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  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  2. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  3. Evaluation of radiodiagnostic equipment in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de radiodiagnostico da cidade do Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Robson S.; Khoury, Helen J.; Antonino, Paulo D.; Hazin, Clovis A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of a survey aiming to determine the working conditions of X-ray units operating in hospitals and clinics in the city of Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil) are presented. The results show the discrepancy between the light field and X-ray field - from 1 to 2% in 78% of the equipment tested. The results also show that there is only a fair accuracy regarding to kilo voltage and irradiation time. The discrepancy between the pre-set time and the actual irradiation time was higher than 10% in 84.6% of the cases 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil; Avaliacao critica da exposicao ocupacional externa nos servicos de medicina nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da

    2016-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0 g.cm{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2 Bq.kg{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 203 Bq.kg{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex

  6. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance; Avaliacao da caracterizacao mineralogica de diversos depositos de argilas esmectiticas do estado da Paraiba utilizando analise estatistica de variancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de, E-mail: agama@reitoria.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  9. Evaluation of wind power for electric power generation at Nossa Senhora da Gloria - Sergipe - Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial eolico para geracao de energia em Nossa Senhora da Gloria-SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, F.S.B.; Faccioli, G.G. [Nucleo de Estudos do Semi-Arido - NESA, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao SE (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    The production of alternative energy can provide economic development and employment opportunities, especially in Rural areas. The work seeks as main objective the evaluation of the wind potential for generation of energy in Nossa Senhora da Gloria-SE. The values of the meteorological variables were obtained in stations automatic meteorological located in the municipal district. The statistical treatment for determination of the behavior of the winds in the researched municipal district was beacon in the calculation of averages, variances, distribution of frequencies and of the function of distribution of probability Rayleigh, case peculiar of the distribution Weibull, thoroughly diffused in studies of potential aeolian. These analyses allowed to extract all the information starting from the obtained gross data of the station and they were simulate in the software Statistica 7.0. The period of the day in that were registered to largest medium speeds it is the period of the afternoon understood between 12h00min and 18h00min for the municipal district of Nossa Senhora da Gloria-SE, being this period chosen for the simulations in software. (author)

  10. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  11. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  12. Avaliacao de projeto de promocao da saude para adolescentes

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    Jovino Oliveira Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar programa de promoção de atividade física e de escolhas alimentares entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 911 adolescentes de 13 a 18 anos de idade, de escolas públicas de Goiânia, GO, em 2010. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: intervenção (escolas participantes do Projeto Viver Saudável e controle. Foram considerados como atividade física: deslocamento, aulas de educação física na escola, atividade física fora da escola e no lazer. Foram definidos como ativos aqueles que acumularam 300 ou mais minutos por semana. Quanto às escolhas alimentares, foi classificado como adequado o consumo de alimentos protetores em cinco ou mais dias da semana. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas com teste de Qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos adolescentes foi identificada como inativos ou insuficientemente ativos, com 65,7% no grupo intervenção e 65,2% no grupo controle, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos e com prevalência maior entre o sexo feminino. Pouco mais da metade dos adolescentes consumiam alimentos protetores da saúde em cinco ou mais dias da semana, sendo 56,6% e 50,4%, respectivamente, nos grupos intervenção e controle (p = 0,373. CONCLUSÕES: A ausência de diferenças quanto a escolhas alimentares e prática de atividade física entre os grupos intervenção e controle indica que o projeto Viver Saudável precisa ser reavaliado visando melhorar a efetividade no cumprimento dos seus objetivos.

  13. Evaluation of the price volatility of short-term in Brazil and its relation with the thermal generation; Avaliacao da volatilidade do preco de curto prazo no Brasil e sua relacao com a geracao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, R.B.; Prado, F.A.A.; Saidel, M.A.; Ueocka, M.Z. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mails: fernando@sinerconsult.com.br, saidel@pea.usp.br, marcos.ueocka@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article evaluate the intensity of volatility of the electric power prices in the short term market in selected countries. It were analyzed historical series of monthly prices of major energy markets worldwide, with assessment of the energy matrix of each region. The study, by analysis of data entry program for optimizing the operation of the SIN (NEWAVE and DECOM), concludes that the price volatility in short-term in Brazil is marked by the large variation of thermal power available, especially the lack of natural gas.

  14. Evaluation of the environmental conditioning factors in the perspective of expansion of ethanol production in Brazil; Avaliacao dos condicionantes ambientais na perspectiva de expansao da producao de etanol no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Conceicao Elaine Cardoso

    2010-03-15

    Various countries have studied the possibility of adding ethanol to gasoline or using pure fuel ethanol as an alternative to petroleum derivatives. Brazil occupies a leading position in this scenario because with its National Alcohol Program (Programa Nacional do Alcool - PROALCOOL), created in 1975, it became the pioneer in setting up a biofuels program. Since then it has accumulated experience and gained mastery of the technology to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Hence there is a strong expectation that the country can become the world's main ethanol exporter. This thesis examines the main environmental impacts associated with the ethanol productive chain, which are relevant conditioning factors for the expansion of this industry in Brazil. The study describes the evolution of PROALCOOL and the overview of current structure of the brazilian sugar-alcohol sector, identifies technologies and environmental management policies, and presents the perspective of expansion of ethanol production. Thus, the study undertakes an extensive review of the literature and examines to what extent the creation and implementation of public and private environmental management policies (legal restrictions and market instruments, respectively) interfere with the expansion of these productive activities. (author)

  15. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  16. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating; Avaliacao da potencialidade de argilas do Rio Grande do Norte quando submetidas a elevadas taxas de aquecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  17. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  18. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  19. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  20. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  1. Sindrome da fragilidade biologica em idosos: revisao sistematica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tribess, Sheilla; Jaco de Oliveira, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusao As disparidades na prevalencia de indices de fragilidade e pre-fragilidade devem ser minimizadas, com estimulo a padronizacao metodologica para a avaliacao da fragilidade humana. Palabras Clave...

  2. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA, visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medscape e Micromedex(r. Verificou-se ainda a frequência de polifarmácia e associação desta com a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas. Os resultados mostraram frequência de 48,9% de interações medicamentosas, 74,9% delas de gravidade moderada ou maior, e 8,6% de prescrições em polifarmácia que, em teste qui-quadrado, mostrou associação positiva com ocorrência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (p < 0,001. As prescrições oriundas da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA apresentaram uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas, porém faz-se necessária a análise de outros fatores de risco para ocorrência destas nesse nível de atenção à saúde.

  3. Assessment of stability of ceramics type perovskite, Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, submerged in crude oil taken from oil wells of Sergipe - Brazil; Avaliacao da estabilidade de ceramicas tipo perovskita, Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, submersas em petroleo cru retirado de pocos do estado de Sergipe - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Sales, D.G.; Lima, M.M.; Ferreira, R.A.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: daniella_guedes@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Oil wells are harsh environments, thus, it is necessary to find materials that are able to resist the weather imposed by these sites. Many of the new technology incorporating ceramic components because their chemical properties, electrical, mechanical, thermal and structural. The ceramics exhibit high hardness and therefore resistant to high pressure, have high melting point, resisting the high temperatures, and make inert nature in hostile environments. The ceramics, type Perovskite Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, were submerged in crude oil for thirty days and then examined by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness to see if there were changes in structural characteristics, microstructural and mechanical properties. This work was evaluated and discussed by these results, the stability of these ceramics when subject to attack by crude oil taken from oil wells of land and sea state of Sergipe, Brazil. (author)

  4. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  5. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the influence of percent labeling of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI on nuclear medicine procedures in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil; Avaliacao da influencia do percentual de marcacao do {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI em procedimentos de medicina nuclear em Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jucilene Maria

    2003-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of percent labeling of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI on the procedures adopted by the nuclear medicine clinics in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, and their possible interference with image quality in myocardial perfusion examinations. This work was performed at two nuclear medicine services in Recife that use pharmaceuticals provided by two different manufacturers: Cardiolite, provided by Dupont and Cardiosyd, provided by SYDMA. The pH, percent labeling and stability of samples of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and the percent uptake in heart and liver of a number of patients were evaluated. The results showed that the pH values measured in all samples of both radiopharmaceuticals were within the limits recommended. In 48% of the Cardiolite samples, the percent labeling was less than 90%, which is the minimum recommended limit. On the other hand, 87,5% of the Cardiosyd samples measured values above 98%. Both radiopharmaceuticals had good labeling stability, even in samples with low percent labeling efficiencies. In spite of the higher percent labeling of Cardiosyd its heart uptake is similar to that observed with the Cardiolite, even when the percent labeling is lower than 90%. On the other hand, the image quality, according to physicians, evaluation was poorer for Cardiosyd images, due to high noise and poor sharpness. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil; Avaliacao da ingestao diaria de micronutrientes e mercurio em pre-escolares de algumas comunidades do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andrea C.P. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Farias, Luciana; Maihara, Vera A.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br; ime, P.L.; Alencar, Fernando H.; Yuyama, Lucia K. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: yuyama@inpa.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 {mu}g Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  8. Impact evaluation of the liquid effluent disposal of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in fluvial waters and sediments, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao do impacto do descarte de efluentes liquidos da Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC) sobre aguas e sedimentos fluviais, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Carla Maria; Camaz, Fernando Ribeiro; Jorge, Fabricio Goncalves [PETROBRAS/REDUC, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the contribution of the liquid effluents of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in the water and sediment contamination in the estuarine Iguacu-Sarapui system, a tributary of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since 2002 is being conducted a quarterly monitoring of some parameters in water, river sediments and treated liquid effluent, such as: pH, suspended solids, total sedimented solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, oil and grease (O and G), phenols, sulfide, ammonia, metals and metalloids (V, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Se , Co, Fe, Mn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coprostanol and cholesterol (indicators of domestic wastes). The obtained results show that the effluents meet the legal standards and the treated liquid effluents from REDUC in the estuarine system have little or no impact on river water quality. The higher levels of contaminants detected in water and sediments samples are directly related to untreated domestic sewage from urban areas. (author)

  9. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil; Avaliacao da incidencia e mortalidade por cancer na populacao residente em regiao com anomalia geologica na ocorrencia de uranio: estudo de caso: Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Leticia Rodrigues

    2009-04-15

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  10. Evaluation of the national secondary standard response of radiodiagnosis; Avaliacao da resposta do padrao secundario nacional de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.; Villalobos, Josefa P.; Carlos, Marcia T. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    1996-12-31

    Before calibration in Germany Primary Laboratory / PTB the Radcal diagnostic ionization chamber repeatability was tested in the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Brazil. Response of the chamber during experiment for repeatability demonstrate a variance in the range of 0.1% 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  12. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  13. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  14. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  15. Evaluation of effective dose in consequence of Para chestnut ingestion; Avaliacao da dose efetiva em consequencia da ingestao de castanha do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellintani, Sandra A.; Oliveira, Joselens de; Carvalho, Jurandyr S. de; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Commercial samples of Brazil nut tree seed (Bertholletia excelsa) were analysed for the presence or uranium and thorium series of natural radionuclides. The samples were analysed for the content of {sup 238} U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, {sup 232} Th, {sup 228} Th. Mean values 1.4 {+-} 0.4 Bq/kg for {sup 238} U, 26.3{+-}4.1 Bq/kG for {sup 226} Ra, 4.7{sup {+-}}1.8 Bq/kg for {sup 210} Pb, 16.5{+-}4.3 Bq/kg for {sup 232} Th, 31.3{+-}6.4 Bq/Kg for {sup 228} Ra and 12.3{+-}5.1 Bq/kg for {sup 228} Th. The effective dose due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides contained in the Brazil nuts, is 2.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/kg ingested per year. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM

  17. Never before seen in Brazil: Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's grand diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Critical assessment of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's diplomacy, which departed from the previous patterns of the Brazilian Foreign Service, to align itself with the political conceptions of the Workers' Party. This diplomacy has neither consolidated the position of Brazil as a regional leader, nor attained its declared goal of inserting Brazil into the United Nations Security Council, although it has reinforced Brazil's image in the international scenarios; but this was achieved much more throu...

  18. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil Epidemiologia da neurocisticercose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Agapejev

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100% was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67% between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%. In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62% and of the female sex (53-75%. The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 ± 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92% and intracranial hypertension (19-89%. Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical serie and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.Realizou-se revisão da literatura com o objetivo de tentar delinear um perfil epidemiológico da neurocisticercose no Brasil. A prevalência em necrópsias variou de 0,12-9%. A freqüência, nas casuísticas clínicas foi de 0,03-7,5% e, nos estudos soroepidemiológicos, de 0,68-5,2%. Compreendeu 0,08-2,5% das internações em hospitais gerais. A procedência foi rural em 30-63% dos doentes. Comprometeu mais (64-100% na faixa etária dos 11 aos 60 anos, predominantemente (22-67% entre 21 e 40 anos. O sexo masculino foi mais atingido (51-80%. Nas formas graves, houve predomínio da origem urbana (53-62% e do sexo feminino (53-75%. O período de

  19. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  20. Never before seen in Brazil: Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's grand diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical assessment of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's diplomacy, which departed from the previous patterns of the Brazilian Foreign Service, to align itself with the political conceptions of the Workers' Party. This diplomacy has neither consolidated the position of Brazil as a regional leader, nor attained its declared goal of inserting Brazil into the United Nations Security Council, although it has reinforced Brazil's image in the international scenarios; but this was achieved much more through the personal activism of the President himself, than through normal diplomatic work.

  1. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  2. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  3. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  4. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available São divulgados os primeiros resultados da avaliação da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil através de técnicas de análise da distribuição espacial. São revisadas questões metodológicas, apontando as dificuldades de estabelecer regiões geográficas homogêneas no Brasil. Descrevem-se tendências recentes da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil - pauperização, interiorização e alteração na participação proporcional das categorias de exposição. Avalia-se a distribuição de casos de AIDS por Unidades da Federação (UFs, confeccionando-se mapas relativos à disseminação da epidemia no período 1987-1993 nas diversas UFs, estabelecendo-se os Centros Gravimétricos (CGs relativos a esses anos. A análise do posicionamento e deslocamento pluri-anual desses CGs indica a força atrativa do Estado de São Paulo como pólo de difusão da epidemia e uma expansão simultânea da epidemia em direção às fronteiras de ocupação. Essas tendências colocam dificuldades adicionais às atividades de prevenção ao acrescentarem novos segmentos populacionais e regiões geográficas ao quadro observado inicialmente nas principais regiões metropolitanas e segmentos mais afetados.The first of a series of papers concerning the evaluation of the dynamics of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil employing techniques of geographical analysis, is here presented. Results of research undertaken in the US (especially in New York City are compared with those of a recent investigation carried out in the city of S.Paulo, Brazil (Grangeiro, 1994. In both, geographical patterns of socio-demographic variables correlate with different patterns of the spread of the AIDS epidemic through the transmission groups. Recent trends of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil: the displacement toward medium sized cities and expansion frontiers, increasing report of AIDS cases among the poor and underprivileged, changes in the pattern of transmission with proportional

  5. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  6. O Não-dito da AIDS The Hidden Face of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores historiam a evolução da epidemia de AIDS no Brasil do ponto de vista da construção de representações sociais acerca dos segmentos envolvidos na transmissão da doença. Enfatizam a necessidade de desmistificar a correlação simplista AIDS- transmissão homossexual. Procuram retirar do relativo esquecimento o papel dos usuários de drogas injetáveis e da transmissão heterossexual na disseminação da doença, "segmentos" cuja relevância epidemiológica, crescente em nosso meio, não se tem feito acompanhar da devida atenção, seja por parte dos meios de comunicação, seja pelos órgãos formuladores de políticas de saúde.The authors report on the evolution of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil from the point of view of the construction of social representations about "risk groups" involved in the spread of the disease. They emphasize the need to demystify the immediate correlation between AIDS and homosexual transmission. They highlight the role of intravenous drug users and of heterosexual transmission in new AIDS cases in Brazil - groups and behaviours that are not included in the priorities of local health authorities.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan

    1999-08-01

    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  8. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  9. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected

  10. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  11. Evaluation of the repeatability of dosimetric parameters of a linear accelerator beam; Avaliacao da repetibilidade de parametros dosimetricos do feixe de um acelerador linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Oliveira, Harley F. de; Silva, Maelson do N.; Pavoni, Juliana F., E-mail: h.morelli@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the repeatability of symmetry and flatness of the photon beam of 6 MV linear accelerator Oncor Impression, Siemens, from the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP. In total they were collected 102 measures, weekly, through two-dimensional detector of ionization chambers, Matrixx Evolution, IBA Dosimetry, connected to a computer with software OmniProI'mrt. The isocenter of the linear accelerator was placed in the center of the sensitive volume of the detector with solid water plates above and below these. Data were collected with 100 UM, with field size 10 x 10 cm². The flatness and symmetry values were calculated by the software used. The first measurement of this work was used as reference, the others were compared with it, taking into account the values of permissible variation for these parameters. The minimum, maximum and average value were analyzed. The literature indicates that the flatness and symmetry values should not vary by more than 2 and 3%, respectively. The results of this work show that the values of these parameters for the linear accelerator study are within the permissible variations in protocols and are therefore able to appropriate clinical use. (author)

  12. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In

  13. Seeking 'energy' vs. pain relief in spas in Brazil (Caldas da Imperatriz) and Portugal (Termas da Sulfurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Maria Manuel

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a comparative ethnography of the therapeutic practices at two different spa locations: Caldas da Imperatriz, SC, Brazil, and Termas da Sulfurea in Cabeco de Vide, Portugal. The comparison reveals the existence of contrasting 'explanatory models' held by the spa-goers as well as by the official medical systems. In the Portuguese context this model is highly medicalized; in the Brazilian case, spa treatments are viewed as 'alternative' or 'complementary' therapy and are also related to religious philosophies. Each model corresponds to a different idiom expressing certain experiences and world views, one focusing on 'pains' (dores) and the other on 'energy' (energia), the former leading to the rationale of 'curing', the latter to the notion of 'energizing'. In this paper the author intends to analyze and contrast the categories found in these models, which originate from different conceptions of health, illness and healing for Brazilian and Portuguese spa-goers.

  14. Integrated system for numerical simulation of atmosphere and weather forecasting evaluation for the Rio Paraiba do Sul basin. Part 2: evaluation of micro physics and convection parametrization; Sistema integrado de simulacao numerica da atmosfera e de avaliacao de prognosticos de tempo para bacia do Rio Paraiba do Sul. Parte 2: avaliacao da parametrizacoes de microfisica e de conveccao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, I.A.; Silva, M.G.A. Justi da; Coelho, D.G.; Menezes, W.F.; Silva, A.S.; Tozzi, L.R.L.; Oliveira, I.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Meteorologia]. E-mail: isimar@acd.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This document evaluates the performance of the MM5 mesoscale model as function of five different parametrizations of the deep convection, as follows: the Grell, the Fritsch-Chapell, the versions 1 and 2 of the Kain-Fritsch, and the Betts-Miller, all combined to the parametrization of the Schultz microphysics. The document analyses the event of pre-frontal squall line that advanced over the Rio de Janeiro - Brazil state on September 7, 2007 with significant winds and gusts.

  15. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  16. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  17. Retrospecto do controle da tuberculose no Brasil Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aiub Hijjar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi fazer um retrospecto da ação das medidas de controle da tuberculose no Brasil, desde o final do século XIX, abrangendo a história das lutas sociais e destacando instituições e figuras humanas dedicadas a buscar soluções para esses problemas. As respostas brasileiras à tuberculose iniciaram-se na sociedade com as Ligas Contra a Tuberculose, difundindo avanços científicos, como a vacinação BCG, iniciada em 1927. Do poder público, a Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (1920, o Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (1940, e a da Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (1946, coordenaram políticas nacionais como a da quimioterapia, iniciada com a descoberta da estreptomicina, em 1944. O surgimento da resistência bacteriana levou ao desenvolvimento de vários esquemas terapêuticos. O esquema I (rifampicina, hidrazida e pirazinamida, o principal de 1979 e ainda em uso, teve grande impacto epidemiológico. Em 1993, a OMS declarou a tuberculose em emergência mundial. Como resposta, o Brasil elaborou suas estratégias; a primeira foi o Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (1994, com priorização de 230 municípios. Como perspectiva aponta-se a efetiva municipalização das ações e sua maior integração aos Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família.The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis, promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920, the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National

  18. Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Ramos Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study carried out an insect gall inventory in restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 along the full extension of seven beaches. A total number of 147 gall morphotypes associated with 70 plant species were found, distributed in 33 plant families, and at least 54 genera. Myrtaceae was the botanical family with the highest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, followed by Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Malpighiaceae. Most of the gall morphotypes occurred in leaves (78 morphotypes, 38 in stems, 14 in flowers, eight in buds and fruits, and one in adventitious roots. The galling insects belong to the five orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most common galling taxon (78 morphotypes, represented by 87 species, being 78 gallers, seven inquilines and two predators. In addition to the gallers, parasitoids, inquilines, and predators were also found.

  19. Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota do Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, SP, Brasil Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota from Serra da Cantareira State Park, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Almeida Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para o estudo da diversidade de Chytridiales, coletas mensais de água e solo foram realizadas, de junho/2005 a junho/2006, no Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, Estado de São Paulo. O isolamento destes fungos foi realizado por meio do método de iscagem múltipla de amostras de água e solo, em laboratório, com substratos celulósicos, quitinosos e queratinosos. Dezenove espécies foram identificadas, sendo quatro novas ocorrências para o Brasil, Cladochytrium setigerum Karling, Diplophlyctis intestina (Schenk J. Schröt, Rhizophydium macroporosum Karling e Solutoparies pythii Whiffen ex W.H. Blackw. & Powell, e Septochytrium willoughbyi Dogma primeira citação para o Estado de São Paulo.A study of Chytridiales diversity was based on water and soil samples collected monthly from June/2005 to June/2006 in the Serra da Cantareira State Park, São Paulo State. The isolation of these fungi was carried out in the laboratory treating the water and soil samples by the multiple baiting technique with cellulosic, chitinous and keratinous substrates. Nineteen species were identified with four new citations for Brazil, Cladochytrium setigerum Karling, Diplophlyctis intestina (Schenk J. Schröt, Rhizophydium macroporosum Karling and Solutoparies pythii Whiffen ex W.H. Blackw. & Powell. Septochytrium willoughbyi Dogma is recorded for the first time in São Paulo State.

  20. A história da maconha no Brasil The history of marihuana in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaldo Araújo Carlini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A história da maconha no Brasil tem seu início com a própria descoberta do país. A maconha é uma planta exótica, ou seja, não é natural do Brasil. Foi trazida para cá pelos escravos negros, daí a sua denominação de fumo-de-Angola. O seu uso disseminou-se rapidamente entre os negros escravos e nossos índios, que passaram a cultivá-la. Séculos mais tarde, com a popularização da planta entre intelectuais franceses e médicos ingleses do exército imperial na Índia, ela passou a ser considerada em nosso meio um excelente medicamento indicado para muitos males. A demonização da maconha no Brasil iniciou-se na década de 1920 e, na II Conferência Internacional do Ópio, em 1924, em Genebra, o delegado brasileiro Dr. Pernambuco afirmou para as delegações de 45 outros países: "a maconha é mais perigosa que o ópio". Apesar das tentativas anteriores, no século XIX e princípios do século XX, a perseguição policial aos usuários de maconha somente se fez constante e enérgica a partir da década de 1930, possivelmente como resultante da decisão da II Conferência Internacional do Ópio. O primeiro levantamento domiciliar brasileiro sobre consumo de psicotrópicos, realizado em 2001, mostrou que 6,7% da população consultada já havia experimentado maconha pelo menos uma vez na vida (lifetime use, o que significa dizer que alguns milhões de brasileiros poderiam ser acusados e condenados à prisão por tal ofensa à presente lei. No presente, um projeto de lei foi aprovado no Congresso Nacional propondo a transformação da pena de reclusão por uso/posse de drogas (inclusive maconha em medidas administrativas.The present study describes of history of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana since the arrival in Brazil in the Portuguese discovers, in 1500. During the following centuries Cannabis cultivation was stimulated by the Portuguese Crown, which included sending seeds to Brazil; the medicinal use of Cannabis was also common

  1. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment; Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  3. Phosphorus in agroforestry systems: a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the

  4. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  5. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams; Avaliacao do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes e elaboracao de recomendacoes para equipes multidisciplinares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de, E-mail: lirio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  6. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  7. Characterization of clay of Vitoria da Conquista - BA - Brazil; Caracterizacao de uma argila caulinitica por Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H., E-mail: orley10@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Kaolinitic clay that are not coloured after firing are very useful in the production of ceramics because of their aesthetic aspect after firing. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (South- West Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by several techniques. The differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. The transformation of alpha to beta quartz characterized by a 573 deg C peak was also observed in DSC. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by flexural strength. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  9. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio

    2011-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential

  10. Survey of bryophytes in Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Marchi do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Serra da Canastra National Park is located in southwestern Minas Gerais State and contains several phytophysiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado. To date, no study on bryophytes has been conducted in this area and the present study is the first to be carried out in this major biological reserve of Cerrado located on the Brazilian Plateau. This study found 289 species of bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts, and one species of hornwort, representing fourty-one Brazilian endemic species and 56 new records for Minas Gerais State. Most species are widely distributed in Brazil, with only 16% having restricted distributions. Regarding worldwide distribution, 31% are Neotropical. Lejeuneaceae had the highest species richness among liverwort families with 53 species, whereas Sphagnaceae had the highest richness among moss families with 26 species. Phaeoceros laevis was the only hornwort species found in the park. This study contributes to the understanding of bryophyte species richness and distribution, and provides the worldwide and Brazilian distribution of the bryophyte flora of Serra da Canastra National Park, an important center for biodiversity conservation.

  11. Development of a benthic multimetric index for the Serra da Bocaina bioregion in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Baptista

    Full Text Available Brazil faces a challenge to develop biomonitoring tools to be used in water quality assessment programs, but few multimetric indices were developed so far. This study is part of an effort to test and implement programs using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators in Rio de Janeiro State. Our aim was first to test the Multimetric Index for Serra dos Órgãos (SOMI for a different area - Serra da Bocaina (SB - in the same ecoregion. We sampled 27 streams of different sizes and altitudes in the SB region. Despite the environmental similarities, results indicated biological differences between reference sites of the two regions. Considering these differences, we decided to develop an index specific for the SB region, the Serra da Bocaina Multimetric Index (MISB. We tested twenty-two metrics for sensitivity to impairment and redundancy, and six metrics were considered valid to integrate the MISB: Family Richness, Trichoptera Richness, % Coleoptera, % Diptera, IBE-IOC index, EPT / Chironomidae ratio. A test of the MISB in eleven sites indicated it was more related to land-use and water physico-chemical parameters than with altitude or stream width, being a useful tool for the monitoring and assessment of streams in the bioregion.

  12. Integrative overview of the herpetofauna from Serra da Mocidade, a granitic mountain range in northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Leandro J.C.L.; de Almeida, Alexandre P.; de Fraga, Rafael; Rojas, Rommel R.; Pirani, Renata M.; Silva, Ariane A.A.; de Carvalho, Vinícius T.; Gordo, Marcelo; Werneck, Fernanda P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Brazilian mountain ranges from the Guiana Shield highlands are largely unexplored, with an understudied herpetofauna. Here the amphibian and reptile species diversity of the remote Serra da Mocidade mountain range, located in extreme northern Brazil, is reported upon, and biogeographical affinities and taxonomic highlights are discussed. A 22-days expedition to this mountain range was undertaken during which specimens were sampled at four distinct altitudinal levels (600, 960, 1,060 and 1,365 m above sea level) using six complementary methods. Specimens were identified through an integrated approach that considered morphological, bioacoustical, and molecular analyses. Fifty-one species (23 amphibians and 28 reptiles) were found, a comparable richness to other mountain ranges in the region. The recorded assemblage showed a mixed compositional influence from assemblages typical of other mountain ranges and lowland forest habitats in the region. Most of the taxa occupying the Serra da Mocidade mountain range are typical of the Guiana Shield or widely distributed in the Amazon. Extensions of known distribution ranges and candidate undescribed taxa are also recorded. This is the first herpetofaunal expedition that accessed the higher altitudinal levels of this mountain range, contributing to the basic knowledge of these groups in remote areas. PMID:29302235

  13. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  14. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.

  15. Energy and economic evaluation of the cotton agr o-ecosystem: a boarding between family systems of Paraguay and Brazil productions; Avaliacao energetica e economica do agroecossistema algodao: uma abordagem entre sistemas familiares de producao do Paraguai e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Maria Gloria Cabrera [Pos-graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: gloriac@fca.unesp.br, ayacabrera@hotmail.com; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Sutsui [Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the energy and economic efficiency indexes per unit of cotton agr o-ecosystem area in family production systems of Paraguay and Brazil; and, to establish a relationship between the energy and economic. Typologies presented by the Program to Support Small Cotton Holdings (Paraguay), and by the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture (Brazil). Family systems of the two countries were identified; these are located from Paraguay (San Juan-Ca) and from Brazil (Le me-Sp). To construct the energy expenditure structure of the cotton agr o-ecosystem, as well as to assess the economic efficiency, the mean values obtained were considered, when they presented similarities in production systems and they were within the typology proposed in this study. From the technical itinerary observed the Paraguayan agr o-ecosystem depended (fossil fuel 56.76%) and industrial source (35.99%). Thus, the energy balance of the agricultural stage was established, which attained a value of 17,740.69 MJ ha{sup -1}; an energy efficiency of 5.28, and a cultural efficiency of 3.04. The Brazilian agr o-ecosystem depended on energy from industrial source (insecticides 39.82%) and from fossil fuel (33.59%); it reached an energy balance of 19,547.88 MJ ha{sup -1}; an energy efficiency of 2.12, and a cultural efficiency index of 0.71. In the economic and energy indicator ratio, with regard to the months referring to the harvest time, that is to say, March, April, and May, the maximum economic efficiency indicator of paraguay was attained in the month of May (1,00), and from Brazil in the month of May (1,71). Both production systems analyzed were presented efficient, however, dependent of external circumstances and non-renewable energy sources. (author)

  16. Farmacovigilância da heparina no Brasil Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rezende Garcia Junqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a origem das preparações de heparina, na forma farmacêutica injetável, disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, discutindo o impacto do perfil dos produtos comercializados e das alterações na monografia da heparina na segurança do fármaco. MÉTODOS: Pesquisou-se o banco de dados de Produtos Registrados das Empresas de Medicamentos da Anvisa e o Dicionário de Especialidades Farmacêuticas (DEF 2008/2009. Foi realizado inquérito com as indústrias com autorização ativa para o comércio do fármaco no Brasil. RESULTADOS: Cinco indústrias possuem autorização para o comércio de heparina não fracionada no Brasil. Três são de origem suína e duas de origem bovina, sendo que apenas uma possui essa informação explicitada na bula. A efetividade e a segurança da heparina, estudadas em populações estrangeiras, podem não representar a nossa realidade, já que a maioria dos países não produz a heparina bovina. A heparina atualmente comercializada tem, ainda, aproximadamente 10% menos atividade anticoagulante que a anteriormente produzida, e essa alteração pode ter implicações clínicas. CONCLUSÃO: Evidências acerca da ausência de intercambialidade de doses entre as heparinas de origem bovina e suína e o diferenciado perfil de segurança entre esses fármacos indicam necessidade de acompanhamento do tratamento e da resposta dos pacientes. Eventos que ameacem a segurança do paciente devem ser comunicados ao sistema da farmacovigilância do país.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. METHODS: The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009 were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug

  17. O campo da fotografia profissional no Brasil The field of professional photography in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz R. De V. Coelho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura traçar um panorama do campo da fotografia profissional no Brasil desde o primeiro governo Vargas até o final do século XX. Nas décadas de 1930 e 1940, nova leva de fotógrafos estrangeiros se mudou para o país. Alguns ocuparam postos no governo federal e construíram a imagem fotográfica da Nação. Em meados do século, a maneira de se fazer fotografias para a imprensa sofreu profunda alteração e pela primeira vez um museu brasileiro expôs fotografias. A ditadura militar interferiu decisivamente na produção da indústria cultural. Os anos de 1970 foram marcados pela transformação no perfil profissional e do status dos fotógrafos, causados principalmente pela entrada no mercado de jovens saídos das universidades. Nesta mesma década foi criada uma instituição destinada a valorizar a fotografia brasileira em todas as suas dimensões: o Núcleo de Fotografia da Fundação Nacional de Arte. Finalmente, o campo da fotodocumentação recebeu um forte impulso com a criação de bolsas e de leis de incentivo que, ao lado de um aumento significativo do mercado consumidor de livros de fotografia, permitiu a multiplicação não só de trabalhos autorais, como também de publicações.This article draws an overview of the field of professional photography in Brazil since the first Vargas administration to the end of the Twentieth Century. In the 30.s and 40.s, a new host of photographers came to live in Brazil from various countries. Some of them took positions in the Federal Government and were responsible for building a photographical image of the Nation. In the middle of the Century, the technique to make photos for newspapers suffered a profound change and, for the first time, a Brazilian museum organized an exhibit of photographs. The military dictatorship decisively interfered in the cultural industry. The 70.s were marked by changes in the status and in the professional profile of photographers, brought about

  18. Dose evaluation due to the effluent liberation by medical installations at city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao de doses devido a liberacao de efluentes por instalacoes medicas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Jane; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: jshu@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares; Heilbron, Paulo F.L., E-mail: paulo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (COREJ/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper, the city of Rio de Janeiro was taken as a case study. It was processed deterministic and probabilistic simulations vor evaluation of the dose in two exposure sceneries, one of them referring to public members exposure and the other relative to exposure of sewage sanitary treatment plant workers. The results showed that at present the doses for inhabitants of the city and operators of treatment station are lower to dose limit established for the public, the approach presently in use in Brazil is not sufficient to accomplish whit international requirements and the regulation should be revised to be adopted specific values for each radionuclide

  19. Paradigmas da educação financeira no Brasil Paradigms of financial education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Ferreira Savoia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe cinco ações que auxiliam no engajamento dos agentes públicos e privados no programa de educação financeira. Para alcançar tal finalidade, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico e documental, de modo a oferecer respaldo teórico qualitativo à descrição apresentada. O artigo inicia com a contextualização e a relevância do assunto. Aborda visões de autores internacionais sobre o tema, aprecia o estágio atual nos Estados Unidos, nos países do Reino Unido, em outros países da OCDE e no Brasil. Constata que, no país, ainda há um tratamento incipiente dessa questão, determinado pelo limitado conhecimento e reduzida experiência dos agentes envolvidos no processo de capacitação financeira. Desse modo, é necessário o fomento de ações por parte do governo, da iniciativa privada e do terceiro setor. Ressalta, ainda, que o papel das instituições de ensino é imprescindível na formação de uma cultura de poupança e na conscientização dos indivíduos para lidar com os instrumentos oferecidos pelo sistema financeiro e atender as suas demandas pessoais.This article deals with financial education in Brazil, given its relevance for the society's daily life, and considers five actions to further the involvement of public and private agents in financial education programs. In Brazil, this issue hasn't yet received proper attention, mainly due to the limited knowledge and experience of the players involved in financial education. Thus, it is necessary and urgent that the government, the private sector and the third sector promote activities in this area. The article emphasizes the role of basic, secondary and higher education institutions in developing a savings culture and preparing individuals to deal with the instruments offered by the financial system and to answer their own personal demands.

  20. KNOWING THE BIODIVERSITY OF ATLANTIC FOREST OF ZONA DA MATA, MG, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Azevedo Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rain forest constitutes a vegetation mosaic with a great biodiversity recognized tothe biome. In spite of its deforestation, it still shelters a significant share of Brazil´s biological diversity. The objective of this project is to make high-school students aware about the importance of science to the production of knowledge and technology, in special, to the study of conservation and preservation of biodiversity in the rain forest. Proposals were made on this project and several activities were realized to the diffusion of actions and scientific methods of study towards knowledge, good use, conservation and preservation of the biodiversity of the rain forest. The activities were developed all through the project “Conhecendo a Biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica na Zona da Mata”, and divided in three actions: (i interactive workshops showing the application of the scientific method to the study of biodiversity and the potential of making use of it in the production of consumer goods, through the principles of preservation and conservation and recognition of its resource; (ii educational speeches to denote how society interrelates with nature and its resources and how contextual knowledge has transformed the life-style of our society; (iii visitation through educational paths at “ State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB” and a show of the scientific projects produced by the students on the workshops. The activities improved knowledge of natural biodiversity, made the students aware on the importance of its conservation and built a methodology of application of scientific knowledge on the subject.

  1. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao de kerma de entrada na pele em exames radiologicos no Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/DEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  2. Qualitative evaluation of environmental radiological impact in a phosphate associated uranium conventional mine: Santa Quiteria Project, CE, Brazil; Avaliacao qualitativa do impacto radiologico ambiental em uma mineracao convencional de fosfato com uranio associado: o Projeto Santa Quiteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio G. dos; Santo, Aline Sa E., E-mail: rocio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: alinesah@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate qualitatively the main potential sources of mineral and installation terms of Santa Quiteria, CE, Brazil, evaluating their possible impacts on the environment. The key terms sources in the production of phosphoric acid are usually: the dig of the mines, tailings dams and phospho plaster stack. Thus, this work intends to inform the academic community about this issue, as well as the population in general and also, acting proactively in order to warn about the possible environmental impacts, so that actions to compensate, minimize or avoid these radiological impacts on the environment, can be included in the planning of the industrial mineral project of Santa Quiteria (author)

  3. System precision assessment ExacTrac 6D® BrainLab of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP; Avaliacao da precisao do sistema Exactrac 6D® BrainLab do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maistro, Carlos E.B., E-mail: carloseduardo.bravinmaistro@gmail.com [Programa de Residencia Multiprofissional em Fisica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nakandakari, Marcos V.N.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Sales, Camila P. de; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia. Hospital das Clinicas

    2015-08-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the precision of ExacTrac 6D® Brainlab system, installed at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, in frameless radiosurgery treatments. Four sets of tests were performed for different purposes in order to assess the following parameters: the accuracy of location through infrared system; evaluation of the reproducibility of fusion algorithm; evaluation of the X-ray system; and the end-to-end test with the goal of assess the overall accuracy of the system. It was found that the infrared system showed a maximum deviation of 0.5 mm in terms of positioning and the X-ray system showed a precision of 0.15 mm and 0.6°. The reproducibility of fusion algorithms provided a maximum deviation in position which was less than 0.5 mm and 0.5° and the quantitative analysis of the results for end-to-end test showed an overall accuracy of the system better than 0.8 mm. (author)

  4. Ascaris suum in pigs of the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Costa Fausto

    Full Text Available Among the parasites that affect pigs, Ascaris suum stands out for causing the greatest losses to livestock production systems. This parasite can be monitored during the slaughter of animals through the identification of “milk spots” or white patches on the liver caused by its larval migration. However, infection in the herd is usually subclinical, which is why the presence of this parasite in industrial pig production has been overlooked. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate the occurrence of milk spots on the liver of animals slaughtered in the micro-region of Ponte Nova in the Zona da Mata - Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to associate these lesions with the time of year, herd size and source of origin of the animals. An evaluation was made of 1,069 lots, totaling 108,073 animals, based on data extracted from the Federal Inspection Service. The animals were slaughtered during the period of January 2011 to June 2013. Out of the total number of slaughtered animals, 10,535 (9.75% tested positive for these lesions. Therefore, veterinarians and producers should be warned about the inefficiency of the deworming protocols that are used, and the need to develop and/or review control strategies for this parasite in production systems.

  5. Ascaris suum in pigs of the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Mariana Costa; Oliveira, Isabela de Castro; Fausto, Guilherme Costa; Carvalho, Lorendane Millena de; Valente, Fabrício Luciani; Campos, Artur Kanadani; Araújo, Jackson Victor de

    2015-01-01

    Among the parasites that affect pigs, Ascaris suum stands out for causing the greatest losses to livestock production systems. This parasite can be monitored during the slaughter of animals through the identification of "milk spots" or white patches on the liver caused by its larval migration. However, infection in the herd is usually subclinical, which is why the presence of this parasite in industrial pig production has been overlooked. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate the occurrence of milk spots on the liver of animals slaughtered in the micro-region of Ponte Nova in the Zona da Mata - Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to associate these lesions with the time of year, herd size and source of origin of the animals. An evaluation was made of 1,069 lots, totaling 108,073 animals, based on data extracted from the Federal Inspection Service. The animals were slaughtered during the period of January 2011 to June 2013. Out of the total number of slaughtered animals, 10,535 (9.75%) tested positive for these lesions. Therefore, veterinarians and producers should be warned about the inefficiency of the deworming protocols that are used, and the need to develop and/or review control strategies for this parasite in production systems.

  6. Evaluation of standard and use tendency of image diagnosis exams in Brazil with emphasis in pediatric computerized tomography; Avaliacao do padrao e tendencia de uso de exames de diagnostico por imagem no Brasil com enfase em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovales, Ana Cristina Murta

    2016-07-01

    for abdomen/pelvis CT in children younger than one year of age. The highest absorbed doses were estimated for the brain after head/neck CT (23.8 to 29.0 mGy), which was the most common type of CT in children and young adults in the study period. The intense increase, the magnitude of the estimated doses and the large proportion of pediatric CT scans in Brazil point out to the need for initiatives to promote appropriate justification and optimization of these examinations in Brazil. (author)

  7. Prospective evaluation of biorefinery routes in Brazil, from sugar cane bagasse as a basic feedstock; Avaliacao prospectiva das rotas de biorefinaria no Brasil, a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como materia-prima basica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Romulo Neves

    2009-12-15

    Bio refineries have been identified either as an alternative to oil refineries or as a supplement. This work seeks to understand these plants applied to the Brazilian case, which has in the alcohol-sugar sector a large number of lignocellulose material (sugar-cane bagasse) produced in large scale as a residue of the process of sugar and alcohol production. In this case, technological routes that are able to use this product as a basic feedstock for the industrial process will be described. Therefore, a model based on a set of economical and technological variables is applied to the routes. In this model, different profiles of bio refinery plants are described and compared with different hypothetical regions, which are characterized by a combination of both access to different amounts of raw material and different types of consumers. Overall, this work describes a model of both location and competition of the main bio refinery technological routes in Brazil that have the sugar-cane bagasse as the basic raw material. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators; Avaliacao da taxa de equivalente de dose ambiente utilizando monitores de area para neutrons em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  9. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  10. Reptiles, Squamata, Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara, municipality of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles, R. O. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a list of the reptiles from Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara, municipality of Duque deCaxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, an area situated in the Atlantic Rainforest Domain. The study wascarried out from September 2006 to October 2008. We recorded 31 species of Squamate reptiles: one species of thefamily Amphisbaenidae; eight species of lizards of the families Anguidae (n = 1, Gekkonidae (1, Phyllodactylidae (1,Polychrotidae (1, Scincidae (1, Teiidae (2, and Tropiduridae (1; and 22 species of snakes of the families Boidae (2,Colubridae (6, Dipsadidae (11, Elapidae (1, and Viperidae (2. Our study indicates that the PNMT is an important area forthe conservation of the Squamate reptile assemblages that inhabit lowlands of Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil.

