests offer viable alternatives but more data are needed on their functioning. Our aim was to evaluate the overlap between a computerized neuropsychological test battery and a traditional test of general intelligence (IQ). Cognitive functioning was assessed in birth cohort mothers (n = 80) with two widely used methods: Cogstate, computerized test battery, and WAIS-IV, a traditional IQ test. Correlational analyses were conducted. We found weak-to-moderate correlations between the measures, except for verbal comprehension. The indices of overall performance showed more consistent correlations than Subtests. The overall correlations were in accordance with earlier studies. Cogstate is relatively independent of verbal comprehension abilities. The choice of the cognitive assessment method should be strongly guided by the research question. More studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of the Cogstate Composite Score in cognitive screening.

  11. Adolescent self-organization predicts midlife memory in a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man K; Jones, Peter B; Barnett, Jennifer H; Gaysina, Darya; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J; Richards, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60-64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body......OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  13. Fatores associados à interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno: um estudo de coorte de nascimento em dois municípios do Recôncavo da Bahia, Brasil Factors associated with early breastfeeding cessation: a birth cohort study in two municipalities in the Recôncavo region, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Demétrio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar a duração mediana e os fatores associados à interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno. Envolveu uma coorte de nascimento de 531 crianças acompanhadas até os dois anos de idade em dois municípios do Recôncavo da Bahia, Brasil. Utilizaram-se a análise de sobrevivência e o modelo multivariado de Cox. A duração mediana foi de 74,73, 211,25 e 432,63 dias, respectivamente, para o aleitamento materno exclusivo, misto complementado e total. A ausência materna ao pré-natal elevou em 173% (HR = 2,73; IC95%: 1,89-3,93 o risco de diminuir a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo, em 83% (HR = 1,83; IC95%: 1,06-3,16 o risco da adoção do aleitamento misto complementado e em 38% (HR = 1,38; IC95%: 1,06-1,81 o risco da descontinuidade do aleitamento materno. O trabalho materno fora do domicílio e a área de residência urbana aumentaram o risco para interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno. A ampliação do acesso ao pré-natal e da rede de proteção às mães que trabalham fora do domicilio e àquelas que residem na área urbana poderia aumentar a duração da amamentação no Recôncavo da Bahia.This study aimed to identify the median duration of breastfeeding and associated factors in a cohort of 531 infants in two municipalities in the Recôncavo region, Bahia State, Brazil. Breastfeeding duration was estimated by survival analysis and its associations by the Cox ultivariate model. Median duration of exclusive breastfeeding, mixed breastfeeding with complementary feeding, and total breastfeeding was 74.73, 211.25, and 432.63 days, respectively. Lack of prenatal care increased the risk of shortening exclusive breastfeeding by 173% (HR = 2.73; 95%CI: 1.89-3.93, of adopting mixed breastfeeding with complementary feeding by 83% (HR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.06-3.16, and of discontinuing breastfeeding entirely by 38% (HR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.06-1.81. Both maternal employment and residence in an urban area

  14. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  15. Association between parental socioeconomic status with underweight and obesity in children from two Spanish birth cohorts: a changing relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Mota, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2015-12-22

    Our objective was twofold: to estimate the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in two birth cohorts (1999-2000 and 2007-2008) from Castilla-La Mancha, Spain; and to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and weight status in these two cohorts. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements was utilised in two cluster randomised trials. Using population-based samples of children from Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, 1158 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, born in the years 1999-2000 and 1588 children with a mean age of 5.3 years born in the years 2007-2008 participated. Children were classified according to the body mass index cut-offs proposed by the International Obesity Task Force criteria. An index of SES was calculated using questions regarding parental education and occupation levels. Prevalence of underweight was higher in the 2007-2008 birth cohort (20.5%, 95 % CI: 18.5, 22.5) than in the 1999-2000 birth cohort (8.1%, 95% CI: 6.5, 9.7), and the overweight/obesity prevalence was 20.4% (95% CI: 18.4, 22.5) and 35.5% (95% CI: 32.7, 38.3) respectively. In the lower SES stratum, in the 2007-2008 birth cohort, the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was 36.7% (95% CI: 22.2, 51.2) and 16.3% (95% CI: 4.9, 27.7) respectively, and 22.2% (95% CI: 2.8, 60.0) and 55.5% (95% CI: 21.2, 86.3) in the 1999-2000 cohort. The ratio between underweight:overweight/obesity showed higher values for all SES categories in 2007-2008 cohort, but particularly in the lower SES group (0.4 in the 1999-2000 cohort and 2.2 in the 2007-2008 cohort). Underweight prevalence was lower in the cohort of children born in 1999-2000, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower in the cohort of children born in 2007-2008. Furthermore, while in the 1999-2000 children's cohort underweight was more frequent amongst children from high SES families and overweight/obesity was more frequent in children from low SES families, in the 2008

  16. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  17. Manganese exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and size at birth: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Kippler, Maria; Ahmed, Sultan; Palm, Brita; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2015-06-01

    The essential element manganese (Mn) might be toxic at excess exposure. We assessed the impact of elevated Mn exposure through drinking water during pregnancy on birth size in a population-based cohort(n = 1695) in rural Bangladesh. Concentrations of water Mn (median = 236 μg/L, range = 7.1-6336; n = 1177) and erythrocyte Mn (median = 30 μg/kg, range = 6.3-114; n = 758) were measured using ICP-MS. In regression analyses, newborns of women in the highest tertile of water Mn (median = 1495 μg/L) were 0.49 cm (0.20 SD) shorter (B = -0.42; 95% CI: -0.77, -0.08) than those in the lowest tertile (56μg/L). The inverse association was significant in girls and also in boys of mothers with lowest hemoglobin values, likely due to higher absorption of Mn. Manganese concentrations in water and erythrocytes did not correlate, and the associations of the latter with birth size were less obvious. This study suggests that consumption of water with highly elevated Mn levels during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National BirthCohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, L; Andersen, AM;

    2006-01-01

    asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox...... regression, and odds ratios (ORs) of preterm birth and small for gestational age were calculated by using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, there were no significant differences in pregnancy outcomes between laboratory technicians and teachers. However, we found that laboratory technicians working...... with radioimmunoassay or radiolabelling had an increased risk of preterm birth (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 6.2 for radioimmunoassay, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.8 to 4.6 for radiolabelling) and "major" malformations (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7 for radioimmunoassay, and HR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.7 for radiolabelling). The ORs...

  19. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  20. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  1. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  2. Postnatal Risk of Acquiring Kawasaki Disease: A Nationwide Birth Cohort Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lin, Min-Tai; Chen, Hui-Chi; Kao, Feng-Yu; Huang, San-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease and coronary complications from a nationwide birth cohort in Taiwan, a country with the third-highest incidence of Kawasaki disease worldwide. We enrolled children born between 2000 and 2009 with complete postnatal medical care records for 2000-2014 in the Taiwan national database. Out of a total of 2 150 590 live births, we identified 6690 (62.6% boys) patients with Kawasaki disease. The onset was mostly (93.9%) within the first 5 years of life (median, 16 months; 38% during infancy), but was rare within the first 3 months of life. The overall cumulative incidence of Kawasaki disease by age 5 years was 2.78‰ (3.33‰ for boys and 2.17‰ for girls; P Kawasaki disease recurred more often in younger patients (cumulative incidence, 2.3% in infants vs 1.7% in children aged 1-4 years). Coronary complications occurred in 16.2% of the patients, including 4 cases of acute myocardial infarction (3 occuring during the acute stage and 1 occurring 5 years later). The probability of a major cardiac event (infarction, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting, or death) by adolescence was 1.9%. The postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease was 3‰-4‰ and increased with every birth year. Patients with Kawasaki disease are at substantial risk for a major cardiac events during childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational age and neonatal brain microstructure in term born infants: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birit F P Broekman

    Full Text Available Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37-41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth.A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy.Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001, as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001.Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst 'term' infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb.

  4. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  5. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children--results of a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-08-07

    Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) were measured at the age of 3 years by one calibrated clinician using a vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm; Münchner Modell 042-751-00, Germany). A regular parent survey was conducted to assess risk factors for development of malocclusion. Three hundred seventy seven children (mean age 3.31 ± 0.70 years; 52.5% male) were examined. Children had a mean overjet of 2.4 ± 0.8 mm and the mean overbite was 0.8 ± 1.2 mm; 58.8 % of the children had a normal overjet ≤ 3 mm and 88.8% a normal overbite with overjet ≥ 3 mm, 40.8% Class II/III canine relationship, 3.4% posterior crossbite). All children who sucked the thumb had a malocclusion. Children who used a pacifier had greater odds of having a malocclusion at age of 3 years than children without pacifier use (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.87-6.05). Malocclusion and dental trauma were associated, but not statistically significant (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 0.99-3.34; p = 0.062). Malocclusion was not associated with gender, migration background, low socioeconomic status, preterm birth, special health care needs, breathing or dietary patterns (p > 0.05). Non-nutritive sucking habits were important risk factors for development of a malocclusion in the primary dentition.

  6. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  7. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  8. The joint influence of marital status, interpregnancy interval, and neighborhood on small for gestational age birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuquan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.

  9. Environments For Healthy Living (EFHL Griffith birth cohort study: characteristics of sample and profile of antenatal exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Cate M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL study is a repeated sample, longitudinal birth cohort in South East Queensland, Australia. We describe the sample characteristics and profile of maternal, household, and antenatal exposures. Variation and data stability over recruitment years were examined. Methods Four months each year from 2006, pregnant women were recruited to EFHL at routine antenatal visits on or after 24 weeks gestation, from three public maternity hospitals. Participating mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on individual, familial, social and community exposure factors. Perinatal data were extracted from hospital birth records. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were calculated comparing the EFHL birth sample with regional and national reference populations. Data stability of antenatal exposure factors was assessed across five recruitment years (2006–2010 inclusive using the Gamma statistic for ordinal data and chi-squared for nominal data. Results Across five recruitment years 2,879 pregnant women were recruited which resulted in 2904 live births with 29 sets of twins. EFHL has a lower representation of early gestational babies, fewer still births and a lower percentage of low birth weight babies, when compared to regional data. The majority of women (65% took a multivitamin supplement during pregnancy, 47% consumed alcohol, and 26% reported having smoked cigarettes. There were no differences in rates of a range of antenatal exposures across five years of recruitment, with the exception of increasing maternal pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0349, decreasing rates of high maternal distress (p=0.0191 and decreasing alcohol consumption (p Conclusions The study sample is broadly representative of births in the region and almost all factors showed data stability over time. This study, with repeated sampling of birth cohorts over multiple years, has the potential to make important contributions to

  10. Incidence of maternal near miss in hospital childbirth and postpartum: data from the Birth in Brazil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Brum, Ione Rodrigues; Martins, Alaerte Leandro; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Carmo Leal, Maria do

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated data on the incidence of maternal near miss identified on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria from the Birth in Brazil survey. The study was conducted between February 2011 and October 2012. The results presented are estimates for the study population (2,337,476 births), based on a sample of 23,894 women interviewed. The results showed an incidence of maternal near miss of 10.21 per 1,000 live births and a near-miss-to-mortality ratio of 30.8 maternal near miss to every maternal death. Maternal near miss was identified most prevalently by clinical criteria, at incidence of 5.2 per 1,000 live births. Maternal near miss was associated with maternal age 35 or more years (RR=1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.5), a history of previous cesarean delivery (RR=1.9; 95%CI: 1.1-3.4) and high-risk pregnancy (RR=4.5; 95%CI: 2.8-7.0). incidence of maternal near miss was also higher at hospitals in capital cities (RR=2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-3.8) and those belonging to Brazil's national health service, the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) (RR=3.2; 95%CI: 1.6-6.6). Improved quality of childbirth care services can help reduce maternal mortality in Brazil.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  12. Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children.