  11. Phosphorus in agroforestry systems: a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, I. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life on Earth. Originally, forest covered the region but nowadays only about 7.5 % of the original vegetation remains. Most of the trees were cut for...

  12. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  13. Amphibia, Anura, Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara, municipality of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles, R. O. L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein is presented a list of the amphibians from the Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara (22°35'S,43°14'W, an area of Atlantic Rainforest at municipality of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeasternBrazil. The work was carried out from September 2006 to October 2008. Expeditions were made three times a weekduring the day, and once a month at night. We recorded 50 species of anuran amphibians distributed in 13 families:Amphignathodontidae (1 species, Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Craugastoridae (1,Cycloramphidae (3, Hylidae (29, Hylodidae (3, Leiuperidae (1, Leptodactylidae (4, Microhylidae (1,Strabomantidae (1, and Ranidae (1. Some species had their range extended. The present study demonstrates that theParque Natural Municipal da Taquara is a conservation area of huge importance to the preservation of the amphibiancommunities that inhabit this Atlantic Rainforest lowland environment.

  14. Evaluation of {sup 137}Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil; Avaliacao da mobilidade do {sup 137}Cs em perfis de solos da regiao do Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for {sup 137}Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to {sup 137}Cs soil and can be used in the task of remediation in case of rural areas by accident and {sup 137}Cs contamination establishing geographic areas where we should prioritize treatment due to a greater vulnerability. (author)

  15. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis; Avaliacao de cimento Portland a partir da difracao de raios X associada a analise por agrupamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbo, Luciano de Andrade, E-mail: luciano.gobbo@panalytical.com [Panalytical Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Tarcisio Jose, E-mail: tarcisio.montanheiro@gmail.com [Instituto Geologico, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Filipe, E-mail: flpmontanheiro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LEBAC/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia Aplicada. Lab. de Estudos de Bacias; Sant' Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas, E-mail: agostino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2013-12-15

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  17. Power engineering education in Brazil; Repensando o ensino da engenharia de potencia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutto Filho, M.B. do; Silva, A.M. Leite da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1994-12-31

    This work presents elements to the reflection about power engineering education in Brazil, taking into account transformations such as, improve technology, new paradigms of professional behavior and economic recession. (author) 13 refs.

  18. Strategic pathways for energy in Brazil; Os caminhos da eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Alan Douglas; Hollanda, Jayme Buarque de; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest steps and policies to increase the introduction of cost-effective energy in conservation measures in Brazil. This report first addresses the motivations for a policy of energy efficiency and summarizes experiences in Brazil. It then considers the roles and perspectives of the diverse agents and review the instruments of policy. It concludes with an overview of strategic needs and lines of action.

  19. Tinha favosa: relato de ocorrência familiar em Itapecerica da Serra (município da Grande São Paulo Tinea favosa: familiar occurence in Itapecerica da Serra (São Paulo State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Junior

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam 4 casos de tinha favosa por Trichophyton schoenleinii de ocorrência familiar, identificados na cidade de Itapecerica da Serra, município da Grande São Paulo. Todos os casos foram tratados com griseofulvina por via oral na dose de 1.0 mg/kg/dia por no mínimo 3 meses, tendo ocorrido cura clínica e laboratorial em 2 pacientes, e os dois restantes necessitaram de terapêutica mais prolongada.Four cases of Tinea favosa occurred in the same family are reported in a small city of Brazil (Itapecerica da Serra - State of São Paulo. Trichophyton schoenleinii was isolated from all four cases. Treatment consisted of oral griseofulvin (10 mg/kg/day for at least three months.

  20. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the maximum energy achieved through generation of hydro and wind power in the Northeast subsystem; Avaliacao da maxima energia assegurada atraves de geracao hidro-eolica no subsistema do Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Pedro T.; Teixeira, Marcos A.; Kissel, Johannes [Gesellschaft Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context to encourage sustainable development, wind energy plays an important role in the spread of renewable energy sources. In this paper, the possibilities and difficulties of wind power integration in large-scale are evaluated, specifically in the northeastern region of Brazil. From the seasonal complementarity with the water source, scenarios are set out where the maximum participation of only these two sources in the energy supply of the region is sought. Aiming to evaluate the possibilities of a completely sustainable regional energy supply, the northeast subsystem is isolated, excluding, in principle, imports and exports. Therefore, the energy storage capacity of reservoirs in the region is used as a key factor, combined with the seasonal availability of data sources and the annual energy consumption of the region. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  3. Da autonomia da boca: práticas curriculares e identidade profissional na emergência do ensino brasileiro da odontologia On the autonomy of the mouth: curricular practices, professional identity, and the emergence of dental teaching in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maria Warmling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisa como ocorreu a separação entre o ensino da medicina e o da odontologia no Brasil. Privilegia a institucionalização das políticas de ensino da odontologia no país como vertente produtora de identidade profissional. Políticas de ensino e práticas profissionais são inter-relacionadas para mostrar como suas relações e sentidos mudam historicamente. Propõe que a autonomia do ensino da odontologia emergiu da necessidade de conformação do sistema de regulação das práticas de cura no Brasil e seu processo de instituição desenvolveu-se sob inspiração das políticas positivistas acerca do ensino livre. Práticas curriculares foram produzindo a subjetividade do cirurgião-dentista moderno e também da clínica por ele desempenhada.The article analyzes how the separation of the teaching of medicine and of dentistry occurred in Brazil. It highlights the role that the institutionalization of dental teaching policies played in shaping a professional identity. Relations are drawn between teaching policies and professional practices to show how their relationships and meanings have changed historically. It is argued that the teaching of dentistry became autonomous because of the need to comply with the formation of a system to regulate healing practices in Brazil and that the process of its institutionalization transpired under the inspiration of positivist policies about free teaching. Curricular practices produced the subjectivity of the modern dental surgeon and his clinical practices.

  4. Musgos Pleurocárpicos da Chapada da Ibiapaba, Ceará, Brasil Pleurocarpic Mosses of the Ibiapaba Plateau, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No inventário florístico dos musgos pleurocárpicos realizado na Chapada da Ibiapaba, localizada na zona norte do estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram encontradas 24 espécies de musgos pleurocárpicos distribuídas em nove famílias e 17 gêneros, sendo nove novos registros para o estado do Ceará, seis para a região Nordeste e Lepidopilum brevifolium Mitt. está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o Brasil. São fornecidos chaves de identificação para as espécies, descrições diagnósticas, distribuição geográfica, comentários referentes à ambiente, substratos e caracteres taxonômicos pertinentes, além de ilustrações para as espécies pouco ilustradas na literatura.In the floristic survey carried out on the Ibiapaba Plateau , northern Ceará, Brazil, 24 species of pleurocarpic mosses distributed in nine families and 17 genera were found: of these, nine are new records for Ceará, six for the Northeast region and Lepidopilum brevifolium Mitt. is recorded for the first time from Brazil. Identification keys to the species, diagnostic description, geographic distribution, comments related to the environment, substrate and taxonomic characteristics are supplied. Illustrations are provided only for the less illustrated species in the literature.

  5. Familismo (antihomossexual e regulação da cidadania no Brasil (Antihomosexual familism and citizenship regulation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pouco mais de dez anos depois da apresentação do projeto de lei que institui a parceria civil entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, neste artigo são reunidas reflexões, no âmbito do debate teórico e político, sobre as relações afetivo-sexuais entre homossexuais como uma expressão da diversidade da instituição social família. O ponto de partida é que o vazio jurídico relativo aos direitos conjugais e parentais de gays e lésbicas é uma expressa negação de sua condição de cidadãos. Procura-se mostrar que a vivência de relacionamentos amorosos e sexuais, algo que nos faz intrinsecamente humanos, ainda é, em termos legais, uma prerrogativa heterocêntrica, marca da injustiça erótica e da opressão sexual que atinge gays e lésbicas no Brasil e na maior parte do planeta.Ten years after the presentation of the project of law that institutes the civil partnership between same-sex people, this article is a collection of reflections about the theoretical and political debate regarding relationships between homosexuals as an expression of diversity of family institution. The lack of legal rights for gay and lesbian partners and parents is an explicit denial of their citizenship. It will be shown that amorous and sexual relationships, that make us intrinsically humans, is still, in legal terms, a heterocentric possibility, which is an expression of the erotic injustice and sexual oppression that affect gays and lesbians in Brazil and most of the world.

  6. The scenario of power generation in Brazil; O cenario da geracao de energia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Abreu Junior, Otavio Castor de; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Carajilescov, Pedro; Leite, Patricia Teixeira; Cicogna, Marcelo A.

    2008-07-01

    The values concerning to the production of national power today, the evolution of composition and the installed capacity of electric matrix between the years 1980-2005, the outlook for demand and supply of energy according to the 'Plano Decenal de Energia' (2006-2015) were used as information basis for this study and analysis of some peculiar characteristics of the management of the energy sector in Brazil. The main objective was to highlight the importance of hydroelectric generation in Brazil. Finally we tried to make the comparison of the costs of hydroelectric generation in relation to other alternative sources available in the country.

  7. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  8. Acai oil development and evaluation of immobilization and release in poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao da incorporacao e liberacao de oleo de acai em hidrogeis de poli(N-vinil-2-pirrolidona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Henriques Ribeiro

    2010-07-01

    Acai (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. The benefits of the hydrogels are known as dressings. The purpose of this study was to develop devices for controlled release of acai oil on poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels. The behavior of the acai oil front to the radiation was evaluated by the composition of fatty acids of the oil before and after irradiation. Two different matrices of PVP hydrogel were evaluated physically and chemically through assays of swelling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Both matrices were considered adjusted to be used as an active release system. The devices were obtained by acai oil immobilization in PVP hydrogel matrices, were also characterized through assays of sweeling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Moreover, they were characterized by assays of scanning electron microscopy and in vivo primary cutaneous irritation. Both devices were submitted to assay of active release kinetics, and the acai oil was quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The devices showed to be satisfactory to compose a release system of actives. (author)

  9. Firewood and wood-shaving use energy assessment for energy generation in sericulture agroindustry; Avaliacao energetica do uso da lenha e cavaco de madeira para producao de energia em agroindustria seropedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mario Donizeti do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: mariovmr@fca.unesp.br; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: biaggioni@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform an energy assessment of firewood and wood-shaving use for energy generation in sericulture agroindustry boilers. In this research, we used a boiler from a silk spinning factory located in the city of Duartina, Sao Paulo, Brazil, that currently uses eucalyptus firewood as fuel to generate water vapour used in silk fiber production. In the studied fuels utilization system energy consumption structure development, we considered energy input in Megajoule (MJ) by type, source and form involved in several firewood use technical itinerary operations, as well as in wood-shaving use technical itinerary operations. From these fuels utilization built structure, we performed a firewood- and wood-shaving-generated energy input comparative analysis, in Megajoule/hour (MJ.h{sup -1}), to produce 2.968,80 kg.h{sup -1} of vapour, which is the boiler average production, during the following years: 2004, 2005, and 2006. The energy analysis results revealed that to replace eucalyptus firewood with wood-shaving is something possible in the boiler, reducing total energy consumption approximately by 21%. (author)

  10. Evaluation of skin entrance radiation dose in pediatric patients undergoing chest X-rays exams; Avaliacao da dose de entrada na pele em pacientes pediatricos submetidos a exames radiograficos do torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabardo, Farly Piantini

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the incident air kerma of lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) together with posterior-anterior (PA) projection chest X-ray exams in one of the largest pediatric hospitals in Brazil. Dosimetric results are accompanied with the detailed analysis of patient characteristics and radiographer strategy. The exams of 225 (119 male and 106 female) patients were studied and 389 X-ray exams (200 AP/PA projections and 189 LAT projections) of pediatric patients were acquired. Patient thickness can be restored from age, height or weight with the uncertainty of ∼20-30%. Very slight correlation between the patient dose and thickness was observed with the difference in dose for patients of the same thickness reaching 4 times. By standardization of radiological protocols, it should be possible to keep dose within the intervals 50-100 μGy for LAT projection and 40-80 μGy for AP/PA projection. The dose values are lower than those recommended by major European guidelines to good practice. (author)

  11. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  12. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  13. A gomose da acácia-negra no Brasil: a review The gummosis of black wattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii é cultivada no Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, visando tanto à produção de tanino, a partir da casca, quanto o uso da madeira para papel, celulose, carvão, lenha e chapas de aglomerados. A gomose causada por Phytophthora nicotianae e P. boehmeriae, é o seu principal problema fitossanitário. Discute-se nesta revisão a existência de dois padrões distintos de sintomatologia da gomose de Phytophthora que têm sido observados nas plantações brasileiras: gomose basal, associada a P. nicotianae, e gomose generalizada, mais associada a P. boehmeriae. São discutidos aspectos relacionados à etiologia, à epidemiologia e às estratégias de controle.The black wattle (Acacia mearnsii is cultivated in Brazil for bark tannin, paper, cellulose, plywood, charcoal and firewood production. Gummosis of Phytophthora, caused by P. nicotianae and P. boehmeriae is the main disease problem on black wattle. The existence of two distinct symptom patterns observed on plants in the commercial fields are: butt gummosis which is associated with P. nicotianae and general gummosis more related to P. boehmeriae. Etiological, epidemiological and control aspects of this disease are presented and discussed on this review.

  14. Peixes recifais da costa da Paraíba, Brasil Reef fishes from Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef is an ecossystem which evokes great interest, for its beaury, species diversity and fisheries potential. The coast of Paraíba State, northeast Brazil, possesses several natural reefs and shipwrecks which are inhabited by a rich fish fauna. In order to survey the reef fish fauna of Paraíba State, a total of 118 dives, utilizing SCUBA diving techniques, were carriedoutin 27samplingpoints (depths: 0,5-66m, from February/1995 to May/1996. Specimens were collected whenever underwater identification was precluded. A total of 157 known species belonging to 59 families were found. Four unidentified species, one dasyatid, one haemulid, one scarid, and one labrid were recorded. Haemulidae was the most representative family in number of individuais, whereas Carangidae was the most speciose family. This paper is part of a broader study of the northeast Brazilian reef fishes.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  16. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  17. Fenologia da figueira-da-índia em Selvíria - MS Phenology of cactus pear in Selvíria - MS State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A figueira-da-índia é uma cactácea de origem mexicana, com grande potencial produtivo para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brasil, porém a falta de conhecimento faz com que a cultura seja pouco cultivada. Com o objetivo de avaliar a fenologia da figueira-da-índia, o presente trabalho foi realizado em plantas com 4 anos de idade, no espaçamento de 1,0 x 2,5 m, na área experimental da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS, de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, com uma planta por parcela experimental, ocasião em que foram avaliados a fenologia e o crescimento dos frutos. O período de emissão das gemas concentrou-se nos meses de setembro e outubro. O florescimento, ocorreu 30 dias após a emissão da gema florífera. Os frutos atingiram a maturidade fisiológica (ponto de colheita aos 66 dias após o florescimento e aos 72 dias apresentavam-se maduros, aptos para o consumo. O período de desenvolvimento dos frutos, desde a emissão da gema florífera até a maturidade fisiológica, foi de 96 dias. A curva de crescimento dos frutos foi do tipo quadrática. A cultura da figueira-da-índia pode tornar-se uma alternativa principalmente para pequenos produtores, visto que não exige grandes investimentos para sua implantação e condução, além de se adaptar bem às condições ambientais de nosso País. Seus frutos possuem excelentes preços tanto no mercado nacional como no internacional, e o aproveitamento na forma de doces e geleias pode incrementar a renda dos produtores.The cactus pear is a cactaceous with Mexican origin and great productive potential for the edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil, but for lack of knowledge, the culture is still little cultivated. With the objective to evaluate the phenology of cactus pear, the present research was

  18. Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e o ensino secundário brasileiro - Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and secondary education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Spitz Alcoforado de Abreu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta a circulação do intelectual paranaense Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa nas discussões sobre os rumos da educação brasileira, em particular, sobre o ensino secundário, nas décadas de1920 e 1930, destacando as conexões e deslocamentos tecidos numa rede de relações, ou seja, suas vinculações com intelectuais de outros estados, em particular com os intelectuais paulistas e cariocas. Esse estudo constatou que a relação entre Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e pessoas pertencentes ao grupo católico deu-se mais por questões políticas, do que por vias religiosas. Pelo que se apreende do estudo de sua sociabilidade, pode-se dizer que conservou, em seu círculo de amizades, católicos, protestantes e pessoas de crenças diversas, desde que essas não se opusessem, diante de circunstâncias de tomada de decisão e partido, aos seus interesses políticos. Palavras-chave: Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa; intelectuais da educação; ensino secundário.   LYSIMACO FERREIRA DA COSTA AND SECONDARYEDUCATION IN BRAZIL Abstract This article presents the insertion of Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa in the discussions concerning the direction of Brazilian education. He was an intellectual born in the state of Paraná. The period of the analysis ranges from 1920 and 1930 and its focus is the discussion of the secondary school. It emphasizes the ties and connections established in Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa’s network of relationships, his associations with intellectuals of other states, mainly from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Through the data obtained in this study, it is possible to say that the affiliation between Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and the Catholic group took place primarily due to political reasons rather than religious grounds. According to the study of his sociability, he maintained in his circle of friends both Catholics, Protestants and people of several beliefs, as long as they did not oppose to his political interests

  19. [Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcor, Núria Serre; Araújo, Tania M; Reis, Eduardo J F B; Porto, Lauro A; Carvalho, Fernando M; Oliveira e Silva, Manuela; Barbalho, Leonardo; de Andrade, Jonathan Moura

    2004-01-01

    The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of minor psychological disorders and certain characteristics of teaching work, emphasizing teachers' exposure to stress.

  20. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  1. Floristic diversity and survival strategies of climbers in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A floristic survey of climbing species in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, state of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was conducted to determine their survival strategies during unfavorable seasons. Forty-five angiosperm species belonging to 29 genera and 14 families were counted. Species richness was higher than that recorded in other Caatinga areas. The most representative families were Convolvulaceae (8, Fabaceae (6, Apocynaceae (5, and Dioscoreaceae (5. Most of the climbers (64.4% were herbaceous. Therophytes represented the dominant lifestyle (51.1% and represented the main dry-season escape strategy. Climbers are important biological groups that require more studies on their autoecological aspects and their role in ecological communities and should be considered in the establishment of biodiversity conservation strategies.

  2. Floristic diversity and survival strategies of climbers in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A floristic survey of climbing species in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, state of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was conducted to determine their survival strategies during unfavorable seasons. Forty-five angiosperm species belonging to 29 genera and 14 families were counted. Species richness was higher than that recorded in other Caatinga areas. The most representative families were Convolvulaceae (8, Fabaceae (6, Apocynaceae (5, and Dioscoreaceae (5. Most of the climbers (64.4% were herbaceous. Therophytes represented the dominant lifestyle (51.1% and represented the main dry-season escape strategy. Climbers are important biological groups that require more studies on their autoecological aspects and their role in ecological communities and should be considered in the establishment of biodiversity conservation strategies.

  3. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

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    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  4. Argyrogrammana Strand (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-10-08

    The species of Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and detailed with behavioral notes. In total, 17 species were recorded, including 13 new records for Brazil (marked with an asterisk): A. alstonii (Smart, 1979)*, A. nurtia ludibunda Brévignon & Gallard, 1995*, A. pulchra (Talbot, 1929)*, A. bonita Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. amalfreda (Staudinger, [1877])*, A. physis phyton (Stichel, 1911), A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. celata Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. aparamilla Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. praestigiosa (Stichel, 1929), A. johannismarci Brévignon, 1995*, A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. rameli (Stichel, 1930), A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov.*. Four new species are described, two from "amalfreda complex": A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. and A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; one from "trochilia complex": A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; and one from "stilbe complex": A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. Argyrogrammana iracyi saulensis Gallard, 2008 is recognized as a valid species, A. saulensis saulensis, stat. nov., and a new combination is proposed to A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov. The females of A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari are recognized and figured for the first time. The taxonomy of the species found at the PNSD is discussed and adults are figured, including illustrations of the genitalia.

  5. Evaluation of the shield calculation adequacy of radiotherapy rooms through Monte Carlo Method and experimental measures; Avaliacao da adequacao do calculo de blindagens de salas de radioterapia atraves do metodo de Monte Carlos e medidas experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao

    2016-07-01

    The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the

  6. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength

  7. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the

  8. Avanços da segurança de alimentos no Brasil | Advances in food safety in Brazil

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    Eduardo Cesar Tondo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, um expressivo avanço na regulação e utilização de sistemas de gestão da segurança de alimentos (SGSA tem ocorrido no Brasil. Ainda que seja difícil afirmar que o número de Doenças Transmissíveis por Alimentos (DTA tenha diminuído, sistemas como as Boas Práticas de Fabricação ou Boas Práticas (BPF/BP, Procedimentos Operacionais Padronizados (POP e Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC estão cada vez mais presentes nos serviços de alimentação e indústrias de alimentos brasileiras. Além disso, ultimamente o Brasil vem utilizando os conceitos de Análise de Riscos (AR na elaboração de suas legislações e no estudo de problemas relacionados à segurança de alimentos. Como resultado desses avanços, as vigilâncias estão cada vez mais preparadas e atuantes, as legislações têm contemplado as especificidades brasileiras e, ao mesmo tempo, estão alinhadas com algumas das mais modernas do mundo e os órgãos que fomentam as implementações dos SGSA têm trabalhado incessantemente. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de abordar alguns dos recentes avanços da segurança de alimentos no Brasil, enfocando principalmente legislações sobre os SGSA e dados de implementação desses sistemas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In recent years, developments related to food safety regulation and implementation of food safety management systems (FSMS have occurred in Brazil. Although it is difficult to affirm if the number of foodborne diseases has decreased, implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, Standard Operation Procedures (SOP, and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP have increased in Brazilian food services and food industries. Furthermore, at present, Brazil uses the risk analysis concept for the elaboration of food regulation and to carry out food safety studies. As a result of this development, sanitary

  9. A cena constituinte da psicose maníaco-depressiva no Brasil The emergence of manic depressive psychosis as a diagnosis in Brazil

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    Joel Birman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A intenção deste ensaio é esboçar a leitura da psicose maníaco-depressiva no Brasil, no começo do século XX. Destaca a transformação teórica ocorrida na psiquiatria brasileira, que se deslocou da tradição francesa para a alemã. Sublinha o modo como a problemática da histeria foi substituída pela da psicose maníaco-depressiva nesse contexto histórico.This essay examines the early twentieth-century interpretation of manic depressive psychosis in Brazil, during a moment when Brazilian psychiatry witnessed a theoretical shift from the French to German traditions. It calls special attention to how the problem of hysteria was replaced by manic depressive psychosis within this historical context.

  10. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

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    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  11. Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta da Chapada da Ibiapaba, Ceará, Brasil Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta of the Ibiapaba Plateau, Ceará state, Brazil

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    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chapada da Ibiapaba, localiza-se ao norte do estado do Ceará, possuindo uma extensão de 110 km com alitudes variando entre 800 e 1100 m. No inventário florístico de briófitas realizado na área, foram encontradas 15 espécies de hepáticas folhosas, pertencentes a odaem Jungermanniales, distribuídas em oito gêneros e seis famílias. Das espécies encontradas, cinco representam novos registros para o estado do Ceará e quatro para a região Nordeste. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil. São fornecidos chaves de identificação para as famílias e espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários referentes à ambiente, substratos e caracteres taxonômicos pertinentes, além de ilustração para Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.The Ibiapaba Plateau, north zone of Ceara, Brazil, has a length of 110 km with altitudes between 800 and 1.100 m. In the bryophytes floristic survey conducted in the area, 15 species of liverworts were found, wich belong to the order Jungermanniales, distributed in eight genera and six families. Among the species found, five represent new records for the state of Ceara and four for the Northeast region. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. is cited by the second time for Brazil. Identification keys to the families and species, geographic distribution, comments on the environment, substrate and important taxonomic characters are provided for the species found. An Illustration has been made for Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.

  12. Flowering phenology and pollination of ornithophilous species in two habitats of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rogério R; Araújo, Andréa C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe interactions between hummingbirds and ornithophilous species at Serra da Bodoquena in midwest Brazil, with focus on flowering phenology and pollination of these plant species. In two habitats, gallery forest and semi-deciduous forest, data on flowering phenology of ornithophilous species were collected monthly over 14 months. In addition, data on morphology and floral biology, as well as visitor frequency and hummingbird behavior, were recorded. The studied community contained eight ornithophilous plant species and six hummingbird species. The ornithophilous species flowered throughout the year, and the greatest abundance of flowers was at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry one. The herit huingbird Phaethornis pretrei and feales of Thalurania furcata, were the most similar in floral resource use. Acanthaceae is the most representative family of ornithophilous plant species in Serra da Bodoquena and, thus, represents the main food source for hummingbirds. Ruellia angustiflora is especially important because it flowers continuously throughout the year and is a significant food resource for P. pretrei, which is the main visitor for this plant guild.

  13. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the

  14. Tendências no ensino da epidemiologia no Brasil Trends in the teaching of epidemiology in Brazil

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    Rita Barradas Barata

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O ensino da epidemiologia teve início no Brasil na década de 20 e sempre foi voltado para a saúde pública. Na década de 70, o ensino de epidemiologia passou por um crescimento em nível de pós-graduação. Os anos 80 foram marcados pela "epidemiologia social", que incorporava as ciências sociais e seus métodos; a segunda metade da década foi marcada pelo desenvolvimento das técnicas da bioestatística. No momento atual, a definição de diretrizes para o ensino da epidemiologia depende da reflexão acerca de vários pontos, entre os quais a reformulação ou extinção dos programas de residência médica em medicina preventiva, medicina social ou saúde coletiva; implantação de programas de mestrado e doutorado exclusivamente em ; oposição entre formação instrumental e formação teórica; e desenvolvimento de estratégias para o fortalecimento de novos grupos de docentes em instituições de ensino nas regiões mais pobres do país. Existe uma tendência positiva de aproximação entre instituições de ensino e serviços de saúde, tanto para o cumprimento de tarefas de ensino e formação de pessoal, quanto para o assessoramento técnico no planejamento, organização e avaliação de programas. Em relação aos profissionais que atuam em serviços de saúde, a efetividade dos programas em epidemiologia depende da capacidade dos docentes de trabalharem com situações de ensino-aprendizagem que facilitem a apreensão por parte dos alunos nas condições reais de seu trabalho, situações concretas em que a teorização seja uma decorrência natural.The teaching of epidemiology in Brazil began in the 1920s and has always been connected to public health. The 1970s witnessed an expansion in the number of graduate-level courses in epidemiology. The 1980s were characterized by "social epidemiology," which incorporated the social sciences and their methods into epidemiology; the second half of the decade was marked by the

  15. A história da maconha no Brasil The history of marihuana in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Elisaldo de Araújo Carlini

    2006-01-01

    A história da maconha no Brasil tem seu início com a própria descoberta do país. A maconha é uma planta exótica, ou seja, não é natural do Brasil. Foi trazida para cá pelos escravos negros, daí a sua denominação de fumo-de-Angola. O seu uso disseminou-se rapidamente entre os negros escravos e nossos índios, que passaram a cultivá-la. Séculos mais tarde, com a popularização da planta entre intelectuais franceses e médicos ingleses do exército imperial na Índia, ela passou a ser considerada em ...

  16. Diagnóstico da floricultura no Rio Grande do Sul Diagnosis of floriculture in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atelene Normann Kämpf

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o segmento da produção de flores e plantas ornamentais no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio de um levantamento a campo. O estudo faz parte de um projeto global, apoiado pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Floricultura (IBRAFLOR e pelo Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento (MAARA, através do Departamento Nacional de Cooperativismo (DENACOOP. Com base nos formulários preenchidos nas propriedades, foi elaborado um cadastro dos floricultores, com seus endereços e produções. A floricultura gaúcha conta com 257 produtores, que cultivam o total de 304ha em 65 municípios; 30% dessa área é ocupada com flores de corte, 33% com mudas para jardim, 29% com outros produtos da floricultura e 8% com plantas envasadas. O sistema de cultivo predominante é a céu aberto (89%, com baixos investimentos tecnológicos.A survey was conducted to quantify flower and ornamental plant production in the State of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Brazilian Floriculture Institute (IBRAFLOR and the Agriculture Ministry (MAARA - DENACOOP granted this research. Based on an inventory formulary a catalog including the nurseries, addresses and main crops was elaborated. There are 257 growers in this State with an area of 304ha distributed among 65 counties; 30% of this area are cultivated with cut flowers, 33% with annuals and perennials for garden, 29% with other floriculture products and 8% with potted plants. The main system of cultivation is not protected with low technological investments.

  17. Os caminhos da pragmática no Brasil Pragmatic studies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil RAJAGOPALAN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the history of the study of pragmatics in Brazil. It is shown that Brazilian researches have, by and large, remained attentive to major developments in the field taking place elsewhere in the world. Of particular importance is the burgeoning tendency to focus attention on social issues affecting the day-to-day lives of ordinary people. More and more researchers are realizing the need to assume a critical role in relation to the theories they encounter in the literature.

  18. New species of Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae from the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil

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    Celso Oliveira Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species of Apenesia Westwood, 1874, from Brazil, Acre, are described and illustrated. They belong, respectively, to the following species-groups: nitida group, Apenesia lobata sp. nov., A. serrulata sp. nov. and A. subangulata sp. nov.; laevigata group, A. ocullata sp. nov. and A. rostrum sp. nov.; columbana group, A. apicilata sp. nov.; mexicana group, A. triapicalis sp. nov.; brasiliensis group, A. megaventris sp. nov., A. ventosa sp. nov. and A. triangula sp. nov. New geographical records and some morphological data on A. funebris Evans, 1963, A. nitida (Kieffer, 1910 and A. truncaticeps (Kieffer, 1910 are added.

  19. The Serra da Cangalha impact structure, Brazil: Geological, stratigraphic and petrographic aspects of a recently confirmed impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marcos Alberto Rodrigues; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Góes, Ana Maria; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.

    2013-08-01

    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with an apparent diameter of 13.7 km located in essentially undisturbed sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin in northeastern Brazil. The stratigraphy of the crater region includes, from bottom to top, the Longá, Poti, Piauí and Pedra de Fogo formations of Devonian to Late Permian age. The age of the impact event is constrained to structure comprises a ˜5.8 km wide central uplift involving the Piauí, Poti and Longá formations and a prominent ˜3 km wide collar of Poti Formation rocks. We divided Serra da Cangalha into four distinctive structural domains (i-iv), from the innermost zone outward. (i) The central domain, with an inner collar ˜1.5 km radius from the center, yielded all the samples with microscopic shock features identified so far. These include planar deformation features (PDF), feather features (FF), and planar fractures (PF) in quartz grains found in polymict breccias and shatter cones from the central depression. Furthermore, significant cementation with iron oxide is observed in the rocks of Serra da Cangalha, especially in the Poti Formation and in the polymict breccias, conferring to them a peculiar red color. Macroscopic deformation involves faulted, folded and subvertical strata within a ˜2.9 km radius from the center. (ii) The annular basin domain has limited outcrops; its most prominent features are two concentric annular ridges formed by chert breccias and fossilized wood-bearing folded strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation. (iii) The crater rim and (iv) external domains comprise undisturbed strata of the Pedra de Fogo and Piauí formations with well-preserved sedimentary structures. Whilst the existing literature on Serra da Cangalha has focused on the structure morphology, general geology and some shock features, we present here a detailed description of the stratigraphy and the geology of each formation in the interior and around Serra da Cangalha, as well as further detailed

  20. Controle da raiva no Brasil de 1980 a 1990 Rabies control in Brazil from 1980 to 1990

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    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a situação epidemiológica da raiva no Brasil no período de 1980-1990, em que o Programa Nacional de Profilaxia da Raiva foi estruturado em todo País. São mostradas as principais ações de controle da raiva desenvolvidas para se chegar aos resultados, considerados positivos. A raiva no Brasil registrou uma redução importante nos casos humanos (78% e caninos (90% na metade da série analisada. No final da década, houve um recrudescimento de casos em algumas partes do País, principalmente na região Nordeste que apresentou 70% dos casos em 1990. A raiva humana transmitida por morcegos também apresentou um incremento importante, chegando a 15,1% do total. O programa executado pelos Estados e municípios atende a 350.000 pessoas agredidas por animais e também vacina cerca de 9.000.000 de animais anualmente. A vigilância epidemiológica é considerada fundamental e para isso se elaboraram indicadores para a definição de áreas de risco.The epidemiological situation of rabies in Brazil at the period of 1980 to 1990, when the National Program for Rabies Prevention was implemented on a national scale, and which yielded positive results, is presented. The main controling actions carried out in order to achieve these results are also described. Rabies in Brasil registered a considerable decrease in human and canine cases (78% and 90%, respectively , half way through the series of analyses undertaken for this study. Towards the end of the decade, the disease began to recrudesce, several cases occurring in some parts of the country, mainly in the northeastern region, where 70% of the total number of infections for 1990 was recorded. Moreover, human rabies transmitted by bats experienced a considerable increase, accounting for 15.1% of the total. The Program, which is implemented by State and Municipal authorities. Covers the 350,000 people who are attacked by animals, and vaccinates approximately 9,000,000 animals every annually

  1. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  2. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Andressa Alencastre Fuzari Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%, Migonemyia migonei (20.6%, Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%, Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%, Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%, Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%, Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%, Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%, Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2% and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%. Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  3. O Brasil e a ALCA: um estudo a partir da Argentina Brazil and the FTAA: a study from Argentina

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    María Julieta Cortes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA, lançada por George Bush (pai, e seu novo impulso, dado por Clinton, foram recebidos com muita cautela no Brasil. A partir de 1990, o governo Collor de Mello, diante do esgotamento do modelo de desenvolvimento interno baseado na substituição de importações, pleiteou uma recomposição da política externa adaptada ao novo projeto. Desse modo, iniciou-se a abertura paulatina do mercado interno, acompanhada de um incremento nas importações superior ao das exportações. Nesse contexto, o Brasil propôs a liberalização do comércio internacional em bases recíprocas. No presente trabalho, e tendo como marco de referência o projeto ALCA, identificam-se no Brasil posturas favoráveis e contrárias ao mesmo, que resumem os inúmeros debates em torno da melhor forma de se defender os interesses nacionais brasileiros: privilegiar a ALCA ou o Mercosul?; a negociação via acordos bilaterais ou conjunta com os sócios do Mercosul, via Acordos 4+1?; o recomeço do Mercosul e a concretização de acordos com a União Européia ou a busca de novas parcerias (associações no sistema internacional? Em seguida, consideram-se as posições assumidas pelas administrações de Fernando Collor de Mello, Itamar Franco e Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Por último, analisa-se a atitude assumida pelo governo de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva diante do projeto de integração continental em seus primeiros onze meses de governo (janeiro-dezembro de 2003.Brazil cautiously received former president George Bush's proposal and Clinton's new impulse on FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas. Due to the weakening of an internal development pattern based on import substitution, Collor de Mello's government put forward a recomposition foreign policy according to a new project, since 1990. Hence, a slow opening to the internal market began. This was accompanied by an import increase, which surpassed exports. Framed

  4. Zoneamento da pecuária leiteira da região sul do Brasil Milk production mapping from Southern region in Brazil

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    Elizabeth Nogueira Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados do recenseamento de 1996, disponíveis no IBGE em formato digital, juntamente com os dados edafoclimáticos, constituíram a base de dados georreferenciados que foi usada neste estudo. Utilizou-se a análise de grupamento, seguida de análise discriminante, com o objetivo de reunir os municípios da Região Sul em áreas de produção de leite com o mesmo padrão de similaridade, considerando cada conjunto de variáveis. Adicionalmente, foi avaliada a importância relativa de cada variável, dentro de cada grupo, para o estabelecimento dos grupos. O zoneamento da pecuária leiteira da Região Sul revelou a existência de quatro grupos ou zonas distintas, com relação ao padrão de produção regional. A zona de menor produtividade animal (1.249 litros por vaca ordenhada por ano e da terra (193,5 litros por hectare por ano envolve 119 municípios, que agregam o maior rebanho da região, porém com tradição em pecuária de corte (apenas 55% do rebanho é voltado para a produção de leite. A pecuária leiteira mais especializada foi observada na zona que engloba municípios com produtividade média animal de 2.864 litros de leite por vaca ordenhada por ano, e da terra de 6.700 litros de leite por hectare por ano. Esta zona é composta de 26 municípios que se localizam, basicamente, no Noroeste Rio-Grandense (26,0%, Centro-Oriental Rio-Grandense (21,8% e Centro-Oriental Paranaense (16,5%.Data from the 1996 Brazilian census, available from IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística in digital format, along with edafoclimatic data comprised the GIS databases used in this work. The cluster analysis was used, followed by a discriminant analysis with the objective of pooling milk producing areas showing the same similarity patterns, considering each variable set. In addition, to establish clusters, the relative importance of each variable was evaluated, within each group. Mapping of dairy husbandry in the southern region of Brazil

  5. Doenças da cavidade nasal em ruminantes no Brasil Diseases of the nasal cavity of ruminants in Brazil

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    Roseane de A Portela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve as doenças das fossas nasais diagnosticadas em ruminantes no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, em Patos, Paraíba, nos anos de 2003-2009. No período foram registrados três diagnósticos de doenças das fossas nasais de bovinos, três em caprinos e nove em ovinos (de um total de 404 diagnósticos em bovinos, 330 em caprinos e 338 em ovinos. Descrevem-se um caso de rinite atópica em bovinos, sete surtos de conidiobolomicose e dois de pitiose rinofacial em ovinos, dois casos de prototecose e um de aspergilose nasal em caprinos e um mixoma e um fibrossarcoma em bovinos. Adicionalmente, é realizada uma revisão de outras doenças das fossas nasais de ruminantes descritas em outras regiões do Brasil, incluindo oestrose, rinosporidiose, carcinoma epidermóide e tumor etmoidal enzoótico.This paper reports diseases of the nasal cavity diagnosed in ruminants in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos, state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, from 2003 to 2009. During that period three cases or outbreaks of diseases of the nasal cavity were reported in cattle, three in goats and nine in sheep (out of 404 diseases diagnosed in cattle, 330 in goats, and 338 in sheep. At all are reported one case of atopic rhinitis in cattle, seven outbreaks of conidiobolomycosis and two outbreaks of rhinofacial pythiosis in sheep, two cases of protothecosis and one of nasal aspergillosis in goats, and a myxoma and a fibrosarcoma in cattle. Additionally, other diseases of the nasal cavity reported in Brazil are reviewed, including oestrosis, rhinosporidiosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and enzootic ethmoidal tumor.

  6. O valor da marca: conceitos, abordagens e estudos no Brasil Brand equity: concepts, approaches and studies in Brazil

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    Marta Olivia Rovedder de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O valor da marca é um importante construto a ser estudado porque é associado a benefícios-chave tanto para os consumidores quanto para as empresas, de forma que existe um crescente reconhecimento de que as marcas são recursos capazes de melhorar o valor ao acionista. O presente estudo visa verificar os estudos relativos ao valor da marca realizados no Brasil. Para tanto, primeiramente revisa conceitos e construtos existentes. Após, aponta alguns modelos de mensuração e, por fim, realiza um levantamento, dentre algumas das principais publicações brasileiras de administração, sobre os trabalhos realizados atinentes a esse tema. O levantamento dos estudos demonstrou que, nos últimos anos 2007 e principalmente 2006 , ocorreu um crescimento dessas pesquisas, mas ainda há um amplo caminho para esses estudos no Brasil. Muitos estudos são de caráter teórico-conceitual, existindo espaço para avanços em pesquisas de caráter empírico. Crê-se que ainda haja espaço para pesquisas que relacionem o desempenho da marca ao desempenho empresarial, seja lucratividade ou valor ao acionista. Também existe uma carência de estudos que observem concomitantemente a perspectiva de valor dos consumidores e das empresas. Dentre as contribuições que essa pesquisa buscou oferecer destacam-se, além dos conceitos, modelos e estudos levantados, a indicação de futuras pesquisas no Brasil.Brand equity is an important construct to be studied because it is associated to key benefits for both customers and companies, as it is increasingly acknowledged that brands are resources able to improve the stockholder value. This study seeks to review the studies related to brand equity performed in Brazil. As such, it first reviews existing concepts and constructs. Then it points out some measuring models, and finally performs a survey of the papers published on this theme in the main Brazilian administration publications. The survey of the studies has shown that

  7. Myxomycetes da Chapada do Araripe (Crato - CE, Brasil Myxomycetes from Chapada do Araripe (Crato, CE, Brazil

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    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuado um levantamento dos Myxomyeetes ocorrentes em área de floresta no município do Crato, CE (7º13'53" S; 39º24'28'' W; Alt. 422m, assinalando-se as seguintes famílias e gêneros: Ceratiomyxaceae (Ceratiomyxa, 1 sp.; Cribrariaceae (Cribraria, lsp., Dictydium, 1 sp.; Didymiaceae (Didymium, 2sp.; Enteridiaceae (Dicrydiaethalium, 1sp.; Physaraceae (Badhamia, 2sp., Fuligo, 2sp., Physarum, 5sp.; Steinonitaceae (Comatricha, 3sp., Sfemonitis, 6sp.; Trichiaceae (Arcyria, 3sp., Hemitrichia, 2sp., Periclwena, 1 sp.- Constatou-se preferência das espécies para frutificar em troncos mortos de dicotiledôneas, seguindo-se restos de palmeiras e folhedo. O levantamento eleva para 30 o número de espécies referidas para o Ceará. Uma família e 19 espécies são novos registros para o Estado e Arcyria magna var. rosea Rex é nova referência para o Brasil. São apresentados comentários, chave de identificação e distribuição geográfica das espécies no Nordeste do Brasil.A survey on Myxomycetes was made in the woods of Crato Municipality. State of Ceará, Brazil (7º13'53" S; 39º24,28" W; Alt. 422m. when the following families and genera were registered: Ceratiomyxaceae (Ceratiomyxa, 1 sp.; Cribrariaceae (Cribraria, 1 sp., Dictydium. 1 sp.; Didymiaceae (Didymium, 2sp.; Enteridiaceae Dictydiaethalium, 1 sp.; Physaraceae (Badhamia. 2sp., Fuligo, 2sp., Physarum, 5sp.; Stemonitaceae Comatricha, 3sp., Stemonitis, 6sp.; Trichiaceae (Arcyria, 3sp., Hemitrichia, 2sp., Perichaena, lsp..The species sporulated mostly on dead dicotyledones wood, followed by monocotyledones (Arecaceae debris and litter. The survey raises the number of registers referred to the State of Ceará to 30 species. One family and 19 species are new records for that State while Arcyria magna var. rosea Rex represents a new record for Brazil. Key for the species, comments and geographical distribution in Northeast Brazil arc presented.

  8. The symbolic sphere and social representations of Serra da Tiririca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / A esfera simbólica e representações sociais do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Douglas de Souza Pimentel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serra da Tiririca State Park (Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca-PESET is located in an area of rich environmental history between the cities of Niterói and Maricá in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Established through grassroots lobbying and popular mobilization, it nevertheless hosted some mistakes that catalyzed social problems, which should have been otherwise dealt with during its creation process. We believe that social representations allow us to learn about the symbolic sphere of the social insertion of protected areas. On the one hand, the protected area is seen as a “paper park” and as a stage where confl icts related to real-estate speculation, land ownership and the political situation take place. Its positive image, on the other hand, refers to the political mobilization for its creation and to the community’s vigilance. As a conclusion, the social representations must be understood so that its positive aspects maybe highlighted, contribute to its regional incorporation and aid in the Park’s management.

  9. The bryophytes of Trindade Island, South Atlantic, Brazil As briófitas da Ilha da Trindade, Atlântico Sul, Brasil

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    Allan Laid Alkimim Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trindade is a Brazilian oceanic island located about 1,200 Km east of the Brazilian coast (between 20º 31' 30" S, 29º 19' 30'' W. The island originated from the abissal zone about 3 million years ago, has a maximum altitude of 620 meters and an area of 9.28 Km². Even though the fanerogamic flora is known, there were virtually no data on the bryophyte flora. Four expeditions to the island were carried out during two years and approximately 431 specimens collected. This work presents the Bryoflora of this island, which comprises 32 species, including 20 species of liverworts distributed among six families; the most speciose being Lejeuneaceae with 11 species and Frullaniaceae with four. There are also 11 species of mosses distributed among eight families, the most diverse being Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae and Pottiaceae with two species each. Only one species of hornworts was found. The bryophyte flora of Trindade most likely originated from the threatened Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil and, therefore, has conservation implications. Keys and comments are provided.Trindade é uma ilha oceânica brasileira localizada a 1.200 km a oeste da costa do Brasil entre as coordenadas 20º 31' 30" S e 29º 19' 30'' W. A ilha emergiu da zona abissal cerca de 3 milhões de anos, com altitude máxima de 620 m e uma área de 9,28 km². Sua flora fanerógama é relativamente conhecida, sendo praticamente não tendo dados sobre a flora de briófitas. Foram realizadas quatro expedições entre os anos de 2010 e 2011 e cerca de 431 espécimes coletados. O resultado mostrou 32 espécies de briófitas, das quais 20 são hepáticas distribuídas em seis famílias, com 11 espécies de Lejeuneaceae e quatro de Frullaniaceae. Na divisão dos musgos foi representado com 11 espécies distribuídos em oito famílias sendo a mais diversificadas com duas espécies: Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae e Pottiaceae. Na divisão dos antóceros apenas uma espécie foi

  10. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  11. O Brasil e a reforma da ONU Brazil and the reform of the UN

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    Monica Herz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se o debate sobre as propostas de reforma institucional da ONU com respeito à soberania nacional e direitos humanos, operações de imposição de paz, propostas de promoção de desenvolvimento econômico e democratização interna da organização. O artigo trata ainda das posições brasileiras em relação a essas propostas de reforma.The debate over the proposals for an institucional reform of the UN is examined, in connection with questions of national sovereignty and human rights, peace enforcement operations, promotion of economic development and democratization of decision-making by the organization. Brazilian views on these issues are also discussed.

  12. The family Bignoniaceae in the Environmental Protection Area Serra Branca, Raso da Catarina, Jeremoabo, Bahia, Brazil

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    Luiza Regina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bignoniaceae comprises 82 genera and 827 species distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical regions, with a few species in temperate climates, and is most diverse in South America. The Brazil is the center of diversity for the group, with about 406 species in 33 genera, of which 22 genera and 90 species occur in the Caatinga. The floristic survey of Bignoniaceae in the Environmental Protection Area Serra Branca included analysis of 31 specimens collected from August 2009 to February 2012. The analyses were supplemented with dried collections from the following herbaria: ALCB, HRB and HUEFS. Nine genera and 11 species were recorded: [Anemopaegma Mart ex DC; Bignonia L.; Cuspidaria DC.; Fridericia Mart.; Handroanthus Mattos; Jacaranda Juss; Lundia DC.; Mansoa DC. and Tabebuia Gomes ex DC.]. Fridericia was the most representative genus with three species. The taxonomic treatment includes a key for the identification, descriptions, illustrations, photos, data of the geographical distribution, reproductive phenology and comments about the species.

  13. Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Envenomation by Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae in Bahia, Brazil

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    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação é um estudo descritivo dos aspectos clínicos dos acidentes causados pelo escorpião Tityus stigmurus no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foram analisados 237 casos confirmados, tratados pelo Centro de Informações Antiveneno da Bahia (CIAVE, no período de 1982-1995. O envenenamento por T. stigmurus caracterizou-se por manifestações locais: dor (94,4%, dormência (30%, edema (17,8%, eritema (17,8% e parestesia (15,6% e gerais: cefaléia (14%, vômitos (4,4% e sudorese (3,3%. A maioria dos envenenamentos (94% foi leve e todos evoluíram para cura. A ausência de letalidade, com o restabelecimento dos pacientes, inclusive casos graves, sugere a eficácia do tratamento com o antiveneno específico, apesar do veneno desta espécie não estar presente no pool de produção nacional do soro. Há necessidade de revisão dos critérios regionais nos esquemas atuais de soroterapia. Os dados apontam para a semelhança da gravidade do envenenamento por T. serrulatus, com exceção da ocorrência de óbitos e complicações sistêmicas.The present investigation is a descriptive study regarding the clinical aspects of accidents caused by the scorpion Tityus stigmurus in Bahia, Brazil. We analyzed 237 confirmed cases treated by the Antivenom Information Centre (CIAVE from 1982 to 1995. Envenomation by T. stigmurus was mainly characterized by local symptoms: pain (94.4%, dormancy (30.0%, edema (17.8%, erythema (17.8, paresthesia (15.6% and general manifestations such as headache (4.4%, vomiting (4.4% and sudoresis (3.3%. Most of the envenomation cases were mild (94% and all were successfully cured. Although T. stigmurus venom is not in the pool of anti-venom serum (SAE, the absence of lethality and benign nature of the cases suggest the efficiency of SAE. With the exception of deaths and systemic complications, envenoming gravity was similar to those of Tityus serrulatus.

  14. Catalogue of Anisopodidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha types housed in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rafaela L. Falaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, this paper provides a catalogue of the type specimens of Anisopodidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP. Information on labels and type conditions, on 54 type specimens (including 21 primary types of 24 Neotropical species are provided.

  15. Diversity and composition of Trichoptera (Insecta larvae assemblages in streams with different environmental conditions at Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil

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    Ana Lucia Henriques-Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The goal of this study is to examine the composition and richness of caddisfly assemblages in streams at the Serra da Bocaina Mountains, Southeastern Brazil, and to identify the main environmental variables, affecting caddisfly assemblages at the streams with different conditions of land use. Methods The sampling was conducted in 19 streams during September and October 2007. All sites were characterized physiographically by application of environmental assessment protocol to Atlantic Forest streams and by some physical and chemical parameters. Of the 19 streams sampled, six were classified as reference, six streams as intermediate (moderate anthropic impact and seven streams as poor (strong anthropic impact. In each site, a multi-habitat sampling was taken with a kick sampler net. The sample was composed by 20 units, each one corresponded to 1 m2 of collected substrate, corresponding 20 m2 of sampling area. The material was placed in a plastic container (500 µm of mesh, washed, homogenized and sub-sampled. For each stream, 6 subsamples were randomly sorted. Results Were collected 2,113 caddisfly larvae, belonging to 12 families and 28 genera. Hydropsychidae and Leptoceridae were the most abundant families, and Smicridea was the most abundant genus. Sorensen’s index results showed that the streams studied were grouped according to environmental integrity. The Indicator Species Analysis showed only characteristic taxa to reference streams. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that caddisfly assemblage was strongly influenced by nitrate concentration, pH and condition of riparian vegetation. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant correlations to five genera with some environmental parameters, besides total abundance of Trichoptera. Conclusions Ours results showed that degree of environmental impact, mainly the nitrate concentration, pH, and condition of cover vegetation acted as a major factor in determining the

  16. INOCULATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING BACTERIA IN MAIZE GROWN IN VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA, BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Joelma da Silva Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is among the most important crops in the world. This plant species can be colonized by diazotrophic bacteria able to convert atmospheric N into ammonium under natural conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inoculation of the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae (ZAE94 and isolate new strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria in maize grown in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Experimental Area of the Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. Inoculation was performed with peat substrate, with and without inoculation containing strain ZAE94 of H. seropedicae and four rates of N, in the form of ammonium sulfate (0, 60, 100, and 140 kg ha-1 N. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter accumulation in shoots, percentage of N, and total N (NTotal were evaluated. The bacteria were isolated from root and shoot fragments of the absolute control; the technique of the most probable number and identification of bacteria were used. The new isolates were physiologically characterized for production of indole acetic acid (IAA and nitrogenase activity. We obtained 30 isolates from maize plants. Inoculation with strain ZAE94 promoted an increase of 14.3 % in shoot dry mass and of 44.3 % in NTotal when associated with the rate 60 kg ha-1 N. The strains N11 and N13 performed best with regard to IAA production and J06, J08, J10, and N15 stood out in acetylene reduction activity, demonstrating potential for inoculation of maize.

  17. An assessment of ninth round; Nona: uma avaliacao da rodada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, Eduardo; Andrade, Leila; Fontana, Raphaela [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Accomplished on November, 27{sup th}, 2007, 271 exploratory blocks were offered in Round 9, distributed within 14 sectors, totalling an area of 73 thousand km{sup 2}. The following basins were included: Campos, Espirito Santo, Para- Maranhao, Parnaiba, Pernambuco-Paraiba, Potiguar, Santos, Reconcavo and Rio do Peixe. From the original lot of 67 companies qualified (31 Brazilian and 36 of foreign origin), 42 offered bids individually or in partnerships. 117 blocks were allocated to 24 winning operator companies. Other 12 enterprises won acreage as non-operator participants of joint bids. A record of R$ 2,1 billion were offered as signature bonuses along with 169.436 units of the so called minimum exploratory programs. These units may be converted to an estimated R$ 1,4 billion. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the results obtained in Round 9, analyzing collected data through three different perspectives of aggregate results: bidding companies, offered areas and exploratory models. (author)

  18. The Serra da Graciosa A-type granites and syenites, southern Brazil. Part 1: regional setting and geological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A.R. Gualda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Serra da Graciosa region includes important occurrences of granites and syenites of the Graciosa A-type Province (formerly Serra do Mar Suite, southern Brazil. Using fieldwork, petrography, and remote sensing imagery, we characterize the geology of the plutons in the region. Five individual plutons were recognized. Two correspond to the previously defined Marumbi and Anhangava Plutons. We divide the former "Graciosa Pluton" into three new plutons: Capivari, Órgãos, and Farinha Seca. The plutons are elliptical with northeast-southwest orientation. Two petrographic associations can be recognized: an alkaline association that includes peralkaline and metaluminous hypersolvus alkalifeldspar granites and syenites (Anhangava, Farinha Seca, Órgãos, and an aluminous association composed of metaluminous and weakly peraluminous subsolvus granites (Capivari, Órgãos, Anhangava, Marumbi. Occurrences of each association are limited to one individual pluton or to portions of a pluton, and the age relationships are not well established. Monzodioritic rocks are found marginal to the Órgãos and Farinha Seca Plutons, and interaction with silicic magmas locally produced hybrid quartz syenites (Farinha Seca Pluton. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement at shallow crustal levels (P = 2 ± 0.6 kbar, and crystallization temperatures within the interval 900-700ºC for the granitic and syenitic rocks, and 1000-750ºC for the monzodioritic rocks.A região da Serra da Graciosa inclui importantes ocorrências de granitos e sienitos da Província Graciosa de Tipo-A (originalmente chamada de Suite Serra do Mar, Sul do Brasil. Com base em trabalho de campo, petrografia, e imagens de sensoriamento remoto, é feita a caracterização dos plútons da região. Cinco plútons independentes são reconhecidos. Dois deles correspondem a plútons já definidos na região, os Plútons Marumbi e Anhangava; os três restantes derivam da subdivisão do "Maciço Graciosa" em

  19. O desenvolvimento da Ortodontia no Brasil e no mundo Development of Orthodontics in Brazil and in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo de Vasconcellos Vilella

    2007-12-01

    techniques to make orthodontic appliances. Carlos de Almeida Lustosa, the first Brazilian who become a specialist. Carlos Alves da Costa, the author of the first text-book written in Portuguese entirely dedicated to orthodontics. On the other hand, to understand the way how these changes took place and correlate them to the overall Orthodontics evolution, an historical summary of its global universe was organized. In accordance to the present findings, it can be stated that it was necessary 50 years, approximately, to occur the post-graduation centers consolidation in Brazil. It is also true that the effort of the education institutions and class associations contributed to create the foundations of the Brazilian orthodontics scientific development. At the present moment, however, it seems to be of common-sense to suppose that the next step should be the establishment of rules that can regulate the post-graduation programs, in order to improve the new specialists professional formation.

  20. Flowering phenology and pollination of ornithophilous species in two habitats of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R. Faria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe interactions between hummingbirds and ornithophilous species at Serra da Bodoquena in midwest Brazil, with focus on flowering phenology and pollination of these plant species. In two habitats, gallery forest and semi-deciduous forest, data on flowering phenology of ornithophilous species were collected monthly over 14 months. In addition, data on morphology and floral biology, as well as visitor frequency and hummingbird behavior, were recorded. The studied community contained eight ornithophilous plant species and six hummingbird species. The ornithophilous species flowered throughout the year, and the greatest abundance of flowers was at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry one. The herit huingbird Phaethornis pretrei and feales of Thalurania furcata, were the most similar in floral resource use. Acanthaceae is the most representative family of ornithophilous plant species in Serra da Bodoquena and, thus, represents the main food source for hummingbirds. Ruellia angustiflora is especially important because it flowers continuously throughout the year and is a significant food resource for P. pretrei, which is the main visitor for this plant guild.O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as interações entre beijaflores e espécies ornitófilas na Serra da Bodoquena na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com foco na fenologia de floração e polinização destas espécies vegetais. Em dois habitats, mata ciliar e floresta semi-decídua, dados de fenologia de floração de espécies ornitófilas foram coletados mensalmente ao longo de 14 meses. Além disso, dados de morfologia e biologia floral bem como a frequência dos visitantes e o comportamento dos beija-flores foram registrados. A comunidade estudada contém oito espécies de plantas ornitófilas e seis espécies de beija-flores. As espécies ornitófilas floresceram todo o ano, e a maior abundância de flores foi no final da esta

  1. [Work and psychological distress among public school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; Porto, Lauro Antônio; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with all the teachers in the municipal school system in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, investigated the association between work content (psychological demand and control over work) and the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among teachers. The Karasek demand-control model was used to evaluate control over work. The Self-Report Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate minor psychiatric disorders. MPD prevalence was 55.9% among the 808 teachers studied. Crude prevalence of MPD showed a positive and significant association with psychological demand and a negative and significant association with control over work. MPD prevalence was higher in teachers with highly demanding work, characterized by heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.44-2.10), and in those with active work, with heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.61), as compared to teachers with low-demand work (light demand and high control), after adjusting for confounders in a multiple logistic regression model. As a conclusion, teachers' mental health is strongly associated with their work content.

  2. [Evaluation of potential drug interactions in primary health care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Danyllo Fábio Lessa; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2014-01-01

    Drug interactions are risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The risk for drug interactions includes factors related to prescription that are intrinsic to the patient. This study sought to evaluate the potential drug interactions in primary care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia to fill the knowledge gap on this topic in Brazil. Information about several variables derived from the primary health care prescriptions was collected and drug interactions were evaluated based on information from Medscape and Micromedex(R) databases. Polypharmacy frequency and its association with the occurrence of drug interactions were also evaluated. Results revealed a 48,9% frequency of drug interactions, 74,9% of moderate or greater severity, 8,6% of prescriptions in polypharmacy that in the chi-square test showed a positive association with the occurrence of drug interactions (p Conquista in the state of Bahia showed a high frequency of drug interactions, however it is necessary to analyze other risk factors for their occurrence at this level of health care.

  3. MORBIMORTALIDADE DA DENGUE EM IDOSOS NO BRASIL - DENGUE MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN ELDERLY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah Rachel Graciano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and specific dengue coefficients of mortality in Brazil in the elderly population correlating the rates by male and female. Methods: Analytical ecological study with temporal trend of design. It was used as data sources Sistema de Informação Hospitalar, Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. The population corresponded to the elderly aged between 60 years to 100 attended at Brazilian public health system whom were diagnosed with dengue between 2008 and 2015. Results: The prevalence rates did not change in the general population between the years 2008 and 2015. There was a significant increase in the number of deaths from dengue. In the elderly group, the prevalence increased substantially, and the specific mortality analysis in this group showed higher values than the mortality of the general population affected by dengue. Conclusions: It is very important to underline studies on the involvement of dengue in elderly groups for the development of public politics and the creation of specific protocols for the diagnosis and treatment in that age group, considering the lack of scientific evidence to entail proper conduct in handling such patients

  4. Caracterização de acessos de mangueira Ubá na Zona da Mata Mineira Characterization of access Uba mango of Zona da Mata, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girlaine Pereira Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização física e química de acessos de manga Ubá na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, visando a identificar materiais de interesse industrial. Frutos fisiologicamente maduros foram colhidos e transportados para o Laboratório de Análise de Frutas da UFV, onde foram lavados, tratados com fungicida Prochloraz (Sportak 450 CE, Hoeschst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd., Inglaterra, na dose de 49,5g100L-1 de água, por 10 minutos e secos ao ar. Em seguida, foram tratados com Ethephon, ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico, (Ethrel 240g de ethephon.L-1, RHône-Poulenc Agro Brasil LTDA na concentração de 1g i.a.L-1 juntamente com espalhante adesivo Adesil (760g i L-1, Nufarm Indústria Química e Farmacêutica S.A. na concentração de 20mL 100L-1 durante 5 minutos e secos ao ar. Em seguida, foram armazenados a 20±1°C e umidade relativa de 90% e avaliados após o completo amadurecimento. Os frutos que apresentaram melhores características para o processamento industrial foram os provenientes dos acessos 7, 11, 16, 17, 21, 26, 28, 47, 48, 53, 54 e 56. A massa de fruto, firmeza, teor de sólidos solúveis e teor de ácido ascórbico são as características que apresentaram maior variabilidade dos acessos de mangueira Ubá. A variabilidade genética existente nas mangueiras Ubá, em Visconde do Rio Branco propicia disponibilizar materiais para futuros trabalhos de melhoramento genético e implantação de banco de germoplasma.The objective of this paper was to carry out the physical and chemical characterization of mango Uba access in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, to identify materials of industrial interest. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested and transported to the Laboratory of Analysis of Fruit of the UFV, where they were washed, treated with fungicide Prochloraz (Sportak 450 EC, Hoechst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd., England at a dose of 49.5g 100L-1 water, for 10 minutes and air dried. After that, they were

  5. Morfometria da bacia hidrografica da Cachoeira das Pombas, Guanhães - MG Morphometric characteristics of Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, Guanhães - MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Tonello

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a morfometria da bacia hidrográfica da Cachoeira das Pombas, localizada no Município de Guanhães, MG. A base de dados foi disponibilizada pelo convênio SIF/CENIBRA/UFV e consistiu dos dados matriciais Modelo Digital de Elevação Hidrologicamente Consistente (MDEHC, rede hidrográfica e direções de escoamento. As características morfométricas e delimitação da bacia e sub-bacias hidrográficas foram obtidas automaticamente pelo software Hidrodata 2.0. A área de drenagem encontrada foi de 6,981 km² e o perímetro de 14,864 km. De forma geral, constatou-se que a área estudada possui forma alongada, com baixa densidade de drenagem, relevo forte-ondulado e declividade média de 33,9%. Esses parâmetros possuem grande influência sobre o escoamento superficial e, conseqüentemente, sobre o processo de erosão, que resulta em perda de solo, água, matéria orgânica, nutrientes e microfauna, que podem vir a provocar o assoreamento e eutrofização dos corpos d'água. Quanto à orientação do terreno, pôde-se se constatar que 41% do terreno da bacia hidrográfica está exposto à face norte-oeste, e 33% de sua área total encontra-se sombreada. Para um estudo mais detalhado, procuraram-se caracterizar suas sub-bacias, onde cada uma foi analisada individualmente, concluindo-se que as cinco sub-bacias apresentam deficiência de densidade de drenagem e forma alongada. Em termos de declividade média, os valores variaram entre 29,6 e 40,4%, representando o relevo forte-ondulado. Pôde-se constatar, também, que a morfometria diferenciada entre as sub-bacias evidencia a necessidade de um manejo específico de cada uma delas.The objective of this work was to study the morphometric characteristics of the Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, in Guanhães- MG, Brazil. The database was provided by the cooperative agreement SIF/CENIBRA/UFV and consists of the following raster datasets: hydrologically consistent

  6. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  7. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  8. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results; Avaliacao da presenca de NORM no tratamento de agua do municipio de Pocos de Caldas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianomotaferreira@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  9. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation rate was determined by the passive detection technique with the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) and the sealed can technique, assuming a ventilation rate of 0.5 h{sup -1} and an annual exposure time of 7000 h. The results for this studies show that the annual effective dose ranged from (62 {+-} 3) {mu}Sv.y{sup 1} to (138 {+-} 1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and the internal annual effective dose ranged from (0,39 {+-} 0,04) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} to (70 {+-} 4) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. These values are below the maximum limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1} suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection, meaning that the granitic rocks evaluated can be used without radiological implications since the considered scenario is obeyed. The values obtained for the contribution due to the internal dose ranged from 1 % to 78 % of the values obtained for the respective external dose showing the radon contribution varies strongly with the rock type. The results of the correlations between {sup 222}Rn superficial exhalation rate, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, density, porosity and major oxides of the samples, showed that, in terms of influence in the emanation fraction of radon, the most important parameter is the density, due to low porosity and similarity in terms of chemical composition amid the studied samples. (author)

  10. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  11. Geological, geotechnical and environmental evaluation of influence area of the oil production in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao geologico-geotecnica e ambiental da zona de influencia do duto petrolifero no municipio de Mangaratiba (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Andre Ferreira; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Silva, Jorge Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geografia; Oliveira, Wilson J. de [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is applicable for a specials and strategies areas that must be permanently controlled called pipelines and their proximities. Those areas are liable to be under the influence of different situations like potential environmental risks - eg. conflagrations, floods, soil erosion, slumps and also accidental risks like located spills. Besides those negatives environmental situations, the pipelines also cross different regions that has an important natural resource like forests, watersheds, urban, industrial and agricultural areas. For main regulator of this work the pipeline was developed a series of maps that can be used single or overlayed with another maps. Those maps can be useful for Mangaratiba city urban management and demonstrate possible environmental risks that can occur on pipelines proximities of this city. (author)

  12. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  13. Evaluation of demand for water and electricity for papaya micro sprinkler irrigation system in Paraiba state, Brazil; Avaliacao das demandas de agua e energia eletrica para mamao irrigado por microaspersao no estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Riuzuani Michelle Bezerra Pedrosa; Dantas Neto, Jose; Farias, Soahd Arruda Rached Farias; Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Vieira de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: riuzuani@yahoo.com.br, zedantas@deag.ufcg.edu.br, soahd_rached@hotmail.com, cazevedo@deag.ufcg.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an assessment on the demands for water and electricity for fruit irrigated by micro sprinkler irrigation in agricultural planning. We obtained the demands of gross water and electricity for papaya in 15 municipalities spread over the Rio Paraiba-PB, which was used by micro irrigation system with 90% application efficiency. The city of Joao Pessoa is the place to lower water consumption, requiring 32.9% of the amount required for papaya in Exile, which had the highest annual and daily evapotranspiration, combined with the lowest annual rainfall likely at a 75 % probability. The municipalities were chosen because they had a greater variance in terms of climate, in order to examine various irrigation demands. In Exile is a necessary volume of water-to 8.006,9 m{sup 3}.ha{sup -1}.year{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya while in Joao Pessoa need to 2.712,89 m{sup 3}.ha-1.year{sup -1}. The consumption of electricity in the city of Desterro is higher among the cities studied, necessitating 2.009,0 kW.ha{sup -1}.ano{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya, while in Joao Pessoa we only need 876,54 kW.ha {sup -1}.ano{sup -1} (author)

  14. Evaluation of radiochemistry purity and p H of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Pernambuco, Brazil; Avaliacao da pureza radioquimica e pH de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Poliane A.L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are cellular or molecular structures that have a radionuclide in its composition and they are used for diagnosing or treating diseases. The evaluation of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images with artifacts free, as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Since they are administered in humans is important and necessary that they undergo rigorous quality control. Due to this fact, the norm in ANVISA RDC 38/2008 declaring the mandatory completion of a minimum of tests in routine nuclear medicine services before human administration. (author)

  15. Efeito da área e da produtividade na produção de celulose no Brasil Effect of area and productivity in pulp production in Brazil

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    Kaio Henrique Adame de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a evolução tecnológica da produção de madeira para celulose, para tanto, a produção de celulose de fibra curta derivada do eucalipto foi decomposta em efeito área e efeito produtividade. Para isso foi usado o modelo shift-share com o qual se verificou qual dessas duas variáveis mais contribuiu para a evolução na produção de celulose no país nos últimos anos. Foram avaliados os seguintes períodos: 1960 a 1970; 1970 a 1980; 1980 a 1990; 1990 a 2000; 2000 a 2007 e 1960 a 2007. No geral, foi observado que 1960 a 2007 o principal fator que explicou o crescimento da produção de celulose foi a produtividade, porém o valor baixo para o efeito área foi devido a sua expansão só ter começado na década de 90. Também foi observado que os reflorestamentos no Brasil são muito recentes quando comparado a outros países, mesmo assim o setor de celulose brasileiro conseguiu se tornar competitivo tanto no mercado nacional quanto no internacional.The objective of this work was to study the technological production of pulpwood.Therefore, production of hardwood pulp derived from eucalyptus effect was broken down into area and productivity effects. For this purpose, we used the shift-share model with which was found that these two variables contributed most to the trend in pulp production in the country in recent years. The following periods were evaluated: 1960 to 1970; 1970 to 1980; 1980 to 1990; 1990 to 2000; 2000 to 2007 and 1960 to 2007. Overall, it was observed that from 1960 to 2007, the main factor that explained the growth of pulp production was the productivity, but the low value for the area effect was due to expansion that started only in the 1990s. We also found that the planted forests in Brazil are very recent when compared to other countries, although the Brazilian pulp industry has managed to become competitive in both within the country and abroad.

  16. Fauna de Culicidae da Serra da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brasil Culicidae fauna of Serra da Cantareira, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Joyce Montes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a fauna de culicídeos nos ambientes de mata, ecótono e peridomicílio quanto ao número de espécies e de indivíduos, estimativas de diversidade, riqueza, heterogeneidade e similaridade. Determinou-se ainda as espécies dominantes e as relações entre dominância específica e fatores climáticos. MÉTODOS: Foram conduzidas no Parque Ecológico da Cantareira coletas quinzenais com armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC-CO2, dispostas em cinco ambientes ecologicamente diferentes, de fevereiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2002. As análises foram feitas utilizando o índice de Diversidade de Margalef e o de Menhinick. Para similaridade, foi utilizado o índice de Sorensen e, para dominância de espécies, o índice de Berger-Parker. A heterogeneidade foi estimada pelos índices de Simpson e de Shannon. A relação entre dominância específica e fatores climáticos foi estimada por correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 2.219 culicídeos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 21 espécies. O ambiente mata apresentou maior riqueza (Mg=3,64 de espécies e o peridomicílio maior dominância (d=0,85. A temperatura mostrou a correlação mais elevada (Rs=0,747; pOBJECTIVE: To compare the Culicidae fauna in forest, ecotone and anthropic environments and to analyze their composition according to the number of species and individuals, species richness, diversity, heterogeneity and similarities and to determine species dominance and the relationship between species dominance and climatic factors. METHODS: CO2 -baited CDC light traps were used for mosquito collection twice a month in the Serra da Cantareira State Park from February 2001 to January 2002. CO2 - baited CDC light traps were placed in five different environments. The analyses were carried out using Margalef and Menhinick's diversity indexes. Similarity was calculated using the Sorensen index and species dominance was indicated by the Berger-Parker index. Mosquito heterogeneity was

  17. Avaliacao de risco dos organismos geneticamente modificados

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maramaldo Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira; Muzy Dias, Aline Pecanha; Damasio Scheidegger, Erica Miranda; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    .... Nas duas ultimas decadas, organizacoes governamentais e intergovernamentais tem planejado estrategias e protocolos para o estudo da seguranca de alimentos derivados de cultivos geneticamente modificados...

  18. Ferrovias, doenças e medicina tropical no Brasil da Primeira República Railroads, disease, and tropical medicine in Brazil under the First Republic

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    Jaime Larry Benchimol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Aborda o impacto da malária no âmbito da modernização republicana, basicamente nas ferrovias, que asssumiram então o papel de integrar o território e operar a expansão simbólica e material da nação brasileira. Os cientistas destacados para debelar os surtos epidêmicos não se limitaram a realizar as campanhas. Fizeram observações sobre aspectos da doença, inclusive suas relações com hospedeiros e ambientes, contribuindo com novos conhecimentos e com a institucionalização, no Brasil, de novo campo que então se estabelecia nas potências coloniais européias: a medicina tropical. O artigo articula essas inovações - especialmente a teoria da infecção domiciliária - com as campanhas em prol de ferrovias e com estágio subseqüente no enfrentamento da malária no Brasil, nos anos 1920.The article explores the impact of malaria on infrastructure works - above all, railroads - under the republican drive towards modernization. Railways helped tie the territory together and foster the symbolic and material expansion of the Brazilian nation. The scientists entrusted with vanquishing such epidemic outbreaks did not just conduct campaigns; they also undertook painstaking observations of aspects of the disease, including its relations to hosts and the environment, thus contributing to the production of new knowledge of malaria and to the institutionalization of a new field in Brazil, then taking root in Europe's colonies: "tropical medicine." The article shows the ties between these innovations (especially the theory of domiciliary infection and the sanitary campaigns that helped the railways, which in the 1920s were followed by a new phase in Brazil's anti-malaria efforts.

  19. Avifauna of “RPPN da UNISC”, Sinimbu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samuel Lopes Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a list of 169 bird species registered at the "RPPN da UNISC", Private Natural Heritage in Sinimbu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state. The survey was carried out between January 2007 and January 2009. Five species were highlighted as being most threatened with extinction in the state: Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, Triclaria malachitacea and Grallaria varia. One of them, Amazona pretrei, was also threatened on a national and global level, and eight species, were classified as near-threatened globally (Triclaria malachitacea, Strix hylophila, Picumnus nebulosus, Piculus aurulentus, Carpornis cucullata, Leptasthenura setaria, Cyanocorax caeruleus and Euphonia chalybea. The occurrence of four species was previously unknown in the region (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Trogon rufus, Myiopagis viridicata and Turdus leucomelas and the presence of six rare or rarely-registered species for Rio Grande do Sul state (Accipiter striatus, Geranospiza caerulescens, Micrastur semitorquatus, Chamaeza ruficauda, Macropsalis forcipata and Muscipripa vetula was also verified. These records, in conjunction with other surveys conducted in the central escarpment of the Planalto, show high diversity of bird life, albeit unprotected due to the lack of conservation areas, environmental policies and fiscalization.

  20. Avifauna of “RPPN da UNISC”, Sinimbu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lopes Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a list of 169 bird species registered at the “RPPN da UNISC”, Private Natural Heritage in Sinimbu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state. The survey was carried out between January 2007 and January 2009. Five species were highlighted as being most threatened with extinction in the state: Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, Triclaria malachitacea and Grallaria varia. One of them, Amazona pretrei, was also threatened on a national and global level, and eight species, were classified as near-threatened globally (Triclaria malachitacea, Strix hylophila, Picumnus nebulosus, Piculus aurulentus, Carpornis cucullata, Leptasthenura setaria, Cyanocorax caeruleus and Euphonia chalybea. The occurrence of four species was previously unknown in the region (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Trogon rufus, Myiopagis viridicata and Turdus leucomelas and the presence of six rare or rarely-registered species for Rio Grande do Sul state (Accipiter striatus, Geranospiza caerulescens, Micrastur semitorquatus, Chamaeza ruficauda, Macropsalis forcipata and Muscipripa vetula was also verified. These records, in conjunction with other surveys conducted in the central escarpment of the Planalto, show high diversity of bird life, albeit unprotected due to the lack of conservation areas, environmental policies and fiscalization.

  1. Diversity of Ephemeroptera (Insecta of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil

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    Ana Emilia Siegloch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the mayfly fauna, based on nymphal and alate stages, in Serra da Mantiqueira and in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, as well as to present information about habitats used by the genera. Nymphs were collected in several streams and mesohabitats with a Surber sampler and the winged stages with light attraction methods, entomological nets, and Malaise traps. In all, eight families and 33 genera were recorded, representing a very significant portion of the Brazilian fauna (80% of families and 49% of genera. Furthermore, it was possible to identify 11 species, of which two are new records for the state: Tricorythodes santarita Traver and Caenis reissi Malzacher. Despite the high diversity recorded, the accumulation curves presented an ascending form, indicating an increase in the number of genera with additional sampling effort. The high richness found in these areas are in agreement with the high biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest biome and the sampling effort employed, which included the use of different methods, the collection of both nymphs and winged stages, and the sampling of a large area with diverse streams and habitats.

  2. Archaeozoology of marine mollusks from Sambaqui da Tarioba, Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rosa C. C. L. de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A reference inventory of prehistoric marine mollusks from the Rio das Ostras region was created based on an excavation carried out at the Sambaqui da Tarioba shellmound. Patterns of richness and biogeography were studied, and the representativeness of bivalve and gastropod diversities found at this archaeological site were inferred. A total of 47 taxa belonging to 28 families, most of which from unconsolidated substrates, was identified. The shellmound species composition does not differ from the present-day composition. All recorded species are characteristic of a wide transition zone between the south of the states of Espírito Santo (21°S and Rio Grande do Sul (32°S. Thus, the data show little evidence of evolution in the composition, richness,and biodiversity distribution patterns of mollusks in the Rio das Ostras region. Likewise, a reconstitution of the paleoenvironment from the functional characteristics of the shellmound species indicates that the locality's geomorphology and climate remained largely unchanged in the last 4,000 years BP.

  3. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 5422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felice, G.D. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Lage, M.C.S.M. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Quimica, Campus da Ininga, Ininga, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Guidon, N. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@usp.br

    2008-02-15

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho's limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 {+-} 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245-14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guerin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes/ Earth and Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, ]. This region is challenging the classical theories about the peopling of America. In agreement with such theories the first human groups would have arrived in America, through Behring, only about 20,000 years ago. The site Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada is a rock-shelter situated at the cliff that is the frontier between the Pre-Cambrian Sao Francisco plain and the Devonian-Permian highlands of the Maranhao-Piaui basin. It was excavated from 1978 till 1988 and presented a very consistent stratigraphy, with thousand of lithic implements and hearths [F. Parenti, Le gisement quaternaire de la Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil), Stratigraphie, chronologie, evolution culturelle, Editions Recherches sur les civilisations, Paris, 2002, ; F. Parenti, Le Gisement Quaternaire de la Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil) dans le Contexte de la Prehistoire Americaine Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Chronologie, Evolution Culturelle, Ph.D. diss, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1993, 411p, ; F. Parenti, M. Fontugne, N. Guidon, C. Guerin, M. Faure, Chronostratigraphie des gisements archeologiques et paleontologiques de Sao Raimundo Nonato (Piaui, Bresil): contribution a la connaissance du peuplement pleistocene de l'Amerique, Supplement de la Revue d

  4. CONTROL OF EROSION PROCESSES RESULTING FROM DISRUPTION OF ADDUCTOR IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, SP, BRAZIL

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    Admilson Clayton Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the erosion processes, a methodology was developed consisting of the use of four barriers (numbered I to IV formed by seedlings of Bambusa mutiplex (Lour., whose purpose was to divert the water runoff in order to provide the regeneration of native vegetation. Stalks of bamboo intercropped with Bambusa multiplex were used to contain debris in two gullies formed by erosion. The development of vegetation was monitored for 18 months and evaluated by the application of a Leopold Matrix composed of 5 points, which are: erosion, regeneration of vegetation, success of bamboo planting, installed conservation structures and functionality. The purpose of the matrix was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions using bamboo. The result of the classification matrix enabled the quantitative and qualitative classification of the interventions, resulting in five levels, where the barriers I, II and IV were considered to be of very high efficiency, and barrier III was considered to be of high efficiency. The contention of the gully was considered to be of medium to very high efficiency.

  5. Estudo da variabilidade da radiação solar no Nordeste do Brasil Study of the variability of solar radiation in northeast Brazil

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    Roberta A. e Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste trabalho é avaliar as tendências das séries temporais do saldo radiação no Nordeste do Brasil, através de dados de reanálise do NCEP/NCAR referentes ao período de 1948 a 2006. As séries temporais anuais de dados observados na superfície de radiação solar global e evaporação do tanque classe "A" de duas localidades do semiárido da região de estudo, também foram utilizadas. Analisou-se a variabilidade temporal das séries temporais com base no teste não-paramétrico, de Mann-Kendall. As séries temporais do saldo de radiação exibiram reduções acentuadas entre 1948 e 1987, que foram estatisticamente significativas em níveis de 0,01 de probabilidade pelo teste de Mann-Kendall; verificou-se, entretanto, no período de 1988 a 2006, comportamento inverso, predominando tendências positivas de saldo de radiação. Os resultados também indicaram que os dados observados de radiação global e de evaporação do tanque classe "A", apresentam reduções acentuadas ao longo do período estudado estatisticamente significativos em níveis de 0,01 de probabilidade. Esses resultados sugerem a presença do fenômeno "Global dimming" sobre a região Nordeste do Brasil.The main objective of this work was to assess the tendency of time series of net radiation in the northeastern region of Brazil from the NCEP/NCAR database of the 1948-2006 period. Also, the annual time series of data observed at surface of global solar radiation and class A pan evaporation for two stations located in the semiarid area of studied region were analyzed. Long-term variability of the time series was assessed by the Mann-Kendall test. The time series of net radiation showed a reduction through the 1948-1987 period, statistically significant at the 0.01 level of probability by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the 1988 to 2006 period showed an inverse pattern in net radiation with positive trends. Results also indicate that observed data in global

  6. Leishmaniose tegumentar canina em Morada das Águias (Serra da Tiririca, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Morada das Águias (Serra da Tiririca, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cathia M. B. Serra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência da leishmaniose tegumentar em cães da localidade de Morada das Águias (Serra da Tiririca, Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram avaliados 83 cães por meio de exames clínico, sorológico e parasitológico. Os soros de 11 (13,2% animais foram reagentes à imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e de 30 (36,1% ao ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Úlceras cutâneas e ou mucosas foram observadas em 18 (n = 83; 21,7% dos animais. Leishmania foi isolada de 11 cães. Discute-se a ocorrência da doença e a ocupação da localidade.This is a report of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Morada das Águias (in the Serra da Tiririca mountain range, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A clinical, serological, and parasitological survey was performed in 83 dogs. Eleven (13.2% were positive on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and 30 (36.1% on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Ulcerated cutaneous or mucosal lesions were observed in 18 (n = 83; 21.7% dogs. Leishmania was isolated from 11 of the animals. The disease occurrence and local occupational characteristics are discussed.