  13. Tobacco smoking and cannabis use in a longitudinal birth cohort: evidence of reciprocal causal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Boden, Joseph M; De Pirro, Silvana; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Harold, Gordon T

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence of associations between tobacco and cannabis use that are consistent with both a classical stepping-stone scenario that posits the transition from tobacco use to cannabis use ('gateway' effect of tobacco) and with the reverse process leading from cannabis use to tobacco abuse ('reverse gateway' effect of cannabis). The evidence of direct causal relationships between the two disorders is still missing. We analysed data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) longitudinal birth cohort using advanced statistical modelling to control for fixed sources of confounding and to explore causal pathways. The data were analysed using both: (a) conditional fixed effects logistic regression modelling; and (b) a systematic structural equation modelling approach previously developed to investigate psychiatric co-morbidities in the same cohort. We found significant (pcannabis use and tobacco smoking and vice versa, after controlling for non-observed fixed confounding factors and for a number of time-dynamic covariate factors (major depression, alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorder, stressful life events, deviant peer affiliations). Furthermore, increasing levels of tobacco smoking were associated with increasing cannabis use (p=0.02) and vice versa (pcannabis use arises from a reciprocal feedback loop involving simultaneous causation between tobacco use disorder and cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Ängquist, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal body mass...... index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. DESIGN: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal interviews...... during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  15. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. CONCLUSIONS: Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  16. Inverse birth cohort effects in ovarian cancer : Increasing risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and decreasing risk in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janet R.; Mourits, Marian J.; Teixeira, Natalia; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. BRCA1/2 carriers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, and some reports suggest an increasing risk in more recent birth cohorts. In contrast, decreasing incidences have been observed in the general population. The aim was to assess the birth cohort effect on ovarian cancer risk in BRCA

  17. Inverse birth cohort effects in ovarian cancer : Increasing risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and decreasing risk in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janet R.; Mourits, Marian J.; Teixeira, Natalja; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. BRCA1/2 carriers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, and some reports suggest an increasing risk in more recent birth cohorts. In contrast, decreasing incidences have been observed in the general population. The aim was to assess the birth cohort effect on ovarian cancer risk in BRCA

  18. The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias-Llimós, Sergi; Bijlsma, Maarten J; Janssen, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding why inequalities in alcohol-related mortality trends by sex and country exist, is essential for developing health policies. Birth cohort effects, indicative of differences by generation in drinking, have rarely been studied. This study estimated the relative contri

  19. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study ...

  20. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E.S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A.C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS:

  1. Risk Factors for Deformational Plagiocephaly at Birth and at 7 Weeks of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlimmeren, van Leo A.; Graaf, van der Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at bir

  2. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  3. Associations of maternal o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE levels with birth outcomes in a Bolivian cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P.; Cuellar, Miriam; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential association of maternal serum levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with gestation time and with anthropometric measurements and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of newborns in a Bolivian birth cohort. Two hundred mothers were consecutively recruited between Ja...

  4. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life-The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, Leanne K.; L'Abee, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Methods In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length

  5. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998-2002 ( N=344,160). Linking the DNBC ( N=91,442) and the general population to the Danish national health registries, all children were followed until they received an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, had a prescription of psychotropic medication or to the end of follow-up in 2013. The prevalence ratios (PRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each psychiatric diagnosis and by sex. Age at first diagnosis presented as means were compared using the one-sample t-test. In the DNBC, the selected childhood psychiatric diagnoses were underrepresented by 3% (PR=0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), ranging from a 20% underrepresentation for schizophrenia (PR=0.80, 95% CI 0.59-1.09) to a 6% over-representation for anxiety disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (PR=1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.17). The majority of the specific diagnoses were modestly underrepresented in the DNBC compared to the general population, while use of psychotropic medication had similar representation. Girls were generally more underrepresented than boys. Depression was on average diagnosed 0.4 years earlier in the DNBC than in the general population ( p=0.023). These findings suggest that the social selection may influence the prevalence of diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders in the DNBC.

  6. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijasevich Alicia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%, while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%. In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight.

  7. Factors associated with prevalence of oral lesions and oral self-examination in young adults from a birth cohort in Southern Brazil Factores asociados a la prevalencia de lesiones bucales y a la realización del autoexamen bucal en adultos jóvenes de una cohorte de nacidos vivos del sur de Brasil Fatores associados à prevalência de lesões bucais e à realização do autoexame bucal em adultos jovens de uma coorte de nascidos vivos do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Britto Correa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of oral lesions and oral self-examination and the association between these variables and life course determinants in a young population. A representative sample (n = 720 of all births occurring in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1982, was investigated and the outcomes were assessed in 2006. Data regarding exploratory variables was collected from other cohort waves. The prevalence of oral lesions was 23.3% (95%CI: 20.3-26.6. A total of 31% of individuals (95%CI: 27.6-34.4 reported never having performed oral self-examination. Multivariable analysis showed that low socio-economic status at birth, lack of oral hygiene instruction from a dentist up to the age of 15 years and smoking habits at the age of 22 year were associated with the presence of oral lesions. Performing oral self-examination was associated with high levels of maternal schooling at birth and having received oral hygiene orientation from a dentist up to the age of 15 years. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are associated with both presence of oral mucosal lesions and the habit of performing self-examination.El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia y características de lesiones bucales, autoexamen bucal, y sus asociaciones con determinantes a lo largo de la vida, en una población de adultos jóvenes. Fue investigada una muestra representativa (n = 720 de los nacidos en Pelotas, Río Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1982, y la presencia de lesiones bucales y realización del autoexamen fueron verificadas a los 24 años. Las variables independientes se obtuvieron de otros seguimientos de esta cohorte. La prevalencia de lesiones bucales fue de un 23,3% (IC95%: 20,3-26,6 y un 31% de los individuos (IC95%: 27,6-34,4 relató no haber realizado nunca el autoexamen de la boca. El análisis multivariable mostró que el bajo nivel socioeconómico en el momento del nacimiento, el no haber recibido instrucci

  8. Relationship between overweight/obesity in the first year of age and traumatic dental injuries in early childhood: Findings from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tássia Silvana; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2017-10-01

    The impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in the primary dentition on oral health-related quality of life indicates the need for the planning of prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess whether anthropometric characteristics in early life are associated with TDI by preschool age MATERIALS AND METHODS: A birth cohort was recruited from the public healthcare system in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Socio-demographic variables, type of birth, head circumference, weight and length were collected at birth (WHO standards). Head circumference, body mass index for age and height for age were collected at 12 months. TDI (Andreasen criteria) at three years of age (n = 458) were recorded by two examiners who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Multivariable analysis was carried out with Poisson regression with robust variance RESULTS: A total of 31.0% of the children (142/458) exhibited TDI at three years of age. In the final model, the risk of TDI was 47% higher among children with a smaller head circumference upon birth and nearly 60% higher among those who were overweight/obese at 12 months of age (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.15-2.17). The risk of TDI was also significantly higher among boys (RR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-2.00), but the outcome was not significantly associated with socioeconomic variables or other anthropometric variables CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity in early life is a risk factor for TDI in preschool children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health – Goals, challenges, limitations and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of “why”, “what” and “how” behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural “experiments” (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose–response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better

  11. Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and livebirth outcomes in Brazil, 2007-13: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Laura B; Siqueira, Cláudio M; Coelho, Giovanini E; Siqueira, João B

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is a major public health challenge in Brazil. We assessed the relationship between symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes in the country between 2007 and 2013. We did a retrospective observational cohort study using information reported in the Brazilian national reportable disease information system (SINAN) and the livebirth information system (SINASC) databases. We probabilistically linked confirmed dengue-positive and dengue-negative pregnancies with live childbirths using Fine-Grained Record Integration and Linkage (FRIL) software. We also included an external reference population of randomly selected newborn babies. Pregnancy was adopted as the unit of analysis. We assessed the relationship between symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for relevant covariates. 3898 dengue-positive pregnant women, 3165 dengue-negative women, and 3898 newborn babies from the reference population were included in the analysis. Preterm birth occurred in 322 (8·4%) of 3821 cases in the dengue-positive group versus 324 (10·4%) of 3101 in the dengue-negative group (unadjusted analysis: relative risk [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·70-0·93; adjusted analysis: odds ratio [OR] 1·26, 95% CI 1·06-1·49, p=0·006) and 349 (9·1%) of 3818 in the reference population (RR 0·92, 0·80-1·07; OR 0·98, 0·83-1·16, p=0·84). The prevalence of low birthweight (dengue-positive women and dengue-negative women (8·3% [322 of 3897] vs 9·8% [310 of 3163]; OR 1·17, 95% CI 0·99-1·39, p=0·07), and in the reference population (8·3% vs 9·0% [350 of 3895]; OR 1·00, 0·85-1·17, p=0·97). The prevalence of malformations did not differ significantly for the dengue-positive group (27 [0·7%] of 3789) versus the dengue-negative group (27 [0·9%] of 3059, p=0·51) or versus the reference population (32 [0·9%] of 3738, p=0·56). In the adjusted analysis, the risk of preterm birth

  12. Impact on pregnancies in south Brazil from the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic: cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Anjos da Silva

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The emergence of a new subtype of the influenza virus in 2009 generated interest in the international medical community, the media, and the general population. Pregnant women are considered to be a group at risk of serious complications related to the H1N1 influenza virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and teratogenic effects of pregnancies exposed to the H1N1 virus during the Influenza A epidemic that occurred in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 2009. METHODS: This is an uncontrolled prospective cohort study of pregnant women with suspected symptoms of Influenza A who were reported in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases-Influenza (SINAN-Influenza during the epidemic of 2009 (database from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There were 589 cases of pregnant women with suspected infection. Among these, 243 were tested by PCR and included in the analysis. The main outcome measures were: maternal deaths, pregnancy outcome, stillbirths, premature births, low birth weight, congenital malformations, and odds ratios for H1N1+ and non-H1N1 pregnant women. RESULTS: There were one hundred and sixty-three (67% confirmed cases of H1N1, 34 cases (14% of seasonal Influenza A and 46 (19% who were negative for Influenza A. There was no difference between the three groups in clinical parameters of the disease. There were 24 maternal deaths--18 of them had H1N1. There were 8 stillbirths--5 were children of H1N1 infected mothers. There were no differences in perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The present data do not indicate an increase in teratogenic risk from exposure to the influenza A (H1N1 virus. These results will help to strengthen the data and clarify the health issues that arose after the pandemic.

  13. Early life origins of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela B von Bondorff

    Full Text Available There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP. Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career.10 682 people born in 1934-44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions.Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4 for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6 for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight. For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007.Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial.

  14. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282

  15. Temporal trend in the reported birth prevalence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate in Brazil, 2000 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Lee, Kyu Ha; Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Starr, Jacqueline Rose

    2016-09-01

    The birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in Brazil increased between the years from 1975 to 1994 but has not been evaluated for temporal trend since then. We used data from the Brazilian National Health Information System for the years 2000 through 2013. We calculated the reported CL/P birth prevalence each year per 10,000 live births and estimated the average increase in reported prevalence per year (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) by fitting a negative binomial regression model. We also estimated the temporal trend in each of the five Brazilian regions for this time period. The overall reported birth prevalence was 4.85 (95% CI, 4.78-4.91) per 10,000 live births. The reported birth prevalence of CL/P increased over this time period, from 3.94 (95% CI, 3.73-4.17) per 10,000 in 2000 to 5.46 (95% CI, 5.20-5.74) per 10,000 in 2013. The temporal trend differed for different Brazilian geographic regions, being confined primarily to the Northeast (4.7% per year; 95% CI, 4.0%-5.5%), North (3.3% per year; 95% CI, 1.8%-4.7%), and Central (2.9% per year; 95% CI, 0.9%-4.9%) regions. In recent years, there appears to be an upward trend in the reported prevalence of CL/P in Brazil, confined to the less developed regions of the country. The increase likely reflects improved surveillance; whether it also reflects etiologic differences is unknown. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:789-792, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Food insecurity and children's mental health: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melchior

    Full Text Available Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals' dietary needs is concurrently associated with children's psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children's mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997-1998 (n = 2120. Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children's mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%, aggression (26.2%, and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%. The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.79 and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68-5.55. After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child's birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16-6.06. Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children's mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development.

  17. Breastfeeding and the development of asthma and atopy during childhood: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Semic-Jusufagic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Within the context of a population based-birth cohort, we investigated the association between breastfeeding and development of asthma and atopy in childhood. Methods. Children (n=1072 were followed from birth and reviewed at age one, three, five and eight years. Based on the onset and resolution of symptoms, we assigned children into the wheeze phenotypes (never, transient, intermittent, lateonset and persistent. Atopy was determined by skin testing and specific IgE measurement. According to the duration of breastfeeding, participants were assigned as not breastfed, breastfed ≤ four months and breastfed > four months. Results. In a multinomial regression model adjusted for gender, we found that breastfeeding > four months was protective of transient early wheeze (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.90, p=0.01, with no significant association between breastfeeding and other wheeze phenotypes. In a multivariate model, we found a significant protective effect of breastfeeding >four months on doctor-diagnosed asthma by age eight (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88, p=0.01. However, we observed a strong trend which failed to reach statistical significance for breastfeeding >four months to increase the risk of atopy at age one year (aOR 2.41, 95% CI 0.94-6.14, p=0.07. There was no significant association between breastfeeding and atopy at any other time point. Conclusion. Breastfeeding may prevent viral-infection induced wheezing illnesses in early childhood (transient early wheezing.

  18. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  19. Effects of the phthalate exposure during three gestation periods on birth weight and their gender differences: A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hui; Mao, Lei-Jing; Tao, Xing-Yong; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Wang, Qu-Nan; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Zhong-Xiu; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Ye-Qing; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Tao, Xu-Guang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2017-09-05

    Phthalate has been widely used as a type of plasticiser in various consuming products in daily life. Recent studies have suggested that prenatal phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on fetal development. We aimed to identify the effects of in utero phthalate exposure on birth weight (BW). We evaluated a birth cohort comprising 3474 pregnant women and their single infants; 3103, 2975 and 2838 urine samples were collected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Phthalate metabolites included monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which were analysed in the urine by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed linear model was used in the statistical analysis. Generally, MMP and MEP exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased birth weight of infants (MMP, β=-12.192, p=0.009; MEP, β=-11.876, p=0.014). Hierarchical analysis found that MMP and MEOHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight only in low birth weight groups (MMP, β=-42.538, p=0.005; MEOHP, β=-63.224, p=0.008); MEHP and MEHHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight in both low birth weight group (MEHP, β=-42.348, p=0.035; MEHHP, β=-50.485, p=0.006) and high birth weight group (MEHP, β=-16.580, p=0.034; MEHHP, β=-18.009, p=0.040), MBP and MEHP exposure were associated with increased infants' birth weight in male NBW group (MBP, β=10.438, p=0.039; MEHP, β=13.223, p=0.017). Moreover, the effect has sex difference. The reduction of birth weight associated with MEHP and MEOHP exposure was stronger in male infants, while MMP and MEP exposure was more significant in female infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cohort changes in cognitive function among Danish centenarians. A comparative study of 2 birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out...... of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini...

  1. The diversity of young adult wheeze: a cluster analysis in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulaaratchy, R J; Zhang, H; Raza, A; Patil, V; Karmaus, W; Ewart, S; Arshad, S H

    2014-01-01

    Cluster analyses have enhanced understanding of the heterogeneity of both paediatric and adult wheezing. However, while adolescence represents an important transitional phase, the nature of young adult wheeze has yet to be clearly characterised. To use cluster analysis to define, for the first time, clinically relevant young adult wheeze clusters in a longitudinal birth cohort. K-means cluster analysis was undertaken among 309 currently wheezing subjects at 18 years in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (N = 1456). Thirteen disease-characterising clustering variables at 18 years were used. Resulting clusters were then further characterised by severity indices plus potential risk factors for wheeze development throughout the 1st 18 years of life. Six wheeze clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (12.3%) male-early-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-normal-lung-function had male predominance, normal spirometry, low bronchodilator reversibility (BDR), intermediate bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), high atopy prevalence and more admissions. Cluster 2 (24.2%) early-childhood-onset-wheeze-with-intermediate-lung-function had no specific sex association, intermediate spirometry, BDR, BHR, more significant BTS step therapy and admissions. Cluster 3 (9.7%) female-early-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-impaired-lung-function showed female predominance, high allergic disease comorbidity, more severe BDR and BHR, greatest airflow obstruction, high smoking prevalence, higher symptom severity and admissions. Cluster 4 (19.4%) female-undiagnosed-wheezers had adolescent-onset non-atopic wheeze, low BDR and BHR, impaired but non-obstructed spirometry, high symptom frequency and highest smoking prevalence. Cluster 5 (24.6%) female-late-childhood-onset-wheeze-with-normal-lung-function showed no specific atopy association, normal spirometry, low BDR, BHR and symptom severity. Cluster 6 (9.7%) male-late-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-impaired-lung-function had high atopy and

  2. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards' health by birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Jaime; Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz G; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2017-01-05

    Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards' health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring's health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. We use data from the Bank of Spain's Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father's and mother's occupation on their offspring's health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals' health (p occupation exceeds that of mother's. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.48), when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98-0.99) when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959-1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39-0.59) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96-0.98), respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals' health has been significantly tempered for those at the bottom of the social scale. However, more efforts focused on the

  3. Descrição metodológica do uso de acelerometria para mensurar a prática de atividade física nas coortes de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993 e 2004 Descripción metodológica del uso de acelerómetros para medir la actividad física en las cohortes de nacimiento de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993 y 2004 Methodological description of accelerometry for measuring physical activity in the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva

    2013-03-01

    , se presenta un marco metodológico para el diseño de nuevos estudios de población sobre el tema, describiendo situaciones específicas de la experiencia y calificando la comprensión de la actividad física en el contexto de los estudios epidemiológicos.The aim of this study was to characterize the methodology of data collection on physical activity using accelerometry in two birth cohorts (2004 and 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, at the 6-7 and 18-year follow-up visits, respectively. During visits to the study headquarters for a health evaluation, cohort subjects received the accelerometer to be worn on the wrist for 5 to 8 days, after which the device was retrieved at their homes. Genea and GENEActiv triaxial estimators of gravity (g acceleration were employed. Accelerometry data were collected from 3,331 children (93.7% of those included in follow-up and 3,816 adolescents (99% of those in follow-up. The study characterizes the data collection methodology in more than 7,000 individuals and discusses issues in its implementation. It thus provides a methodological framework aimed at helping to plan future population-based studies with the use of such technology and to improve understanding of physical activity in the context of epidemiological studies.

  4. Allergic sensitisation in early childhood: Patterns and related factors in PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, Stephan; Just, Jocelyne; Couderc, Rémy; Seta, Nathalie; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0.35kUA/L. Information regarding lifestyle and environment were obtained from questionnaires prospectively administered. Prevalence of allergic sensitisation to any allergen, to food allergens, and to aeroallergens was 13.8%, 12.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Multiple sensitisation (to at least two allergens) concerned 6.2% of toddlers. Intrinsic factors such as male gender, family history of allergy, and high birth weight increased the risk of food allergen sensitisation and multiple sensitisation. Caesarean section was also positively associated with multiple sensitisation. Day-care attendance was negatively related to food allergen, aeroallergen, and multiple sensitisation. A cat entering the baby's room in early life was strongly associated with aeroallergen sensitisation (ORa 3.21, 95%CI: 1.29-8.01). An introduction of meat in infant's diet after 6 months of age was negatively related to food allergen sensitisation (ORa 0.46, 95%CI: 0.24-0.91). Our results suggest that intrinsic factors and indicators of exposure to microorganisms such as caesarean section and day-care attendance may be associated with inhalant as well as food allergen sensitisation in infancy. For example, male gender, family history of allergy, high birth weight, and caesarean section could be positively related whereas day-care attendance could be negatively related to both aeroallergen and food allergen sensitisation. Conversely, early life exposure to inhalant allergens or food allergens may be

  5. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; Pfood was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  6. [The effects of the parents' social class on infant and child death among 1995-2004 birth cohort in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mia; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Yong-Jun; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Choi, Jisook; Jin, Eunjeong; Jung, Sung-Tae; Park, Se-Jin

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the effect of parents' social class on infant and child mortality rates among the birth cohort, for the period of transition to and from the Koran economic crisis 1995-2004. All births reported to between 1995 and 2004 (n=5,711,337) were analyzed using a Cox regression model, to study the role of the social determinants of parents in infant and child mortality. The results were adjusted for the parents' age, education and occupation, together with mother's obstetrical history. The crude death rate among those under 10 was 3.71 per 1000 births (21,217 deaths among 5,711,337 births) between 1995 and 2004. The birth cohorts from lower educated parents less than elementary school showed higher mortality rates compared with those from higher educated parents over university level (HR:3.0 (95% CI:2.8-3.7) for father and HR:3.4 (95% CI:3.3-4.5) for mother). The mother's education level showed a stronger relationship with mortality among the birth cohort than that of the fathers'. The gaps in infant mortality rates by parents' social class, and educational level became wider from 1995 to 2004. In particular, the breadth of the existing gap between higher and lower parents' social class groups has dramatically widened since the economic crisis of 1998. This study shows that social differences exist in infant and child mortality rates. Also, the gap for the infant mortality due to social class has become wider since the economic crisis of 1998.