  7. Macroalgas de riachos da Serra da Prata, leste do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Stream macroalgae from Serra da Prata, eastern Paraná State, Southern Brazil

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    Cleto Kaveski Peres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos florísticos das comunidades de macroalgas lóticas no Brasil são quase que exclusivamente baseadas em material do Estado de São Paulo. Informações sobre macroalgas de riachos são escassos no Estado do Paraná. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento florístico das comunidades de macroalgas de riachos da Serra da Prata, uma área bem preservada e protegida de Floresta Ombrófila Densa. As amostras foram realizadas em 14 segmentos de riachos. O levantamento resultou na identificação de 19 táxons (15 infragenéricos, três genéricos e uma fase do ciclo de vida de Batrachospermum spp., distribuídos em quatro divisões. Cyanophyta foi a divisão com maior número de representantes (58% das espécies e Microcoleus subtorulosus Gomont ex Gomont foi a espécie mais bem distribuída. A maioria dos táxons encontrados (53% são primeiros registros no Estado do Paraná, ao passo que alguns outros são considerados de ocorrência rara em riachos brasileiros. Estes resultados reforçam a importância e a necessidade de mais estudos florísticos e taxonômicos para que se amplie o conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade das comunidades de macroalgas de riacho no Brasil.Studies of stream macroalgal communities in Brazil are almost exclusively based on data from São Paulo state. There are no extensive studies concerning stream macroalgae in Paraná state. In this context, the main objective of this study was to survey the flora of stream macroalgal communities in the Serra da Prata, a well-preserved and protected area of dense Atlantic rain forest. Sampling was carried out in 14 stream segments. The survey resulted in the identification of 19 taxa (15 infrageneric, three generic and one life cycle stage of Batrachospermum spp., distributed in four divisions. Cyanophyta was the division with the highest number of taxa (58% of the species and Microcoleus subtorulosus Gomont ex Gomont was the most widespread

  8. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  9. Thermoelectric power plant of Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, Planning; Planejamento da central termoeletrica da COSIPA - Companhia Siderurgica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio; Costa, Luiz Orlando; Silva, Clovis Aprigio da; Paiva Borges, Elmar de; Martinez, Francisco Gomes [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

    1990-02-01

    This paper shows the operational philosophy, control and supervision of the Thermoelectric power plant of the Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, in operations of fuel distribution, steam generation, electric power generation and air flow. 8 tabs.

  10. Morbidade da doença de Chagas: III. Estudo longitudinal, de seis anos, em Virgem da Lapa, MG, Brasil Morbidity of Chagas disease: III. Six-year longitudinal study, at Virgem da Lapa, MG, Brazil

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    José Borges Pereira

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo longitudinal clínico, radiológico e eletrocardiográfico do tipo caso-controle realizado no município de Virgem da Lapa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o acompanhamento de 124 chagásicos crônicos durante seis anos, revelou que 62,1% dos pacientes permaneceram com o quadro inicial inalterado, a maioria deles na forma indeterminada, 32,3% evoluíram com progressão da doença e 5,6% tiveram normalização do eletrocardiograma. Os resultados mencionados, quando comparados aos obtidos no grupo controle composto de pares não chagásicos da mesma idade e sexo, demonstraram uma progressão de 27,4% maior entre os pacientes com sorologia positiva, o que representa o excesso de risco ou componente exclusivamente chagásico na evolução da doença. Não houve diferença de progressão da doença em relação ao sexo, porém ela foi mais precoce e sete vezes mais freqüente em relação à cardiopatia do que ao megaesôfago, ambas ocorrendo na maioria das vezes em grau leve ou moderada. Em 192 chagásicos e 188 não chagásicos observados na área, no referido período, houve uma mortalidade 3,6 vezes maior entre os chagásicos, com uma letalidade pela cardiopatia de 8,9%, sem diferença entre os sexos, porém mais precoce no sexo masculino. A morte súbita foi mais freqüente do que a morte por insuficiência cardíaca. O prognóstico foi bom para os pacientes da forma indeterminada e digestiva e reservado para os casos de cardiopatia, principalmente os de graus mais elevados.In a clinical, radiological and electrocardiographical, follow-up study of the "case control" type performed in Virgem da Lapa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 124 chagasic patients were followed during six years. The results of the patients, the majority in the indeterminate form, did not register any change, in 32.2% there was a progress in the disease and in 5.6% the electrocardiogram returned to normal. These results when compared to that achieved by the control group

  11. Estudo da difusão da tecnologia móvel celular no Brasil: uma abordagem com o uso de Dinâmica de Sistemas Study of the cellular phone diffusion in Brazil: a system dynamics approach

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    Júlio César Bastos de Figueiredo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um modelo para estudo da difusão da tecnologia móvel celular. Baseado na teoria de difusão de produtos de Frank Bass (1969, e na metodologia de Dinâmica de Sistemas, o modelo foi aplicado ao caso brasileiro. Como resultado, foi possível reproduzir, com bom grau de aderência, as curvas acumuladas de celulares adotados no Brasil (pós-pagos, pré-pagos e total, bem como a curva de vendas anuais. Os resultados das projeções apontam para uma saturação da penetração de telefones celulares no Brasil por volta do ano de 2013, quando então o mercado deverá atingir um total aproximado de 150 milhões de aparelhos.This work presents a model to study the diffusion of the mobile cell phone technology. Based on the Frank Bass' theory of Products Diffusion (1969, and on the System Dynamics methodology, the model was applied to the Brazilian case. As a result, it was possible to reproduce, with a good degree of adherence, the accumulated curves of cellular adopted in Brazil (post-paid, pre-paid and total, as so the annual sales curve. The projected results indicates a saturation of cell phones diffusion in Brazil around the year 2013, when the market will supposed to reach a total of approximately 150 millions of devices.

  12. O desafio da integralidade segundo as perspectivas da vigilância da saúde e da saúde da família Integrality (comprehensiveness: from the viewpoint of health care and the recent proposals regarding basic assistance in Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo Aguilera Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Múltiplos aspectos relacionados à formulação de políticas, à construção do conhecimento e à implementação das práticas no setor saúde interagem mutuamente e têm como produto a maneira como se prestam os serviços de saúde em determinado contexto histórico ou ainda resultam na disponibilidade ou na escassez de um determinado conjunto de ações e serviços de saúde. Compreender essas relações é fundamental para se avaliar a trajetória da política de saúde no país. Tomando-se como referência o princípio constitucional da integralidade da atenção à saúde e os desafios de sua implementação, analisam-se as formulações teóricas relacionadas ao conceito de Vigilância da Saúde e as mudanças implementadas pelo Ministério da Saúde no campo da Atenção Básica e da Saúde da Família. Busca-se ainda analisar em que medida essas proposições contribuem atualmente para o desenvolvimento do Sistema Único de Saúde.Multiple facets, related to the definition of policies, the structuring of knowledge and the implementing of practices in the health services, interact among themselves. This brings to light, as a final result (output, the manner in which health services are rendered within a certain historical context (concept, and the availability or the scarcity of certain groups of activities and health services (in this country. It is essential to understand these interactions in order to be able to evaluate the course of action to be followed by health policies in Brazil. Considering, as our reference point, the Constitutional principle of integrality (comprehensiveness of health care, and the challenges posed by its implementation, we analyze the theoretical formulations related to the concept of health care and the changes that have been implemented by the Ministry of Health in the areas of Basic Assistance and Family Health (Programs. We also put on the discussion table to what extent (measures these formulations

  13. Obstacles to the nuclear technology development in Brazil: from the beginning of atomic age to the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement; Entraves ao desenvolvimento da tecnologia nuclear no Brasil: dos primordios da era atomica ao Acordo Nuclear Brasil-Alemanha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Tharsila Reis de

    2005-07-01

    This paper intends to comprehend the Brazilian social actors' efforts applied to the nuclear energy control, from the beginning of Atomic Age to Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement. It tries to demonstrate that the limits of The Brazilian nuclear development in this period derive from the capitalist development dynamics in Brazil and from the absence of continuity on the motivations of its nuclear policy. (author)

  14. O campo da sexologia no Brasil: constituição e institucionalização The field of sexology in Brazil: constitution and institutionalization

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    Jane A. Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos e discutimos os resultados parciais da investigação sobre a constituição do campo da sexologia contemporânea no Brasil, parte da pesquisa comparativa "Sexualidade, ciência e profissão na América Latina". Uma segunda onda sexológica surgiu no Brasil em finais dos anos 1970 no Rio de Janeiro, com um viés essencialmente clínico, e em São Paulo, com um viés educacional. A década seguinte marcou um período de institucionalização no qual são criadas as duas associações que hoje polarizam o campo em torno de uma sexologia mais eclética e multiprofissional e da chamada "medicina sexual", em geral dominada pelos urologistas. Discutimos os significados dessa polarização em termos das disputas profissionais subjacentes e das concepções de gênero implicadas em tais disputas.In this paper we present and discuss the preliminary results of an investigation on the constitution of the contemporary field of sexology in Brazil, which is part of the comparative research "Sexuality, science and profession in Latin America". A second sexology arose in Brazil in the late 70's in Rio de Janeiro, with an essentially clinical approach, and in São Paulo, with an educational approach. The following decade brought a period of institutionalization in which the two associations that nowadays dominate the sexological field were created. They represent the two main trends in modern sexology; a more eclectic and multiprofessional approach and the so-called "sexual medicine", dominated by urologists. We discuss the meanings of this polarization in terms of its underlying professional disputes and the gender assumptions implied in such disputes.

  15. O Brazil-Medico e as contribuições do pensamento médico-higienista para as bases científicas da educação física brasileira Brazil-Medico and the contributions of medical-hygienist thought to the scientific bases of Brazilian physical education

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    Maria Isabel Brandão de Souza Mendes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O final do século XIX e o início do XX foram emblemáticos para a 'cientificização' da educação física no Brasil. A presente investigação se direcionou para o Brazil-Medico no período de 1887-1923, com o objetivo de identificar as compreensões de corpo e saúde, buscando-se contribuições para as bases científicas da educação física brasileira.The end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth were emblematic in the 'scientifization' of physical education in Brazil. This examination of the journal Brazil-Medico during 1887-1923 seeks to identify views of the body and health as well as contributions to the scientific bases of physical education in Brazil.

  16. Hepáticas do Pico da Caledônia, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Hepatics of Pico da Caledônia, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Denise Pinheiro da Costa

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available No Pico da Caledônea, Município de Nova Friburgo, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foram encontradas 12 famílias de hepáticas distribuídas em 16 gêneros e 21 espécies, das quais 2 são citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado e 3 para o Brasil. São apresentadas descrições, chave para identificação das espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações.Twelve families of hepatics distributed in sixteen genera and twenty one species are mentioned for the Pico da Caledônea, Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro. These, two species are new records to the State and three to Brazil. Descriptions, ilustrations, Keys to species and comments are presented.

  17. Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil

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    L.M.L. Parente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a antiguidade propriedades medicinais são atribuídas às flores da Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Estudos sobre a atividade geral de plantas medicinais na cicatrização vêm sendo realizados, sem especificar sobre qual das fases da cicatrização a planta atua. Neste trabalho a atividade cicatrizante e antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico das flores da C. officinalis cultivada no Brasil foi avaliada em feridas cutâneas de ratos Wistar, por meio de avaliação macroscópica e histológica. A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato e das frações hexânica e diclorometano também foi avaliada. A atividade antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico da calêndula foi atribuída à diminuição da exsudação serosa, da hiperemia, da deposição de fibrina e da hiperplasia epidermal, além de resultar em crostas mais delgadas e umedecidas. Observaram-se também aumento de colágeno no tecido de granulação e efeito antibacteriano. Assim, o extrato etanólico da calêndula atuou de forma positiva sobre a atividade cicatricial em feridas cutâneas de ratos, bem como apresentou atividade antibacteriana in vitro.Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae, mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and healing activity of the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis flowers cultured in Brazil was evaluated in cutaneous wounds of Wistar rats through macroscopic and histological evaluation. The antibacterial activity of the extract and dichloromethane and hexane fractions was also evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity of calendula ethanolic extract led to a reduction in plasmatic exudation, hyperemia, fibrin deposition and epidermal hyperplasia, besides

  18. Fuel distribution logistics in Brazil: technical and economic aspects; Aspectos tecnico-economicos da logistica da distribuicao de combustiveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Heloisa Borges B.; Bicalho, Lucia N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, there are around 250 companies operating in the automotive fuel distribution segment, responsible for the automotive fuels wholesale commercialization activity. Those companies supply not only gas stations, but also final consumers and TRR's. Their clients are distributed regionally, which requires flexibility and the ability to supply clients efficiently at the smaller possible cost, transforming variables such as the transportation alternatives adopted, the location of the storage facilities and its correct dimension on key decisions. This paper analyses the general scenario of the fuels distribution logistics in Brazil from a economic perspective, and its impacts on the companies competitive strategies. (author)

  19. The transport infrastructure go-ahead the expansion of soybean cultivation in Brazil / A infra-estrutura de transporte frente à expansão da cultura da soja no Brasil

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    Antonio Carlos Roessing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is the main crop of the Brazilian agricultural sector, both for the area it occupies as by the impact on the gross domestic product of the country. The comparative technological advantages in the production of this commodity put Brazil as the second largest producer and supplier of the world. However, the limitations of the logistics infrastructure for the disposal of production raise the costs of transport. The paper was developed from a historical and economic recovery soybean cultivation and the transport infrastructure, in the period from 1975 to 2005, based on descriptive methodology. Overall, while growth of soybean area cultivated was 305% in the period analyzed, the transport infrastructure was only 25.3%. This study shows that the expansion of the occupied area by the soybean crop, due to technological advances, was not accompanied by the development of transport infrastructure, undermining their competitiveness.A soja se configura como a principal cultura do setor agrícola brasileiro, tanto pela área que ocupa como pelo impacto no Produto Interno Bruto do país. As vantagens tecnológicas comparativas na produção desta commodity colocam o Brasil como segundo maior produtor e abastecedor mundial. Entretanto, as limitações da infra-estrutura logística para o escoamento da produção elevam os custos de transporte. Assim, o estudo foi desenvolvido, a partir de um resgate histórico-econômico do cultivo da soja e da infra-estrutura de transporte, no período de 1975 a 2005, com base em metodologia descritiva, com o objetivo de verificar as restrições logísticas no transporte da oleaginosa. De modo geral, enquanto o crescimento da área cultivada com soja foi de 305%, no período analisado, o da infra-estrutura de transportes foi de apenas 25,3%. O estudo revela que a expansão da área ocupada pela cultura da soja, decorrente de avanços tecnológicos, não foi acompanhada pelo desenvolvimento da infra-estrutura de

  20. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  1. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil, and of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Pará, Belém, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monné, Miguel A; Almeida, Lucia M; Oliveira, Marcio L; Viana, Jéssica Herzog; Monné, Marcela L

    2017-01-17

    The primary types of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil (DZUP), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil (INPA), and in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Pará, Belém,Brazil (MPEG) are catalogued. There are 54 primary types of Cerambycidae in the DZUP, 48 in the INPA, and 25 in the MPEG.

  2. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  3. Impacto da terapia anti-retroviral na magnitude da epidemia do HIV/AIDS no Brasil: diversos cenários Impact of antiretroviral therapy on the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil: various scenarios

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    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, utilizaram-se os algoritmos EM e EMS aplicados ao método do Cálculo Retroativo para estimar a magnitude da epidemia do HIV no Brasil. Fazendo-se suposições a respeito do comportamento dos infectados, em relação à utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais, construíram-se cinco cenários para a epidemia brasileira. O objetivo foi o de ilustrar os impactos que a utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais possam estar tendo ou possam vir a ter na incubação do vírus e, por conseguinte, nas avaliações da epidemia realizadas a partir dos casos de Aids notificados.We applied the back-calculation method to estimate the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in Brazil, using the EM and EMS algorithms. Under certain assumptions regarding the behavior of infected patients towards combined antiretroviral therapy, we discuss five different scenarios applied to the Brazilian epidemic. Our objective was to illustrate the impact of combined antiretroviral treatment on the incubation period and thus on estimates of the size of the HIV-infected population, based on reported AIDS cases.

  4. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L; Avaliacao da concentracao dos radionuclideos naturais das series do {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th nas variedades Burley e Virginia da Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-07-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, members from the {sup 238}U decay series, and the radionuclides {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra members of the {sup 232}Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and {sup 210}Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The

  5. Evaluation of knowledge and practice of professionals in radiology, in patient protection, in X-ray examinations in collective environments and in a improving quality of service through training; Avaliacao do conhecimento e da pratica dos profissionais em radiologia, na protecao do paciente, nos exames de raios-X em ambientes coletivos e a melhoria da qualidade do servico atraves do treinamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da, E-mail: reogercosta1@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG), Morrinhos, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    When there is exposure to ionizing radiation, the probability of developing a stochastic effect increases, and one of the most feared stochastic effects is cancer. Calculations made from data obtained with the population of Hiroshima, showed that these effects have not dose threshold. So it is impossible predict that a specific dose value, will lead to damages and therefore, doses must always be limited. Medical exposures have contributed to the increase in dose received by the populations of countries like Brazil. This is because there was an increase in interventional procedures using ionizing radiation. What has concerned researchers since, many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. The proper use of personal protective equipment reduces the exposure of patients and professionals. Trained and knowledgeable of the rules are able to choose the shielding for each type of procedure. So we evaluated the knowledge and radiology professional practice, in protection of patients, who can not be removed from the environment in sinus X-rays and check if the training improves the quality of this service. It was concluded that there is deficiency in knowledge of the rules and failures in protection of patients, and that training with regard to radiological protection increases the level of theoretical knowledge of the professionals involved, and improve their practices with respect to protection, reducing the doses and minimizing the risks involved in medical exposures.

  6. Avaliação do estado nutricional de seringais implantados na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Nutritional evaluation of rubber tree plantations at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciríaca Arcangela Ferreira de Santana do Carmo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o estado nutricional de seringais implantados na Zona da Mata, em Minas Gerais, visando contribuir com um programa racional de adubações. Em seringais do clone IAN 873 foram determinadas a classe do solo, fertilidade, nutrição e produção de borracha seca. Grande parte dos seringais encontra-se em Latossolos extremamente ácidos com Al alto e N, P, K, soma de bases trocáveis e capacidade de troca de cátions baixos. Os teores de Ca e Mg variaram de médios a altos nos Latossolos e foram muito altos nos Nitossolos, correlacionando-se negativamente com a produção de borracha seca. A análise foliar detectou desequilíbrios nutricionais no que se refere aos baixos teores de N e K evidenciados pela correlação positiva significativa com a produção de borracha seca. A correlação significativa negativa entre a produção de borracha seca e os teores de Ca foliares, associados aos altos teores de Mg, sugerem a redução desses nutrientes nas adubações. Dos micronutrientes, apenas o Cu apresentou correlação positiva e significativa com a produção de borracha seca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nutritional status of rubber tree plantations at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to contribute with fertilization programs. Soil class, fertility levels, nutritional state and production of dry rubber were determined in rubber plantations of the clone IAN 873. Most plantations occur over extremely acid Oxisols with high contents of Al and low values of N, P, K, sum of exchangeable basis and cation exchange capacity. Calcium and Mg contents varied from medium to high and showed negative correlation with dry rubber production. Plant analysis showed unbalanced contents of N and K with low values but positive and significant correlation with dry rubber production. Significant and negative correlation between dry rubber production and Ca contents, associated to high contents of Mg

  7. Psychometric properties of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6 in Brazil Propriedades psicométricas da sexta versão da Escala de Gravidade de Dependência (ASI-6 no Brasil

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    Felix Kessler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few research tools in Brazil to assess more broadly the alcohol and other drug related problems. OBJECTIVE: To test the psychometric properties of ASI in its sixth version (ASI-6. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in four Brazilian state capitals. Four research centers interviewed 150 adult inpatients or outpatients, and one research center interviewed 140 patients. A total of 740 substance abusers were selected. Training and supervision of interviewers were performed to assure the quality of dada collected. RESULTS: Most areas of the ASI showed good reliability between the instrument and the interviewers, with no statistically significant differences between the ASI-6 Summary Scores for Recent Functioning (SS-Rs of both interviews. Cronbach's alpha for ASI-6 subscales ranged from 0.64 to 0.95. Correlations between the ASI-6 Alcohol and Drug scores and the concurrent instrument (ASSIST were high (0.72 and 0.89, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between the scores in psychiatric, medical and drug areas and the scores of WHOQOL. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the psychometric properties of ASI-6 both in outpatients and inpatients in Brazil indicate a good reliability and validity of this instrument for the Brazilian culture. The development of this instrument in Brazil is an important advancement, which will certainly have implications for the prevention, clinical research, and social rehabilitation fields.INTRODUÇÃO: Existem poucos instrumentos de pesquisa no Brasil que avaliam de forma mais ampla os problemas relacionados ao álcool e a outras drogas. OBJETIVO: Testar as propriedades psicométricas da ASI, em sua sexta versão (ASI-6. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal e multicêntrico foi conduzido em quatro capitais de estados brasileiros. Quatro centros de pesquisa entrevistaram 150 pacientes adultos internados ou em tratamento ambulatorial. Foram selecionados um total de 740

  8. Estudo da competitividade dos principais autoveículos compactos brasileiros A study on the competitiveness of the most important compact automotive vehicles manufactured in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hidalgo Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a metodologia e os resultados da pesquisa empírica qualitativa realizada para identificar os fatores determinantes da competitividade dos principais autoveículos compactos brasileiros produzidos pela Fiat, Ford, General Motors e Volkswagen. Optou-se pela utilização da metodologia prescrita pelo modelo de campos e armas da competição, visto que é qualitativa e quantitativa e consegue representar com bastante clareza as estratégias competitivas de negócios e as operacionais da empresa. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram as hipóteses, validadas segundo o método popperiano dedutivo de prova: 1 não há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os campos da competição escolhidos para os autoveículos mais competitivos e os escolhidos para os menos competitivos, pois todos eles competem basicamente em projeto, qualidade e preço do produto; e 2 o foco (variável matemática que mede o alinhamento das armas da competição aos campos da competição escolhidos para cada veículo explica por que um autoveículo é mais competitivo que outro.This article describes the methodology and the results of a study carried out to identify the determinants of competitiveness of the most important compact automotive vehicles produced by the four major car manufacturers operating in Brazil: Fiat, Ford, General Motors and Volkswagen. The methodology chosen was the one suggested by the Fields and Weapons of the Competition model, because it is both qualitative and quantitative, and because it provides a very clear representation of the competitive business and operational strategies of companies. The results validated the hypotheses formulated, and it is possible to conclude that: 1 there is no statistically significant difference between the fields of competition chosen for the more competitive automotive vehicles and the ones chosen for the less competitive, since they all compete primarily on design, quality and price of product

  9. Josué de Castro e a Geografia da Fome no Brasil Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil

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    Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma releitura do clássico Geografia da Fome, publicado pela primeira vez em 1946. Realiza-se uma síntese dos mapas das cinco áreas alimentares e das principais carências nutricionais existentes no Brasil, de acordo com o delineamento realizado por Josué de Castro. Nos dias atuais, ao perfil epidemiológico nutricional desenhado por Josué de Castro, caracterizado pelas carências nutricionais (desnutrição, hipovitaminoses, bócio endêmico, anemia ferropriva etc., sobrepuseram-se as doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis (obesidade, diabetes, dislipidemias etc.. Entretanto, a questão da complexa e paradoxal problemática da fome permanece como uma temática recorrente no Brasil. Diante de alguns dilemas da atualidade, tais como aqueles que dizem respeito à sustentabilidade ecológica do planeta e à garantia do direito humano à alimentação, torna-se imperante reacender a luta defendida por Josué de Castro pela adoção de um modelo de desenvolvimento econômico sustentável e uma sociedade sem miséria e sem fome.The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc., overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.. However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro

  10. Diversidade genética de Chenopodium ambrosioides da região cacaueira da Bahia com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity based on RAPD markers of Chenopodium ambrosioides from the cocoa region of Bahia State, Brazil

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    Simone Gualberto Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium ambrosioides L., conhecida no Brasil por suas propriedades medicinais e usada principalmente para o controle de verminoses intestinais, é pouco estudada quanto à diversidade genética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de 16 indivíduos de C. ambrosioides, provenientes de diferentes municípios da região cacaueira da Bahia, pela técnica de RAPD (DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso. Apenas 6,9% das 216 bandas RAPD amplificadas foram polimórficas e a análise de agrupamento evidenciou que não há formação de grupos por área de coleta. Portanto, há pequena variabilidade entre os materiais e esta variabilidade encontra-se distribuída entre as regiões amostradas.Chenopodium ambrosioides L. is known in many parts of Brazil for its medicinal properties, mainly used to control intestinal worms. Its genetic diversity is little studied. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of 16 accessions of C. ambrosioides from the cocoa region of Bahia State, Brazil, by the RAPD technique (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Only 6.9% of the 216 amplified RAPD bands were polymorphic and the pattern of dispersion of individuals showed no clustering related to sample site. Therefore, there is low variability among accessions and it is distributed among the accessions from the entire sampled region.

  11. Strategic Biodiversity Risk Assessment (SBRA) of the offshore oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) plans and programs in Brazil; Avaliacao estrategica do risco a biodiversidade (AERB) nos planos e programas de E e P offshore de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Katia Cristina

    2007-07-15

    This thesis proposes a methodological framework, called Strategic Biodiversity Risk Assessment (SBRA), within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), as a way to efficiently incorporate the risks to biodiversity caused by accidental spills into the strategic levels of offshore oil and gas E and P decision-making process. Moreover, this approach can also indicate the exclusion (or postponement) of bidding areas with extreme environmental sensitivity, as well as the choices for environmental-friendly E and P technologies. In order to exemplify this methodological framework application, two case studies are presented, one of the offshore O and G development program in southern Bahia state, Northeast of Brazil, and other of the offshore development plan in Abrolhos region, Brazil. (author)

  12. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  13. Outras famílias: a construção social da conjugalidade homossexual no Brasil Different families: the social construction of homosexual conjugality in Brazil

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    Luiz Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre a construção social da conjugalidade homossexual no Brasil contemporâneo, especialmente no âmbito do Poder Legislativo, espaço privilegiado de discussão acerca do projeto de lei que institui a parceria civil entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. A análise dos elementos estruturantes nos embates ideológicos decorrentes das disputas em torno do reconhecimento social e jurídico das uniões homossexuais como entidades familiares, também é perpassada por discursos originários da Igreja Católica e de representantes da população homossexual.This article presents some reflections on the social construction of homosexual conjugality in contemporary Brazil, particularly concerning the Legislative sphere - where most of the debate on the law project for civil partnership between people of the same sex has taken place. The main objective is to analyze the structuring elements of the ideological struggles stemming from the disputes around the social and juridical recognition of homosexual unions as familial entities. The discourses that come from the Catholic Church and those of homosexual representatives are also given priority in the analysis.

  14. [Decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and inter-municipal flow of hospital admissions in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cláudia Tartaglia; Czeresnia, Dina; Barcellos, Christovam; Tassinari, Wagner Souza

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (a shift towards rural areas or away from the coast) and to investigate access to HIV/AIDS services from 1988 to 2002 in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An ecological study was performed using temporal and spatial approaches. A hospital admissions flow between municipalities developed, and the reference group was AIDS patients over 15 years of age admitted in 1996 and 2004, residing in municipalities in the Zona da Mata. There were 2,469 reported AIDS cases in individuals over 15 during the period. Mean incidence and mortality rates were calculated and recalculated by a local empirical Bayesian method in order to more clearly represent the municipalities with the highest concentration of cases and deaths. Decentralization of the epidemic was observed. Juiz de Fora was the municipality with the most cases and may have acted as a hub for spread of HIV in the region. Hospital care for AIDS cases in the Zona da Mata was concentrated in that municipality. There is a strong need to further investigate why referral hospitals in other municipalities in the region have not participated in providing management and care for HIV/AIDS patients.

  15. Evolução da mortalidade geral, infantil e proporcional no Brasil Trends in general, infant and proportional mortality in Brazil

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    João Yunes

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da evolução da mortalidade geral, infantil e proporcional para o Brasil e Regiões Fisiográficas de 1941 a 1970. Nos últimos 30 anos a redução de mortalidade geral para o Brasil foi de 47,5%, tendo sido maior a queda na região Centro-Oeste. No último decênio observa-se o aumento do coeficiente em todas as regiões iniciando-se em diferentes períodos, sendo em parte devido ao aumento da mortalidade infantil. Ao se comparar a mortalidade geral do Brasil com a de países mais desenvolvidos, ela pode ser considerada elevada, uma vez que cerca de 42% da população tem menos de 14 anos de idade, indicando nível de saúde insatisfatório. Para a mortalidade infantil, em 30 anos houve uma redução de seu coeficiente em 46,2%, tendo sido maior esta queda na região Centro-Oeste. No último decênio, observa-se um aumento deste coeficiente, sugerindo, portanto, uma piora do nível de saúde e ao se comparar com outros países é notória a diferença observada. Ao se comparar a mortalidade proporcional (percentagem do total de óbitos de crianças menores de 1 ano de 1940/1970, observa-se uma elevação de 16,3%, sendo no último decênio o maior aumento para as regiões Centro-Oeste (57,7% e Sudeste (36,1%. Ao se comparar os dados do Brasil com o Estado e Município mais desenvolvido (São Paulo, observa-se sempre que estes indicadores para o país como um todo apresentam-se mais elevados, sugerindo um pior nível de saúde. Entre os principais fatores condicionantes da piora do nível de saúde do Brasil no último decênio, destaca-se o econômico onde ocorre um aumento na concentração da distribuição de renda, declíneo do salário mínimo real de 20%, com conseqüente diminuição do poder aquisitivo da população assalariada. Acresce-se ainda, o aumento da população descoberta dos recursos de saneamento básico.Study of the evolution of general mortality, infant mortality rate and mortality ratio in Brazil and

  16. Progresso genético no melhoramento da aveia-branca no Sul do Brasil Genetic progress in oat breeding in Southern Brazil

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    JOSÉ F. BARBOSA NETO

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cultivadas no sul do Brasil até princípios da década de 80 eram provenientes do Uruguai e da Argentina, apresentando problemas de adaptação ao ambiente de cultivo. A partir dos anos 70, programas de melhoramento começaram a produzir suas próprias populações segregantes, possibilitando o lançamento em escala comercial de cerca de 35 cultivares. Com o objetivo de estimar o progresso genético nos programas de melhoramento de aveia-branca do sul do Brasil, foi realizado um experimento envolvendo 15 cultivares lançadas em diferentes épocas, em dois locais, com quatro diferentes condições de manejo. Os resultados obtidos indicaram progresso genético linear para os caracteres ciclo vegetativo, rendimento de grãos, peso de grão e peso do hectolitro; a inexistência de efeitos quadráticos significativos sugeriram a possibilidade de ganhos posteriores a partir da seleção de novos genótipos. Os programas de melhoramento genético de aveia-branca do sul do Brasil, embora ainda não tenham atingido o patamar máximo, têm sido eficientes em produzir novas cultivares com maiores rendimento e qualidade de grãos e com caracteres agronômicos superiores.The oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars cultivated in Southern Brazil up to the beginning of the 80's were introduced from Uruguay and Argentina. They presented adaptation problems to the new environment. Starting from the 70's, oat breeding programs began to produce their own segregant populations. These programs already released 35 cultivars. Aiming to estimate the genetic progress in oat breeding programs from southern Brazil, an experiment with 15 cultivars released in different times was conducted in two locations using four different cultural practices. The results indicated linear genetic progress for days to flowering, grain yield, grain weight and test weight. The non significance of quadratic effects suggested the possibility of additional

  17. Síndrome da cauda flácida em cão da raça labrador retriever: primeiro relato no Brasil Limber syndrome in a labrador retriever dog: first report in Brazil

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    Maria Lígia Mistieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da cauda flácida é uma enfermidade que acomete cães de caça, principalmente Labradores Retriever e do grupo Pointer. Embora sua etiologia não esteja totalmente definida, sabe-se que sua ocorrência é precedida de esforço físico extenuante, exposição ao frio ou água fria e confinamento em caixas de transporte. O presente trabalho descreve o caso de um cão da raça Labrador Retriever, macho não castrado, de quatro anos de idade que apresentou súbita dor e flacidez da cauda após banho frio. Fratura vertebral, síndrome da cauda eqüina, outras enfermidades da medula espinhal ou de glândulas adanais e afecções prostáticas foram descartadas após exames auxiliares. A divulgação deste relato é relevante uma vez que esta síndrome ainda não foi descrita no Brasil.Limber syndrome is a disease that occurs in hunting dogs, commonly Labrador retriever and in dogs that belong to the group of Pointer. The aetiology is still unknown, but its occurrence is prior to extenuating exercises, cold exposure and cold water and transport jail maintenance. This article describes the case of a 4-year-old-intact-male Labrador Retriever that suddenly developed tail pain and limberness after cold bath. It was possible to exclude vertebral fracture, cauda equina syndrome, spinal cord or adanal gland injuries and prostatic disease as the auxiliary evaluations were made. This publication is important because there are no reports of Limber syndrome in Brazil.

  18. Tempos de racialização: o caso da 'saúde da população negra' no Brasil In times of racialization: the case of the 'health of the black population' in Brazil

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    Marcos Chor Maio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar as iniciativas para a criação de um campo de reflexão e intervenção política denominado 'saúde da população negra', no período entre 1996 e 2004, que contempla o governo FHC e parte da administração de Lula. A discussão e implementação de políticas de ação afirmativa no Brasil adquire maior visibilidade, especialmente após a 3ª Conferência Mundial contra o Racismo, Discriminação Racial, Xenofobia e Formas Correlatas de Intolerância, sob os auspícios da ONU (Durban, África do Sul, 2001. O artigo descreve a emergência de uma proposta de política compensatória. Em seguida, aborda o debate contemporâneo sobre raça e saúde, sobretudo a literatura biomédica norte-americana, à luz das apropriações dessa discussão por agências e agentes comprometidos com a formulação de uma 'política racial' no âmbito da saúde pública no Brasil.The article analyzes initiatives aimed at creating a field of reflection and political intervention called the 'health of the black population,' which occurred between 1996 and 2004, that is, under the administration of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and part of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva´s administration. During this period, the process of discussing and enacting affirmative action policies in Brazil gained greater visibility, especially following the UN-sponsored Third World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (Durban, South Africa, September 2001. The article describes the emergence of a proposal of compensatory policy within the Brazilian public health system. It then addresses the contemporary debate on race and health, especially the U.S. biomedical literature, and explores how this discussion has been appropriated by agencies and agents concerned with drawing up a 'racial policy' for the public health sector in Brazil.

  19. Mesene Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with taxonomic notes and the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2016-10-17

    The species of Mesene Doubleday, 1847 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and supplemented by taxonomic and behavioral notes. In total, 30 specimens were collected, representing seven species including one new: M. monostigma monostigma (Erichson, [1849]), M. nepticula stigmosa Stichel, 1910, M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest., M. paraena Bates, 1868, M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, M. leucophrys Bates, 1868, and M. gracielae sp. nov. The following notes on the taxonomy of Mesene are proposed: M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest. is recognized as a valid species, M. epaphus sertata Stichel, 1910 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, and M. lecointrei P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2008 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. philonis Hewitson, 1874. Mesene margaretta (White, 1843), M. philonis and M. nola are recognized as closely related. Species encountered at the PNSD are illustrated, including the genitalia of males and females, when available.

  20. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo

    2005-02-01

    A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  1. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest.

  2. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status.

  3. Catalog of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. VI. Hexapoda: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to May, 2012. A total of 37 holotypes and 61 lots of paratypes of 78 species are listed in their families: Miridae and Reduviidae (infraorder: Cimicomorpha); Mesoveliidae and Velfidae (Gerromorpha); Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, and Notonectidae (Nepomorpha); and Coreidae, Geocoridae [the older sense of "Lygaeidae"], and Pentatomidae (Pentatomomorpha). The taxa are presented alphabetically by infraorders, families, and genera, followed by epithet, bibliographic citation, type category, collection number, method of preservation, and present data on the labels. When necessary, we added localities data, and changes in taxonomic status of some species

  4. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  5. Bringing a museum of language to life: the use of multimodal resources for interactional engagement in the Museu da Língua Portuguesa, Brazil

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    Louise Ravelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The popular and highly successful Museu da Língua Portuguesa1 in São Paulo, Brazil, is renowned for its visitor engagement strategies. While this success is often attributed to high levels of technological interactivity enabled in the museum displays, we argue that the success of the museum also comes from a range of other multimodal resources. Using a social semiotic approach to spatial discourse analysis, we examine each of the three levels/floors of the museum, identifying the various meaning-making resources across the representational, organizational, and interactional metafunctions. These both differentiate the separate levels of the museum, and bring them together as a unified whole, creating a strong focus on cultural identity and on placing the visitor in the centre of meaning-making practices.

  6. Erosion and sediment deposition evaluation on slopes under different tillage systems in the Cerrado region using the {sup 137}Cs fallout technique; Analise da distribuicao do fallout do {sup 137}Cs na avaliacao da erosao e deposicao de sedimentos em sistemas de manejo de solo sob Cerrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Robson Clayton Jacques

    2010-07-01

    In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural areas causes several problems on natural resources. With the increasing occupation of the Cerrado region by agriculture, a series of environmental problems like deforestation, soil erosion and soil compaction are appearing and causing radical transformations in the natural landscape due to removing almost all native vegetation. The conventional tillage system (CTS) is considered an inadequate form of soil management for its frequently irremediable consequences of soil compaction and soil erosion, and the no till system (NTS) makes the maintenance of the soil conditions possible, letting them close to the natural environment, thus reducing rates of soil erosion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of riparian forests in the retention of sediments originated for three different tillage systems, through the fallout {sup 137}CS redistribution technique, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and some physical and chemical parameters that indicate the structural conditions of the soils of Goiatuba and Jandaia-GO. In the three areas, soil profiles were collected in three layers of 20 cm (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) at distinct points located along linear transects in the direction of the maximum slope until the riparian forest. In the riparian forest of each area, trenches were opened and soil was sampled to evaluate the activity of {sup 137}Cs and the physical and chemical parameters of soil. Detection of the activity of {sup 137}Cs was made with a gamma ray detector model (GEM-20180P, EG and ORTEC) connected to a multichannel analyzer. The comparison of averages was made using the Tukey test at 5% level of significance. The. results indicated that, the three soil tillage systems presented high rates of soil erosion and deposition of sediments and the riparian forest of the areas under CTS, NTS and pasture, located downstream received great amounts of sediments, and that only the riparian forest of CTS was

  7. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  8. Professor Antonio Branco Lefèvre: the forefather of child neurology in Brazil Professor Antonio Branco Lefèvre o pai da neurologia infantil no Brasil

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    Rubens Reimão

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the life and works of Prof. Antonio Branco Lefèvre and the relevance that led him to be considered the Forefather of Child Neurology in Brazil. METHOD: The method utilized was the historical documents research; bibliographical. RESULTS: Antonio Branco Lefèvre (1916-1981 was born in São Paulo city; graduated in 1941 from the São Paulo Medical School. The date - 1950 - can be considered when Child Neurology took shape for a fully specialty, when Lefèvre presented his two internationally acclaimed thesis. Lefèvre was recognized as he founder of Child Neurology in Brazil since the early years of his brilliant academic activities. In 1967 achieved the title of professor in the Child Neurology Clinic. His numerous trainees and Residents - from -1950 to 1981 - held today key positions in Brazilian Child Neurology. CONCLUSION: The extension and importance of the Child Neurology School of which he is the legitimate founder is recognized.OBJETIVO: Relatar a vida e obra do Prof. Antonio Branco Lefèvre e a relevância que leva a ser denominado o Pai da Neurologia Infantil no Brasil. MÉTODO: Pesquisa de documentos históricos e bibliográfica. RESULTADOS: Antonio Branco Lefèvre (1916-1981 nascido em São Paulo; formou-se na Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo em 1941. A data de 1950 pode ser considerada quando a Neurologia Infantil tornou-se uma especialidade completa quando Lefèvre defendeu suas duas teses aclamadas internacionalmente. Lefévre foi reconhecido como o Pai da Neurologia Infantil no Brasil desde os primeiros anos de sua carreira acadêmica brilhante. Em 1967 atingiu o título de Professor de Neurologia Clínica Infantil. Seus numerosos estagiários e Residentes - de 1950 a 1981 - têm hoje posições de destaque na Neurologia Infantil brasileira. CONCLUSÃO: É reconhecida a extensão e a relevância da escola de Neurologia Infantil da qual Lefèvre é o legítimo fundador.

  9. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50{sub 15min} = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50{sub 48h} = 91,25 mg L{sup -1}) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50{sub 48h} = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was

  10. Qualidade da castanha-do-brasil do comércio de Rio Branco, Acre Quality of Brazil nuts marketed in Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia de Souza Álvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de castanhas-do-brasil beneficiadas e comercializadas em Rio Branco, Acre. Foram analisadas amostras das três marcas de castanha encontradas no mercado local quanto às variáveis: atividade de água, teor de umidade, contagem total de fungos filamentosos, quantificação de Aspergillus flavus e de A. parasiticus, bem como quantificação de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2. As castanhas do comércio se encontravam com um teor de umidade e atividade de água adequados, o que pode ter sido responsável pela baixa contaminação por fungos e por aflatoxinas. Quanto a estas micotoxinas, as amostras estão de acordo com o recomendado pela Anvisa, podendo ser esta uma consequência da grande divulgação no Estado do uso de Boas Práticas no manejo da castanha.The goal of this paper was to evaluate the quality of Brazil nuts processed and marketed in the city of Rio Branco, in the state of Acre (Brazil. We analysed three samples for water activity, moisture content, total fungus quantification of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, as well as quantification of total aflatoxin, Afla B1, Afla B2, Afla G1 and Afla G2. The nut samples from the market showed an appropriate moisture content and water activity, which may have been responsible for the low fungus contamination and aflatoxin production. As to these mycotoxins, the samples were consistent with Anvisa's recommendations, which may be a consequence of good management of the nuts in Acre.

  11. Construction of technological scenarios on the bioethanol production in Brazil, evaluation of the macroeconomic impacts and the risks of the forecast market not to concretize; Construcao de cenarios tecnologicos sobre a producao do bioetanol no Brasil, avaliacao dos impactos macroeconomicos e riscos do mercado previsto nao se concretizar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter gives a view of the transformations that should occur as functions of the sugar cane culture expansion. In the first part, it is shown how it should behavior the bioethanol demand and the offer of sugar cane and the bio ethanol in the Brazil. The objective of the first part is to demonstrate that there exist full conditions for the brazilian cultivation industry to reach exportation goals and attends to other necessities of the economy. In the second part, it is analysed what would be the possible expansions of these scenarios on the brazilian economy, including the viewpoint of the regional perspective.

  12. Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes da Chapada Diamantina: novos registros para o Estado da Bahia e Brasil Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes from the Chapada Diamantina: new records from Bahia State and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Cardoso Rodrigues da Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes da Chapada Diamantina: novos registros para o Estado da Bahia e Brasil. Os fungos anamórficos, caracterizados pela produção de estruturas de reprodução assexuadas, são habitantes comuns do folhedo onde desempenham papel importante na decomposição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um inventário dos fungos anamórficos associados ao folhedo de plantas da Chapada Diamantina, BA. Foram realizadas 13 expedições, de dezembro/2002 a outubro/2003, para coleta de folhedo. Para verificação da presença de fungos anamórficos o material foi submetido à técnica de lavagem sucessiva com água destilada esterilizada e posteriormente incubado em câmaras-úmidas. Lâminas permanentes com as estruturas reprodutivas dos espécimes foram confeccionadas com resina PVL e depositadas no herbário HUEFS. Das 57 espécies de fungos anamórficos identificados, nove constituem novas ocorrências para o Estado da Bahia e cinco para o Brasil: Fusariella atrovirens (Berk. Sacc., Kiliophora ubiensis (Caneva & Rambelli Kuthub. & Nawawi, Paraceratocladium silvestre Castañeda, Pleurotheciopsis setiformis Castañeda e Triscelophorus deficiens (Matsush. Matsush. Incluem-se comentários e distribuição geográfica dos novos registros para o Estado da Bahia; descrições e ilustrações são apresentadas para as novas ocorrências para o Brasil.(Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes from the Chapada Diamantina: new records from Bahia State and Brazil. The anamorphic fungi are characterized by production of asexual reproductive structures and are common inhabitants of the leaf litter, where they play an important role in decomposition. The aim of this work was to survey the anamorphic fungi associated with leaf litter from Chapada Diamantina, B ahia state. Thirteen expeditions took place from December/2002 to October/2003 to collect leaf litter. The serial washing technique with sterile distilled water followed by incubation in

  13. Presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Delmondes, Aline Ferreira Dos Santos; Barbosa, Vanessa De Araújo; Marra, Francisco de Assis; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2016-01-01

    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis, is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Americas, primarily occurring in areas of apparent anthropomorphic modifications in several regions of Brazil. Sand flies were captured using light traps. Out of all captured species, Lu. longipalpis numbers had increased within the park. We report the occurrence of Lu. longipalpis in an area of Atlantic Forest, possibly representing the first sylvatic population of Lu. longipalpis in an area absent of peridomestic captures, but with the risk of L. infantum transmission in the areas of Niterói and Maricá.

  14. A instituição da microbiologia e a história da saúde pública no Brasil Microbiology as an institution and the history of public health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Larry Benchimol

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a instituição da microbiologia e suas conseqüências para a saúde pública brasileira durante o último quarto do século XIX e o começo do atual. O autor examina o trabalho realizado pela Escola Tropicalista Baiana, a trajetória de outra geração de médicos que, no Rio de Janeiro e em São Paulo, investigaram a febre amarela e outras doenças à luz da teoria dos germes, procurando descobrir tanto o seu micróbio específico como imunobiológicos e tratamentos eficazes. O artigo examina também a transição da problemática etiológica para a do meio de transmissão da febre amarela e da malária, correlacionando-as com o amadurecimento do pasteurianismo e da Medicina Tropical. A adoção da teoria de Finlay no Brasil e as campanhas sanitárias bem-sucedidas que Oswaldo Cruz empreendeu no Rio de Janeiro, enquanto a cidade era remodelada de acordo com o molde "haussmaniano", inauguram um nova era em que o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz e outras instituições biomédicas logram desenvolver dinâmicos programas de pesquisa em estreita sintonia com a bacteriologia e medicina tropical européia e norte-americana.This article deals with the institution of microbiology and its consequences to Brazilian public health during the last quarter of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth century. The author examines the work done by members of Escola Tropicalista Baiana and then by several constituents of another generation of physicians who, in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, researched yellow fever and other diseases from the perspective of the germ theory, trying to discover both its specific microbe as well as effective therapeutic and immunobiological treatments to those diseases. The article also examines the transition of the etiologic issue to the question of the means of transmission not only of yellow fever but also of malaria, correlating it with the coming of age both of Pasteurianism and Tropical Medicine. The

  15. Briófitas da Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil The bryophytes from the Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Olga Yano

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra de Itabaiana, foram encontradas 15 espécies de musgos pertencentes a 14 gêneros de 11 famílias e 14 de hepáticas de oito gêneros de quatro famílias. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Destas espécies, 26 estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o estado.Fifteen species of mosses and fourteen species of liverworts are reported from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil. The mosses are distributed among 14 genera and 11 families, and the liverworts for eight genera and four families. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. is cited for the first time from Brazil. Altogether, 26 species are cited for the first time for the State.

  16. Use of residues of cattle in Lagoa da Prata, MG, Brazil as an energy source and its environmental implication; Aproveitamento de residuos de gado leiteiro em Lagoa da Prata-MG como fonte de energia e sua implicacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Flavio Soares [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Cienciaas e Tecnologia Nuclear], E-mail: flaviosol@gmail.com; Ferreira, Joao Coutinho; Egute, Nayara dos Santos; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Carvalho, Fatima Maria Sequeira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Abrao, Alcidio

    2009-07-01

    The environmental and energy gains with the use of milk cattle residues in the Lagoa da Prata, MG, Brazil are investigated. Nine farms were visited and a questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant energy and environmental data. The data from the field were correlated to the productive process of the cattle and the energy consumption. It was obtained, as the result of the field research, a generation average of 3 ton of residues a day, an electric energy average monthly consumption of 2.500 kWh, a set of energy intensive equipment and an daily consumption average of 27 m{sup 3} of water day. The use of the cattle residues can solve the problem of residues, effluents and several pollutants generated in the region and bring an energy gain with the production of biogas, that can be converted in energy.

  17. Caminhos da cidadania cultural: o ensino de artes no Brasil Paths to cultural citizenship: learning arts in Brazil

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    Marcelo Gruman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata do ensino da arte nas escolas brasileiras a partir dos conceitos de multiculturalismo, diversidade cultural e cidadania cultural, norteadores da atuação do Ministério da Cultura a partir da gestão do ex-Ministro Gilberto Gil iniciada no ano de 2003. Argumenta que é imprescindível um diálogo cada vez mais intenso entre o Ministério da Cultura e o Ministério da Educação na consecução deste objetivo, qual seja, garantir o cumprimento do direito humano à educação e à participação na cultura, inscritos na Constituição Brasileira de 1988, e ratificado pela Convenção sobre a Promoção e Proteção da Diversidade das Expressões Culturais da UNESCO, ratificada pelo Brasil no ano de 2006.The article deals with the learning of the arts in the Brazilian education system taking into account the concepts of multiculturalism, cultural diversity and cultural citizenship, guidelines of the public policies of the Ministry of Culture since 2003. It also argues the importance of the dialogue between the Ministries of Culture and Education to accomplish a common goal, that is, guarantee the human rights for education and culture, inscribed in the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and ratified by the Brazilian Government in 2006 in the scope of the UNESCO's Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

  18. Actual overview on the wind energy and perspectives for Brazil; Panorama atual da energia eolica e perspectivas para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, Fernanda Fortes; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Wilss, William [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LIMA/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente], Emails: fforteswestin@yahoo.com.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br, wwills@lima.coppe.ufrj.br; Goodward, Jenna [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present stage of energy in the world and its developpement although recent in Brazil. pointing out the main advantages and disadvantages face to other existent electric energy sources, considering the perspectives o sustainable development and their risks for the electric sector. The growing perspective of participation of that source in the Brazilian electric matrix, it complementary paper of that source in front of other sources, between other points are considered in this study.

  19. Solar thermal energy utilization in Brazil: a perspective; Utilizacao da energia solar termica no Brasil: uma perspectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although Brazil has a large insolation potential, utilization of solar thermal energy is still limited to few applications, like residential and commercial water heating and drying of grains. However, there are in other countries more intensive applications, like electricity generation, industrial heat and fresh water production. The present work describes which are the other ways of using solar thermal energy that have been developed in the world, approaches the main technical aspects that affect its utilization, the perspective of increasing it in Brazil and its possible barriers and, finally, PETROBRAS' studies in this area, positioning itself as an Energy Company. The main solar thermal technologies currently used in the world are evacuated collectors, that work efficiently at temperatures up to 130 deg C, and concentrating solar technologies, that can reach the temperature of 1200 deg C. Among the latter, solar trough is the technology that is already considered mature, and near to become economically viable. Brazil, at the moment, has two technological challenges: development of national technology to manufacture high performance solar collectors, like evacuated collectors and solar troughs, and the development of thermal equipment to operate at temperatures under 120 deg C, like adsorption and absorption chillers and desalination towers, that can be economically competitive. (author)

  20. Supply chain management of the castor biodiesel in the Bahia state, Brazil; Gestao da cadeia de suprimentos do biodiesel de mamona no estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freires, Francisco G.M.; Goncalo, Thomas E.E.; Oliveira, Danillo R.S.B. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: francisco.gaudencio@univasf.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    In front of the global trend for developing new ways of energy that pollute less and are renewable, Brazil emerges as a major actor in the development and use of technology for the production of biofuels. In the context of the potential of semi-arid to produce some oil used in production, the Brazilian government is enabling the production of Northeastern region. The State of Bahia is the largest producer of castor oil from Brazil, with an estimated production of 102.8 thousand tonnes of grain in the season 2008/2009 (CONAB, 2009). The development of the sector depends on appropriate government actions to support their competitive sustainability, and encouraging the improvement of management techniques in all involved. In that scenario, the logistics contributes to the development of this sector through the supply chain management. One conclusion is that the competitiveness and sustainability of the supply chain of castor in the Semi-arid of Bahia practices depends on the adoption of integrated logistics, without which the current failures prevent the consolidation of governmental objectives defined. (author)

  1. Resultados da assistência ao parto no Centro de Parto Normal Dr. David Capistrano da Costa Filho em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Results of childbirth care at a birthing center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Emilie Vogt Campos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da assistência prestada em Centro de Parto Normal (CPN por enfermeira obstetra é amplamente questionada. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo de 2.117 partos ocorridos entre janeiro de 2002 e julho 2003, no CPN Dr. David Capistrano da Costa Filho, em Belo Horizonte. Entre os principais resultados da assistência, destacam-se a taxa de transferência materna com 11,4%; a taxa de cesárea com 2,2%; a taxa de admissão em Centro de Tratamento Intensivo (CTI neonatal de 1,2%; e a taxa de Apgar This was a descriptive and retrospective study of 2,117 deliveries from January 2002 to July 2003 at the Dr. David Capistrano da Costa Filho Birthing Center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Widespread questions have been raised concerning the quality of services provided at birthing centers by obstetric nurses. The results of the current study were: 11.4% maternal transfer rate; 2.2% cesarean sections; 1.2% neonatal ICU admissions; and 1% 5-minute Apgar scores below 7. Delivery dystocia and the request for epidural anesthesia were the main reasons for maternal transfer, and respiratory distress was the main cause of neonatal ICU admission. Corrected neonatal mortality was 2 per 1,000 live births. The results at this birthing center did not differ significantly from those in a review of the international literature. The most striking finding was the low cesarean rate. Comparative studies and more comprehensive national data on low-risk gestations are needed.

  2. Ecoepidemiologia da esquistossomose urbana na ilha de Itamaracá, Estado de Pernambuco Ecoepidemiology of urban schistosomiasis in Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Simões Barbosa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em 1988, 22 casos autóctones de esquistossomose foram registrados na Praia do Forte Orange, ilha de Itamaracá, Pernambuco. Todos os casos ocorreram em indivíduos de classe média/alta que veraneavam na ilha. Foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar criadouros/focos de vetores da esquistossomose na localidade, correlacionando os determinantes biológicos da doença com o contexto ambiental da sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Foram levantados dados secundários para resgatar as características ambientais da área antes da ocupação humana. O inquérito malacológico teve a duração de um ano com mapeamento da área, coleta mensal e exame dos moluscos. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: Em 1 km de extensão da praia, foram identificados 20 criadouros e demarcadas 28 estações de coleta. Os resultados mostram a variação mensal da densidade populacional de moluscos e das taxas de infecção, correlacionados com sazonalidade e tipos de criadouros. Destaca-se a importância desse novo perfil epidemiológico da esquistossomose em Pernambuco, relacionando o modo de ocupação daquele espaço com o estabelecimento de sítios de transmissão ativa da esquistossomose.INTRODUCTION: In 1988, 22 autochthonous cases from accidental exposure were registered in Forte Orange beach, Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil. All cases occurred in middle-to-upper class individuals who were vacationing in the island. After the cases were identified, the major objective was to find breading sites of schistosomiasis vectors and correlate the biological factors with the environmental conditions. METHODS: The environmental characteristics of the beach before human occupation were obtained from several documents. Also, a one-year malacological survey was conducted with monthly collection of mollusks, and the determination of their infectivity rates. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The malacological survey was able to identify 20 breading sites of

  3. Estimativa da produtividade do milho em função da disponibilidade hídrica em Guarapuava, PR, Brasil Corn yield as a function of water availability in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Wagner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se estimar o potencial médio de produção da cultura do milho em função das variações da disponibilidade hídrica considerando-se a realização da semeadura em diferentes momentos dentro do período recomendado para o município de Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná. Os estudos foram realizados com base na série ininterrupta de dados climáticos do período de 1984 a 2007. A duração do ciclo da cultura foi calculada pelo acúmulo de soma térmica e a disponibilidade de água avaliada pelo balanço hídrico da cultura, ponderando-se a distribuição da precipitação pluvial e a evapotranspiração da cultura. A probabilidade de redução de produtividade de grãos por deficiência hídrica foi estimada considerando-se a porcentagem de redução de produção de grãos a partir da ocorrência de deficiência hídrica nos diferentes estádios do ciclo de desenvolvimento no campo. Verificou-se que a cultura do milho é afetada pela distribuição da disponibilidade hídrica ao longo do ciclo, sendo que a maior probabilidade de perdas de produção por deficiência hídrica ocorre no estádio da antese-fecundação. As semeaduras mais tardias no período recomendado tendem a ocasionar menores riscos de obtenção de produtividade de grãos abaixo da média regional.This study aimed to estimate the average potential of production of the corn crop in consequence of the variation of the water availability and the planting performed at different dates within the recommended period for Guarapuava, Paraná State, Brazil. The study was conducted considering uninterrupted series of climate data for the period from 1984 to 2007. The duration of the crop cycle was calculated by the accumulation of the thermal sum and the availability of water evaluated by the water balance of the crop considering the distribution of the precipitation and the evapotranspiration of the crop. The probability of reduction of the grain yield due to

  4. Estudo da influência das anomalias da TSM do Atlântico Sul extratropical na região da Confluência Brasil-Malvinas no regime hidrometeorológico de verão do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil Influence of extratropical South Atlantic SST anomalies at Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region over the hydrometeorological summer regime of Southern and Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cataldi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo é realizada uma investigação, via modelagem computacional, das influências remotas que as anomalias positivas da temperatura da superfície do mar (TSM na região da Confluência das correntes do Brasil e das Malvinas (CBM, exercem no regime hidrometeológico das regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Essa região é marcada por uma intensa frente oceânica formada pelo encontro das águas transportadas pela Corrente do Brasil (CB e das águas transportadas pela Corrente das Malvinas (CM. Essa investigação foi realizada com a utilização do modelo climático Community Atmosphere Model 2.01 (CAM 2.01, sendo utilizadas anomalias numéricas da TSM, geradas dentro do código do modelo, visando a reprodução do episódio ocorrido no verão de 2005, tanto em relação a sua distribuição espacial, quanto temporal. Foram observadas alterações significativas no padrão ondulatório da circulação vertical da atmosfera em parte da América do Sul, o que acarretou em uma diminuição da precipitação na região Sul do Brasil e condições mais favoráveis para a configuração da Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS, sobre o norte da Região Sudeste do Brasil. Tais padrões se assemelharam aos observados durante o verão de 2005.This study analyses the influence of the extratropical South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies in the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian hydrometeorological pattern. The Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC is one of the most important South Atlantic Ocean features. This region is characterized by a strong thermal front formed by the confluence between the warm waters transported by the Brazil Current (BC and the cold waters carried by the Malvinas Current (MC. The knowledgement of its dynamics could represent an important advance to understand its connection with locally and remotely generated ocean and atmospheric processes. This investigation is made with computational modeling using a

  5. Novas raças, novas doenças: a possibilidade colonizadora por meio da mistura racial em History of Brazil (1810-1819 de Robert Southey

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    Flávia Florentino Varella

    Full Text Available Resumo A possibilidade de o clima alterar o temperamento de pessoas não nativas de determinada região era crença difundida desde antes do descobrimento da América. As mudanças de ar, temperatura e alimentação, acreditava-se, poderiam contribuir decisivamente para a degeneração ou o florescimento das raças. No Novo Mundo, as raças negra, europeia e indígena foram mescladas, reconfigurando doenças europeias. Exploro neste artigo como, na avaliação do historiador Robert Southey, essa mistura de raças foi tida como bastante positiva, principalmente a do indígena com a do português, que gerava o mameluco. Os paulistas, que eram mamelucos, foram apresentados em History of Brazil como herdeiros do temperamento empreendedor português e da infatigabilidade indígena.

  6. Demodicose bovina no Estado da Paraíba Bovine demodicosis in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz H. Faccini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Casos de demodicose bovina foram observados em um rebanho da raça Sindhi no período de dezembro 1989 a janeiro 1992. Ambas as formas, localizada e generalizada, foram diagnosticadas. Este é o primeiro relato da forma generalizada no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros anos, a demodicose foi diagnosticada somente em animais Cases of bovine demodicosis caused by Demodex bovis were reported in a Sindhi herd from December 1989 to January 1992. Both localized and generalized forms were diagnosed. This is the first report of the generalized form in Brazil. In the first two years, demodicosis was diagnosed only in cattle 2 years old, respectively. Clinical signs varied from a few small nodules to a thickened skin with soft large nodules in the localized and generalized forms, respectively. Main microscopic features of the nodules in the generalized form consisted of acanthosis with hyperqueratosis, chronic sebaceous adenitis, subcutaneous muscular necrosis, focal cellular degeneration of the epidermis basal layer and presence of large number of mites inside the lumen of dilated hair follicles. In addition, a chronic perifoliculitis was observed, characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate which also contained macrophages and neutrophils. It is suggested that poor nutrition and stress due to prolonged drought probably contributed to the increase of susceptibility of the herd to mite infestation.

  7. A educação nutricional nos programas oficiais de prevenção da deficiência da vitamina A no Brasil Nutrition education in the official programs for preventing vitamin A deficiency in Brazil

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    Lívia Penna Firme Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é identificar a inserção da Educação Nutricional nos programas oficiais brasileiros de combate à deficiência de vitamina A no Brasil, no período de 1968 a 2008. A metodologia utilizada foi pesquisa bibliográfica e pesquisa documental, onde foram analisados documentos oficiais, arquivados na Coordenação Geral de Políticas de Alimentação e Nutrição, do Ministério da Saúde, referentes aos programas governamentais nacionais para a prevenção e controle da Deficiência de Vitamina A. Descreve-se a trajetória da Educação Nutricional nos programas oficiais de combate à Deficiência de Vitamina A no Brasil, desde sua implantação até os dias atuais, constatando-se que a prática de Educação Nutricional é recomendada, porém não executada. Isso ocorre porque as ações propostas nos programas oficiais são sugeridas como ações pontuais, ao invés de estarem inseridas em uma política pública de promoção da saúde. Nesse sentido, o atual programa de prevenção e combate a essa Deficiência evoluiu, pois recomenda o aleitamento materno e a alimentação saudável - medidas de promoção da saúde -, como essenciais para a sua prevenção. Conclui-se que, à medida que a Educação Nutricional avance e se estabeleça como parte de uma política pública intersetorial de promoção para a saúde, a alimentação saudável passe a fazer parte da vida dos brasileiros, prevenindo não apenas a Deficiência de Vitamina A, mas, também, outras doenças carenciais e as crônicas não transmissíveis.The objective of this article is to identify the insertion of nutrition education in the official Brazilian programs for the prevention of vitamin A deficiency in Brazil, in the period from 1968 to 2008. The employed methodology was a literature and document research, analyzing the official documents kept by the General Coordination of Food and Nutrition Policies of the Ministry of Health regarding national

  8. Práticas alimentares cotidianas de mulheres obesas moradoras da Favela da Rocinha (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Daily eating habits of obese women living in Rocinha Shanytown (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Vanessa Alves Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta conclusões de uma pesquisa desenvolvida na Ensp/Fiocruz, como parte do curso de mestrado. A pesquisa teve como um dos objetivos investigar as práticas alimentares de mulheres moradoras da Favela da Rocinha (Rio de Janeiro, RJ na perspectiva socioantropológica. Os resultados revelaram que a alimentação do grupo era monótona, com poucas variações do cardápio composto basicamente por arroz, feijão, açúcares e gorduras. Observamos ainda a rejeição aos produtos industrializados e enlatados. Este padrão de consumo alimentar parece se aproximar da cultura alimentar brasileira, revelando a preservação da identidade nacional a partir da alimentação. Dessa forma, há necessidade de superar pressupostos em torno da relação entre consumo alimentar e obesidade, especialmente no que diz respeito à ideia predominante de mudanças na dieta com a incorporação de uma dieta "moderna" ou "ocidental" que permeia grande parte dos estudos no campo da nutrição no Brasil. Nessa direção, sinalizamos a necessidade de resgatar a abordagem multidimensional para os estudos sobre alimentação e nutrição no país. Tal proposta implica a superação de quadros conceituais restritos e a construção de novas agendas de investigação.This article presents conclusions of research conducted at Ensp/Fiocruz, as part of a master's degree course. One of the objectives of the research to investigate the eating habits of women living in the Rocinha Shantytown (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil from a socio-anthropological perspective. The results revealed that the eating habits of the group were repetitive, with few variations in the menu consisting basically of rice, bean, sugars and fats. We further observed the rejection of industrialized and canned products. This food consumption pattern seems to conform to Brazilian food culture revealing the preservation of the national identity based on feeding habits. Consequently, it is

  9. Ilusões de modernidade: o fetiche da marca McDonald's no Brasil Illusions of modernity: the fetish of McDonald's' brand in Brazil

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    Isleide Arruda Fontenelle

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se apresentar e discutir as relações atuais entre imagem e entretenimento a partir de pesquisas realizadas sobre a construção da imagem de marca McDonald's e sobre as modernas técnicas de marketing. Visando compreender porque nos tornamos consumidores de imagens, procurou-se recuperar, a partir da própria historia do McDonald's, os acontecimentos econômicos, sociais, culturais, políticos, que teriam nos transformado em uma sociedade na qual "estar na imagem é existir". Embora trágica em seu sentido de fundo, essa perda da forma nos é compensada por imagens de diversão e felicidade que as marcas nos transmitem. Ao final, questiona-se o alcance global dessa promessa a partir de uma digressão sobre o Brasil: como a marca McDonald's nos fornece as imagens para uma certa constituição identitária; e o seu nome para um sentimento de permanência? Como falar de "identificação" com uma marca que, aparentemente, não teria uma relação histórica e cultural com o Brasil?This article presents and discusses the current relationship between image and entertainment, based on the results of research studies on the constitution of McDonald's' brand image all over the world and contemporary marketing. Aiming to understand why we have become image consumers, those studies tried to recover, based on McDonald's history, economical, social, cultural, and political events that have lead us towards an obsessed image society, in which, "being in the image is the same as existing". Although tragic in its bottom line, that inexistence of form is compensated to us by amusement and happiness images conveyed by the brands. Finally, the research questions the global reach of that promise, starting from a digression on Brazil: how does McDonald's' brand supply us images for a certain identity constitution; and its brand name for a permanence feeling? How is it possible to speak of "identification" with a brand that, seemingly, would not have a

  10. Condutas para reparação da cavidade anoftálmica no Brasil Trends on anophthalmic socket repair in Brazil

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    Roberta Lilian Fernandes de Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as condutas mais utilizadas no tratamento da cavidade anoftálmica no Brasil, comparando-as com a realidade mundial. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, usando questionário eletrônico enviado pela Internet para oftalmologistas membros da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica Ocular, Vias Lacrimais e Órbita - SBCPO. As respostas obtidas foram avaliadas por meio de análise de aderência, utilizando o teste do Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidos 75 questionários respondidos. Cinquenta e três por cento dos entrevistados tratam cavidade anoftálmica frequentemente e o implante de esfera de polimetilmatacrilato, de 18 mm de diâmetro, é o usado pelos entrevistados na maioria das cirurgias, sendo revestido principalmente com esclera (92%. Apenas sete entrevistados já utilizaram implante acoplado com prótese externa. Oitenta e dois por cento dos entrevistados usam a técnica do enxerto dermoadiposo. O acompanhamento destes pacientes é feito semestralmente pela maior parte dos entrevistados. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento da cavidade anoftálmica no Brasil geralmente é feito usando a esfera de polimetilmetacrilato, de diâmetro 18 milímetros. Implantes acoplados dificilmente são usados.PURPOSE: To determine the most common approach to repair the anophthalmic socket in Brazil, and to compare the data with the trends in other countries. METHODS: Exploratory study using electronic questionnaire sent by Internet to ophthalmologists members of the Brazilian Orbit and Oculoplastic Society (SBCPO. The received answers were analyzed by adhesion analysis, using Chi-square test. RESULTS: We received 75 answered questionnaires. Fifty-three per cent of the respondents frequently treat anophthalmic socket and use the 18 mm diameter polymethylmethacrylate sphere in the majority of the surgeries, mainly covered by sclera (92%. Only seven interviewees had used integrated implants with pegging procedure. Eighty-two per cent of the

  11. Case history: recovery of the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline at the Vocoroca reservoir crossing Parana state; Caso historico: recuperacao da travessia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil no reservatorio da barragem de Vocoroca-Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 Km. Of this total, 2.593 Km are in Brazilian soil. In the kilometer 526+500m of the south spread, GASBOL crosses the reservoir of the Vocoroca's dam (COPEL), which had its operational level reduced, in face of the station of the droughts that usually reaches the area in the months of March to September. The lowing of the reservoir caused the turn of the course of Fojo River (Sao Joaozinho River) to its natural quota, forming a waterfall, whose hydraulic gradient caused the removal of the sediment and part of the foundation soil, discovering the pipe that was with space free from approximately 13 m of length. This paper discusses the solution adopted, as well as the several details of the recovery project, besides geotechnical and hydraulic studies and the aspects of safety of the Gas Pipeline. (author)

  12. ESTIMATIVA DA EROSÃO ATUAL DA BACIA DO RIO PARACATU (MG / GO / DF ESTIMATE OF THE CURRENT EROSION OF THE PARACATU RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL

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    Valtercides Cavalcante da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A equação universal de perda de solo (EUPS é amplamente utilizada na predição de perda de solo e na definição de práticas adequadas de manejo em vertentes individuais. Contudo, alguns fatores da equação são de difícil obtenção em bacias hidrográficas, como é o caso do fator de comprimento de vertente (fator L. Neste sentido, aplicou-se a EUPS para análise de uma bacia hidrográfica de médio porte, a bacia do Rio Paracatu. Em termos específicos, este trabalho visou o emprego da metodologia de cálculo automático do fator L, desenvolvido por Desmet & Govers (1996, com o suporte de um sistema de informações geográficas (SIG. Essa metodologia foi empregada na estimativa da erosão atual. Mapas temáticos existentes, juntamente com informações sobre solos, uso da terra, relevo e clima, foram utilizados para a obtenção de coberturas, que cruzadas no SIG, produziram mapas de erosão atual. Na estimativa da perda de solo, verificou-se que 67,2% da área total da bacia do Rio Paracatu ainda se encontram dentro da tolerância de perda de solo (inferior a 10 t.ha-1/ano. A adaptação do cálculo do fator de comprimento de vertente (L, seguindo a metodologia de Desmet & Govers (1996, que considera o fluxo acumulado, teve resultado satisfatório. A metodologia empregada mostrouse válida, uma vez que os aportes de sedimentos anuais calculados em seções onde havia dados sedimentométricos, ficaram próximos dos valores observados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Erosão; EUPS; fator L; SIG.

    The universal soil loss equation (USLE is widely used all over the world in the prediction of soil loss and in the definition of best management practices of single slopes. However, despite its potential of application, a few factors of the equation are difficult to obtain, such

  13. Interfaces e organização da pesquisa no Brasil: da Química à Nanotecnologia Research organization in Brazil: from chemistry to Nanotechnology

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    Henrique E. Toma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology can be viewed as a powerful tool, capable of shaping the chemistry of atoms and molecules, converting them into exciting nanosized and nanostructured materials, devices and machines. However, in pursuing this task, an exceptional ability is required to deal with complex inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, as imposed by the nanoscale. A new research organization framework, capable of promoting cooperative interactions in many complementary areas, including the industries, is demanded. In this sense, an interesting example are the nanotechnology networks and millenium institutes recently created in Brazil. The highlights and weakness of such cooperative research networks are discussed, in addition to relevant nanotechnology themes focusing on the special needs and resources from the developing nations.

  14. Controle operacional da fluoretação da água de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Operational control of water fluoridation in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Lucianne Cople Maia

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o controle operacional da fluoretação da água na estação de tratamento (ETA que abastece o Município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2000. Um questionário elaborado para avaliar o processo de fluoretação da água foi respondido pelos responsáveis pelo tratamento da água na ETA. Além disso, amostras de água, antes e após a adição de flúor, foram coletadas quinzenalmente na ETA para a análise do flúor. As amostras foram analisadas por laboratório externo por meio de eletrodo íon específico. Embora os responsáveis pela ETA tenham afirmado que o processo de controle da fluoretação da água era rigoroso e seguia a legislação brasileira, observou-se que 96% das amostras analisadas encontravam-se inadequadas, considerando-se os riscos/benefícios da fluoretação da água. Assim, verificou-se incoerência entre as informações obtidas pelos responsáveis pela fluoretação na ETA e os valores obtidos nas análises das amostras de água. Esses dados demonstram que deve ser estabelecido um programa independente de controle da concentração de flúor na água do município de Niterói, a fim de garantir à população os benefícios do flúor no controle e na prevenção da cárie dental.The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational control of water fluoridation at the city water supply plant in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to December 2000. The water treatment supervisor filled out a questionnaire on the control of water fluoridation. In addition, water samples were collected every two weeks for fluoride analysis before and after treatment. Samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory using an ion-specific electrode. According to the water treatment supervisor, the entire process for controlling fluoride concentration in the water was rigorous and complied with Brazilian guidelines, but according to testing, 96% of

  15. Promotion of healthy eating at schools in the Federal District of Brazil Promoção da alimentação saudável: cenário das escolas da capital do Brasil

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    Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe strategies for the Promotion of Healthy Eating at Public and Private Schools in the Federal District of Brazil. METHODS: A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 122 Private Schools and 173 Public Schools. The components of health promotion in the school setting were adapted to the context of the promotion of healthy eating, with interviews conducted for the administration of a semi-structured questionnaire. The Student's t test, Spearman's correlation coefficients and likelihood ratios were used for the statistical analysis (5% level of significance; pOBJETIVO: Caracterizar as estratégias de Promoção da Alimentação Saudável em escolas públicas e privadas do Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal descritivo-analítico realizado com 122 escolas particulares e 173 públicas. Adaptaram-se os componentes de promoção da saúde no ambiente escolar para o contexto da Promoção da Alimentação Saudável, sendo realizadas entrevistas para a aplicação do instrumento. Os testes utilizados foram: t de Student, coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e teste da razão de verossimilhança (nível de significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Apenas uma escola privada de ensino infantil contemplava positivamente 20 dos 24 itens pesquisados. No outro extremo, duas escolas públicas de ensino médio contemplavam apenas três itens. Observou-se correlação positiva entre o número de reuniões com a comunidade escolar para abordar a temática alimentação saudável e a presença de ambientes saudáveis e; entre a presença de ambientes saudáveis e o monitoramento do estado nutricional dos escolares (p<0,01. As escolas que realizavam reuniões acima da média para abordar alimentação saudável possuíam em menor proporção ambulantes e/ou comércios locais próximos (p=0,01. A maioria das escolas que possuíam parceria com profissional de saúde incluía a

  16. The World Health Survey: a report on the field experience in Brazil Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde: relato da experiência de campo no Brasil

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    Luiz Otavio de Azevedo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the field experience with the World Health Survey in Brazil with the aim of collaborating in the development and enhancement of the methodology and analyzing interview questions based on the interviewers' experience. The authors comment on the field experience and application of the questionnaire, based on reports by regional coordinators and interviewers, in order to shed light on the context in which the interviews took place. The article reports on how the respondents grasped and interpreted the questionnaire. The authors propose improvements in interviewer training and simple interview reporting measures aimed at improved logistics with such nationwide survey instruments.O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar as experiências de campo da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde no Brasil com o intuito de colaborar com o desenvolvimento e aprimoramento da metodologia e analisar questões do questionário confrontando-as com a experiência dos entrevistadores. Comentou-se sobre a experiência de campo e a aplicação do questionário aproveitando-se relatos de coordenadores regionais e dos entrevistadores para conhecer o contexto em que transcorreram as entrevistas. Foram relatadas as experiências com relação ao entendimento e compreensão do questionário por parte dos entrevistados. Os autores propõem melhorias na forma de treinamento dos entrevistadores e medidas simples para que elas possam ser relatadas visando o aprimoramento da logística na aplicação de instrumentos desta abrangência territorial.

  17. A transformação da educação em mercadoria no Brasil The transformation of education into commodity in Brazil

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    Romualdo Portela de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta pesquisa que estuda as consequências perceptíveis do processo de penetração dos fundos financeiros na educação superior no Brasil e, posteriormente, a emissão de ações de instituições de ensino diretamente na bolsa de valores. Entre os resultados observados encontra-se o rápido crescimento das instituições que adotaram tal estratégia. A forma mais visível desse crescimento é a compra de outras instituições e seu aperfeiçoamento, por meio da implantação de uma gestão mais profissionalizada. Tal processo tem propiciado o crescimento acelerado de algumas instituições, generalizando a educação como uma mercadoria, assim como a tendencial oligopolização da oferta. Conclui-se afirmando que é cabível falar-se em uma financeirização da educação, posto que é o setor financeiro que assume a hegemonia na educação privada no país.This paper presents a research on the noticeable consequences of the supply of private equities and venture capital in Brazilian Higher Education and of the subsequent going public of many teaching institutions. These are growing fast, mainly through the purchase of other schools, whose administration is professionalized. Such process has generalized both education as a commodity and the oligopolization of provision. It is thus possible to conclude that education has been financialized, since private education is nowadays hegemonic in Brazil.

  18. Diagnóstico da floricultura no Rio Grande do Sul Diagnosis of floriculture in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Atelene Normann Kämpf; Rafael Schüür Daudt

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o segmento da produção de flores e plantas ornamentais no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio de um levantamento a campo. O estudo faz parte de um projeto global, apoiado pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Floricultura (IBRAFLOR) e pelo Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento (MAARA), através do Departamento Nacional de Cooperativismo (DENACOOP). Com base nos formulários preenchidos nas propriedades, foi elaborado um cadastro dos floricultores, com seus en...

  19. Pteridófitas da Floresta Estadual de Bebedouro, SP, Brasil. Pteridophytes from Bebedouro State Forest, SP, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Áurea Maria Therezinha COLLI; Salino,Alexandre; Alessandro Chagas FERNANDES; Clayton Martins RANGEL; Ricardo Alexandre BARBOSA; Rogério Aparecido CORREA; Silva, Wagner Fernando Da

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho realizou-se umlevantamento de pteridófitas na Floresta Estadualde Bebedouro, localizada no município deBebedouro, sob as coordenadas 20º57’ de latitudeS e 48º30’ de longitude W. As coletas foramrealizadas em três trilhas denominadas “Trilha daFloresta de Produção”, “Trilha da Mata Ciliar” e“Trilha do Viveiro”. Foram reconhecidas dezespécies de pteridófitas pertencentes a cincofamílias. Destas, as mais representativas foramPteridaceae com quatro espécies distribuídas emquatro gê...

  20. Estratégia intersetorial para o controle da dengue em Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brasil An intersectoral strategy for dengue control in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rosiene Maria de Freitas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os altos índices larvários e a complexidade dos fatores ambientais relacionados à proliferação e sobrevivência do Aedes aegypti levaram a Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte a adotar políticas integradas e agregar parceiros para a definição de ações que possibilitem resultados mais efetivos no controle da dengue, instituindo o Grupo Executivo para o Controle da Dengue - GECD. Esse artigo traz um estudo descritivo que analisa os documentos do GECD - atas, relatórios, avaliações - e descreve as intervenções, em 2007 e 2008, resultantes em: mutirões de limpeza; mobilização da sociedade civil; intensificação de ações de fiscalização; atividades em escolas; comunicação; articulação com empresas privadas, órgãos estaduais e federais; assistência. A experiência de Belo Horizonte, com o fortalecimento do espaço interno de discussão, possibilitou a tomada de decisões de forma mais ágil e o avanço na implementação das ações de prevenção e controle. Possibilitou a emergência de questões e desafios a serem enfrentados para o desenvolvimento da gestão intersetorial no controle da dengue.The high larvae rates found in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil and the complexity of environmental factors related to Aedes aegypti proliferation and survival led the municipal government authorities to adopt integrated policies and add partners to define effective actions for dengue control, establishing in 2007 the Executive Group for Dengue Control - GECD. This paper offers a descriptive study which analyzes the documents of GECD - reports, minutes, evaluations - and describes interventions in the years of 2007 and 2008 that resulted in: cleaning efforts; civil society mobilization; surveillance activities intensification; activities in schools; conjunction with private companies, state and federal bureaus; health care; and media. Belo Horizonte's experience, with the strengthening of internal groups for discussion

  1. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Aspectos metodológicos da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, RS

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    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.Descrever aspectos metodológicos do estudo da coorte de crianças que podem ser relevantes para pesquisadores que estejam planejando investigações semelhantes. Em 1993, uma coorte de base populacional foi recrutada em Pelotas, RS. Os 5.249 recém-nascidos nos hospitais da cidade foram acompanhados com um, três e seis meses, e com um e quatro anos de idade. Subestudos estão sendo realizados sobre saúde bucal, desenvolvimento psicológico e saúde mental, composição corporal e aspectos etnográficos. Em 2004-5 foi possível entrevistar 87,5% da coorte inicial, com a idade de 10-12 anos. Estudos de coortes de nascimentos são essenciais para investigar os determinantes precoces da morbidade e estado nutricional de adultos. No entanto, há poucos estudos com esta metodologia em países de renda média e baixa, e alguns dos determinantes da situação de saúde podem ser distintos daqueles observados em países ricos.

  2. Musgos do Pico da Caledônea, município de Nova Friburgo, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Mosses of Pico da Caledônea, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    Denise Pinheiro da Costa

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available No Pico da Caledônea, município de Nova Friburgo, estado do Rio de Janeiro, foram encontradas 22 famílias de musgos distribuídas em 36 genêros e 53 espécies, das quais 7 espécies são citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado e 2 para o Brasil. Obra original, basiônimo, localidade-tipo, material examinado, comentários e distribuição geográfica são apresentados para cada espécie.Twenty two families of mosses distributed in thirty six genus and fifty three species are mentioned for the Pico da Caledônea, County of Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro. Of these, 7 species are recorded for the first time to the state and 2 to Brazil. Bibliography, basionym, type locality, examined material, comments and geographical distribution are presented.