  7. Utilização de serviços de saúde por adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Utilización de servicios de salud por adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2005, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Pattern of health services utilization by adults of the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal S Dias-da-Costa

    2008-12-01

    acompañados hasta los 23 años. El desenlace fue definido por informaciones colectadas sobre consultas con profesionales de la salud realizadas en el año anterior a la entrevista entre 2004 y 2005. Los locales de consulta fueron clasificados como públicos, privados o seguros de salud. Los análisis descriptivos fueron realizados para utilización y tipo de servicio de salud. Regresión de Poisson fue utilizada en el análisis ajustado. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 72,0% tuvieron consulta con profesionales de la salud en el año anterior a la entrevista; 86,2% (IC 95% 84,7;87,7 de las mujeres y 59,3% (IC 95% 57,3;61,3 de los hombres. A pesar de que se excluyeron las consultas con ginecólogos, las mujeres continuaban más consultas que los hombres, 68,4% (IC 95% 66,4;70,4. La utilización de los servicios de salud fue más frecuente entre los entrevistados de mejor nivel socioeconómico. Diferencia de menor uso en relación al color de piel no blanca fue observada solamente entre los jóvenes del sexo masculino. Hubo diferencias en relación al tipo de profesional consultado por hombres y mujeres y también conforme a la renta familiar. Hombres y mujeres consultaron más frecuentemente el sistema público, los servicios por convenio y en menor proporción el sistema privado. CONCLUSIONES: La situación socioeconómica influencio la utilización y el tipo de servicio de salud, con hombres y mujeres clasificados como "pobres en el momento", indicando menor utilización de servicios. Tales diferencias socioeconómicas pueden ser indicativas de dificultades de acceso al sistema de salud.OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS: Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil, in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004

  8. Risk factors for preterm births in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria de Farias Aragão

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth continues to be one of the main causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The sample consisted of hospital births at 10 public and private hospitals from March 1, 1997 to February 28, 1998. A total of 2,443 live births were randomly selected, excluding multiple deliveries and stillbirths. Preterm birth rate in São Luís was 12.7%. Risk factors for preterm delivery were maternal age below 18 years, family income equal to or less than one minimum wage/ month, primiparity, vaginal delivery at a public hospital, single mothers (or living without a partner, and absence of prenatal care. The following factors remained associated with preterm birth after multivariate analysis to control for confounding: maternal age below 18 years (OR = 1.9, primiparity (OR = 1.5, and failure to appear for scheduled prenatal care visits (OR = 1.5.

  9. Risk factors for preterm births in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão Vânia Maria de Farias

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth continues to be one of the main causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The sample consisted of hospital births at 10 public and private hospitals from March 1, 1997 to February 28, 1998. A total of 2,443 live births were randomly selected, excluding multiple deliveries and stillbirths. Preterm birth rate in São Luís was 12.7%. Risk factors for preterm delivery were maternal age below 18 years, family income equal to or less than one minimum wage/ month, primiparity, vaginal delivery at a public hospital, single mothers (or living without a partner, and absence of prenatal care. The following factors remained associated with preterm birth after multivariate analysis to control for confounding: maternal age below 18 years (OR = 1.9, primiparity (OR = 1.5, and failure to appear for scheduled prenatal care visits (OR = 1.5.

  10. Psychiatric disorder in early adulthood and risk of premature mortality in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of the association between psychiatric disorder and premature death have adjusted for key confounders and used structured psychiatric interviews. We aimed to investigate if psychiatric disorder was associated with a higher risk of mortality and whether any excess mortality was due to suicide, or explained by other health or socioeconomic risk factors. Methods We used data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative UK birth cohort. 3283 men and women completed the Present State Examination at age 36. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality before age 60. Results Those with psychiatric disorder at age 36 had a higher risk of death even after adjusting for potential confounders (Hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% C.I. 1.22-2.78. Censoring violent deaths and suicides led to similar results. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder was associated with excess premature mortality not explained by suicide or other health or socioeconomic risk factors.

  11. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  12. Adolescent psychiatric symptoms following preschool childhood mild traumatic brain injury: evidence from a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Audrey; Grace, Randolph; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David; MacFarlane, Martin

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether childhood mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is associated with behavioral problems in adolescence. Children from a longitudinal birth cohort (initial N = 1265) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) inpatient group (n = 19) comprised children admitted to hospital for MTBI before age 5 years; (2) outpatient group (n = 57), children with any incidence of MTBI before age 5 seen by a general practitioner or at an accident and emergency department and sent home; (3) reference control group (n = 839). Maternal and self-report regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and alcohol or illicit substance abuse/dependence obtained using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) criteria. At age 14 to 16 years, children who had been hospitalized for MTBI during preschool years were significantly more likely to show symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratio = 4.2), conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio = 6.2), substance abuse (odds ratio = 3.6), and mood disorder (odds ratio = 3.1) but not anxiety disorder. Preschool MTBI is associated with persistent negative effects on psychosocial development. These continuing problems are consistent with the view that preschool years represent a period of particular vulnerability following MTBI.

  13. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  14. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, M; Madsen, M; Andersen, A-M N; Andersen, P K; Olsen, J

    2012-02-01

    Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88,200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups. In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking.

  15. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  16. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitrow, Melissa J; Moore, Vivienne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Davies, Michael J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the timing, dose, and source of folate during pregnancy on childhood asthma by using data from an Australian prospective birth cohort study (n = 557) from 1998 to 2005. At 3.5 years and 5.5 years, 490 and 423 mothers and children participated in the study, respectively. Maternal folate intake from diet and supplements was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in early (late (30-34 weeks) pregnancy. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma, obtained by maternal-completed questionnaire. Asthma was reported in 11.6% of children at 3.5 years (n = 57) and in 11.8% of children at 5.5 years (n = 50). Folic acid taken in supplement form in late pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma at 3.5 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.43) and with persistent asthma (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69). The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. The association was similar at 5.5 years but did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.42) in univariable models. These findings on childhood asthma support previous observations that supplementation with folate in pregnancy leads to an allergic asthma phenotype in mice via epigenetic mechanisms and is associated with poorer respiratory outcomes in young children.

  17. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  18. Labor induction and cesarean delivery: A prospective cohort study of first births in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerulff, Kristen H; Attanasio, Laura B; Edmonds, Joyce K; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Repke, John T

    2017-09-01

    Mode of delivery at first childbirth largely determines mode of delivery at subsequent births, so it is particularly important to understand risk factors for cesarean delivery at first childbirth. In this study, we investigated risk factors for cesarean delivery among nulliparous women, with focus on the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery. A prospective cohort study of 2851 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery at hospitals in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011, was conducted. We used nested logistic regression models and multiple mediational analyses to investigate the role of three groups of variables in explaining the association between labor induction and unplanned cesarean delivery-the confounders of maternal characteristics and indications for induction, and the mediating (intrapartum) factors-including cervical dilatation, labor augmentation, epidural analgesia, dysfunctional labor, dystocia, fetal intolerance of labor, and maternal request of cesarean during labor. More than a third of the women were induced (34.3%) and 24.8% underwent cesarean delivery. Induced women were more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.9%) than women in spontaneous labor (18.9%), unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.97-2.79). The intrapartum factors significantly mediated the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery (explaining 76.7% of this association), particularly cervical dilatation cesarean delivery after labor induction among nulliparous women is attributable mainly to lower cervical dilatation at hospital admission and higher rates of labor complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Amniotic Fluid Chemokines and Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study Utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls. Material...... and Methods A Danish historic birth cohort (HBC) kept at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen was utilized. Using data from Danish nation-wide health registers, a case-control study design of 414 cases and 820 controls was adopted. Levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology...... (elevated 90th percentile adjusted OR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.17 – 4.61]) compared to controls. An increased risk for infantile autism with elevated MCP-1 was also found (adjusted OR: 2.28 [95% CI: 1.16 – 4.48]). Elevated levels of MCP-1 may decipher an etiologic immunologic dysfunction or play rather an indirect...

  20. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  1. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  2. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  3. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent......) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female...

  4. Maternal social capital and birth outcomes in the mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, George; Vassilaki, Maria; Chatzi, Leda; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Philalithis, Anastassios E; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koutis, Antonis

    2011-12-01

    This cohort study aimed to estimate the effect of individual maternal social capital during pregnancy on birth outcomes in the context of the Mother-child cohort (Rhea study), in Crete-Greece. Women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Heraklion-Crete for one year beginning in February 2007. 610 women completed the self-administered Social Capital Questionnaire at about the 24th week of gestation. The scale assessed total maternal social capital and four social capital subscales: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Value of Life and Social Agency, and Tolerance of Diversity. Potential confounders included characteristics that have an established or potential association with the maternal social capital, and the birth outcomes (preterm birth, small weight for the gestational age, fetal weight growth restriction, weight, length and head circumference). The results of logistic and linear regression models indicated that there was an increase in the risk of preterm birth for every unit increase in maternal participation (range 12-48), and especially in the risk of medically indicated preterm birth. Although the findings suggest that participation is associated with an increased probability for preterm birth, we cannot know whether this is a protective or damaging social capital effect. Women who participate more in their communities may have enhanced access to information and/or resources, easier access to health care and support when they face maternal and fetal conditions that trigger the need for medical intervention. On the other hand, women may be more exposed to social and/or environmental stressors. Future research needs to distinguish between different types of participation and different components of social capital to better understand their associations with birth outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-03-15

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. The association between birth weight and adult PLC, separately in men and women was investigated, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p values for interaction = 0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25 and 3.75 kg, men with birth weights between 2.00 and 3.25 kg and 3.75-5.50 kg, had HRs of 1.48 (1.06-2.05) and 0.85 (0.56-1.28), respectively. Among women the corresponding HRs were 1.71 (0.90-3.29) and 3.43 (1.73-6.82). Associations were similar for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across year of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, viral hepatitis and biliary cirrhosis. Prenatal exposures influenced the risk of adult PLC, and the effects at the high birth weight levels appeared to be sex-specific. These findings underscore the importance of considering sex-specific mechanisms in the early origins of adult PLC. © 2015 UICC.