  3. Avaliacao neuropsicologica de idosos praticantes de capoeira

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    Diogo Miranda Petry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo procura contribuir com uma relação pouco explorada no meio acadêmico: capoeira, cognição e envelhecimento. Relacionando estudos sobre funções executivas e a capoeira, busca-se investigar a interligação desta arte e as funções executivas. Estas se referem a desempenhos de comportamentos complexos (memória de trabalho, flexibilidade mental, tomada de decisão e a memória léxico-semântica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de funções executivas em idosas praticantes de capoeira e idosas não praticantes de exercício físico. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que coletou as informações de cada participante apenas uma vez. Serão comparados dois grupos: 1 grupo de idosos praticantes de capoeira e 2 idosos que não fazem exercício físico. Para seleção e caracterização dos grupos utilizaram-se: questionário sociodemográfico, aspectos gerais de saúde e escala de hábitos de leitura e escrita, mini-exame de estado mental (MEEM e escala de depressão de Yesavage (GDS-30. Para avaliar o desempenho das funções executivas foi realizado o teste de trilhas e as tarefas de fluência verbal. Para análise estatística dos dados será utilizado o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para normatização dos dados. O teste de t de Student e o teste U de Mann Whitney serão usados para comparar duas médias de amostras independentes. Utilizou-se a improvisação, a ação, a tomada de decisão, o equilíbrio e as noções de espaço, tempo, ritmo, música, e a compreensão do jogo da capoeira como intervenção devido à possível utilização dos processos executivos nessa arte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa nos testes realizados. Porém houve superioridade nos testes de fluência verbal e testes de trilha A e B, sendo maior em B no grupo de capoeira do que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A prática de capoeira tem uma tendência em contribuir para a melhora das funções executivas, embora os

  4. Demand outlook for jet fuel in Brazil; Perspectivas da demanda de querosene de aviacao (QAV) no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saide, Clara Santos Martins; Aragao, Amanda P.; Machado, Giovani V.; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.B.; Valle, Ricardo Nascimento e Silva do [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to forecast the demand for jet fuel for the next years, by applying aggregate models. The relevance of this issue is evidenced by the strong growth of air transport in recent years and the growth prospects of the sector, especially regarding the evolution of the use of this modal in middle-income population classes, since the number of trips per capita in Brazil is still much lower than in developed countries. The key variables in the models' specifications proposed in this study are: Brazil's GDP, the activity level of the sector (measured in passenger-kilometers and ton-kilometers, respectively, for air transport of passengers and cargo) and energy intensity. Findings show that the demand for jet fuel is expected to grow by an average of 6-8% per year until 2020, under the assumptions of an average GDP growth of 4.7% per year and energy efficiency gains of 1% per year. (author)

  5. Desafios da pós-graduação em Psicologia no Brasil Challenges to graduate courses in Psychology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Zagury Tourinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com menos de cinco décadas de regulamentação, o sistema de pós-graduação no Brasil pode ser considerado bem sucedido do ponto de vista de suas realizações, embora inacabado quanto a algumas de suas feições fundamentais. Na área de Psicologia, o sistema compreende 64 Programas, 42 deles com o nível de Doutorado. Para responder de modo eficiente às demandas dirigidas à pós-graduação no Brasil, a área de Psicologia precisará enfrentar um conjunto de desafios, dentre os quais destacamos: a expansão da abrangência geográfica e temática, de modo a vencer assimetrias regionais e desequilíbrios na cobertura das subáreas e temas de pesquisa em Psicologia; o aperfeiçoamento do sistema de avaliação, a fim de contemplar a diversidade das estratégias de formação e da produção de conhecimento nas subáreas da Psicologia; a articulação dos diferentes resultados possíveis da pós-graduação em Psicologia, a partir do reconhecimento de que as bases para a produção de conhecimento na área variam quanto à imposição de demandas adicionais e à possibilidade de associar produção de conhecimento ao desenvolvimento de tecnologias de intervenção; e a formulação de políticas voltadas à qualificação do sistema, por exemplo, por meio do incremento das redes de pesquisa, da internacionalização dos grupos, da divulgação da produção científica e da formação metodológica mais sólida e ampla. Um diagnóstico mais cuidadoso desses e de outros desafios, em suas múltiplas dimensões, poderá conduzir a um aproveitamento mais eficiente das potencialidades dos grupos brasileiros de pesquisa em Psicologia, na formação de novos pesquisadores e na produção de conhecimento.The regulation of Graduate Programs in Brazil is less than five decades old. Along this period, the system has been successful concerning its results, even though some of its essential features remain unfinished. In the field of Psychology, the

  6. Tendência da mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil, 1980 a 2004 Mortality trends due to tuberculosis in Brazil, 1980-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Bierrenbach

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil atual e as tendências da mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil, de 1980 a 2004. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de tuberculose como causa básica ou associada de óbito do Brasil. Foram utilizados dados secundários do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade. RESULTADOS: Houve redução inconstante do número e da taxa de mortalidade por tuberculose ao longo do período estudado, de 5,8 em 1980 para 2,8 por 100 mil habitantes, em 2004. Foi observada redução acentuada da mortalidade até 1985, mais evidente nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Houve tendência de aumento da mortalidade por tuberculose em idades mais avançadas. Em 2004, foram notificados no Brasil 4.981 óbitos por tuberculose como causa básica, valor que aumentaria para 50% se fossem incluídos os óbitos por tuberculose como causa associada e por seqüela de tuberculose como causa básica. Em 2004, as maiores taxas padronizadas foram dos estados de Pernambuco (5,4 e Rio de Janeiro (5,0, e das capitais Recife (7,7 e Belém (5,8. CONCLUSÕES: Dada a conhecida associação entre tuberculose e Aids, a influência da epidemia de Aids reflete indiretamente nas tendências de mortalidade de tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the current profile and trends of tuberculosis mortality in Brazil between 1980 and 2004. METHODS: Descriptive study of tuberculosis as underlying or associate cause of death based on secondary data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. RESULTS: An irregular reduction in the number of tuberculosis deaths and mortality rates along the study period, from 5.8 in 1980 to 2.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004, was seen. An accelerated reduction in mortality trend was seen until 1985 mostly in the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. There was a trend towards mortality occurring in older ages. In 2004, 4,981 tuberculosis cases were notified as underlying cause of death in Brazil but it would increase by 50% if

  7. Ajustes de curvas de crescimento em bovinos Nelore da região Norte do Brasil Fitting of growth curves of Nellore cattle from Northern Brazil

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    Jorge Luis Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o modelo mais adequado para descrever o crescimento de bovinos Nelore. Quatro modelos não-lineares (Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logístico, foram ajustados pelo método de Gauss-Newton, mediante utilização do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade do nascimento aos 750 dias de idade de bovinos nascidos entre 1987 e 2007 em rebanhos localizados no Norte do Brasil. A qualidade do ajuste dos modelos foi feita por meio do quadrado médio do resíduo, do coeficiente de determinação ajustado, do erro de predição, do desvio médio absoluto dos resíduos, da interpretação biológica dos parâmetros A e k, do gráfico de pesos observados e estimados, da taxa de crescimento instantânea e relativa, bem como da taxa de maturidade absoluta. Todos os modelos analisados convergiram. As estimativas médias para A e k foram 470,50kg e 0,002 dia-1; 357,80kg e 0,004 dia1; 337,60kg e 0,005dia1; e 309,60kg e 0,008 dia1, para os Modelo de Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logístico respectivamente. Dentro do período analisado, o modelo Bertalanffy é o mais indicado para representar a curva de crescimento média e também para ser utilizado em estudos do crescimento de animais da raça Nelore da região Norte do Brasil.This study was carried out to determined the best nonlinear model to describe Nelore cattle growth. The models used (Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models were fitted by Gauss-Newton method to weight-age data of birth to 750 days old of Nellore cattle raised in Northern Brazil. The models adjustment quality was made by mean square error, adjusted determination coefficient, prediction error, absolute mean deviation residuals, A and k biological parameters, graphics of observed and estimated weights, of instantaneous and relative growth rate and absolute maturity. The convergence criteria were satisfied for all nonlinear models. Estimative mean for A and k was 470.50kg and 0.002 dia-1; 357

  8. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de urucum em Vitória da Conquista, BA Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of the annatto flowers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Augusto Jorge Cavalcante Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O urucum é um arbusto da família Bixaceae, utilizado na fabricação de corantes naturais para a indústria alimentícia e cosmética. No Brasil, somente nos últimos 15 anos, houve maior interesse pelo cultivo, pois se tornou uma alternativa agrícola promissora. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores do urucuzeiro em Vitória da Conquista, BA. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental da UESB, em uma lavoura do tipo cultivado Peruana Paulista. A coleta das abelhas visitantes foi feita na época principal de floração do urucueiro: março/abril, das 6h às 18h. Foram coletadas 3019 abelhas de 22 espécies, com predominância na visitação das 8h às 14h em relação ao número de indivíduos e número de espécies capturadas. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Apis mellifera L., Schwarziana quadripunctata (Lepeletier e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille. Espécies de maior porte, como Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, Bombus morio (Swederus e Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, consideradas como eficientes na polinização da cultura do urucum, não foram abundantes neste estudo.Annatto is a shrub from Bixaceae family, which natural pigment (annatto is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. In Brazil, the interest for this crop started in the last fifteen years, once it became a promising agricultural alternative. This study was aimed at identifing visitor bees of annatto flowers at the agriculture region of Vitória da Conquista (BA. The research was carried out in the experimental field of UESB, in an experimental plot planted with the cv. Peruana Paulista. The visitor bees were collected during the main blooming period: March/April, between 6:00h and 18:00h. A total of 3,019 bees from 22 species was collected, with higher visitation during the period from 8:00 to 14:00h, regarding the number of individuals and species. The species most frequent were Trigona spinipes

  9. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  10. Bentonites of the Irati Formation in the southern sector of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Bentonitas da Formacao Irati no setor sul da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurelio Fagundes; Dani, Norberto; Remus, Marcus Vinicius Dornelles; Sommer, Margot Guerra, E-mail: norberto.dani@ufrgs.br, E-mail: marcus.remus@ufrgs.br, E-mail: margot.sommer@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl, E-mail: brunoldhorn@gmail.com [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Recife, PE (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional

    2017-01-15

    This paper aims to identify and to present mineralogical and chemical arguments that demonstrate the existence of bentonite levels in the Irati Formation, found in outcrops to the west Acegua in southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). These levels are thin, on average 4 cm thick, large in area, and are composed of grayish-white to greenish massive clay stones that contrast, in the field, with the shales of the Irati Formation. The bentonite levels of the Irati Formation are predominantly composed of Ca-montmorillonite, which constitutes the fine matrix of the rock; and scattered primary or magmatic crystals not larger than very fine sand. Among the main primary minerals representative of volcanic setting, it is possible to identify β-quartz paramorphs, sanidine, biotite, zircon, apatite and ilmenite, in addition to quartz and feldspar shards (splinters). More rarely, fragments of meso and macrocharcoals are found within the bentonite layers, which contrast with the maturity and type of non-vegetal organic matter of the Irati shale. Therefore, the nature of the precursor volcanism is inferred on the basis of rock geochemistry and crystal chemistry of the neoformed montmorillonite in the bentonite levels. Both methodologies indicate that during this period the volcanic ashes that reached the Parana Basin were generated by volcanism of intermediate composition, which is in accordance with what is known about the Lower Choiyoi Volcanic Province manifestations, which were synchronous with the sedimentation of the Irati Formation in the Parana Basin. (author)

  11. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, Cerrado, is the second largest biome over South America and the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. This biome is considered a conservation hotspot in respect to its biodiversity importance and rapid transformation of its landscape. The Cerrado's natural vegetation has been severely transformed by agriculture and pasture activities. Currently it is the main agricultural frontier in Brazil and one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes. This scenario results in environmental impacts such as ecosystems fragmentation as well as losses in connectivity, biodiversity and gene flow, changes in the microclimate and energy, carbon and nutrients cycles, among others. The Priority Areas for Conservation is a governmental program from Brazil that identifies areas with high conservation priority. One of this program's recommendation is a natural vegetation map including their major ecosystem classes. This study aims to generate more precise information for the Cerrado's vegetation. The main objective of this study is to identify which ecosystems are being prioritized and/or threatened by land use, refining information for further protection. In order to test methods, the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem was selected as the study site. This area is ranked as "extremely high priority" by the government and is located in the Federal District and Goias State, Brazil. Satellites with finer spatial resolution may improve the classification of the Cerrado's vegetation. Remote sensing methods and two criteria were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) collected in 2014 in order to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types of this area, as well as its land use. One criterion considers the Cerrado's major terrestrial ecosystems, which are divided into forest, savanna and grassland. The other involves scaling it down to the major physiognomic groups of each ecosystem. Other sources of environmental dataset such

  12. Avaliação da leishmaniose visceral canina em Poxoréo, Estado do Mato Grosso, Brazil Canine visceral leishmaniasis evaluation in Poxoréo, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ávila A. de Azevedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O cão doméstico desempenha importante papel como reservatório na transmissão da leishmaniose visceral ao homem, zoonose de grande importância em saúde pública. Realizou-se avaliação epidemiológica da leishmaniose visceral em 1.112 cães domiciliados no município de Poxoréo, estado do Mato Grosso e observou-se prevalência de 7,8%. Observou-se ainda associação estatisticamente significativa entre a prevalência de leishmaniose visceral canina e as variáveis faixa etária, presença de sinais clínicos e presença de outra espécie animal co-habitando com os cães avaliados, tendo sido as galinhas mais freqüentemente observadas entre os animais soropositivos. O sexo, a coleta de lixo domiciliar bem como a renda familiar não apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com a prevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina. A análise dos resultados sugere que cães com idade superior a sete anos e a , presença de outra espécie animal co-habitando com os cães podem ser fatores de risco para a leishmaniose visceral canina.Dogs play an important role as reservoir in the domestic cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, a serious public health problem. An epidemiological survey in 1,112 dogs was conducted at the Municipality of Poxoréo State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test where the prevalence was 7.8%. Significant association was found between prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis and age of the dogs. Clinical signs and presence of other animals in the backyard, like chicken being more likely associated with seropositivity. Gender, garbage collection in the residence and family financial income were not associated with visceral leishmaniasis prevalence. Analysis of the results suggests that dogs aging more than 7 years and presence of another animal species co-inhabiting with the dogs may be risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. The structure of the natural gas industry in Brazil; A estrutura da industria de gas natural no Barsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Cristiane R.; Fontes, Cristiane M.; Andrade, Marcelo C.; Goncalves, Raquel G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The opening of the Brazilian economy and the end of the state-owned oil company PETROBRAS monopoly made possible for national and international companies to become concessionaires of the rights and obligations regarding the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas. The increasing of the oil reserves and production, together with the technological development and the more restricted environmental legislation, resulted in a gradual increased participation of the natural gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply. Around 3% for many years, the participation of gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply has increased to 7.5% in 2002, as mentioned in the 2003 Brazil Energy Balance (BEN). The 2003 production was more than 100 millions boe, and the import was more than 37 millions boe according to the National Oil Agency (ANP). We present in this article a summary of today's situation, and the consumer market full development limitations. (author)

  14. Fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil Determinant factors of capital structure for the largest companies active in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estrutura de capital é um tema ainda controverso em teoria de finanças. Desde a discussão entre a teoria tradicional, que defende a existência de uma estrutura de capital ótima que leva à maximização do valor da empresa, e a proposta por Modigliani e Miller (1958, que considera que o valor da empresa não é afetado pela forma como ela é financiada, diversos estudos empíricos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de identificar os fatores que explicam a forma como as empresas se financiam. Esta pesquisa analisa a estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil, investigando a relação entre o nível de endividamento e os fatores apontados pela teoria como seu determinante. O estudo é baseado em dados contábeis extraídos das demonstrações financeiras de empresas de capital aberto e de empresas de capital fechado. A técnica estatística utilizada no estudo é a regressão linear múltipla. Os resultados indicam que os fatores risco, tamanho, composição dos ativos e crescimento são determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas, enquanto que o fator rentabilidade não é determinante. Os resultados, também, mostram que o nível de endividamento da empresa não é afetado pelo fato de ela ser de capital aberto ou de capital fechado.Capital structure is still a still controversial issue in finance theory. Since the discussion between traditional theory, which asserts the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the firm’s value, and Modigliani and Miller’s theory (1958, which considers that the value of a firm is unaffected by how it is financed, many empirical studies have been carried out to identify the factors that explain how a firm finances itself. This research analyses the capital structure of the largest firms in Brazil and investigates the relationship between the leverage ratio and the factors indicated by theory as determinant. The study is based on accounting data extracted from

  15. Um breve balanço da pesquisa sobre violência escolar no Brasil A brief survey of the research on school violence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo realiza balanço da pesquisa sobre as relações entre violência e escola no Brasil, após 1980. Examina os raros diagnósticos quantitativos em torno do tema e a produção discente (dissertações e teses na pós-graduação em Educação, no mesmo período. Apesar de ainda ser incipiente, a produção já traça um quadro importante do fenômeno no Brasil, mostrando as principais modalidades: ações contra o patrimônio - depredações, pichações - e formas de agressão interpessoal, sobretudo entre os próprios alunos. Durante esse período a violência em meio escolar tanto foi examinada como decorrência de um conjunto significativo de práticas escolares inadequadas, quanto foi investigada como um dos aspectos que caracterizam a violência na sociedade contemporânea. Nesse último enfoque, parte dos trabalhos pesquisou a dinâmica de funcionamento de escolas situadas em áreas sob a influência do tráfico de drogas ou do crime organizado e um pequeno conjunto buscou entender o comportamento dos alunos como uma forma de sociabilidade marcada pelas agressões e pequenos delitos, caracterizada como incivilidade, que se origina na crise do processo civilizatório da sociedade contemporânea.The article surveys the research on the relationships between violence and school in Brazil after 1980. It examines the rare quantitative diagnostics about the issue, and the theses and dissertations produced in graduate programs in Education in the same period. Although still incipient those studies already draw an important picture of the phenomenon in Brazil, displaying the leading modes of violence: acts against property - vandalism, graffiti - and interpersonal aggression, mainly among the pupils. During this period, violence at school has been examined both as a consequence of a significant set of inadequate school practices, and as one of the aspects that characterizes the violence of contemporary society. Under the latter viewpoint

  16. Mortalidade por câncer em trabalhadores da indústria da borracha de São Paulo Cancer mortality among rubber industry workers in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Hélio Neves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as mortes por câncer em trabalhadores da indústria da borracha de acordo com o tamanho da empresa. MÉTODOS: Coorte histórica com 9.188 trabalhadores masculinos, matriculados em sindicato de trabalhadores da indústria de borracha do Estado de São Paulo entre 1975 e 1985, sobreviventes em janeiro de 1990 e acompanhados até o final de 2000. As mortes por câncer foram comparadas internamente à coorte, cujos membros foram subdivididos em estratos por porte e sub-ramo da empresa, setor de trabalho e qualificação profissional. A abordagem por conjuntos de risco e regressão logística condicional foi utilizada para o cálculo dos riscos relativos, ajustados por idade, tempo desde o primeiro emprego e tempo de trabalho na indústria da borracha. RESULTADOS: Quando comparados aos empregados de grandes empresas, trabalhadores de pequenas empresas mostraram excesso de mortes por todos tipos de câncer (RR=2,33; IC 95%: 0,90-6,03; tumores de estômago (RR=3,47; IC 95%: 2,57-4,67 e do trato aero-digestivo superior (RR=2,49; IC 95%: 1,78-3,48. Identificou-se excesso de mortes por câncer nos trabalhadores dos setores de manutenção (RR=2,23; IC 95%: 0,73-6,76; expedição, armazenamento e transporte (RR=2,97; IC 95%: 0,77-11,38; e produção (RR=3,51; IC 95%: 1,07-11,57, comparados aos trabalhadores dos setores administrativos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram evidências de aumento do risco de tumores de estômago e do trato aero-digestivo superior e, possivelmente, por câncer em geral em trabalhadores de empresas de pequeno porte da indústria da borracha quando comparados aos trabalhadores das grandes empresas.OBJECTIVE: To investigate cancer deaths among rubber industry workers according to company size. METHODS: This historical cohort study included 9,188 male workers, engaged as members of a workers' union in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1975 and 1985, alive in January 1990 and followed until the end of 2000

  17. The estimated magnitude of AIDS in Brazil: a delay correction applied to cases with lost dates Estimativa da magnitude da AIDS no Brasil: uma correção de atraso aplicada aos casos com data perdida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of HIV-infected people is an important measure of the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil and allows for comparison with epidemic patterns in other countries. This quantity can be estimated from the number of reported AIDS cases, which in turn needs to be corrected for the distribution of reporting delays and under-recording of cases. These distributions are unknown and must also be estimated from the recorded dates, which were missed to the Brazilian National AIDS registry. This paper estimates the number of AIDS cases diagnosed by imputing the lost information based on an estimate of the pattern in registration delay until 1996. We first fitted a non-stationary bivariate Poisson regression model to estimate the pattern in reporting delay. In the subsequent steps these models were applied to impute new data, thus replacing the missing information, and to estimate the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in the country. Model estimates ranged from 36,000 to 50,000 AIDS cases diagnosed in Brazil and still unreported. Therefore, the epidemic was 20 to 30% greater than known from the available information as of February 1999. To be useful to health policy-makers, the surveillance system based on officially reported AIDS cases must be continuously improved.O número de pessoas infectadas pelo HIV é uma importante medida da magnitude da epidemia de AIDS no Brasil, e permite a comparação com o padrão epidêmico de outros países. Essa quantidade pode ser estimada a partir do número de casos notificados de AIDS, que necessita ser corrigido pela distribuição do atraso da notificação e pelas sub-notificações. Essas distribuições são desconhecidas e devem ser estimadas a partir das datas registradas, que no Brasil foram perdidas. Neste artigo, estima-se o número de diagnósticos de AIDS, imputando as informações perdidas a partir da estimativa do padrão de atraso até 1996. Primeiro, ajustou-se uma regressão de Poisson

  18. Idades e crescimento da cioba, Ocyururs chrysurus, da Costa Central do Brasil Age and growth of yellowtail snapper, Ocyururs chrysurus, from Central Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Neves de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A idade e o crescimento da cioba da costa central do Brasil foram estudados a partir de leituras de otólitos obtidos em amostragens mensais de desembarques comerciais, realizados nas cidades de Vitória e Vila Velha, entre os anos de 1998 e 1999. Através da análise do incremento marginal, foi verificada a formação anual de uma zona translúcida a partir do final do outono e durante o inverno. Foram observadas ciobas de 2 a 19 anos. Os comprimentos furcais (CF médios retrocalculados variaram de 108 mm para idade 1 a 524 mm para idade 19. A equação de Von Bertalanffy ajustada aos CF médios retrocalculados foi CFt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773. A relação comprimento peso foi P = 2,68x10-5CF2.914, onde P = peso total em gramas. O crescimento é lento, com os incrementos anuais em peso aumentando gradativamente até atingir o máximo de 164 g entre as idades 7 e 8 anos. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que a cioba tem longa expectativa de vida e baixas taxas de crescimento somático, características das espécies mais sensíveis à exploração pesqueira.To age and study the growth of yellowtail snapper, we analyzed readings of otoliths obtained in monthly samplings from commercial landings in the cities of Vitória and Vila Velha, from 1998 to 1999. Marginal increment analysis showed that the formation of a translucent zone occurred in the early fall and during the winter. The observed ages range from 2 to 19 years. Mean back-calculated fork lengths (FL range from 108 mm for age 1 to 524 mm for age 19. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation fitted to the mean back-calculated FL was FLt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773, The length-weight relationship was W= 2,68x10-5FL2.914, where W = whole weight in grams. Yellowtail snapper has a slow growth with annual growth increments in weight raising progressively to the maximum of 164 g between the 7 and 8 years. The yellowtail snapper has long lifespan and slow growth rates, features of

  19. Novos registros de Hyphomycetes decompositores para o Estado da Bahia, Brasil New records of Hyphomycetes from Bahia State, Brazil

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    Flávia Rodrigues Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Folhas mortas de Clusia melchiorii Gleason e C. nemorosa G. Mey. foram coletadas bimestralmente na Serra da Jibóia, Bahia, no período de outubro/2005 a junho/2006. As folhas foram lavadas em água corrente e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante 30 dias. As estruturas fúngicas foram coletadas e montadas em lâminas permanentes. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações de sete novos registros de Hyphomycetes para o Estado da Bahia [Beltrania querna Harkn., Clonostachys compactiuscula (Sacc. D. Hawksw. & W. Gams, Dictyosporium elegans Corda, Gyrothrix verticiclada (Goid. S. Hughes & Piroz., Pseudobotrytis terrestris (Timonin Subram., Sporendocladia bactrospora (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf. e Stachybotrys parvispora S. Hughes].Leaf litter from Clusia melchiorii Gleason and C. nemorosa G. Mey. was collected bimonthly at Serra da Jibóia, state of Bahia, from October/2005 to June/2006. The leaves were washed with tap water and maintained in a moist chamber for 30 days. The fungal structures were collected and mounted in permanent slides with PVL. Descriptions and illustrations of seven new records of Hyphomycetes from Bahia state are presented [Beltrania querna Harkn., Clonostachys compactiuscula (Sacc. D. Hawksw. & W. Gams, Dictyosporium elegans Corda, Gyrothrix verticiclada (Goid. S. Hughes & Piroz., Pseudobotrytis terrestris (Timonin Subram., Sporendocladia bactrospora (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf. and Stachybotrys parvispora S. Hughes].

  20. How old are large Brazil-nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa in the Amazon? Que idade podem alcançar as castanheiras (Bertholletia excelsa da Amazônia?

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    P.B. de Camargo

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The age of a large Brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa is measured by radiocarbon dating, and a discussion is made about their importance in the Amazon rain-forest ecosystem.A idade de uma castanheira (Bertholletia excelsa grande é medida por datação radiocarbônica e uma discussão é feita a respeito de sua importância no ecosistema da floresta amazônica.

  1. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em Roraima

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    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2 of high alert in accordance with Instruction No 23, April 29, 2008, established by the Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento of the Brazil. The objective of this paper was to record the first occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi in the State of Roraima, Brazil.= A mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashb, (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae é uma importante praga dos citros. De origem asiática, esta praga foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez no estado do Pará no ano de 2001. Na cultura dos citros a mosca-negra acarreta danos diretos e indiretos, prejudicando o desenvolvimento e produção das plantas. Além de restringir o comércio de locais de sua ocorrência para áreas livres da presença da praga, visto que o A. woglumi é considerado praga quarentenária presente (A2 de alerta máximo de acordo com a instrução normativa No 23, de 29 de abril de 2008; estabelecida pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho registrar a primeira ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros no estado de Roraima.

  2. Ottillie Hammes: pioneira da enfermagem catarinense Ottillie Hammes: pionera de la enfermería de Santa Catarina, Brasil Ottillie Hammes: a nursing pioneer in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Miriam Süsskind Borenstein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo sócio-histórico cujo objetivo foi revelar a trajetória profissional de Ottillie Hammes, apresentar alguns traços de sua biografia e analisar sua contribuição para a profissão da enfermagem em Santa Catarina. Na coleta de dados foram realizadas entrevistas e utilizadas outras fontes documentais. Os dados foram categorizados utilizando-se análise de conteúdo e com base no referencial foucaultiano. Os resultados evidenciaram que Ottillie Hammes provocou mudanças expressivas na enfermagem catarinense, em conseqüência da criação da Escola de Auxiliares de Enfermagem; da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem - SC e do estímulo a promulgação da Lei que possibilitou o enquadramento do enfermeiro na categoria técnica e científica, com conseqüente desenvolvimento da profissão e melhoria da assistência prestada à população.Tratase de un estudio socio-histórico, cuyo objetivo fue revelar la trayectoria profesional de Ottillie Hammes, presentar algunos aspectos de su biografía y analizar su contribución para la profesión de enfermería en el Estado de Santa Catarina - Brasil. Para la recolección de los datos fueron realizadas entrevistas con Ottillie Hammes y utilizadas fuentes documentales. Los datos fueron categorizados de acuerdo con analise del contenido e analizados con base en referencial Foucaultiano. Los resultados evidenciaron que la Ottillie Hammes provocó mudanzas expresivas en la enfermería catarinense, en consecuencia de la creación de escuela de auxiliares de enfermería en Florianópolis; de la Asociación Brasilera de Enfermería - Sección Santa Catarina y del estimulo a la promulgación de la ley No. 3175/63, la cual posibilitó la inclusión del enfermero en la categoría Técnico - Científica, propiciando así el desarrollo de esa profesión y el mejoramiento de la asistencia prestada a la población.This is a socio-historic study that aimed at revealing Ottillie Hammes' professional

  3. Evaluation of environmental impact caused by the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: a study concerning biotic aspects, water quality and public health; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental ocasionado pela implantacao de pequenos aproveitamentos: um estudo sobre aspectos bioticos, qualidade da agua e saude publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, P.R.F. [Monasa Consultoria e Projetos, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This work describes the experience in the environmental impacts evaluation during the implementation phase of small scales hydroelectric power plants in Paraiba River bay, Southeast Brazil, performed by ELETROBRAS, the Brazilian electric power holding company, government owned and controlled. The methodology is described. The main aspects studied were: vegetation; aquatic fauna; terrestrial fauna; water quality, and public health. Results are presented 9 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil; Avaliacao dos metais ambientalmente disponiveis em amostras de sedimento de pontos de captacao de agua para abastecimento publico de Palmas, TO, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-07-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO{sub 3} 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  5. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  6. Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Combretaceae Flora of Paraíba, Brazil: Solanum L., Solanaceae

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    Maria Iracema Bezerra Loiola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Combretaceae como parte do projeto "Flora da Paraíba", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora local. As identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas foram efetuadas pela análise morfológica de amostras frescas e espécimes herborizados, com o auxílio da bibliografia e análise de tipos, complementadas pelas observações de campo. Foram registradas 11 espécies subordinadas a cinco gêneros: Buchenavia (1, Combretum (8, Conocarpus (1 e Laguncularia (1. Algumas espécies possuem distribuição restrita aos manguezais, como Conocarpus erectus L. e Laguncularia racemosa (L. C.F. Gaertn., à Caatinga, como Combretum glaucocarpum Mart., C. leprosum Mart. e C. hilarianum D. Dietr., e a Floresta Atlântica, como Buchenavia tetraphylla (Aubl. R.A. Howard, Combretum fruticosum (Loefl. Stuntz e C. laxum Jacq.This taxonomic treatment of the genus Solanum is part of the "Flora da Paraíba" project which aims to identify and catalogue the species of the local flora. Botanical collections, field observations and morphological studies were done for identification, description and botanical illustration of the plant species, also supported by the literature and analysis of Brazilian and foreign herbaria, plus specimens from EAN and JPB herbaria. Twenty two species of Solanum were recorded in the state of Paraíba: Solanum agrarium Sendtn., S. americanum Mill., S. asperum Rich., S. asterophorum Mart., S. caavurana Vell., S. capsicoides All., S. crinitum Lam., S. jabrense Agra & M.Nee, S. melissarum Bohs, S. ovum-fringillae (Dunal Bohs, S. palinacanthum Dunal, S. paludosum Moric., S. paniculatum L., S. paraibanum Agra, S. polytrichum Moric., S. rhytidoandrum Sendtn., Solanum sp., S. stagnale Moric., S. stipulaceum Roem. & Schult., S. stramoniifolium Jacq., S. swartzianum Roem. & Schult. and S. torvum Sw. Three species are new records for Paraíba: S

  7. Tendências da produção científica em odontologia no Brasil Scientific output trends in oral health in Brazil

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    Aldo Angelim Dias

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência da produção científica odontológica no Brasil, destacando-se a área de saúde bucal coletiva, nos primeiros anos do século XXI. MÉTODOS: Os resumos de trabalhos apresentados nas reuniões da Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica (SBPqO de 2001 a 2006 foram avaliados em termos do seu desenho metodológico (estudo agregado ou individuado; estudo observacional ou de intervenção; estudo transversal ou longitudinal, natureza geral (revisões bibliográficas, estudos com seres humanos ou pesquisas laboratoriais e enquadramento em uma das 19 especialidades reconhecidas pelo Conselho Federal de Odontologia (CFO. Dos 10 406 trabalhos apresentados nesse período, foram lidos 5 203 (50,0% do total. RESULTADOS: Quanto ao desenho metodológico, 87,5% dos resumos eram do tipo operativo individuado e 12,5% do tipo agregado. Na classificação da natureza geral da pesquisa, 41,7% dos resumos tratavam de estudos com seres humanos. Os resumos restantes (58,3% tratavam de pesquisas laboratoriais in vitro (31,1%, pesquisas laboratoriais in vivo (23,6% e revisões bibliográficas (3,6%. Com relação às áreas de conhecimento do CFO, apenas cinco atingiram percentuais de ocorrência superiores a 10,0%: dentística, periodontia, endodontia, odontopediatria e saúde coletiva. CONCLUSÕES: A produção científica odontológica brasileira no período de 2001 a 2006 foi equilibrada, com crescente interesse na área de saúde bucal coletiva.OBJECTIVE: To describe dental research trends in Brazil (especially population-based oral health in the early Twenty-first Century. METHODS: The abstracts of studies presented at meetings of the Brazilian Society for Dental Medicine Research (Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica from 2001-2006 were assessed in terms of methodological design (aggregate or population-based and individual-based studies, observational and intervention studies, cross-sectional and longitudinal

  8. Feeding ecology in the small neotropical amphisbaenid Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae in southern Brazil Ecologia alimentar da pequena anfisbaena neotropical Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae no sul do Brasil

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    Jorge S. Bernardo-Silva

    Full Text Available We analyzed the alimentary tract of 66 specimens of Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 from the Serra do Sudeste, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Forty specimens (60.6% had prey items in their gut. The diet consisted mainly of small invertebrate prey, such as termites, insect larvae and ants. The most abundant prey item was termites, found in 62.5% of the non empty stomachs. The high number of individual prey items in the majority of stomachs, the small size of the regular prey items, and the absence of gut content in specimens of A. munoai kept alive for about two days, indicate that this species forages very frequently. The predominance of fossorial prey items and the occasional records of nomadic ants lead us to suggest that A. munoai usually feeds underground, and occasionally forages on the surface.Analisamos o trato digestório de 66 exemplares de Amphisbaena munoai Klappenbach, 1969 procedentes da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Quarenta espécimes (60,6% possuíam presas. A dieta é composta basicamente de pequenos invertebrados, como térmitas, larvas de insetos e formigas. As presas mais abundantes foram térmitas, encontradas em 62,5% dos estômagos não vazios. O elevado número de presas em cada indivíduo na maioria dos estômagos, o tamanho pequeno de presas regulares e a ausência de itens alimentares em espécimes de A. munoai mantidas vivas por aproximadamente dois dias, indicam que está espécie é forrageadora freqüente. A predominância de itens alimentares fossórios e o encontro ocasional de formigas nômades nos permitem sugerir que A. munoai usualmente se alimenta abaixo da terra e ocasionalmente na superfície.

  9. Novas ocorrências de hepáticas (Marchantiophyta para o estado da Bahia, Brasil New records of liverworts (Marchantiophyta from Bahia State, Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra da Jibóia, foram registradas 13 espécies de novas ocorrências, sendo oito para a região Nordeste: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. e Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., e cinco espécies referidas pela primeira vez para o Estado: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell e Symphyogyna aspera Steph. Para cada espécie são fornecidos comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos e distribuição geográfica mundial e no Brasil, além de indicação de literatura contendo descrição e ilustração. Foram realizadas ilustrações para algumas espécies.In Serra da Jibóia were recorded 13 species of new ocurrence wich are eight species from region Northeastern: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. and Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., and five are recorded for the first time from Bahia, State: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell and Symphyogyna aspera Steph. from Bahia, State. For each specie are provided taxonomics and ecological comments, geographical general and in Brazil distribution, and indication of literature with description and ilustration. Some species were ilustrated.

  10. Prevention of HIV infection among migrant population groups in Northeast Brazil O papel da migração na prevenção da infecção pelo HIV no Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.A infecção pelo HIV entre pobres, mulheres e populações migrantes do interior do Nordeste Brasileiro vem crescendo. As diferentes configurações, crenças e representações e formas de organização do comportamento, associadas à capacidade de seguir adequadamente medidas de prevenção, foram o foco desta investigação. Os participantes foram localizados em bairros com altas taxas de migração através do Programa Saúde da Família em Fortaleza e Teresina. Empregou-se a metodologia qualitativa nesta investigação. Vários sistemas de crenças, valores e organização social da sexualidade desta população representam obstáculos à prevenção da AIDS e inibem o uso do preservativo. Pobreza, falta de perspectiva e medo estão associados à situação de pobreza, exclusão social e preconceito e à total ausência de direitos

  11. Um estudo sobre as condições facilitadoras da judicialização da política no Brasil: a study about the conditions that make it possible Judicialization of politics in Brazil

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    Loiane Prado Verbicaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A intitulada pesquisa tem como finalidade a análise do poder judiciário em um contexto de ampliação de sua dimensão política, o que traz como conseqüência um tipo inédito e peculiar de espaço público de participação democrática. tal alteração no quadro político-institucional possibilitou uma maior inserção do poder judiciário em questões essencialmente políticas, o que se convencionou denominar de judicialização da política - expressa na ampliação da importância e da participação do poder judiciário na vida social, política e econômica. tal fenômeno, característico de democracias consolidadas, decorreu de condicionantes e peculiaridades vivenciadas na ordem política, econômica e social e gerou efeitos visíveis na democracia brasileira. serão analisadas as condições necessárias e/ou facilitadoras do processo de judicialização da política no Brasil.This research is aimed at analyzing the judiciary power in a context wherein it acts as an agent amplifying its political dimension which brings about, as a consequence, a peculiar and unheard of type of public avenue of democratic participation. such changes in the political and institutional environment made it possible for a more extended insertion of the judiciary power in essentially political matters, which came to gain widespread acceptance as "judicialization" of politics and has been expressed by a magnified importance and actual participation of the judiciary power in social, political and economical life. such phenomenon, typical of consolidated democracies, derived from conditioning variables and peculiarities experienced in political, economical and social order and brought about visible consequences in brazilian democracy. there will be analized the necessary conditions of the "judicialization" of politics process in Brazil.