  6. Diet-Induced Overweight and Obesity and Periodontitis Risk: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Peres, Karen G; Do, Loc G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Corrêa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F

    2017-03-15

    We aimed to estimate hypothetical effects of habits (smoking, alcohol consumption, and fat and carbohydrates consumption) combined with diet-induced overweight/obesity on the risk of periodontitis. The risk of any periodontitis, moderate/severe periodontitis, and the combination of bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) was estimated using the parametric g-formula in adults aged 31 years from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort in Brazil. Individuals in this cohort have been followed since birth. Hypothetical conditions were set independently for each risk factor and in combination for the entire population. A total of 539 participants had oral examinations in 2013. The cumulative 31-year risk under no intervention was 33.3% for any periodontitis, 14.3%, for moderate/severe periodontitis, and 14.7%, for BOP and CAL. According to our statistical approach, diet-induced overweight/obesity increased the risk of all outcomes: 11% (overweight) and 22% (obesity) higher risk of periodontitis; 12% (overweight) and 27% (obesity) higher risk of moderate/severe periodontitis; 21% (overweight) and 57% (obesity) higher risk of CAL and BOP. When overweight/obesity was combined with other unhealthy habits, the risk was even greater. Our findings suggest that the combination of diet-induced obesity with other risk factors may increase the risk of periodontitis. Further research in the field is required to corroborate our study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...

  8. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  9. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  10. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Salatino-Oliveira; Joseph Murray; Christian Kieling; Júlia Pasqualini Genro; Guilherme Polanczyk; Luciana Anselmi; Fernando Wehrmeister; Barros, Fernando C; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Luis Augusto Rohde; Mara Helena Hutz

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val 158 Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire w...

  11. Spontaneous Abortion and a Diet Drug Containing Caffeine and Ephedrine: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Howards, Penelope P.; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Bech, Bodil H.; Nohr, Ellen A; Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Charles Poole; Jørn Olsen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Women were recruited during their first prenatal visit from 1996-2002. Pre-conception and early pregnancy medication use was reported on the enrollment form, and pregnancy outcome w...

  12. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  13. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  14. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  15. Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Barbosa, Aline Pires; Da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Faria, Carlos Augusto; De Ribeiro, Valdinar Souza; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

    2013-07-15

    Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers, this rate was 26.7%, as opposed to 12.7% among the daughters of non adolescent mothers. After adjustments the risk of adolescent childbearing for the 2nd generation was 35% higher for women whose mothers had been pregnant during adolescence - RR = 1.35 (95% CI 1.04-1.74). Adolescent childbearing in the 1st generation was a predictor of adolescent childbearing in the 2nd, regardless of socioeconomic factors determined at different points in lifetime.

  16. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Method The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50 and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age ≤ 28 weeks or with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. Results All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR: 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.2 to 27.6. Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite. Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to

  17. Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Martha; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Li, Mengying; Caruso, Deanna; Hong, Xiumei; Kaczaniuk, Jamie; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Fallin, M Daniele; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-08-11

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior studies have examined prenatal MIA exposure and ASD risk in an under-represented minority population of African ancestry. To overcome these limitations, we estimated the association between prenatal exposure to fever and maternal infections and ASD in a prospective birth cohort of an understudied minority population in a city in the United States. No association was found between prenatal exposure to genitourinary infections or flu and the risk of ASD in a nested sample of 116 ASD cases and 988 typically developing controls in crude or adjusted analyses. Prenatal exposure to fever was associated with increased ASD risk (aOR 2.02 [1.04-3.92]) after adjustment for educational attainment, marital status, race, child sex, maternal age, birth year, gestational age, and maternal smoking. This effect may be specific to fever during the third trimester (aOR 2.70 [1.00-7.29]). Our findings provide a focus for future research efforts and ASD prevention strategies across diverse populations. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We looked at whether activation of the immune system during pregnancy increases the chance a child will develop ASD. We examined 116 children with ASD and 988 children without ASD that came from a predominantly low income, urban, minority population. We found that

  18. Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiby, Alexander I; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon; Yip, Vikki L; Macleod, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables. The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder. In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following

  19. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birthweight has, in several studies, been associated with mortality in adult age, even after adjustment for available socioeconomic factors. This association has been explained as a biological result of fetal undernutrition (fetal programming), by genetic predisposition, as a result...... on parents' and own vital status by linkage with the Civil Registration System. Causes of death for the cohort members were identified by record linkage with the Cause-of-Death Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% CI were calculated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Low birthweight and especially short birth...... length were strongly associated with adult mortality risk, but no relationship between low ponderal index at birth and mortality was found. The relationship between birth size and early adult mortality was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for early-life social position and/or maternal...

  20. Birth weight, infant growth, and adolescent blood pressure using twin status as an instrumental variable in a Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the credibility of twin status as an instrumental variable for birth weight and infant growth and to obtain less-confounded estimates of the associations of birth weight or infant growth with adolescent blood pressure (BP). Prospective population-based "Children of 1997" birth cohort of all surviving infants born in Hong Kong, China, from April to May 1997 with sex-, age-, and height-specific BP z-score at approximately 11 years (n = 6276) and approximately 13 years (n = 5305). In instrumental variable analyses, birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was not associated with z-score for systolic BP (0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.22 to 0.25) or diastolic BP (0.04; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.18) at approximately 11 years adjusted for maternal age and migrant status (F = 38.6). Change in weight z-score at 0 to 12 months was not associated with z-score for systolic BP (-0.003; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.15) or diastolic BP (-0.02; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.07) at approximately 11 years (F = 54.4). Estimates were similar for BP at approximately 13 years, although the F-statistic was lower. Birth weight and infant growth may make little contribution to adolescent BP. Extending consideration of the effects of early life to other growth periods, such as puberty, on BP might yield public health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospective validation of a prognostic model for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in late preterm infants: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten O Blanken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to update and validate a prediction rule for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalization in preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (WGA. STUDY DESIGN: The RISK study consisted of 2 multicenter prospective birth cohorts in 41 hospitals. Risk factors were assessed at birth among healthy preterm infants 33-35 WGA. All hospitalizations for respiratory tract infection were screened for proven RSV infection by immunofluorescence or polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to update an existing prediction model in the derivation cohort (n = 1,227. In the validation cohort (n = 1,194, predicted versus actual RSV hospitalization rates were compared to determine validity of the model. RESULTS: RSV hospitalization risk in both cohorts was comparable (5.7% versus 4.9%. In the derivation cohort, a prediction rule to determine probability of RSV hospitalization was developed using 4 predictors: family atopy (OR 1.9; 95%CI, 1.1-3.2, birth period (OR 2.6; 1.6-4.2, breastfeeding (OR 1.7; 1.0-2.7 and siblings or daycare attendance (OR 4.7; 1.7-13.1. The model showed good discrimination (c-statistic 0.703; 0.64-0.76, 0.702 after bootstrapping. External validation showed good discrimination and calibration (c-statistic 0.678; 0.61-0.74. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospectively validated prediction rule identifies infants at increased RSV hospitalization risk, who may benefit from targeted preventive interventions. This prediction rule can facilitate country-specific, cost-effective use of RSV prophylaxis in late preterm infants.

  2. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC:a study of autism spectrum disorders in MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Surén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. In most cases, the cause of ASD is likely to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures occurring in fetal life or early infancy. Consequently, a prospective pregnancy cohort like MoBa represents an ideal platform for studies of ASDs in children.Methods: The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC Study has identified potential ASD cases in MoBa through questionnaire- based screening, parental and professional referrals, and linkages to the Norwegian Patient Register. ASD diagnoses have been ascertained through in-person clinical assessments and medical record reviews.Current results: By the end of 2012, the ABC Study had identified 518 ASD cases in MoBa. The ASD prevalence in school-age children is 0.7-0.8%, which is in line with nationwide estimates for Norway. The most important source of ASD case identification was registry linkages, while only a minority was detected through early screening. Published findings show that screening at 18 months misses the majority of ASD cases. Analyses of risk factors for ASDs have shown that maternal use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy may lower the child’s risk of developing ASDs and that paternal obesity appears to increase the child’s risk of ASDs.Future plans: ASD case identification will continue through annual registry linkages and subsequent reviews of medical records. Analyses of plasma samples and RNA samples will be conducted to investigate prenatal and perinatal microbial exposures, innate immune and inflammatory responses, biomarkers of autism risk, and exposures to xenobiotics. Analyses of deciduous teeth will also investigate the effect of medications and environmental toxins. Exome sequencing of DNA from ASD cases and their parents is ongoing, and will elucidate the

  3. Incidence of otitis media in a contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Todberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0-7 years born in 1996-2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC. Only selection was ability to understand and speak Danish. METHODS: Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755. For children with OM, 16.2% (7143/44194 had their first OM episodes between 0-6 months of age, 44.3% (19579/44194 between 7-18 months, and 39.5% (17472/44194 between 19 months and 7 years. Four or more OM episodes before 7 years were reported by 39.5% (12620/31982 and by 64.0% (2482/3881 of those who had their OM debut between 0-6 months; by 48.2% (4998/10378 with debut between 7-18 months; and by 28.7% (4996/17344 with debut between 19 months and 7 years. These figures are essentially unchanged from earlier figures from Denmark. VT insertion at least once was reported by 26,1% in the 7-year interview. Assuming recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold standard, maternal self-reportings in DNBC of insertion of VT showed high sensitivity (96.4%, specificity (98.2%, and positive (94.8% and negative predictive values (98.8%. CONCLUSION: OM affects nearly 2/3 of preschool children in Denmark despite reduction in known OM risk factors.

  4. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  5. Exploration of preterm birth rates associated with different models of antenatal midwifery care in Scotland: Unmatched retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew; Winter, Clare; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-06-01

    preterm birth represents a significant personal, clinical, organisational and financial burden. Strategies to reduce the preterm birth rate have had limited success. Limited evidence indicates that certain antenatal care models may offer some protection, although the causal mechanism is not understood. We sought to compare preterm birth rates for mixed-risk pregnant women accessing antenatal care organised at a freestanding midwifery unit (FMU) and mixed-risk pregnant women attending an obstetric unit (OU) with related community-based antenatal care. unmatched retrospective 4-year Scottish cohort analysis (2008-2011) of mixed-risk pregnant women accessing (i) FMU antenatal care (n=1107); (ii) combined community-based and OU antenatal care (n=7567). Data were accessed via the Information and Statistics Division of the NHS in Scotland. Aggregates analysis and binary logistic regression were used to compare the cohorts׳ rates of preterm birth; and of spontaneous labour onset, use of pharmacological analgesia, unassisted vertex birth, and low birth weight. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, parity, deprivation score and smoking status in pregnancy. after adjustment the 'mixed risk' FMU cohort had a statistically significantly reduced risk of preterm birth (5.1% [n=57] versus 7.7% [n=583]; AOR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.98]; p=0.034). Differences in these secondary outcome measures were also statistically significant: spontaneous labour onset (FMU 83.9% versus OU 74.6%; AOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.46-2.08]; p<0.001); minimal intrapartum analgesia (FMU 53.7% versus OU 34.4%; AOR 2.17 [95% CI 1.90-2.49]; p<0.001); spontaneous vertex delivery (FMU 71.9% versus OU 63.5%; AOR 1.46 [95% CI 1.32-1.78]; p<0.001). Incidence of low birth weight was not statistically significant after adjustment for other variables. There was no significant difference in the rate of perinatal or neonatal death. given this study׳s methodological limitations, we can only claim associations between the care model

  6. Leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study in a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik L; Halldorson, Thórhallur I

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum depression (PPD) in a large, prospective cohort. METHOD: Exposure information from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a large, prospective cohort with information on more than 100,000 pregnancies (1996......-2002), was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish Register for Medicinal Product Statistics for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 year postpartum. A total of 70,866 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the analyses. Duration, frequency......, against postpartum depression requiring antidepressant therapy. No protective effect could be detected on PPD leading to hospitalization....