  12. Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura. Trinta Anos de Organizacao e Situacao Atual (Ministry of Education and Culture [Brazil]. Thirty Years Ago and Now). Volumes I and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Norma Carneiro Monteiro

    The economic rather than the educational aspect of Brazil's Ministry of Education and Culture is presented in this historical summary. The study was done as part of Brazil's national program of educational reform. Brazil is currently re-evaluating its school system with the view of adopting a nationally-administered system similar to that in…

  13. Doenças da mandioquinha-salsa e sua situação atual no Brasil Present situation of arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza diseases in Brazil

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    Gilmar P. Henz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo principal relatar as doenças registradas para a mandioquinha-salsa até a data presente e descrever sua situação atual no País. Na literatura, foram registrados para a cultura 27 gêneros de fungos, três de bactérias, doze de nematóides e cinco espécies de vírus. Destes, já foram relatados no Brasil treze fungos, e todos nematóides e bactérias, enquanto nenhum vírus foi oficialmente registrado, embora já tenham sido observadas plantas com sintomas típicos de viroses a campo. A maior parte dos registros estão na forma de resumos, capítulos de livros ou publicações genéricas, desprovidos de uma série de dados relevantes, como provas de patogenicidade, importância da doença, perdas, identificação mais acurada, entre outras. A cultura da mandioquinha-salsa ainda é tida como rústica, sendo poucas as doenças consideradas limitantes. O nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp. e a podridão-mole pós-colheita causada por Erwinia spp. são os principais problemas atualmente, e causam perdas significativas. Também ocorrem com muita frequência manchas foliares causadas por Septoria, Cercospora e Xanthomonas campestris pv. arracaciae, e em algumas regiões podridão de plantas a campo causadas por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e Sclerotium rolfsii. Como não existe nenhum produto químico oficialmente registrado para a mandioquinha-salsa no Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, as medidas de controle passíveis de recomendação incluem ações preventivas, como o uso de material propagativo sadio (preferencialmente mudas pré-enraizadas de origem conhecida, a adoção de rotação de culturas, a eliminação de plantas ou partes doentes, e a adubação e a irrigação adequadas. O estudo sistematizado das doenças e o registro cuidadoso de surtos ou novas enfermidades para a cultura são importantes para subsidiar futuras medidas de controle.The diseases of arracacha that have already

  14. Transgênicos e percepção pública da ciência no Brasil GMOs and the public perception of science in Brazil

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    Julia S. Guivant

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo a análise de pesquisas sobre percepções de consumidores, produtores, cidadãos em relação ao uso de alimentos transgênicos, estabelecendo comparações entre as desenvolvidas no Brasil, na Europa, na Ásia e nos Estados Unidos. Tais pesquisas têm passado a desempenhar um papel central nos debates sobre seus riscos tanto entre os setores a seu favor quanto aos que se manifestam contrários a tal uso. Um dos argumentos centrais deste trabalho é que no Brasil há uma significante carência de dados sobre tal percepção pública. A falta de pesquisas, ou seu número limitadíssimo é aqui considerado uma evidência para caracterizar a trajetória da polêmica no Brasil, com uma significativa ausência de participação pública nos debates sobre transgênicos. Estes giram em torno de atores sociais organizados, que atuam sem ou com parcial representatividade. Também o número limitado de pesquisas expõe os limites da área de marketing, ainda assumindo no Brasil uma perspectiva positivista sobre o consumidor. E, por último, consideramos que podemos relacionar a falta de informação com a falta de problematização no espaço acadêmico sobre os conflitos ou consensos entre conhecimentos peritos e leigos quando estão em questão inovações tecnológicas que envolvem riscos incertos. Na primeira parte focalizamos nas pesquisas realizadas no contexto brasileiro, escolhendo as que passaram a ser destacadas como apóio a argumentos a favor ou contra os transgênicos entre os principais atores sociais envolvidos no debate. Na segunda parte consideramos as pesquisas realizadas em outros paises. Na terceira parte analisamos os limites e vantagens das diferentes pesquisas aqui selecionadas como representativas, o que nos permite nas conclusões formular sugestões para pesquisas de opinião pública no Brasil não só sobre transgenicos, mas também sobre percepção publica da ciência.This article has as its

  15. A produção do lugar de transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar: o caso da Localidade Pau da Fome na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Production of transmission foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: the case of Pau da Fome, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Hélia Kawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as características de um dos lugares de transmissão de maior relevância da leishmaniose tegumentar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, considerando sua configuração territorial e as relações desta com processos de organização do espaço. Utilizou-se o modelo de análise do processo de ocupação e organização do espaço urbano, em escala local, considerando-se as novas funções adquiridas pelos elementos espaciais expressos por diferentes relações de trabalho, uso do solo e valor da terra. Empregaram-se técnicas de geoprocessamento e de classificação de imagens obtidas por sensoriamento remoto, localização de domicílios e casos de leishmaniose tegumentar, associados a dados qualitativos sobre o processo histórico de ocupação e uso do solo. A análise mostrou áreas com distintas condições de vulnerabilidade, e que mudanças destas condições viabilizaram a produção da epidemia em um determinado período e sua posterior redução. O estudo contribui para o monitoramento da enfermidade em nível local e para a aplicação de medidas eficazes para as ações de vigilância e controle da leishmaniose tegumentar.This study analyzes the characteristics of one of the main foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, examining its territorial configuration and the relations with spatial organization processes. An analytical model was applied to the process of occupation and organization of urban space on a local scale, considering the new functions acquired by the spatial elements expressed by different work relations, land use, and land value. The study employed geoprocessing techniques and classification of images obtained by remote sensing, localization of households, and cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, associated with qualitative data on the historical process of land occupation and use. The analysis detected areas with distinct conditions of vulnerability

  16. Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Solanum L. (Solanaceae Flora of Paraíba, Brazil: Solanum L. (Solanaceae

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    Maria de Fátima Agra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico do gênero Solanum, como parte do projeto "Flora da Paraíba", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora local. Realizaram-se coletas, observações de campo e estudos morfológicos para as identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas, com o auxílio da bibliografia especializada, complementadas pela análise de tipos e fotos de tipos de herbários nacionais e internacionais e de espécimes depositados nos herbários EAN e JPB. Foram registradas 22 espécies: Solanum agrarium Sendtn., S. americanum Mill., S. asperum Rich., S. asterophorum Mart., S. caavurana Vell., S. capsicoides All., S. crinitum Lam., S. jabrense Agra & M.Nee, S. melissarum Bohs, S. ovum-fringillae (Dunal Bohs, S. palinacanthum Dunal, S. paludosum Moric., S. paniculatum L., S. paraibanum Agra, S. polytrichum Moric., S. rhytidoandrum Sendtn., Solanum sp., S. stagnale Moric., S. stipulaceum Roem. & Schult., S. stramoniifolium Jacq., S. swartzianum Roem. & Schult. e S. torvum Sw. Três espécies, S. ovum-fringillae, Solanum sp. e S. swartzianum, são novas referências para a Paraíba.A taxonomic treatment of the genus Solanum was done as part of the project "Flora da Paraíba", which aims to identify and catalogue the species of the local flora. Botanical collections, field observations and morphological studies were done for identification, description and botanical illustration of the plant species, supported by the literature and analysis of national and foreign herbaria, and specimens from EAN and JPB. Twenty two species of Solanum were recorded in State of Paraíba, as follows: Solanum agrarium Sendtn., S. americanum Mill., S. asperum Rich., S. asterophorum Mart., S. caavurana Vell., S. capsicoides All., S. crinitum Lam., S. jabrense Agra & M.Nee, S. melissarum Bohs, S. ovum-fringillae (Dunal Bohs, S. palinacanthum Dunal, S. paludosum Moric., S. paniculatum L., S

  17. Panorama da violência urbana no Brasil e suas capitais The panorama of urban violence in Brazil and its Capitals

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    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, faz-se uma análise epidemiológica descritiva da morbidade e da mortalidade por acidentes e violência no Brasil e suas capitais, em anos mais recentes para os quais as informações estão disponíveis. Usam-se dados dos Sistemas de Informações sobre Mortalidade e de Internações Hospitalares, do Ministério da Saúde; da Secretaria Nacional de Segurança, do Ministério da Justiça; e do Departamento Nacional de Trânsito, do Ministério das Cidades. Os dados populacionais de 2002 e 2003 são os disponibilizados pelo Datasus/MS. Destacam-se algumas situações que persistem no Brasil: elevadas taxas de homicídios e de mortes por acidentes de trânsito; concentração dos eventos na população jovem, negra e do sexo masculino; e a complexidade e multideterminação desses fenômenos. Como novo, aponta-se um processo de disseminação de homicídios para outros municípios das regiões metropolitanas e do interior dos Estados, com destaque para a magnitude da morbidade em relação à mortalidade. Porto Velho, Macapá, Vitória, Rio de Janeiro e Cuiabá apresentam os maiores indicadores de violência intencional - elevadas taxas de homicídios e de lesões corporais. Em Palmas ocorrem altas taxas de mortalidade por acidentes de transporte e de vítimas não fatais por 10 mil veículos.This article presents a descriptive epidemiological analysis of accidents and violence in Brazil and in the Brazilian capitals in recent years. The data used were made available by several sources: the Mortality Information System and the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health; the National Safety Department of the Ministry of Justice and the National Department of Transit of the Ministry of the Cities. The population data for the years 2002 and 2003 were made available by the DATASUS of the Ministry of Health. The authors emphasize some already known aspects: the high homicide rates and high death rates due to traffic accidents

  18. The panorama of urban violence in Brazil and its capitals Panorama da violência urbana no Brasil e suas capitais

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    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a descriptive epidemiological analysis of accidents and violence in Brazil and in the Brazilian capitals in recent years. The data used were made available by several sources: the Mortality Information System and the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health; the National Safety Department of the Ministry of Justice and the National Department of Transit of the Ministry of the Cities. The population data for the years 2002 and 2003 were made available by the DATASUS of the Ministry of Health. The authors emphasize some already known aspects: the high homicide rates and high death rates due to traffic accidents, the concentration of these events in the population of young black males and the complexity and multiplicity of determinants of these phenomena. The text points to a new scenery involving the spreading of homicides to neighbor communities of metropolitan areas and to the inner regions of the States. They further verify higher morbidity than mortality rates. It calls attention to Porto Velho, Macapá, Vitória, Rio de Janeiro and Cuiabá with the highest indicators for intentional violence - high rates of homicides and injuries - and to Palmas, with high death rates from traffic accidents and non-fatal victims per 10 thousand vehicles.Faz-se uma análise epidemiológica descritiva da morbidade e da mortalidade por acidentes e violência no Brasil e suas capitais, em anos mais recentes para os quais as informações estão disponíveis. Usam-se dados dos Sistemas de Informações sobre Mortalidade e de Internações Hospitalares, do Ministério da Saúde; da Secretaria Nacional de Segurança, do Ministério da Justiça; e do Departamento Nacional de Trânsito, do Ministério das Cidades. Os dados populacionais de 2002 e 2003 são os disponibilizados pelo Datasus/MS. Destacam-se algumas situações que persistem no Brasil: elevadas taxas de homicídios e de mortes por acidentes de trânsito, concentra

  19. Políticas públicas para o controle da anemia ferropriva Public policies to control iron deficiency in Brazil

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    Sophia C. Szarfarc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A anemia por deficiência de ferro configura um problema epidemiológico da maior relevância atuando nos gastos públicos de saúde, nas consequências sociais do aumento de riscos no período gestacional, na redução da produtividade e, ainda, nas consequências, em longo prazo, do desenvolvimento mental. Algumas datas marcam o envolvimento do governo brasileiro em busca de alternativas de controle da deficiência marcial: 1977 - 1ª Reunião do Ministério da Saúde (INAN, com especialistas nacionais e internacionais, para discutir perspectivas e intervenções para o controle da anemia; 1982/83 - distribuição de suplemento de ferro para a clientela do Programa de Atenção à Gestante e dosagem de hemoglobina na 1ª consulta; 1992 - assinatura de compromisso brasileiro de reduzir em 1/3 a prevalência de anemia em gestantes; 1994 - implantação do Programa de Leite Vivaleite, no estado de São Paulo, fornecendo leite fortificado com ferro a famílias com crianças até 6 anos e renda inferior a dois salários mínimos; 2002/junho 2004 - fortificação das farinhas de trigo e de milho com ferro; 2005 - programa de suplementação de ferro a lactentes; 2009/março - divulgação do resultado do levantamento de prevalência de anemia em mulheres (15-49 anos e crianças (6 - 59 meses no Brasil; 2009/agosto - foi reeditada a Portaria no 1793/GM/agosto/2009 do Ministério da Saúde, instituindo a Comissão Interinstitucional para implementação, acompanhamento e monitorização das ações de fortificação das farinhas de trigo e milho e seus subprodutos.Iron deficiency anemia is a vast epidemiologic problem evidenced by health public spending, the social consequences of increased risk in pregnancy, low production, and also by long term consequences of cognitive development. Some points in time highlight the involvement of the Brazilian government: 1977 - 1st Health Minister Meeting (INAN, with international and national specialists to

  20. Climatic conditions for grapevine cultivation in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil = Aptidão climática para o cultivo da videira em Boa Vista, Roraima

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    Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine plants have been grown in different tropical regions of Brazil. In the state of Roraima, this culture was introduced commercially in 2005 in Boa Vista. Unlike temperate regions, tropical regions present thermal conditions for grape production throughout the year. To evaluate the climatic characteristics on different periods of the year, it can be used different indices. The objective of this study was to characterize climate suitability of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, for grapevine cultivation at different months of the year. For climate classification it was used the Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (CCM, which is composed by three indices: Heliothermal (IH, Cool Night (IF, and Drought (IS. It was also used the Zuluaga Index (IZ, to assess the risk of incidence of fungal diseases on the vine, especially in relation to the incidence of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, one of the main grapevine diseases in humid regions. Based on the evaluated indices, it was found that the most favorable period for grape production goes from October to March because of the lower values of rainfall. During the other months, it can be employed branch pruning without fruit production, as occurs in other tropical locations of Brazil. =A videira tem sido cultivada em diferentes regiões tropicais do Brasil. No estado de Roraima, ela foi implantada comercialmente em 2005 em Boa Vista. Ao contrário das regiões de clima temperado, as regiões tropicais apresentam condições térmicas para a produção de uvas durante o ano inteiro. Para se avaliar as características climáticas dos diferentes períodos do ano pode-se recorrer a diversos índices. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a aptidão climática de Boa Vista, Roraima, para o cultivo da videira, considerando-se diferentes períodos de produção ao longo do ano. Na caracterização climática, foi utilizado o Sistema de Classificação Climática Multicrit

  1. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of mites (Acari in domiciliary dust in rural dwellings in the "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Aristeu José de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available From July to September, 2000 (winter, and from January to March, 2001 (summer, 30 dust samples were collected for each season, from beds of rural dwellings located in farms in the geographical area named "Zona da Mata", Minas Gerais, Brazil. After being sorted, the mites were identified and quantified. The prevalence of mites in the samples was 100%. 891 mites were found in winter (22.97%, and 2988 in summer (77.03%. In winter, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897 was the most prevalent (55.00%, followed by Blomia tropicalis (Bronswijk, Cock & Oshima, 1973 (27.06%, Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman, 1950 (8.85%, and predator mites from Cheyletidae family (8.07%. In summer, the most prevalent species was B. tropicalis (47.79%, followed by D. pteronyssinus (43.38%, Cheyletidae (6.87%, and E. maynei (1.28%. Few Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961, Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879, and mites from Tarsonemidae and Cunaxidae families were found, the last two occurring only in summer. No mites from Acaridae family were found. The greatest number of immature forms found in summer suggested a greater breeding activity in this season. It was also noted that different building materials and varied cleaning routines may influence the population size of domiciliary dust mites.

  3. Sepse Brasil: estudo epidemiológico da sepse em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva brasileiras An epidemiological study of sepsis in Intensive Care Units: Sepsis Brazil study

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    João Andrade L. Sales Júnior

    2006-03-01

    uma elevada mortalidade da sepse nas UTI em nosso país. A mortalidade no choque séptico é uma das mais elevadas no mundo. Nossos pacientes são mais graves e com tempo de internação maior. O momento é muito propício a uma reflexão ainda maior sobre esta doença que é a principal causa de morte nas UTI, haja vista o elevado impacto econômico e social. Precisa-se cada vez mais desenvolver Campanhas de Sobrevivência na Sepse e fazer uso racional, baseado em evidências, dos recursos por ora disponíveis e da forma mais precoce possível.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis represents the major cause of death in the ICUs all over the world. Many studies have shown an increasing incidence over time and only a slight reduce in mortality. Many new treatment strategies are arising and we should define the incidence and features of sepsis in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in sixty-five hospitals all over Brazil. The patients who were admitted or who developed sepsis during the month of September, 2003 were enrolled. They were followed until the 28th day and/or until their discharge. The diagnoses were made in accordance to the criteria proposed by ACCP/SCCM. It were evaluated demographic features, APACHE II score, SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score, mortality, sources of infections, microbiology, morbidities and length of stay (LOS. RESULTS: Seventy-five ICUs from all regions of Brazil took part in the study.3128 patients were identified and 521 (16.7% filled the criteria of sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Mean age was 61.7 (IQR 39-79, 293 (55.7% were males, and the overall 28-day mortality rate was 46.6%. Average APACHE II score was 20 and SOFA score on the first day was 7 (IQR 4-10. SOFA score in the mortality group was higher on day 1 (8, IQR 5-11, and had increased on day 3 (9, IQR 6-12. The mortality rate for sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock was 16.7%, 34.4% and 65.3%, respectively. The average LOS was 15 days (IQR 5

  4. Cold storage of peaches cv. Aurora grown in the Zona da Mata Mineira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Danielle Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postharvest behavior of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais in two ripening stages and kept under different storage temperatures. Fruits on mid-ripe and fully ripe stages were stored at three temperatures: 5.6 ± 1.57 °C and 72.8 ± 3.8% RH; 10.4 ± 0.5 °C and 95.8 ± 5.5% RH; 21.04 ± 1.63 °C and 96.9 ± 2.6% RH up to 28 storage days (SD . During storage, fruits stored at 21.04 ± 1.63 °C were evaluated every two days until 8 SD, and every four days for fruits stored at other temperatures. The harvest day was assigned as day zero. The variables evaluated were CO2 production, color of the pericarp and pulp, fresh mass loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids. The fresh mass loss increased during storage, peaking at 5.6 °C. The reduction in ascorbic acid content was higher in fully ripe fruits at all temperatures. Mid-ripe fruits reached the end of the storage period with better quality. The temperature of 10.4 °C was the most efficient in keeping postharvest quality of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region.

  5. Contributions to the thorium occupational exposure in Brazil; Contribuicoes ao estudo da exposicao ocupacional ao torio no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kenya Moore de Almeida Dias da

    1997-12-31

    There are around 15.000 workers in Brazil involved in the mining and milling processes of thorium bearing minerals. It is necessary to estimate the exposure of workers to airborne particulate containing thorium to estimate the risk associated with the inhalation of aerosols. The aims of this study were: - to develop a national cascade impactor and - to characterize the exposure of workers to airborne particulate containing Th in two plants and one industry that were chosen. Plant A and Pant B process niobium ore and industry C uses thorium nitrate to manufacture gas mantle. The national cascade impactor - ICN was developed to collect particulate in the range of 0,64 up to 19,4 {mu}m. Its advantage over commercially available cascade impactors is the selections of particulate in the respirable and inhalable fractions of aerosol. The experimental calibration of the ICN agreed with the theoretical calibration. The results obtained with the ICN were compared to the ones obtained with other selective air samplers, in 3 plants. The particle size distribution and the Th mass concentration were determined in those plants. The size distribution of particulate containing Nb. U Zr, Pb. Fe, Y and Sr, and the elemental mass concentration was determined. A group of workers in installations B and C were also monitored through bioassay analysis of Th excreted in urine and feces. Air and bioassay results have shown that the systemic incorporation of Th is not significant. (author) 116 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Serial discontinuity along the Descoberto River Basin, Central Brazil Descontinuidade serial ao longo da bacia do rio Descoberto, Brasil Central

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    Weliton José da Silva

    2010-09-01

    ; RESULTADOS: As estações K e L, localizadas a montante e jusante da entrada do rio Melchior, respectivamente, diferiram mais quanto aos parâmetros físicos e químicos da água. Uma análise de componentes principais (PCA demonstrou que o sistema foi mais influenciado espacialmente que temporalmente, com 74,57% da variância total acumulada nos dois primeiros eixos. Altos valores de cloreto, clorofila a, DBO5, fósforo total e carbono orgânico total, tanto quanto baixas concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido separaram as estações L e M das demais. Inverno e primavera foram estações nas quais a maioria dos parâmetros apresentou diferenças significativas entre as estações; CONCLUSÕES: A construção do reservatório e descargas de esgoto atuaram como fatores de descontinuidade afetando o referido sistema, principalmente no trecho médio do rio e no trecho inferior, entre estações K e L. O rio Melchior, a partir de sua entrada, afetou o rio Descoberto. Importantes mudanças na qualidade de água ocorreram na bacia especialmente a jusante do reservatório, com aumentos significativos de nutrientes, sólidos suspensos, turbidez e clorofila a e, portanto, na diminuição da transparência da água.

  7. The fallacy of "equal treatment" in Brazil's bill of rights for internet users A falácia da "igualdade de tratamento" na carta brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet

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    J. Gregory Sidak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Brazilian bill of rights for internet users," or "marco civil," has been under consideration at the brazilian congress since 2011. Marco civil's provisions for network neutrality have been particularly controversial. Proponents of network neutrality in Brazil advocate for the "equal treatment" of all data packets, including banning internet service providers from offering to content providers the option to purchase enhanced quality of service in the delivery of data packets. These network neutrality rules conflict with the other goals and principles of marco civil-particularly goals to promote internet access, to foster innovation, and to protect the constitutional right of freedom of speech and the free flow of information.A "carta Brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet," ou "marco civil," tramita no congresso Brasileiro desde 2011. As disposições do marco civil relativas à neutralidade de rede são particularmente controversas. Os defensores da neutralidade de rede no Brasil advogam pela "igualdade de tratamento" de todos os pacotes de dados, inclusive proibindo que provedores de serviço de acesso à internet ofereçam aos provedores de conteúdo a opção de adquirir uma melhor qualidade de serviço na entrega de pacotes de dados. Essas disposições relativas à neutralidade de rede conflitam com outros objetivos e princípios do marco civil - especialmente os objetivos de promover o acesso à internet, promover a inovação, e garantir o direito constitucional de liberdade de expressão e informação.

  8. Tendência secular da peste no Estado do Ceará, Brasil Secular plague trend in Ceará State, Brazil

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    Antonia Ivoneida Aragão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Após a sua introdução no Ceará, Brasil, em 1900, a peste focalizou-se em sete complexos ecológicos: Chapada do Araripe e Serras da Ibiapaba, do Baturité, do Machado, das Matas, da Pedra Branca e de Uruburetama. As atividades de vigilância nesses focos no período de 1935/2004 foram desenvolvidas sucessivamente pelo Departamento Nacional de Saúde, Serviço Nacional de Peste, Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais, Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública, Fundação Nacional de Saúde e finalmente pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. A análise dos dados levantados sobre a ocorrência de casos humanos nesses 70 anos permite identificar diferentes padrões de circulação da enfermidade na população humana, caracterizados pela alternância de momentos de elevadas incidências e de silêncio, possibilitando estabelecer uma periodização cronológica com características epidemiológicas próprias. Conclui-se desses resultados que a peste ainda deve ser considerada uma ameaça potencial, o que justifica revitalizar as ações de vigilância epidemiológica, o que só ocorrerá com o fortalecimento de todas as instâncias do Sistema Único de Saúde.After its introduction into the State of Ceará, Brazil, in 1900, the plague was established in seven ecological complexes: Chapada do Araripe and the Ibiapaba, Baturité, Machado, Matas, Pedra Branca, and Uruburetama mountains. These natural foci were monitored successively from 1935 to 2004 by the National Health Department, National Plague Service, National Department of Rural Endemics, Superintendency of Public Health Campaigns, National Health Foundation, and finally by the National Health Surveillance Secretariat. Data analysis on human cases during these 70 years allowing identifying different plague circulation patterns in the human population, alternating high incidence with silent periods and characterizing a chronological periodicity with unique epidemiological

  9. Atenção básica na agenda da saúde Primary care in the agenda of public health sector in Brazil

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    Regina Bodstein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a política de reorganização da atenção básica a partir do processo recente de descentralização do SUS no Brasil. Enfatiza-se o papel indutor do governo central, que, através de um conjunto de medidas e programas específicos (PAB e PACS/PSF, principalmente, transfere para os municípios a responsabilidade com a atenção básica. Assim, é no nível municipal que ocorre o processo de implementação dessa política, gerando efeitos de difícil avaliação, dada a diversidade de contextos locais. A argumentação central enfatiza a importância de se avaliarem processos e resultados intermediários voltados para o desempenho institucional, que podem ser traduzidos em vontade política e compromisso público, capacidade de gestão e maior controle e participação social, mais do que exatamente efeitos ou impactos mais diretos sobre a oferta de serviços. A conclusão é de que apesar de todas as dificuldades e obstáculos o processo tem implicado o fortalecimento da capacidade de gestão municipal no que diz respeito à organização da atenção básica em saúde.The article discusses the policies of reorganization of the primary health care taking the recent process of decentralization of SUS in Brazil. The central government's paper as inducement is emphasized. This can be verified by several measures and specific programs (PAB and PACS/PSF, mainly that transfer for the municipal level the responsibility with the primary care. So it is in the municipal level that happens the process of implementation of that policies generating effects of difficult evaluation given the diversity of local contexts. The central argument emphasizes the importance of the evaluation process and intermediary results turned to the institutional performance that can be translated in accountability and public commitment, administration capacity and larger control and social participation - rather than final effects or more direct impacts on

  10. Plague surveillance in Brazil: 1983 - 1992 Vigilância sorológica da peste no Brasil no período de 1983 a 1992

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    Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Plague caused by Yersinia pestis, has persisted in Brazil in several natural foci spread throughout rural areas in the States of Ceara, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. Nationwide surveillance of plague in Brazil based on serological testing started in 1983. We now present an update report of the examinations carried out in our laboratory from 1983 to 1992. The passive hemagglutination test for antibodies against fraction 1A antigen of Y. pestis and the passive hemagglutination inhibition control were employed for testing a total of 220,769 sera. Samples analyzed included 2,856 sera from clinically diagnosed plague cases or suspects, 49,848 sera from rodents of 24 species and 2 species of small wild carnivores (marsupials, 122,890 sera from dogs, and 45,175 sera from cats. Specific antibodies were found in 92 (3.22% human sera; 143 (0.29% sera from rodents of 8 species and from the two species of marsupials, 1,105 (0.90% sera from dogs and 290 (0.64% sera from cats. The presence of significant levels of specific anti-F1A antibodies among rodents and wild or domestic carnivores (dogs and cats indicates that all the Brazilian plague foci remain active in spite of the absence of human cases in some of them.A peste, infecção pela Yersinia pestis, se mantém no Brasil, em vários focos naturais, disseminados na área rural, dos Estados do Ceará, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro. Desde 1983, o teste de hemaglutinação passiva para anticorpos contra a fração antigênica "F1A" de Y. pestis, vem sendo empregado ininterruptamente na vigilância da peste nos focos brasileiros. A especificidade do PHA é controlada pelo teste de inibição da aglutinação. No período de 1983 à 1992 foram examinadas 220.769 amostras de soro, sendo 2.856 de origem humana, 49.848 de roedores pertencentes à 24 espécies e de 2 espécies de

  11. Childhood tuberculosis incidence in Southeast Brazil, 1996 Incidência da tuberculose na infância no Sudeste do Brasil, no ano de 1996

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe childhood tuberculosis incidence in Southeast Brazil in 1996. It is a descriptive study based on secondary records from the Tuberculosis Division of the São Paulo State Health Department. The study area includes 40 cities, has some 1,800,000 inhabitants, and is located between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the largest cities in Brazil. The study included cases up to 15 years of age. Independent variables were: sex, age, type of case, clinical presentation, radiology, AFB microscopy, HIV antibody tests, and method of discovery. The incidence rate in this age bracket was 10.4/100,000. Pulmonary manifestations were the most common, and control of contacts was the most common method of case discovery. AFB microscopy was performed in 18.6% of the cases and HIV testing was done in 14.9%. Incidence in this study was higher than for the State of São Paulo as a whole. Poor socioeconomic level, deterioration of public health services, treatment dropout by adults and their persistence as sputum-positive carriers, and flaws in case reporting and follow-up could explain these results.O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a incidência de tuberculose na infância, no Sudeste do Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com dados secundários obtidos junto à Divisão de Tuberculose da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de São Paulo, relativos ao ano de 1996. A região estudada é composta por quarenta municípios, com população estimada em 1.800.000 habitantes e localizada entre São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro. As variáveis estudadas foram: sexo, idade, tipo de caso, forma clínica, tipo de descoberta e resultados dos exames radiológicos, de baciloscopia e do teste anti-HIV. Foram incluídos pacientes com até 15 anos de idade. A incidência de tuberculose encontrada nesta faixa etária foi de 10,4/100 mil habitantes. A forma pulmonar foi a mais freqüentemente encontrada e o tipo de descoberta de casos novos mais importante foi por

  12. Environmental adaptation of the source of the subbasin of Rico Stream, Monte Alto - SP, Brazil Adequação ambiental da nascente da sub-bacia do Córrego Rico, Município de Monte Alto - SP

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    Teresa C. T. Pissarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the photographic patterns that represent the use and occupation of the landcover of the "spring" of the Rico Stream subbasin, located at Monte Alto, state of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, for environmental adaptation regarding the Brazilian Forest Law. The mapping was performed using remote sensing techniques and visual interpretation of the World View image, followed by the digitalization of the net of drainage and vegetation (natural and agricultural at the AutoCad software with documents and field work. The study area has 2141.53 ha and the results demonstrated that the main crop is sugarcane with 546.34 ha, followed by 251.22 ha of pastures, 191.71 ha of perennial crops, 57.31 ha of Eucalyptus and 49.52 ha of onion, confirming the advance of sugarcane culture in the region. The region has 375.04 ha of areas of permanent preservation (APPs, and of this area it was found that only 72.17 ha (19.24% has arboreal vegetation or natural forest, and 302.87 ha of these areas need to be enriched and reforested with native vegetation from the region, according to the current legislation. The data of the area enable future proposals of models for environmental adaptation to the microbasin according to the current environmental legislation.Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo definir padrões fotográficos que representem o uso e a ocupação do solo da "cabeceira" de drenagem do Córrego Rico, localizada no Município de Monte Alto, Estado de São Paulo, para fins de adequação ambiental no que tange à legislação florestal brasileira. O mapeamento foi realizado utilizando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto e interpretação visual da imagem World View, seguida da digitalização da rede de drenagem e vegetações (naturais e agrícolas no AutoCad, com auxílio de documentos e trabalho de campo. A área de estudo apresenta uma superfície de 2.141,53 ha, e os resultados permitiram constatar que a principal cultura

  13. Magnitude, distribuição espacial e tendência da anemia em pré-escolares da Paraíba Magnitude, geographic distribution and trends of anemia in preschoolers, Brazil

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    Rejane Santana de Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a magnitude, a distribuição espacial e a tendência temporal da anemia em pré-escolares no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Corte transversal com amostra aleatória, do tipo multietapas, em oito cidades da zona urbana, de três mesorregiões do Estado da Paraíba, no ano de 1992, pela qual foram selecionados aleatoriamente 1.287 pré-escolares de ambos os sexos. A hemoglobina foi dosada pelo método da cianometa-hemoglobina em sangue venoso, empregando OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude, geographical distribution and trends of the prevalence of nutritional anemia among preschoolers and to identify risk groups in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with multistage random sampling procedure was conducted in 8 urban municipalities of three mid-regions (Zona da Mata, Agreste and Sertão in the state of Paraíba in 1992. A total of 1,287 preschoolers of both sexes were selected. Hemoglobin was determined by the cyanometahemoglobin method in venous blood, employing <11 g/dl as the cut-off for anemia. Statistical analysis of proportions employed the chi Square test, whereas for means Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were the choice, all with confidence interval of 95%.. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 36.4% (CI 33.7--39.1 in the state of Paraiba, greater (p=0.00 than that observed (19.3%, CI 17.3--21.5 in 1982. Only 1.0% (CI 0.61--1.8 and 6.8% (CI 5.5--8.3 of anemia cases were classified as severe and moderate, respectively. Boys presented lower mean hemoglobin concentration (p=0.00, and children under age 3 comprised the biological group of highest susceptibility for deficiency status (p= 0.00. It was found that the second year of life is the most critical for developing nutritional deficiency (p= 0.00. The Agreste mid-region revealed to be the geographical area of highest risk (p= 0.00, outlining a new epidemiological dynamics when compared to the year 1982, when the drought-ridden Sert

  14. The new Africa and Brazil in the Lula era: the rebirth of Brazilian Atlantic Policy A nova África e o Brasil na era Lula: o renascimento da Política atlântica Brasileira

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    José Flávio Sombra Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Cold War world, Africa has been an important focus of Brazilian foreign policy. Having a significant historical weight in building our nation, African countries are also part of the moves adopted by Brazil's foreign policy. The main purpose of the present text is to show this relevant regional dimension regarding Brazil's international insertion during the Lula era. The work is divided in two parts: the first part approaches Africa's international insertion throughout recent years and the second analyses the dimension occupied by African affairs in Brazil during the Lula era. The main argument is that the new role played by Africa in the international scene coincides with a global BrazilNo mundo pós-Guerra Fria, a África tem tido um papel de destaque para política externa brasileira. Além de ter significativo peso histórico na formação da nação, os países africanos também são parte do movimento adotado pela política externa brasileira. O propósito central deste texto é mostrar essa dimensão regional relevante da inserção internacional do Brasil na era Lula. O trabalho está dividido em duas partes: a primeira versa sobre a inserção internacional da África em anos recentes e a segunda analisa a dimensão ocupada pelo continente na política externa brasileira. O argumento central é que o novo lugar ocupado pela África no cenário internacional coincide com o Brasil global

  15. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

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    Geraldo José de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  16. Análise da evolução da produção e relação risco-retorno da cultura do alho, no Brasil e regiões (1991 a 2000 Evolution of the garlic production in Brazil and analysis of the risk and return ratio between 1991 and 2000

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    José Hortêncio Mota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a produção da cultura do alho no Brasil, visando verificar a relação risco/retorno da produção em função do comportamento de seu preço durante os anos de 1991 a 2000. Foram utilizadas séries históricas de preços com periodização mensal. Utilizou-se da taxa geométrica de crescimento (TGC como indicador de retorno comparada à dispersão dos preços e para indicar a tendência da produção em nível nacional e regional. Verificou-se que a cultura é favorável a investimentos e apresenta uma tendência de aumento de produtividade.The production of garlic in Brazil was studied to describe and to analyze the relation risk/return as a result of the behavior of the price during the period of 1991 to 2000. An historical series of prices with monthly periods was used. The geometric rate of growth (TGC was studied to analyse the comparative return to the dispersion of the prices and to indicate the trend of the national and regional production. The garlic production activity has a favorable response to the investments and presents a trend of productivity increase.

  17. LEVANTAMENTO POPULACIONAL DAS PRINCIPAIS PRAGAS DA CULTURA DE SOJA EM GOIÂNIA SURVEY OF THE MAIN SOYBEAN POPULATION PESTS IN GOIÂNIA, BRAZIL

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    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho, procurou-se por meio de armadilhas luminosas modelo "Luiz de Queiroz" providas de lâmpadas fluorescentes ultravioleta e armadilhas de intercaptação modelo "Malaise", realizar um levantamento de insetos para estudar a flutuação populacional das principais pragas que ocorrem na cultura da soja no município de Goiânia - GO, durante três anos consecutivos (de novembro de 1975 a novembro de 1977. Pelos resultados obtidos, destacaram-se como pragas mais importantes da cultura; Anticarsia gemmatilis, Mocis latipes, Epicauta spp. Diabrotica speciosa e Plusia nu. Elasmopalpus lignosellus e Spodoptera frugiperda, apesar da sua ocorrência elevada, não constituíram problemas porque os picos populacionais não apareceram no período crítico da cultura. Nezara viridula não apresentou população a nível de dano econômico. Estes resultados, permitem determinar os períodos mais adequados para o controle racional das referidas pragas e ainda uma previsão do início de infestação da cultura pelas mesmas.

    In this work a survey of some of the insect pests which attack the soybean crop in Goiânia, County State Goiás, Brazil, was made to verify the populational fluctuations of the following species: Anticarsia gemmatilis Hueb., 1818; Plusia nu Guen., 1852; Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller, 1848; Spodoptera frugiperda Srnith, 1797; Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824; Epicauta spp.; Mocis latipes Guen., 1852; Nezara viridula L., 1758. The insects were collected through the use of light traps, of the “Luiz de Queiroz” type, rnodified, with ultraviolet fluorescent lamp bulbs, and use of traps “Malaise” type, by sunlight insect intrabits from 1975 to

  18. Geochemistry of tourmalines associated with iron formation and quartz veins of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, Serra do Itaberaba Group (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gianna M. Garda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourmalines of intermediate schorl-dravite composition occur in iron formation (including metachert and tourmalinites, metasediments, calc-silicate and metabasic/intermediate rocks of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, a volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Serra do Itaberaba Group (northeast of São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil. The Morro da Pedra Preta Formation is crosscut by quartz veins that contain both intermediate schorl-dravite and an alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmaline, in which the occupancy of the X-site is ϑ0.51Ca0.33Na0.15, characterizing it as intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite end-members. Mg# values for this tourmaline are higher than those for intermediate schorl-dravite. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the presence of two groups of tourmalines. Stable isotope data indicate sediment waters as fluid sources, rather than fluids from magmatic/post-magmatic sources. Delta18O compositions for tourmalines, host metachert, and quartz veins are similar, showing that fluid equilibration occurred during crystallization of both quartz and tourmaline. Syngenetic, intermediate schorl-dravite tourmalines were formed under submarine, sedimentary-exhalative conditions; amphibolite-grade metamorphism did not strongly affect their compositions. Younger tourmalines of compositions intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite reflect the composition of the host rocks of quartz veins, due to fluid percolation along faults and fractures that caused leaching of Cr (and V and the crystallization of these alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmalines.Na Formação Morro da Pedra Preta, seqüência vulcano-sedimentar do Grupo Serra do Itaberaba (São Paulo, Brasil, turmalinas de composição intermediária schorl-dravita ocorrem em formação ferrífera (incluindo turmalinito e metachert, metassedimentos, rochas cálcio-silicáticas e metabásicas a intermediárias. A Formação Morro da Pedra Preta é cortada por veios de quartzo que

  19. Macrominerais para bovinos de corte nas pastagens nativas dos Campos de Cima da Serra - RS Macro minerals to beef cattle in the native pastures of Campos de Cima da Serra - RS, Brazil

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    Carolina Wunsch

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em face das poucas informações disponíveis sobre a composição mineral das pastagens nativas da região dos Campos de Cima da Serra (RS, o presente trabalho de pesquisa objetivou avaliar os teores dos principais macrominerais, em diferentes épocas do ano, e relacionar o perfil mineral destas pastagens com as necessidades nutricionais recomendadas pelo NRC (1996 para bovinos de corte. O projeto foi conduzido em vinte propriedades particulares, em Cambará do Sul, utilizando áreas de campo nativo que estavam sendo normalmente utilizadas em pastoreio por bovinos de corte e/ou ovinos e que não tinham sofrido nenhum tipo de melhoria, reforma ou recuperação (exceto queimada, no mínimo nos últimos 20 anos. Colheram-se, durante oito meses, e dentro de uma mesma área predeterminada em cada propriedade, amostras para determinar as concentrações de Ca, P, Mg, Na e S. Verificou-se efeito do mês de coleta sobre todos os minerais analisados. Foram constatados teores suficientes de Ca e Mg para as categorias de bovinos de corte menos exigentes. Os teores de Mg são deficientes para vacas em gestação e lactação e os teores de Ca são deficientes para terneiros. Por outro lado, os teores de P, Na e S apresentaram-se abaixo das exigências mínimas para as categorias de bovinos de corte avaliadas.The present study was conducted to determine the mineral status of natural range pastures of Campos de Cima da Serra region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in different months of the year, to compare them to beef cattle requirements (NRC, 1996. The project was led in twenty private farms, in Cambará do Sul county, on grazing areas without improvements (except burning at the last twenty years. Pasture samples were collected at January, February, March April, May, July, September and December to determine its calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and sulphur levels. Effect of the season was verified on all analyzed minerals. The Ca and Mg contents

  20. Anemia em escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental da rede pública de Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil Anemia in public school first graders in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil

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    Célia Dias dos Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal com amostra probabilística de 426 alunos de 6 a 10 anos, da 1ª série do ensino fundamental das escolas públicas de Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência da anemia e sua associação com o retardo de crescimento. Os dados foram coletados entre maio e julho de 2000. O sangue foi colhido por venipuntura e a dosagem de hemoglobina (Hb foi realizada pelo contador Coulter STKS. Classificou-se a anemia por dois critérios estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde: Hb A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 426 randomly selected first graders (ages 6 to 10 years from public schools in Maceió, State of Alagoas, Brazil. The aim was to determine the prevalence of anemia, as well as its association with growth retardation. Data were collected from May to July 2000, and determination of hemoglobin (HGB employed an STKS Coulter counter. Two cut-off points were used to classify anemia, both established by the World Health Organization: HGB < 11.5g/dl and HGB < 12.0g/dl. The indicators height/age (H/A, weight/age (W/A, and weight/height (W/H below -2.0 standard deviations from the NCHS reference were diagnosed as growth retardation. Prevalence of anemia was 9.9% when HGB < 11.5g/dl was used, and 25.4% when the cut-off point was HGB < 12.0g/dl. Growth retardation was detected in 6.2% of children according to H/A, 4.0% for W/A, and 3.0% for W/H. There was no statistically significant association between the variables in the study. These findings confirm results of previous surveys where prevalence of anemia was much higher than that of growth retardation. The severe consequences of anemia in this age group justify the implementation of broad public policies to overcome this nutritional deficiency.

  1. Os trabalhadores da educação e a construção política da profissão docente no Brasil Workers in education and political construction of the teaching profession in Brazil

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    Dalila Andrade Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a constituição da profissão docente no Brasil, partindo do reconhecimento de que a profissionalização cresce na educação na proporção em que são ampliados os sistemas escolares. Analisando que os estudos sobre a profissão docente advêm de vertentes distintas (pedagógica, humanista e sociológica e dos desdobramentos dessas concepções e estudos, a autora mostra a dimensão do problema da ambiguidade entre o profissionalismo e a proletarização na constituição da identidade profissional docente. O trabalho destaca que a profissão docente tem sido posta a pressões e câmbios advindos das novas regulações nos marcos das reformas educacionais dos anos 1990, de sorte que os padrões de organização educacional e escolar decorrentes dessas mudanças podem estar constituindo um novo perfil de trabalhador docente e uma nova identidade. O texto conclui analisando os impactos daquelas mudanças na profissionalização do magistério, que podem ser responsáveis pela alteração de duas faces importantes do trabalho docente: no que concerne ao objeto do trabalho e no que tange à organização do trabalho.This paper examines the teaching profession in Brazil, based on the recognition that the growing professionalism in education is connected to the extension of school systems. Analyzing that the studies on the teaching profession come from different aspects (pedagogical, humanistic and sociologic and from the development of these concepts and studies, the author shows the extent of the ambiguity problem between professionalism and proletarian mode in the constitution of professional identity. The paper highlights that the profession has been submitted to pressure and exchanges that are consequences of new regulations within the framework of the educational reforms of the 1990s, so that patterns of educational organization and school organization may be due to those changes as well as constituting a new profile of

  2. Etiology and Management of the Diseases of Peach Palm in Brazil Etiologia e Manejo das Doenças da Pupunheira no Brasil

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    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The majority of phytosanitary problems in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes are still restricted to some plantations. However, with the expansion of planted areas, the damages caused by diseases has increased in nurseries as well as in plantations. The anthracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes is the most important disease of peach palm in Brazil, but other pathogens (Phytophthora palmivora, Fusarium spp. also occur in nurseries and peach palm plantations. Other phytosanitary problem is the low quality of the seeds of peach palm. Results from phytopathological studies on this plant are reported in this review including some management aspects. The etiology and management of the major diseases are discussed based on data obtained from Brazil and other countries where this forest species is planted.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.61

    A maioria dos problemas fitossanitários em pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes. var. gasipaes é de ocorrência restrita a alguns plantios. Porém, com a expansão das áreas plantadas, a pressão das doenças aumenta, tanto nos viveiros de produção de mudas quanto em áreas de plantio comercial, potencializando o nível de danos causados pelas doenças. A antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides é a enfermidade mais importante das pupunheiras no território brasileiro, mas outros patógenos como Phytophthora palmivora e Fusarium spp. vêm também ocorrendo em viveiros e em plantios. Outro problema que deve ser motivo de preocupação é a baixa qualidade sanitária das sementes utilizadas. Nesta revisão, são relatados os mais importantes resultados obtidos nas pesquisas fitopatológicas sobre a cultura, assim como os aspectos culturais mais relevantes. Discute-se a etiologia e as perspectivas para o manejo das principais doenças da pupunheira, com base em dados obtidos no Brasil e nos demais países onde a espécie é plantada.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.61

  3. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    presented a bird survey of Rio Cipó valley from May 1998 to November 2002. The region is within the premises of 'Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó', one of the most important conservation units of southeastern Brazil. Bird census were carried out through transect, mist-net captures and recording bird vocalizations. Species richness was estimated by jackknife method. It was recorded 226 species, belonging to 43 families. This represents 27% of all 837 bird species recorded at the Cerrado (a Savannah-like biome region of central Brazil. A total of 2,249 bird individuals were captured with 4,486.82 net-hours. This represented 119 bird species of 23 families. Species richness was estimated at 239 ± 5 species. Six species are considered endemic to this biome: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, and Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Three species are considered near-threatened to extinction: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831, and Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. The Rio Cipó valley holds a significant number of the Cerrado bird species. Some habitats within this biome are becoming rare in the Cerrado region such as gallery forests, and the temporary lagoons along the rivers. Even waterfalls are disappearing in other regions of Brazil. In this sense, the 'Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó' is achieving one of its aims, which is biodiversity conservation.