  7. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  8. Cognitive Ability in Late Life and Onset of Physical Frailty: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Ritchie, Stuart J; Cooper, Cyrus; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether poorer cognitive ability is a risk factor for development of physical frailty and whether this risk varies according to cognitive domain. Prospective longitudinal study with 6-year follow-up. Edinburgh, Scotland. Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N = 594). Frailty was assessed at ages 70 and 76 using the Fried criteria. Cognitive function was assessed at age 70, 73, and 76. Factor score estimates were derived for baseline level of and change in four cognitive domains: visuospatial ability, memory, processing speed, and crystallized cognitive ability. Higher baseline levels of processing speed, memory, visuospatial ability and crystallized ability at age 70, and less decline in speed, memory, and crystallized ability were associated with less risk of becoming physically frail by age 76. When all cognitive domains were modelled together, processing speed was the only domain associated with frailty risk, for a standard deviation (SD) increment in initial level of processing speed, the risk of frailty was 47% less (0.53 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33-0.85) after adjustment for age, sex, baseline frailty status, social class, depressive symptoms, number of chronic physical diseases, levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and other cognitive factor score estimates; for a SD increment in processing speed change (less decline) risk of frailty was 74% less (RRR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.16-0.42). When additional analyses were conducted using a single test of processing speed that did not require fast motor responses (inspection time), results were similar. The speed with which older adults process information and the rate at which this declines over time may be an important indicator of the risk of physical frailty. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Scott, James; William, Gail M; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M

    2017-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1). Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk for disadvantageous outcomes of the next generation.

  10. Informal child care and adolescent psychological well-being: Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Y Leung

    Full Text Available Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong's Chinese "Children of 1997" birth cohort.Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care.Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI -1.26 to -0.14. Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73.In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms.

  11. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ≥ 1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of

  12. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a British birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Silverwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. METHODS: Cognitive function at age 60-64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment, prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity. RESULTS: Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306-1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure. Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Childhood Neurodevelopment, the Rhea Birth Cohort in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachaliou, Marianna; Chatzi, Leda; Michel, Angelika; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H. pylori proteins were measured using multiplex serology. Child's neurodevelopment at age four was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Linear regression models were used to explore the associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence (95% CI) in cord blood, representing maternal status, was 41.5% (36.3%, 46.8%) and in 4 years old children was 6.5% (95% CI 4.8%, 8.7%). Children of H. pylori seropositive mothers had lower score in the general cognitive (-3.87, 95% CI -7.02, -0.72), verbal (-2.96, 95% CI -6.08, 0.15), perceptual performance (-3.37, 95% CI -6.60, -0.15), quantitative (-2.85, 95% CI -6.28, 0.58), and memory scale (-3.37, 95% CI -6.67, -0.07) compared to those of seronegative mothers. Seropositivity in cord blood specifically to GroEl and NapA - two of the 12 H. pylori proteins investigated - was associated with lower scores in almost all scales. At age four, H. pylori seropositive children performed worst in neurodevelopment assessment compared to their seronegative counterparts although no association reached statistically significant level. Helicobacter pylori infection in early life may be an important but preventable risk factor for poor neurodevelopment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  15. Infant Growth and Risk of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Children From 2 Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    -onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a cohort study using information from 2 population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), of children born between February 1998 and July 2009...... proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A total of 99,832 children were included in the study, with 59,221 in MoBa (51.2% boys and 48.8% girls; mean age at end of follow-up, 8.6 years [range, 4.6-14.2 years]) and 40,611 in DNBC (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls; mean age at end of follow-up, 13.0 years [range, 10.......4-15.7 years]). The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes from age 12 months to the end of follow-up was 25 cases per 100,000 person-years in DNBC and 31 cases per 100,000 person-years in MoBa. The change in weight from birth to 12 months was positively associated with type 1 diabetes (pooled unadjusted HR = 1...

  16. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  17. No association between low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood: evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filumena Maria Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing literature suggests that low birth weight increases the risk of poor health outcomes in adulthood. We tested this hypothesis among young adults living in São Paulo State, Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify the effects of low birth weight on young adulthood outcomes, a medical assessment of 297 individuals born between 1977 and 1989 was conducted at a primary care unit in São Paulo State, Brazil. We analyzed body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels using linear and logistic regressions. Low birth was negatively associated with BMI (β = -2.0, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.27, p = 0.02, fasting glucose levels (β = -1.9, 95% CI: -3.9, -0.07, p = 0.05, waist-hip ratio (β = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.01, p = 0.10, systolic blood pressure (β = -3.32, 95% CI: -7.60, 0.96, p = 0.12, and total cholesterol levels (β = -3.19, 95% CI: -16.43, 10.05, p = 0.636. Low birth weight was also associated with lower odds of young adults being overweight and obese, but neither association was statistically significant. Weight gain in the first 12 months of life was associated with higher adult BMI (β = 0.79, 95% CI: -0.0455, 1.623, p = 0.064 and blood pressure (β = 2.79, 95% CI: 0.22, 5.35, p = 0.034. No associations were found between low birth weight and early life (catch-up growth. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was not associated with poor health outcomes among young adults in Brazil. These results appear inconsistent with the original Barker hypothesis, but will need to be corroborated in larger samples with longer follow-ups to allow a more general evaluation of the validity of the hypothesis in low and middle income countries.

  18. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nogueira Haas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  19. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended.

  20. A Birth-cohort testing intervention identified hepatitis c virus infection among patients with few identified risks: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Southern, William N.; Norton, Brianna; Steinman, Meredith; DeLuca, Joseph; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Smith, Bryce D.; Litwin, Alain H.

    2015-01-01

    Background International guidelines and U.S. guidelines prior to 2012 only recommended testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients at risk, but adherence to guidelines is poor, and the majority of those infected remain undiagnosed. A strategy to perform one-time testing of all patients born during 1945–1965, birth cohort testing, may diagnose HCV infection among patients whose risk remains unknown. We sought to determine if a birth-cohort testing intervention for HCV antibody...

  1. The HIV-Brazil cohort study: design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study was established to analyze the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and the impact of this treatment on morbidity, quality of life (QOL and mortality. The study design, patients' profiles and characteristics of cART initiation between 2003 and 2010 were described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since 2003, the HIV-Brazil Cohort has been following HIV-infected adults receiving cART at 26 public health care facilities, using routine clinical care data and self-reported QOL questionnaires. When not otherwise available, data are obtained from national information systems. The main outcomes of interest are diseases related or unrelated to HIV; suppression of viral replication; adverse events; virological, clinical and immunological failures; changes in the cART; and mortality. For the 5,061 patients who started cART between 2003 and 2010, the median follow-up time was 4.1 years (IQR 2.2-5.9 years with an 83.4% retention rate. Patient profiles were characterized by a predominance of men (male/female ratio 1.7∶1, with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD 9.9 years; 55.2% had been infected with HIV via heterosexual contact. The majority of patients (53.4% initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells/mm3. The medications most often used in the various treatment regimens were efavirenz (59.7% and lopinavir/ritonavir (18.2%. The proportion of individuals achieving viral suppression within the first 12 months of cART use was 77.4% (95% CI 76.1-78.6. Nearly half (45.4% of the patients presented HIV-related clinical manifestations after starting cART, and the AIDS mortality rate was 13.9 per 1,000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from cART use in the daily practice of health services remain relatively unknown in low- and middle-income countries, and studies with the characteristics of the HIV-Brazil Cohort contribute to minimizing these shortcomings, given its scope and patient

  2. The impact of maternal celiac disease on birthweight and preterm birth: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. METHODS: A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). RESULTS: Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. CONCLUSION: Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.

  3. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Bladder Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    The evidence is limited on the relationship between reproductive factors and bladder cancer (BC). We studied 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton delivery between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. Each woman in the study cohort was tracked from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009. Vital status of the women was determined by crosswalking records with a computerized mortality database. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of death from BC associated with maternal age at first birth and parity. The data showed 63 BC deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. BC mortality rate was 0.90 cases for every 100,000 person-years. Compared with women who gave birth under the age of 23, the adjusted HR was 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66–2.35) for women who gave birth between age 23 and 26 and 2.30 (95% CI = 1.21–4.39) for women who gave birth over the age of 26. Increasing age at first birth (p for trend = 0.01) is associated with a trend in increasing risk of BC mortality. Relative to women who had a single childbirth, the adjusted HRs were 1.17 (95% CI = 0.51–2.69) for women who gave birth to two children, and 1.31 (95% CI = 0.56–3.10) for women with three or more childbirths, respectively. These results were not statistically significant. Study results suggests that giving birth at an early age may confer a protective effect on the risk of death from BC. PMID:27918463

  4. Factors associated with weight loss dieting among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Fatores associados à realização de regime de emagrecimento entre adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta W. Madruga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown the negative effects of unsupervised diets and those with excessive calorie restriction. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescents engaging in weight loss dieting and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. The outcome was defined as adolescents that reported having practiced some type of weight loss dieting in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of such dieting was 8.6% (95%CI: 7.7;9.4, and was higher in girls. Elevated maternal body mass index (BMI was associated with dieting among girls. The adolescent's and parents' view of the adolescent's weight, excess weight, and consumption of diet or light soft drinks were associated with adolescent dieting. There was a positive association between dieting and socioeconomic status. The findings provide important backing for policies aimed at improving adolescents' diet, since they express a major concern over weight and thus a significant percentage of individuals with erroneous and unhealthy behaviors.Evidências mostram efeitos negativos de dietas sem orientação e de alta restrição calórica. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o percentual de adolescentes que realizaram regime de emagrecimento e os fatores associados a este comportamento. Estudo transversal incluindo 4.452 nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, no ano de 1993. Os adolescentes que relataram ter feito algum tipo de regime com a finalidade de emagrecimento nos últimos 12 meses foram positivos ao desfecho. A freqüência de realização de regime foi de 8,6% (IC95%: 7,7;9,4, sendo maior entre as meninas. O índice de massa corporal (IMC materno elevado associou-se à realização de regime entre meninas. O sentimento do adolescente e dos pais em relação ao peso do jovem, o excesso de peso e o consumo de refrigerantes diet/light mostraram-se associados ao desfecho. Encontrou-se associa

  5. Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xi-Kuan; Wen, Shi Wu; Fleming, Nathalie; Demissie, Kitaw; Rhoads, George G; Walker, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Whether the association between teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes could be explained by deleterious social environment, inadequate prenatal care, or biological immaturity remains controversial...

  6. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  7. Risk of selected postpartum infections after cesarean section compared with vaginal birth: A five-year cohort study of 32,468 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rita Andersen; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the risk of postpartum infections within 30 days after vaginal birth, emergency, or elective cesarean section (CS). Design. Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants. A total of 32,468 women giving birth in hospitals in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, during the p...

  8. Timing of infection and development of wheeze, eczema, and atopic sensitization during the first 2 yr of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Thijs, C.; Stelma, F.F.; Penders, J.; Reimerink, J.; Ree, R. van; Koopmans, M.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if infections in pregnancy and very early in life present a risk for wheezing, eczema, or atopic sensitization in later infancy. A total of 2319 children enrolled before birth in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study were followed during their first 2 yr of life using repeated questionnaires.

  9. [Inadequacy of the content of prenatal care and associated factors in a cohort in the northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudard, Marivanda Julia Furtado; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Souza; Alves, Maria Tereza Seabra Soares de Brito E; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Martins, Marília da Glória; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Nathasje, Ian Favero

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the content of prenatal care in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, and the factors associated with its inadequacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the birth cohort of São Luís in 2010. The content of prenatal care was defined as inadequate when it did not meet the criteria of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal and Delivery Care, which establishes early initiation of prenatal care, minimum number of medical consultations, basic laboratory tests, tetanus vaccination and obstetric procedures. Poisson regression was used to observe associations of the variables with the outcome. The inadequacy rate was high (60.2%). The variables associated with inadequacy were: class C socioeconomic status (PR = 1.39; CI = 1.26-1.55); class D/E socioeconomic status (PR = 1.60; CI = 1.43-1.79); unqualified/unemployed mother (PR = 1.24; CI = 1.11-1.37); 5-8 years of schooling (PR = 1.12; CI = 1.06-1.19); 0-4 years of schooling (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.01-1.26); not being religious (PR = 1.10; CI = 1.04-1.17); alcohol use during pregnancy (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.06-1.20), and being attended by the public service (PR = 1.75; CI = 1.54-2.00). The results showed inadequacy and inequality of prenatal care, revealing that women of lower socioeconomic status received lower quality care.

  10. Epigenetic Alterations and Exposure to Air Pollutants: Protocol for a Birth Cohort Study to Evaluate the Association Between Adverse Birth Outcomes and Global DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Majid; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to air pollutants can increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes and susceptibility to a number of complex disorders later in life. Despite this general understanding, the molecular and cellular responses to air pollution exposure during early life are not completely clear. Objective The aims of this study are to test the association between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to determine whether the levels of maternal and cord blood and of placental DNA methylation during pregnancy predict adverse birth outcomes in polluted areas. Methods This is a birth cohort study. We will enroll pregnant healthy women attending prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, who are resident in selected polluted and unpolluted regions before the 14th week of pregnancy. We will calculate the regional background levels of fine particulate matter (particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) and nitrogen dioxide for all regions of by using data from the Tehran Air Quality Control Company. Then, we will select 2 regions as the polluted and unpolluted areas of interest. Healthy mothers living in the selected polluted and non polluted regions will be enrolled in this study. A maternal health history questionnaire will be completed at each trimester. During the first and second trimester, we will draw mothers’ blood for biochemical and DNA methylation analyses. At the time of delivery time, we will collect maternal and cord blood for biochemical, gene expression, and DNA methylation analyses. We will also record birth outcomes (the newborn’s sex, birth date, birth weight and length, gestational age, Apgar score, and level of neonatal care required). Results The project was funded in March 2016 and enrollment will be completed in August 2017. Data analysis is under way, and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in November 2017. Conclusions We supposed that prenatal exposures to air pollutants can influence fetal

  11. Correlates of C-reactive protein levels in young adults: a population-based cohort study of 3827 subjects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazmi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The socio-demographic, behavioral and anthropometric correlates of C-reactive protein levels were examined in a representative young adult Brazilian population. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil recruited over 99% of births in the city of Pelotas that year (N = 5914. Individuals belonging to the cohort have been prospectively followed up. In 2004-2005, 77.4% of the cohort was traced, members were interviewed and 3827 individuals donated blood. Analyses of the outcome were based on a conceptual model that differentiated confounders from potential mediators. The following independent variables were studied in relation to levels of C-reactive protein in sex-stratified analyses: skin color, age, family income, education, parity, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, fat/fiber/alcohol intake, physical activity, and minor psychiatric disorder. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval C-reactive protein levels for the 1919 males and 1908 females were 0.89 (0.84-0.94 and 1.96 mg/L (1.85-2.09, respectively. Pregnant women and those using oral contraceptive therapies presented the highest C-reactive protein levels and all sub-groups of women had higher levels than men (P < 0.001. Significant associations between C-reactive protein levels were observed with age, socioeconomic indicators, obesity status, smoking, fat and alcohol intake, and minor psychiatric disorder. Associations were stronger at higher levels of C-reactive protein and some associations were sex-specific. We conclude that both distal (socio-demographic and proximal (anthropometric and behavioral factors exert strong effects on C-reactive protein levels and that the former are mediated to some degree by the latter.

  12. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S

    2009-01-01

    of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity is correlated...

  13. Elevated Maternal C-Reactive Protein is Associated with Increased Risk of Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Leiviskä, Jaana; Kellendonk, Christoph; McKeague, Ian W.; Brown, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate an association between early gestational C-reactive protein (CRP), an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and schizophrenia in a large national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. Methods This study utilized a nested case-control design from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort. 777 schizophrenia cases (630 with schizophrenia, 147 with schizoaffective disorder) that had maternal sera available for CRP testing were identified and matched to 777 controls in the analysis. Maternal CRP levels were assessed using a latex immunoassay from archived maternal serum specimens. Results Increasing maternal CRP levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-1.56, p=0.003). This finding remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders including maternal and parental history of psychiatric disorders, twin/singleton birth, urbanicity, province of birth, and maternal socioeconomic status. Conclusion This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24969261

  14. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskorn, L; Holmboe, S A; Jacobsen, R; Jensen, T K; Lassen, T H; Skakkebaek, N E

    2012-06-01

    The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births. The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960. The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women showed that the proportion remaining childless throughout life has been lower than in men and has not shown a similar increase. In conclusion, using unique Danish registries the study showed a birth cohort related decline in fertility rates and an increase in childlessness among men. In the more recent cohorts more than one in five men remained childless. The causes behind the findings are likely multi-factorial. Hitherto, most attention has been given to socio-economic factors which undoubtedly play a major role. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the high prevalence of low sperm counts among young Danish men may be a contributing factor.

  15. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Fernández, M.F. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Ríos-Arrabal, S. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Villalba-Moreno, J. [CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E{sub RMS}) and power density (S{sub RMS}) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m{sup 2} (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m{sup 2}, respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may

  16. Kin keepers and good providers: influence of gender socialization on well-being among USA birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Zhang, W

    2006-09-01

    Previous research has suggested happiness and distress differ for men and women over the life course, but little attention has focused on whether the predictors of well-being vary for each group. The second wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH2) data was used to study whether hypothesized differential exposure to traditional gender socialization has influenced perceptions of life achievement, global happiness and depression for adult men and women in distinct USA birth cohorts. Numerous findings illustrated similarity among cohort and gender groups in predictors of well-being. There was also evidence of a change in USA gender socialization, and determinants of the dependent variables varied according to these shifts by sex and cohort membership. For example, in the earliest born cohort, women's happiness was related to frequency of contact with relatives, consistent with the kin keeper role. Assets and income predicted depression and global happiness for older men, suggesting a link between well-being and the good provider role. In the latest born cohorts, not just androgynous, but opposite influences predominated as men and women demonstrated less evidence of traditional socialization shaping their satisfaction with achievements and psychological well-being.

  17. Transfers to hospital in planned home birth in four Nordic countries - a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe H; Ingversen, Karen; Huitfeldt, Anette S; Hegaard, Hanne K; Ólafsdóttir, Ólöf Á; Øian, Pål; Lindgren, Helena

    2016-04-01

    Women planning a home birth are transferred to hospital in case of complications or elevated risk for adverse outcomes. The aim of the present study was to describe the indications for transfer to hospital in planned home births, and the proportion of cases in which this occurs. Women in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland who had opted for, and were accepted for, home birth at the onset of labor, were included in the study. Data from 3068 women, 572 nulliparas and 2446 multiparas, were analyzed for proportion of transfers during labor and within 72 h after birth, indications for transfer, how long before or after birth the transfer started, time from birth to start of transfer, duration and mode of transfer, and whether the transfer was classified as potentially urgent. Analyses were stratified for nulliparity and multiparity. One-third (186/572) of the nulliparas were transferred to hospital, 137 (24.0%) during labor and 49 (8.6%) after the birth. Of the multiparas, 195/2446 (8.0%) were transferred, 118 (4.8%) during labor and 77 (3.2%) after birth. The most common indication for transfers during labor was slow progress. In transfers after birth, postpartum hemorrhage, tears and neonatal respiratory problems were the most common indications. A total of 116 of the 3068 women had transfers classified as potentially urgent. One-third of all nulliparous and 8.0% of multiparous women were transferred during labor or within 72 h of the birth. The proportion of potentially urgent transfers was 3.8%. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. How Do Persons with Intellectual Disability Manage in the Open Labour Markets? A Follow-Up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taanila, A.; Rantakallio, P.; Koiranen, M.; von Wendt, L.; Jarvelin, M.-R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to study how many of the individuals with intellectual disability (ID; IQ70) in an age cohort were not receiving a disability pension by the age of 34 years and what their life situation was like in terms of employment, education and morbidity. In 2000, the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=12058 live-born) included 129 individuals…

  19. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  20. Ultrasound estimation of birth weight in twin pregnancy: comparison of biometry algorithms in the STORK multiple pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; D'Antonio, F; Dias, T; Cooper, D; Thilaganathan, B

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were first, to ascertain the accuracy of formulae for ultrasonographic birth-weight estimation in twin compared with singleton pregnancies and second, to assess the accuracy of sonographic examination in the prediction of birth-weight discordance in twin pregnancies. This was a retrospective cohort study including both singleton and twin pregnancies. Routine biometry was recorded and estimated fetal weight (EFW) calculated using 33 different formulae. Only pregnancies that delivered within 48 h of the ultrasound scan were included (4280 singleton and 586 twin fetuses). Differences between the EFW and actual birth weight (ABW) were assessed by percentage error, accuracy in predictions within ± 10% and ± 15% of error and use of the Bland-Altman method. The accuracy of prediction of the different cut-offs of birth-weight discordance in twin pregnancies was also assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC). The overall mean absolute percentage error was ≤ 10% for 25 formulae in singleton pregnancies compared with three formulae in twin pregnancies. The overall predictions within ± 10% and ± 15% of the ABW were 62.2% and 81.5% in singleton and 49.7% and 68.5% in twin pregnancies, respectively. When t e formulae were categorized according to the biometric parameters included, those based on a combination of head, abdomen and femur measurements showed the lowest mean absolute percentage error, in both singleton and twin pregnancies. The predictive accuracy for 25% birth-weight discordance using the Hadlock 2 formula, as assessed by the AUC, was 0.87. Ultrasound estimation of birth weight is less accurate in twin than in singleton pregnancies. Formulae that include a combination of head, abdomen and femur measurements perform best in both singleton and twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Understanding the relationship between cesarean birth and stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Lai, Jerry Cheng-Yen; Hwang, Shyh-Jou; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chien, Li-Yin

    2017-06-08

    Women who undergo cesarean birth might have an increased risk for poor mental health after childbirth, possibly because of maternal and neonatal physical problems, low parental confidence, and decreased levels of oxytocin. However, this relationship remains controversial and requires further examination. The study aimed to examine the effect of cesarean birth on postpartum stress, anxiety, and depression. This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. A total of 12 619 women who underwent cesarean birth and 12 619 control women who underwent vaginal birth were matched by propensity score based on age, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, antepartum comorbidity, and index year of delivery. We compared the incidence of stress, anxiety, and depression during the first postpartum year between cesarean and comparison groups by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs). The cesarean group showed a significantly higher risk for stress symptoms (IRR 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.02-1.92]), but not anxiety (IRR 1.14 [95% CI 0.95-1.38]) or depression (IRR 1.32 [95% CI 0.94-1.87]), although the IRRs were also greater than one. The cesarean group had a significantly higher risk of any of the above-listed three disorders than the comparison group (incidence 27.6 vs 23.4 per 1000 person-years; IRR 1.18 [95% CI 1.01-1.38]). Cesarean birth was associated with an increased risk of postpartum stress symptoms. Health professionals should avoid unnecessary cesarean birth, pay attention to women who deliver by cesarean, and intervene appropriately in an attempt to improve mental health among postpartum women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  3. Choroidal thickness in relation to birth parameters in 11- to 12-year-old children: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Q; Munkholm, Anja; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger C

    2014-10-30

    To examine choroidal thickness in a population-based child cohort in relation to birth parameters. The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study examined 1406 children aged 11 to 12 years using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), ocular biometry and measurement of height, weight, refraction, and self-reported pubertal development status. Birth parameters were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The subfoveal choroid in low birth weight children (choroid in high birth weight children (>4500 g, n = 48, mean 351 ± 63 μm) was comparable with normal birth weight children, P = 0.44. The subfoveal choroid was thinner in preterm children, however the difference was not significant (-18 [-37 to 2] μm, P = 0.08). Small for gestation children had thinner subfoveal choroid (-19 [-37 to -1] μm, P = 0.04) compared with appropriate for gestation children. Longer birth length was associated with a thicker subfoveal choroid (2 [1-4] μm/cm, P = 0.005). Macular choroidal thickness at 16 extrafoveal locations was measured in a subset of children and found to have the same associations with birth weight as the subfoveal choroidal thickness. In 11- to 12-year-old children, thinner choroids were associated with lower birth weight, lower birth length, and being small for the gestational age. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants....... In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  5. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jacobsen, R;

    2012-01-01

    The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births....... The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark....... The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women...

  6. Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Kandler, Christian; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Busjahn, Andreas; Saudino, Kimberly J; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rose, Richard J; Koskenvuo, Markku; Heikkilä, Kauko; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Goldberg, Jack H; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Maia, José A; Freitas, Duarte L; Turkheimer, Eric; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-10-01

    Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

  7. Use of antibiotics in children younger than two years in eight countries: a prospective cohort study/Utilisation d'antibiotiques chez les enfants de moins de deux ans dans huit pays: une etude de cohorte prospective/El uso de antibioticos en ninos menores de dos anos en ocho paises: un estudio prospectivo de cohortes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Platts-Mills, James A; Seidman, Jessica C; John, Sushil; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ulak, Manjeswori; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Yori, Pablo Penataro; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo A.M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kosek, Margaret N; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Zaidi, Anita K.M; Kang, Gagandeep; Bessong, Pascal O; Houpt, Eric R; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods Between 2009 and 2014, we followed 2134 children from eight sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania, enrolled in the MAL-ED birth cohort study...

  8. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  9. Impact of fetal growth restriction on mortality and morbidity in a very preterm birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; El Ayoubi, Mayass; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri;

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of being small for gestational age (SGA) on very preterm mortality and morbidity rates by using different birthweight percentile thresholds and whether these effects differ by the cause of the preterm birth....

  10. Evaluation of the clinical risk index in very low birth weight newborns at a public tertiary maternity in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Breuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical risk index in very low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital, its associationwith mortality, some selected neonatal respiratory diseases andsurfactant therapy. Methods: A cohort prospective study carriedout at the Hospital Municipal Vila Nova Cachoeirinha e MaternidadeEscola, in São Paulo, Brazil. All newborns with gestational age< 31 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g were evaluated for theapplication of the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB. Newbornswho died in the first 12 hours of life or were referred from othermaternities were excluded from this study. Statistical analysesused logistic regression, Spearman correlation test and Student’st test. Results: Seventy-one cases were studied. The meangestational age was 27.30 ± 2.61 weeks; the mean weight was1032.61 ± 280.62 g. Birth weight and gestational age showedbetter predictive values for neonatal mortality than the clinicalrisk index for babies (80.30%, 76.10%, 73.20%. Twins showed nosignificant index differences (t = 0.601; p = 0.748. The scorewas inversely related to Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and wasassociated with the respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothoraxand the use of surfactants. There was no significant correlation withchronic lung disease. Conclusion: The clinical risk index for babieswas not the best predictor for neonatal mortality as compared toweight and gestational age, but showed a significant associationwith 1 and 5-minute Apgar scores, respiratory distress syndrome,extrapulmonary air and the use of surfactants. It was not predictivefor chronic lung disease. Twins were not associated with CRIB.

  11. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  12. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2012-08-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a number of potential confounders, systolic blood pressure reactivity was positively related to future hypertension. This was the case irrespective of whether reactivity was calculated as the peak or the average response to the stress tasks. The association was strongest for reactions to the speech and Stroop tasks. Diastolic blood pressure reactivity was not significantly associated with hypertension. The results provide support for the reactivity hypothesis.

  13. Binge drinking during pregnancy and risk of seizures in childhood: a study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...

  14. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

  15. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  16. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Shari [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E., E-mail: Tye.Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fraser, William D. [Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne [Center for Perinatal, Pediatric & Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); King, Will [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  17. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  18. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  19. Variation in the effects of family background and birth region on adult obesity: results of a prospective cohort study of a Great Depression-era American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Tumin, Dmitry

    2015-06-05

    Studies have identified prenatal and early childhood conditions as important contributors to weight status in later life. To date, however, few studies have considered how weight status in adulthood is shaped by regional variation in early-life conditions, rather than the characteristics of the individual or their family. Furthermore, gender and life course differences in the salience of early life conditions to weight status remain unclear. This study investigates whether the effect of family background and birth region on adult obesity status varies by gender and over the life course. We used data from a population-based cohort of 6,453 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-2008. Early life conditions were measured retrospectively at and after the baseline. Obesity was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Logistic models were used to estimate the net effects of family background and birth region on adulthood obesity risk after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and health behaviors measured in adulthood. Four economic and demographic data sets were used to further test the birthplace effect. At ages 50-61, mother's education and birth region were associated with women's obesity risk, but not men's. Each year's increase in mother's education significantly reduces the odds of being obese by 6% (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97) among women, and this pattern persisted at ages 66-77. Women born in the Mountain region were least likely to be obese in late-middle age and late-life. Measures of per capita income and infant mortality rate in the birth region were also associated with the odds of obesity among women. Women's obesity status in adulthood is influenced by early childhood conditions, including regional conditions, while adulthood health risk factors may be more important for men's obesity risk. Biological and social mechanisms may account for the gender difference.

  20. Changes in breastfeeding initiation at hospital discharge between first and second births in Nova Scotia: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Kimberley; Dodds, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding has well-recognized health benefits for infants and mothers. However, little research has been conducted to investigate changes in breastfeeding from one pregnancy to another. This study was conducted to describe rates of breastfeeding initiation at hospital discharge for women's first and second births and to identify factors associated with changes in initiation at the second birth. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, population-based cohort study involving women residing in Nova Scotia who delivered a first and second live-born singleton between 2007 and 2013. Separate analyses were conducted among women who breastfed their first infant and among women who did not breastfeed their first infant. Results: Of the 9643 (82.6%) mothers who initiated breastfeeding in the first birth, 973 (10.3%) did not initiate breastfeeding in the second birth. Of first-birth noninitiators, 526 (26.3%) initiated breastfeeding in the second birth. With the exception of smoking and cesarean births, factors that were associated with breastfeeding initiation in the second birth depended on breastfeeding initiation status in the first birth. These factors were associated with increased odds of not breastfeeding in the second birth among the subset of mothers who breastfed in the first birth, and decreased odds of breastfeeding in the second birth among the subset of mothers who did not breastfeed in the first birth. Interpretation: Most women continue the same method of infant feeding after their first and second births. Identifying factors associated with change in breastfeeding status between the first and second births may help to inform interventions for optimal breastfeeding initiation in the second birth.

  1. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina Castellanos, Gerardo Rogelio; Riesgo Rodríguez, Solangel de la Caridad

    2016-04-07

    Neonatal sepsis has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (VLBW infants). The impact of neonatal sepsis on neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants discharged from Cuban neonatal intensive care units is unknown. To determine the impact of neonatal sepsis as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental disorders in a Cuban very low birth weight infants’ population. A cohort study was carried out that enrolled 89 infants with birth weight less than 1500 g who were admitted during the period 2006-2010 to the Teaching Provincial Gynecological and Obstetrical Hospital of Matanzas. All patients were followed-up at the outpatient clinic until two years of corrected gestational age. Then they were divided into two groups: those who had been diagnosed with neonatal sepsis (n=19) and those who had not (n=70). The association power of neonatal sepsis with neurodevelopmental disorders was determined with calculation of relative risk (RR) and their confidence intervals at 95% (CI95%). A multivariate analysis with logistic regression enabled us to compare sepsis with other neonatal variables as risk factors. Very low birth weight infants with neonatal sepsis had an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (47.4 vs 17.1%; RR 2.7 CI95% 1.3-5.5; p=0.005). This risk was significant after correction for other variables (male sex, mechanical respiratory assistance, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hyperbilirrubinemia >15 mg/dl) (odds ratio 4.0; CI95% 1.1-14.3; p=0.03). Neonatal sepsis should be considered an important factor among the multiple events related to poor neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm newborn.