  4. Saúde bucal em Diadema: da odontologia escolar à estratégia saúde da família Oral health in Diadema, Brazil: from schoolchildren dentistry to family health strategy

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    Bernadete Aparecida Tavares Cunha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora a política de saúde bucal no Município de Diadema, SP, no período de 1972 a 2007, objeto deste artigo, tenha acompanhado o processo de transformação das práticas do setor no Brasil, sua evolução nesta cidade industrial na Região Metropolitana da Grande São Paulo foi marcada pela singularidade do processo histórico local. Neste artigo analisa-se essa evolução, relacionando-a com o processo de lutas sociais que levou à criação do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e com as políticas nacionais, estaduais e municipais de saúde bucal. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo do tipo exploratório. Os dados foram obtidos em documentos oficiais e fontes bibliográficas variadas e por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com prefeitos, secretários municipais de saúde, coordenadores de saúde bucal e cirurgiões dentistas que vivenciaram as diversas fases das políticas de saúde bucal no município. Identificam-se as características mais marcantes na organização das práticas assistenciais em saúde desenvolvidas na cidade, localizando-as no cenário estadual e nacional. Conclui-se que, não obstante a consolidação da inserção da saúde bucal no SUS e a experiência adquirida no Município com a gestão dessa modalidade assistencial, também em Diadema observam-se dificuldades para superar o modelo de atenção focado nos grupos populacionais tradicionalmente priorizados, com destaque para escolares, pré-escolares e bebês. Nesse sentido, Diadema compartilha com os demais municípios brasileiros o desafio de reestruturar a atenção básica em saúde bucal, superar o tradicional modelo da odontologia escolar e criar novas possibilidades, como a abordagem familiar, com a finalidade de assegurar a universalidade e a integralidade da atenção.Although oral health policy in the city of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil, from 1972 to 2007, the subject of this article, has accompanied the process of transformation of the sector's practices

  5. A etiologia da "cara inchada", uma periodontite epizoótica dos bovinos The etiology of "cara inchada", a bovine epizootic periodontitis in Brazil

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    Jürgen Döbereiner

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma versão condensada em português de um artigo de revisão sobre a periodontite da "cara inchada" dos bovinos, publicado em inglês, está apresentada com algumas informações adicionais. A doença foi responsável por grandes perdas de bovinos jovens, principalmente nas décadas de 1970 e l980 no Brazil Central. Em face da periodontite progressiva e a perdas de dentes, os animais não podem se alimentar convenientemente, tornam-se emaciados e podem morrer. A doença foi tida como uma deficiência ou desequilíbrio mineral. Mas as pesquisas de campo e de laboratório, realizadas durante 30 anos, mostraram que trata-se de doença infecciosa multifatorial a ser definida como Periodontite Epizoótica Bovina. Chegou-se à conclusão que os fatores principais para o seu desenvolvimento são: (1 a idade dos bovinos na fase de erupção dos dentes premolares e molares; (2 a presença de bactérias do grupo Bacteroides spp nos espaços subgengivais; e (3 a ingestão com a forragem de concentrações subinibitórias de antibióticos, sobretudo de estreptomicina, produzidos por actinomicetos cujo número é aumentado em solos virgens recém-cultivados na formação de pastagens após a derrubada da mata ou da vegetação de Cerrado; isto leva a um aumento da aderência dos bacteróides ao epitélio gengival e à destruição dos tecidos peridentários. Hoje em dia, a doença perdeu a sua importância e praticamente desapareceu, porque a microbiota do solo entrou novamente em equilíbrio e a abertura de grandes áreas virgens para a pecuária cessou. Porém, novos surtos podem ocorrer em áreas anteriormente positivas para a doença quando, na reforma de pastagens ou capineiras, houver um novo desequilíbrio da microbiota do solo. Outros antibióticos, como a espiramicina e virginiamicina, administrados por via oral ou adicionado a misturas minerais, podem controlar a periodontite.A condensed version in Portuguese of an extensive review on "cara

  6. Indicadores propostos pela UNGASS e o monitoramento da epidemia de Aids no Brasil Proposed UNGASS indicators and the monitoring of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil

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    Aristides Barbosa Junior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o processo de monitoramento de indicadores centrais propostos pela UNGASS, em nível nacional, vis-à-vis aos indicadores do Programa Nacional de DST e Aids. Foram avaliados os dois conjuntos de indicadores propostos, respectivamente, em 2002 e 2005, para o monitoramento de progresso da Declaração de Compromisso da UNGASS. Foram analisadas a disponibilidade de informações e as limitações para o cálculo dos indicadores propostos no Brasil, incluindo discussão sobre a adequação dos indicadores propostos para o monitoramento da epidemia brasileira. Dos 13 indicadores quantitativos inicialmente propostos pela UNGASS, cinco não estão incluídos no sistema de monitoramento do Programa Pacional. Um deles não foi incluído por ser um indicador qualitativo. Dois dos indicadores foram considerados de pouca utilidade e dois não foram contemplados pela falta de dados disponíveis para o seu cálculo. Como o Brasil é caracterizado por ter uma epidemia concentrada, no segundo conjunto de indicadores propostos pela UNGASS, prioriza-se o acompanhamento da epidemia entre as populações sob maior risco. Destacou-se que o Programa Nacional centra seus esforços no desenvolvimento, adaptação e transferência de metodologias de amostragem em populações de difícil acesso. Tais ações são voltadas para a estimação do tamanho dos grupos vulneráveis, bem como para obter mais informações sobre seu comportamento, atitudes e práticas. Concluiu-se que, pela possibilidade de comparações internacionais dos avanços conseguidos, a proposição de indicadores supranacionais estimula os países a discutir e viabilizar sua construção. De maneira complementar, os sistemas nacionais de monitoramento devem ser focados na melhoria do programa, cobrindo áreas que permitam avaliar as ações de controle e intervenções específicas.The objective of this study was to analyze, on the national level, the process of

  7. Sistema de pré-aviso para o controle da sigatoka-amarela da bananeira no Recôncavo Baiano Forecasting for the control of banana 'yellow sigatoka' in the Recôncavo Baiano region, Brazil

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    Danúzia Maria Vieira Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    ções do Recôncavo Baiano, a aplicação do sistema de pré-aviso biológico para o controle químico da Sigatoka-amarela, deve utilizar o valor de Soma Bruta 1600 como indicador da época correta de realização das pulverizações. Nesta condição, houve uma redução de treze para oito aplicações anuais, ou seja, 40% menos defensivos aplicados, sem perda na produtividade.Yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach is one of the most serious banana diseases in Brazil, it can cause yield losses higher than 50%. The main control method has been based on spraying fungicides. The use of a monitoring system able to indicate the appropriate moment for spraying fungicide, is a very important alternative to rationalize its uses. This work aimed to defining a Total Sum value for the biological forecasting system that allows to reduce the number of annual fungicide applications needed for Yellow Sigatoka control in Recôncavo Baiano Region. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - EMBRAPA , located in the Municipality of Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia. Eight treatments were evaluated: six of them using pre-established Total Sum values of the biological forecasting system (1000; 1300; 1600; 1900; 2200 and 2500, the sistematic disease control by fungicide spraying every 21 days, and the control treatment without spraying. The treatments consisted of eight plots containing 48 plants each, of the cultivar Grand Naine. Every week, ten plants of each treatment were evaluated for rate of leaf emission and disease incidence in the leaves 2, 3 and 4, in order to determine the highest degree of lesion intensity. The weekly data were used to calculate the respective Total Sum values thus indicating the necessity or not of fungicide application (propiconazole, 3 mL, plus mineral oil, 1 L. At harvest, data on production and disease severity were taken. Only three of the evaluated treatments were statistically different

  8. Socio-demographic determinants of self-rated health in Brazil Determinantes sócio-demográficos da auto-avaliação da saúde no Brasil

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    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health has been used extensively in epidemiologic studies, not only due to its importance per se but also due to the validity established by its association with clinical conditions and with greater risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. In this study, the socio-demographic determinants of good self-rated health are analyzed using data from the World Health Survey, adapted and carried out in Brazil in 2003. Logistic regression models were used, with age and sex as covariables, and educational level, a household assets index, and work-related indicators as measures of socioeconomic status. Besides the effects of sex and age, with consistently worst health perception among females and among the eldest, the results showed pronounced socioeconomic inequalities. After adjusting for age, among females the factors that contributed most to deterioration of health perception were incomplete education and material hardship; among males, besides material hardship, work related indicators (manual work, unemployment, work retirement or incapable to work were also important determining factors. Among individuals with long-term illness or disability, the socioeconomic gradient persisted, although of smaller magnitude.A auto-avaliação da saúde vem sendo amplamente utilizada nos estudos epidemiológicos, não só por ser importante por si, mas também pela sua validade, estabelecida por suas relações com as condições clínicas e com o maior risco de morbi-mortalidade subseqüente. Neste trabalho, são analisados os determinantes sócio-demográficos da auto-avaliação de saúde boa, utilizando os dados da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde, inquérito domiciliar realizado no Brasil, em 2003. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão logística, considerando idade e sexo como co-variáveis, e o grau de instrução, a posse de bens no domicílio e a situação de trabalho como indicadores do nível sócio-econômico. Além das diferenças por sexo e

  9. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of water quality in subtropical shallow lakes, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas como indicadores da qualidade da água em pequenos lagos rasos subtropicais, Sul do Brasil

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    Sabrina Amaral Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: We evaluated the potential of aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators in six small shallow lakes. METHODS: The sampling was conducted monthly for one year, during which all macrophytes were surveyed, and the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, total nitrogen (Nt and total phosphorus (Pt were measured. RESULTS: In total, forty-three species were recorded, and there were significant differences in the species richness and limnological conditions among the lakes studied. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that the concentration of nutrients (Nt and Pt, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important predictors of the distribution of macrophytes. Some emergents were related to the high concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and suspended matter. Moreover, the most submersed species were associated with environments with low nutrient concentrations and the lowest values chlorophyll-a and suspended matter. In addition, some species submerged and floating were related to low values pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Limnological differences between lakes may be cited as the main causes of the observed heterogeneous distribution of macrophytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the importance of limnological characteristics of the different environments in the macrophyte community composition and the potential role of this community as a bioindicator in shallow lakes in southern Brazil.OBJETIVO: Foi avaliado o potencial bioindicador da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em seis pequenos lagos rasos. MÉTODOS: O acompanhamento foi mensal durante um ano, sendo que em cada coleta, além do registro de todas as espécies de macrófitas foram determinadas a temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica, alcalinidade total, clorofila-a, material em suspensão, nitrogênio total (Nt e fósforo total

  10. Characterization of phytoplankton biodiversity in tropical shipwrecks off the coast of Pernambuco, Brazil Caracterização da biodiversidade do fitoplâncton em naufrágios tropicais da costa de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Douglas Henrique Cavalcanti dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community was studied around two artificial reefs (shipwrecks Servemar-X and Servemar-I, located off the coast of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, aiming to identify and thus, better describe these environments. Water samples were collected with Nansen bottle at three depths (surface, mid-column and bottom for chlorophyll a analysis and salinity; temperature and water transparency were also measured. To collect phytoplankton samples, a diver using SCUBA equipment carried out phytoplankton hauls with a 20 µm net around the shipwrecks, about 1.5 m from the bottom for approximatly 3 minutes. Chlorophyll a concentrations at the bottom varied between 0.61 and 5.97 mg.m-3, with an average that indicates a mesotrophic environment. Temperature and salinity registered small seasonal variation, while water transparency showed a seasonal spatial pattern positively related to Chl-a rates. As regards the phytoplankton community, diatoms were the most representative group in the samples, followed by dinoflagellates, and among the species, the cyanobacteria Trichodesmium thiebautii Gomont ex Gomont prevailed quantitatively. The ecological importance of these ecosystems was confirmed by the high diversity and evenness indexes, with the influence of coastal waters playing an essential role in phytoplankton structure and diversity.A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi estudada nas adjacências de dois recifes artificiais (naufrágios Servemar-X e Servemar-I, na costa de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil, com o intuito de identificá-la e melhor caracterizar esses ambientes. Amostras de água foram coletadas com garrafa de Nansen em três profundidades (superfície, meio e fundo para a análise da clorofila a e salinidade, obtendo-se ainda dados de temperatura e transparência da água. Para coleta do fitoplâncton, um mergulhador utilizando equipamento SCUBA realizou arrastos com uma rede de 20 µm ao redor dos naufrágios a 1,5 m do fundo, por cerca

  11. Failure of both azithromycin and antimony to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil Falha da azitromicina e do antimonial no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em Manaus, AM, Brasil

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    Alan César Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-randomized controlled clinical trial was carried outin order to evaluate both azithromycin and antimony efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil. Forty nine patients from both genders, aged 14 to 70, with cutaneous ulcers for less than three months and a positive imprint for Leishmania spp. amastigotes were recruited into two groups. Group I (26 patients received a daily-single oral dose of 500 mg of azithromycin for 20 days and Group II (23 patients received a daily-single intramuscular dose of 20 mg/kg of meglumine antimony, also for 20 days. Azithromycin cured three of 24 (12.5% patients on days 60, 90 and 120 respectively whereas therapeutic failure was considered in 21 of 24 (87.5% cases. In group II, antimony cured eight of 19 (42.1% cases as follows: three on day 30, one each on day 60 and day 90, and three on day 120. Therapeutic failure occurred in 11 of 19 (57.9% individuals. The efficacy of antimony for leishmaniasis was better than azithromycin but analysis for the intention-to-treat response rate did not show statistical difference between them. Although azithromycin was better tolerated, it showed a very low efficacy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus.Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia da azitromicina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, foi realizado ensaio comparativo, em Manaus. Foram recrutados 49 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 70 anos que apresentassem úlceras cutâneas com menos de três meses de evolução e que tivessem exame direto positivo para amastigotas de leishmânia. Estes pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos assim: Grupo I (26 recebeu uma dose diária de 500 mg de azitromicina pela via oral durante 20 dias e o Grupo II, recebeu uma dose diária de 20 mg/kg de antimoniato de meglumina por via intramuscular, durante 20 dias. Do grupo da azitromicina, três (12,5% de 24 pacientes curaram 60, 90 e 120 dias, respectivamente, enquanto, em 21 (87,5% de 24 houve

  12. Seleção dos indicadores da qualidade das águas superficiais pelo emprego da análise multivariada Surface water quality indicators in low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil, using multivariable analysis

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    Eunice M. de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores antrópicos e naturais que determinam a qualidade das águas superficiais na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foram identificados pelo emprego da técnica de Análise Fatorial/Análise da Componente Principal (AF/ACP. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas no período de fev./2003 a mar./2004, em sete pontos de amostragem localizados ao longo do Rio Acaraú. Foram analisados 25 parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos. Pelo emprego da AF/ACP, identificou-se que o modelo de melhor ajuste para expressar a qualidade das águas na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foi aquele composto por quatro fatores, explicando 82,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator representa a componente de sólidos em suspensão, expressando o processo de erosão e escoamento superficial. O segundo fator é definido por uma componente de nutrientes associados aos esgotos sanitários, às áreas agrícolas e a outras fontes de poluição difusa; o terceiro fator é indicativo da ação antrópica (componente orgânica, enquanto o quarto representa os sais solúveis que expressam o processo natural do intemperismo das rochas. Outro ponto observado é que a análise fatorial não resultou em grande redução no número de variáveis, uma vez que o melhor ajuste do modelo ocorreu com a inclusão de 18 das 25 variáveis analisadas.Multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis/principal component analysis (FA/PCA, was applied to identify the human activity effects and natural processes on surface water quality in Low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected in four different campaigns from Feb/2003 to Mar/2004, at seven sampling stations sited in low Acaraú watershed. Twenty-five physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined in this study. The FA/PCA allowed the identification of the total variance. The best model was adjusted with four components, explaining 82.1% of the data variance. The first factor was mainly associated with suspended

  13. Heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público em Bauru, SP, Brasil External control over the fluoridation of the public water supply in Bauru, SP, Brazil

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    Irene Ramires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fluoretação da água de abastecimento público, comparando os resultados obtidos com dados prévios de fluoretação. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de março de 2004 a 2005, na cidade de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo. Mensalmente, em datas estabelecidas por sorteio, foram coletadas 60 amostras de água nos 19 setores de abastecimento, totalizando 737 amostras. A concentração de flúor presente nas amostras de água foi determinada em duplicata, utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado ao potenciômetro. Uma vez analisadas, as amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis ou inaceitáveis de acordo com a concentração de flúor. A análise estatística empregada foi do tipo descritiva. RESULTADOS: A concentração média de flúor observada nos diferentes meses de coleta variou entre 0,37 e 1,00 mg/l. Cerca de 85% das amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis. CONCLUSÕES: Comparados com dados de estudos prévios realizados na cidade, foi observada uma melhoria nas condições de fluoretação da água de abastecimento, um ano após a implantação do heterocontrole. A implantação do monitoramento da fluoretação da água de abastecimento por sistemas de vigilância deve ser incentivada, sendo fundamental para o controle da cárie dentária.OBJECTIVE: To assess the fluoridation of the public water supply and compare these results with previous data. METHODS: The study was carried out from March 2004-2005 in Bauru, a city of Southeastern Brazil. Every month, on dates established randomly, 60 water samples were collected from the 19 supply sectors of the city, totaling 737 samples. The fluoride concentration in the water samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion-specific electrode (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer. Following analysis, the samples were classified as acceptable or unacceptable according to their fluoride concentration. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized

  14. Enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Artisan Minas cheese from the Serra da Canastra - MG, Brazil

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    Milene Therezinha das Dores

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the presence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in the endogenous starter and in Artisan Minas cheeses from the Serra da Canastra. Sixteen samples of endogenous starters and cheese were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The isolation and enumeration of S. aureus were performed using the PetrifilmTM-Rapid S. aureus Plate Count method. The presence of enterotoxin in the cheese samples was analyzed by the Optimal Sensitivity Plate (OSP method and the ELFA-VIDAS®-Staph enterotoxin-II assay. S. aureus strains were tested for their ability to produce enterotoxins using the Optimal Sensitivity Plate (OSP method and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for the classical enterotoxin genes. The Optimal Sensitivity Plate (OSP method data showed that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA was detected in 75% of the cheese samples, but no toxin was detected with the ELFA-VIDAS method. It was found that 12.5% of the isolated strains produced staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA and staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC. When using the the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, only one isolate was found to harbor an enterotoxin gene, contrary our expectations. However, discrepancies between the immunological and molecular assays are not uncommon. Despite the fact that most isolates did not produce classical enterotoxins, high S. aureus counts in the cheese samples causes concern since there is a risk of the presence of non-classical enterotoxins.

  15. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Joao@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  16. Evaluation of the BPW34 photodiode response in quality of RQR radiation of the regulation IEC 61267 implanted at the IPEN and CRCN-NE, Brazil; Avaliacao da resposta do fotodiodo BPW34 em qualidades de radiacao RQR da norma IEC 61267 implantadas no IPEN e no CRCN-NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Cinthia M.S. de; Santos, Luiz A.P. dos; Santos, Marcus A.P. dos, E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Divanizia do N., E-mail: divanizi@ufs.b [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the answer of two commercial BPW34 photodiodes in four RQR radiation qualities implanted, in accordance with the regulation IEC 61267, at the laboratory of the instrument calibrations of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN) and radiation metrology laboratory of Northeastern Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN). The results have shown that is possible to relate the qualities implanted at those laboratories and that the BPW34 photodiode can be useful for comparative evaluations of distinct qualities of radiodiagnostic beams

  17. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

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    César L. Reichert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group, as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  18. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

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    César L. Reichert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  19. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  20. Brasil Mulher e Nós Mulheres: origens da imprensa feminista brasileira Brasil Mulher e Nós Mulheres: origins of the feminist press in Brazil

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    Rosalina de Santa Cruz Leite

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a imprensa feminista alternativa que surgiu no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, na segunda metade dos anos 1970. Essa imprensa se tornou um espaço de expressão de uma linha política intimamente vinculada ao despertar das mulheres para as idéias feministas do período posterior à luta armada contra a ditadura no Brasil. Os jornais Brasil Mulher e Nós Mulheres retrataram, em seus artigos e editoriais, a luta pela anistia, pelas creches e pelas liberdades democráticas - todos símbolos da oposição contra o regime no período da ditadura militar. Além disso, eles incluíam matérias específicas, tais como violência doméstica, condições de trabalho das mulheres, direitos reprodutivos, aborto e sexualidade. Do ponto de vista do movimento popular e das organizações de mulheres, essa imprensa constitui, sem sombra de dúvida, uma fonte importante e ainda inexplorada para compreender o período considerado.This article presents some reflections about the feminist alternative press that appeared in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the second half of the 70's. The press was a space for expression of a special breed of politics that was closely linked to the awakening of women to feminist ideas in the period after the armed struggle against the Brazilian dictatorship. The journals Brasil Mulher and Nós Mulheres portray, in their articles and editorials, the fight for amnesty, for day nurseries, for democratic freedoms - all symbols of opposition against the regime in the era of military dictatorship. In addition they report on specific matters, such as, domestic violence, women's working-conditions, reproductive rights, abortion and sexuality. From the point of view of the popular movement and the women's organizations, the alternative press of women is without any doubt an important source, and still under-explored, for understanding the period considered.

  1. A face oculta da transferência de renda para jovens no Brasil The hidden face of the income transference for youths in Brazil

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    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir da análise mais ampla do caráter das recentes políticas públicas dirigidas a jovens no Brasil e das orientações conflitivas inerentes a esse campo, o artigo discute os pressupostos contidos em três programas públicos implementados no país: o Projeto Agente Jovem, o Programa Serviço Civil Voluntário e o Programa Bolsa Trabalho Renda. Após uma caracterização geral de cada um deles, sem ignorar aspectos de sua diversidade, a análise concentra-se nos paradoxos e ambigüidades subjacentes a seu formato comum: a transferência de renda atrelada à exigência de algum tipo de contrapartida do público juvenil, em geral o retorno/permanência na escola e a realização de atividades de caráter socioeducativo ou comunitário. Sem negar o benefício promovido pelo acesso à renda, o artigo alerta para a possibilidade de disseminação de novas formas de dominação a partir da adoção desse modelo nas ações públicas dirigidas aos jovens.Based on a broader analysis of the character of recent public policies directed at youths in Brazil and on the conflicting orientations inherent in this field, this paper deals with the presuppositions contained in three public programs taking place in the country: the Young Agent Project, the Voluntary Civil Service Program and the Work-Income Grant Program. To begin with, a general characterization of each of these programs is made, taking into consideration the aspects of their diversity; secondly, the analysis focuses on the paradoxes and ambiguities feature to their common underlining: the transference of income linked to some kind of repayment by the youngsters, usually the return to or the carrying on at school and the fulfillment of socio-educational or community type activities. Taking into account the beneficial side of access to income, this paper cautions the reader on the possibility of dissemination of new forms of domination based on the adoption of this model in public policies

  2. Características da assistência ao parto na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Characteristics of the maternity care in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Celia Guimarães Neto Dias

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Levou-se a efeito estudo para analisar a disponibilidade de serviços de maternidade na cidade do Salvador, Brasil. Foi elaborado questionário destinado à obtenção de informações sobre o tipo de hospital, meios de manutenção, número de leitos obstétricos existentes, tempo e percentual de ocupação de leitos hospitalares. Informações sobre o tipo de assistência fornecida por ocasião da admissão, foram obtidas a partir do livro de ocorrências de cada instituição. Os dados referentes a mortalidade para o período 1961-1970 foram obtidos de duas fontes diferentes. No primeiro período de 1971, o estudo assim conduzido, demonstrou elevada demanda para leitos hospitalares mantidos pelo Governo estadual e período de permanência muito curto na maioria dos hospitais. As taxas de abortos e de mortalidade materna, em 1970, revelaram-se muito elevadas. Ambos os aspectos da assistência à maternidade apresentam-se como problemas importantes de Saúde Pública na cidade do Salvador.A study was made attempting to analyse the availability of maternity services in the City of Salvador, Brazil. A questionaire was designed aiming at to obtain information on the type of the hospital, owner ship, number of existing lying-beds, length of stay and percentage of occupation of hospital beds. The kind of natal care delivered by the time of the admission, was obtained from the book of ocurrences of each institution, while the mortality data to the period 1961-1970 were derived from two different sources. The study was conducted in the first period of 1971 and has indicated: a high demand for the hospital beds maintained by the state government and a very low length of stay in most of the lying in hospitals. The abortion rate observed in 1970 as well as the maternal mortality rates were found extremelly high, and both aspects of maternity care appeared as important public health problems in the City of Salvador.

  3. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Spatial distribution of tuberculosis mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Fábio Frias Mota

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.An ecological study was conducted to describe the urban spatial distribution of mortality attributable to tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil in 1991, 1994, and 1997. The unit of analysis was the Health District (HD. The HD with the highest standardized rates was Subúrbio Ferroviário in 1991, 1994, and 1997, with 15.7, 10.6, and 10.6/100.000 inhabitants, respectively. Inequalities in mortality between HDs were high. The year 1997 showed the lowest standardized rates. The proportional mortality ratios for tuberculosis when compared with total deaths from infectious diseases were 20.7%, 18.2%, and 16.9% for 1991, 1994, and 1997 respectively. The highest rates were

  4. A new species of Allobates (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Parque Nacional da Amazônia, Pará State, Brazil.

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    Lima, Albertina P; Simões, Pedro Ivo; Kaefer, Igor Luis

    2015-07-01

    We describe the fourth species of nurse-frog genus Allobates occurring in the southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. The new species is sympatric with Allobates femoralis, Allobates masniger and Allobates magnussoni, and inhabits the margins of streams in forested areas within Parque Nacional da Amazônia, on the western bank of the Tapajós River. Snout-to-vent length ranges between 14.9-16.1 mm among males and 15.6-16.5 mm among females. The species is distinguished by the light brown background color of dorsum, with irregular dark brown blotches appearing from eye level to the urostyle region. In life, ventral surfaces of males are golden yellow on throat and chest, and white to yellow on abdomen. Ventral surfaces of females are predominantly white, except for light yellow on chin. The dark brown lateral band has a diffuse lower edge ventrolaterally. Dorsal surface of thigh is cream, with a longitudinal dark brown band extending dorsally from vent to knee. Tail musculature of tadpoles is robust, bifurcating dorsally over the body and reaching about two-thirds of the body length. Advertisement calls consist predominantly of continuous pairs of notes, but other note arrangements are also emitted. Notes have ascending frequency modulation and average peak frequency ranging between 5.3-5.9 kHz. First and second notes of the same note pair are similar in amplitude, duration and frequency spectrum. Successive note pairs are split by approximately regular silent intervals (0.30-0.49 s). The species lays its eggs inside rolled or folded dead leaves on the leaf litter. Egg capsules and jelly nests are opaque.

  5. Acidentes de transporte terrestre em município da Região Sul do Brasil Road accidents in a city of southern BraziL

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    Selma Maffei de Andrade

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as características dos acidentes de transporte terrestre, com 3.643 vítimas, ocorridos no primeiro semestre de 1996, em Londrina, PR. O tipo de acidente mais freqüente foi a colisão com carro/caminhonete. A frota de motocicletas foi a que gerou a maior taxa de vítimas (cerca de sete vezes a apresentada por carros/caminhonetes. Maior risco de óbito foi evidenciado entre motociclistas que colidiram com objeto fixo (letalidade de 29,4%, seguido por pedestres atropelados por caminhão ou ônibus (22,2%, muito superiores ao coeficiente médio (1,8%. O conhecimento desses aspectos é elemento norteador de políticas públicas para a redução da morbimortalidade por essa causa.The study was conducted in the municipality of Londrina, a medium-sized city of southern Brazil. Analysis was performed in the characteristics of road accidents that had occurred during the first semester of 1996, resulting in 3,643 victims. Car or small truck collisions were the most common type of accident. The rate of motorcycle-related injuries (per 1,000 registered vehicles was seven times higher than that resulting from cars or small trucks. Fatality rates were higher for motorcyclists who collided with stationary objects (29.4% and pedestrians who were injured by lorries or buses (22.2%, in comparison with a mean fatality rate of 1.8%. This information may provide a basis for the implementation of public policies aiming at reducing accidents.

  6. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

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    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  7. Implicações e perspectivas da pesquisa educacional no Brasil cotemporâneo Implications of and perspectives on educational research in contemporary Brazil

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    Bernadete A. Gatti

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca recuperar no tempo aspectos do desenvolvimento das pesquisas educacionais no Brasil, associando-os a conjunturas histórico-sociais. Trabalham-se algumas questões de teorias e métodos, hegemonias de grupos de investigação e questões institucionais. Ressalta-se o papel da década de 80, na qual vigorosos debates são travados, a partir dos quais vêm à luz problemas intrínsecos a procedimentos de pesquisa e sua validade. Discute-se em que condições se pode falar de impacto social das pesquisas educacionais, analisando-se a possível porosidade dos conhecimentos advindos de pesquisas em educação nas ações de educadores e em políticas educacionais, perguntando-se também se a consistência metodológica desempenha, nessa porosidade, algum papel.This article studies the development of educational research in Brazil over time, relating it to the social and historical context, working on such issues as theory and method, hegemony of the research groups and institutional questions. The 1980s stand out as a time when vigorous debates were engaged based on which problems intrinsic to research procedures and their validity came to light. The article discusses under what conditions we can speak of the social impact of educational studies on educational action and policy, analyzing the possible fallibility of knowledge derived from such research and also asking whether methodological consistency plays some role in this fallibility.

  8. [The Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo: a chapter in the emergence and firm establishment of the oceanographic sciences in Brazil, 1946-1969].

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    Varela, Alex Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Historians of science have yet to study the process by which the oceanographic sciences emerged and became firmly established in Brazil. The main goal of this article is to offer a preliminary analysis of this process by focusing on the contribution of the Instituto Paulista de Oceanografia (Paulista Institute of Oceanography), Brazil's first institution for oceanographic research; it was founded in 1946 and became part of the University of São Paulo in 1951, at which time it was renamed the Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo (Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo). The analysis centers on the role of three scientists who were on the facility's early research staff: Wladimir Besnard, Ingvar Emilsson, and Marta Vannucci.

  9. Geografia da diálise peritoneal no Brasil: análise de uma coorte de 5.819 pacientes (BRAZPD Geography of peritoneal dialysis in Brazil: analysis of a cohort of 5,819 patients (BRAZPD

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    Natália Maria da Silva Fernandes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Brasil é um país continental com grande diversidade demográfica, social e cultural. Esse fator pode determinar diferenças demográficas, clínicas e no desfecho apresentado por pacientes portadores de doença renal crônica em diálise peritoneal (DP. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características clínicas e os desfechos apresentados por pacientes em DP nas diversas regiões do Brasil, analisando uma coorte de pacientes (BRAZPD no período de dezembro de 2004 a outubro de 2007. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados mensalmente e os pacientes foram acompanhados até o desfecho (óbito, transplante renal, recuperação da função renal, transferência para hemodiálise ou perda de seguimento. RESULTADOS: Avaliados 5.819 pacientes incidentes e prevalentes. A maioria dos pacientes realizava terapia renal substitutiva (TRS no Sudeste, onde a média de tempo de acompanhamento foi maior (12,3 meses e há maior percentual de idosos (36,4%. A prevalência de diabetes mellitus é maior no Sudeste e Sul do país (38,1% e 37%, respectivamente. A maioria dos pacientes da região Norte realizou hemodiálise previamente, 66,2%. A taxa de saída por óbito foi maior na região Norte (30,1%, assim como por falência da técnica (22,3%. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados revelam diferenças demográficas, clínicas e em taxas de mortalidade e falência da técnica de DP refletindo as peculiaridades demográficas e sociais do Brasil. A geografia da DP no Brasil demonstra ser um espelho da geografia do Brasil. Portanto, políticas de saúde devem levar em conta as características de cada região para que possamos melhorar a sobrevida dos pacientes e da técnica em diálise peritoneal.INTRODUCTION: Brazil is a continental country with great diversity of population, social and cultural. This factor may determine different demographic, clinical and outcome presented by patients with chronic kidney disease on peritoneal dialysis (PD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the

  10. Modelos agro-meteorológicos na estimativa da produtividade da cultura da soja na região de Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná = Agrometeorological models in the soybean crop productivity estimate, in Ponta Grossa region, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Marla Alessandra Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de modelossimplificados e agro-meteorológicos na estimativa da produtividade da cultura da soja, na região de Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, visando à previsão e ao planejamento de safras. A região estudada possui Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico e clima Cfb. Os dados de produtividade da cultura da soja (11 safras e climáticos foram disponibilizados pela Fundação ABC e Simepar, respectivamente. A evapotranspiração de referência foi estimada com o método de Penman-Monteith e os balanços hídricos diários foram determinados com um programa desenvolvido especialmente para esta finalidade. Dentre as inúmeras análises realizadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos, considerando-se: (a a disposição temporal das produtividades reais das safras da cultura da soja em dois grupos, denominados ‘Ano 1’ e ‘Ano 2’, em função da rotação de culturas na região; (b o ajuste dos coeficientes e fatores dos modelos em análises de regressão múltipla. Os modelos de Stewart et al. (1976 e Jensen (1968 possibilitaram as melhores estimativas de produtividade (R2 > 0,73.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of simplified and agrometeorological models in the soybean crop productivity estimate, looking for crop season prediction and planning, in the Ponta Grossa region, Paraná State, Brazil. The soil of the studied region is classified as Typic Hapludox and the climate as Cfb. The soybean crop productivity (11 seasons and climate data were provided by the ABC Foundation and SIMEPAR, respectively. Thereference evapotranspiration was estimated by the Penman-Monteith method and the daily water balances were determined using a program especially developed for this purpose. After innumerable analyses, the best results were obtained when the following were considered: (a the temporal distribution of real productivity of soybean crop seasons in two groups

  11. Estudo da infecção e morbidade da doença de Chagas no município de João Costa: Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brasil Study of the infection and morbidity of Chagas' disease in municipality of João Costa: National Park Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brazil

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    José Borges-Pereira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar aspectos da infecção e morbidade da doença de Chagas no município de João Costa, Piauí, Brasil, realizamos pesquisa sorológica para detectar Ig G anti-T. cruzi em 2.080 moradores através dos testes de imunofluorescência indireta, hemaglutinação indireta e ELISA. Em seguida, 189 pacientes soropositivos e 141 soronegativos foram avaliados pelo exame clínico e eletrocardiograma (ECG, enquanto a parasitemia foi pesquisada em 106 chagásicos pelo xenodiagnóstico indireto e teste da reação polimerásica em cadeia (PCR. A soropositividade total para Ig G anti-T.cruzi foi de 9,8%, com variação de 0,5% em menores de 10 anos a 39,4% em maiores de 59 anos, independentemente do sexo. O percentual de ECG alterados foi de 41,3% entre os chagásicos e de 15,6% entre os não-chagásicos (p In order to investigate aspects of the infection and morbidity of Chagas' disease in the municipality of João Costa, Piauí State, Brazil, we carried out a serological survey to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 2,080 individuals, by indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. A total of 189 seropositive and 141 seronegative patients were evaluated by anamnesis, physical exam and electrocardiogram (EKG. The parasitaemia of 106 chagasic patients was evaluated by indirect xenodiagnosis and PCR (polymerase chain reaction. The total seropositivity was 9.8%, with intervals of 0.5% in patients younger than 10 years old, and 39.4% among patients older than 59 years old, independently of the sex. The PCR and xenodiagnosis were positive, respectively in 74.5% and 15.1% of the seropositive patients (p < 0.05. The rate of abnormal EKG was 41.3% in chagasic and 15.6% in non-chagasic patients (p < 0.05. In spite of the high prevalence of infection in the investigated population, the low rate of seropositivity among children is indicative of a possible decrease of the active transmission mediated by triatomines

  12. Projeto pedagógico do programa de graduação em nutrição da Escola de Nutrição da Universidade Federal da Bahia: uma proposta em construção The pedagogical project for the undergraduate program on nutrition at the Nutrition School, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil: a proposal in-the-making

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    Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Esse projeto pedagógico fundamenta-se em princípios que estão vinculados a oito eixos educacionais, a saber: perfil profissional, competências, objetivos educacionais, eixos temáticos, organização curricular, estratégias educacionais, sistema de avaliação da aprendizagem e processo de acompanhamento e avaliação do curso. Esses eixos educacionais baseiam-se na prática multiprofissional, bem como na integração do conhecimento, visando à superação das dicotomias: biológico versus social, teoria versus prática, ciclo básico versus ciclo profissional e abordagem individual versus abordagem coletiva. A busca da flexibilização curricular e a utilização de metodologias inovadoras, que visam a uma nova forma de aprender, pautadas na autonomia e independência do aluno, são também elementos centrais do projeto. Para tanto, o aprimoramento científico-pedagógico do corpo docente e o processo de avaliação - tanto do curso, quanto dos alunos - também são incorporados ao projeto. Pretende-se socializar esta discussão com vistas a contribuir para o aprimoramento da formação do nutricionista no Brasil.The pedagogical project principles are based on eight educational issues: professional profile, competency, educational strategies, topic issues, curriculum organization, learning assessment system and course evaluation. The fundamental aim of these issues is the integration of knowledge(s, in order to overcome dichotomies such as those of the biological versus the social, the theory versus practice, the basic cycle versus the professional, and the individual approach versus the collective and the multiprofessional practices. The searches for curricular flexibility and methodological innovation imply a new way of learning which is based on the autonomy and independence of the students. Incorporated in the project, as its central elements, are the scientific and pedagogical training of teachers and the course evaluation process

  13. Incidência e fatores de risco da retinopatia da prematuridade no Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brasil Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in University Hospital Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brazil

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    Aline Macêdo Pinheiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de retinopatia da prematuridade e avaliar os principais fatores de risco implicados no seu desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Estudo coorte retrospectivo de base hospitalar realizado no período de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, no Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brasil. A amostra foi composta por 663 recém-nascidos, com idade gestacional 20 dias (p=0,022; ORaj=3,40; IC= 1,19-9,69 e a transfusão sanguínea (p=0,022; ORaj=2,06; IC= 1,11-3,83 são fatores independentes de risco para a doença. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo demonstra uma alta incidência da patologia no serviço. O baixo peso ao nascer, um tempo prolongado de oxigenoterapia, bem como a transfusão sanguínea são fatores associados ao desenvolvimento da retinopatia da prematuridade. Idade gestacional não é um dado confiável para a triagem dos neonatos realizada pelo setor.PURPOSES: To determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and assess the main risk factors involved in its development. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study carried out from January 2004 to December 2006, at University Hospital Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brazil. The sample was composed of 663 newborns, with less than or equal to 36 weeks of gestational age and/or birth weight less than or equal to 1,500 g, submitted to the protocol of retinopathy of prematurity in the ophthalmology department of the hospital. The variables were: gender, birth weight, gestational age, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and blood transfusion. Data were analyzed through the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 663 cases, retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 414 (62.4%. Of the total sample, 338 (51.0% were male and 282 (42.5% female. Mean and standard deviation of weight, gestational age and duration of oxygen therapy were, respectively, 1,334.9 ± 345.6 g, 31.9 ± 2.3 weeks and 10.0 ± 14.0 days. The

  14. Comparativo de personagens da história da enfermagem brasileira Comparativo de personajes de la historia de la enfermería brasileña Comparative analysis of people who shaped the history of nursing in Brazil

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    Patrícia de Oliveira Furukawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma reflexão sobre a história de profissionais que se destacaram na Enfermagem. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa sobre algumas personagens que muito realizaram pela Enfermagem e pela saúde no país. A análise das histórias dessas enfermeiras revelou fatos em comum, como: o rompimento de paradigmas relacionados ao casamento; a formação em instituições renomadas; a ocupação em cargos de grande importância; a participação expressiva em entidades de classe, assim como uma relação com a formação de qualidade. Através de suas biografias, percebe-se que, apesar de o contexto político da época ter favorecido na formação dessas enfermeiras, muito esforço e dedicação foram necessários para essas trajetórias de sucesso, que colaboraram para a consolidação da Enfermagem brasileira.This article presents a reflection about the story of outstanding nursing professionals. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among some people who contributed a lot to nursing and health in Brazil. The analysis of these nurses' stories unveiled facts in common: breaking of paradigms relating to marriage, education at renowned institutions, holding of very important jobs, significant membership in professional associations, and quality education. The bios of these nurses reveal that, while the political scenario then existing contributed to their education, unswerving dedication and diligence, were the key for their successful careers and helped consolidate nursing in Brazil.Este artículo es una reflexión sobre la historia de los profesionales que se destacaron en la enfermería. Para ello, la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en algunos personajes que hicieron mucho para la enfermería y la salud en el país. El análisis de las historias de estas enfermeras puesto de manifiesto en hechos común como: la ruptura de paradigmas relacionado con el matrimonio, la formación en instituciones de renombre, la ocupación en puestos

  15. Atividades da farmácia hospitalar brasileira para com pacientes hospitalizados: uma revisão da literatura Pharmaceutical services for inpatients provided by hospital pharmacies in Brazil: a review of the literature

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    Rachel Magarinos-Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a produção científica relacionada à farmácia hospitalar brasileira direcionada à internação, na tentativa de ampliar a visão sobre características e prioridades. Foram localizados dezessete artigos nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs condizentes com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão definidos a priori. A maioria ateve-se aos componentes ensino/pesquisa, logística e farmacotécnica, a partir da observação de hospitais públicos localizados no Sudeste. Percebe-se a escassez de textos relacionados a atividades estruturais como gerenciamento e seleção. Estima-se que à formação acadêmica dos farmacêuticos atrele-se a percepção da manipulação como atividade preponderante nos serviços embora, atualmente, esta seja necessária apenas em um número restrito de hospitais. Soma-se a isto a baixa adequação das atividades realizadas a normas legais e padrões estabelecidos e a inexistência de revista brasileira dedicada ao tema e indexada pela BVS. Tendo em vista a maior freqüência de trabalhos oriundos do setor público, há, aparentemente, ou maior liberdade de atuação do farmacêutico neste setor ou menor produção científica, quantificada por publicações, no setor privado.This paper discusses the literature on hospital pharmacy services for in-patients in Brazil, seeking a broader view of its characteristics and priorities. Seventeen papers were located in the Medline and Lilacs databases that complied with the pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Most of them were related to teaching and research, logistics and compounding, based on observations in public hospitals in Southeast Brazil. Few studies focused on core activities such as management and selection. The academic syllabus through which pharmacy students are trained may underlie the perception that compounding is the preponderant aspect of hospital pharmacy services, although this is required in only a few institutions. Added to

  16. Hipovitaminose A em escolares da zona rural de Minas Gerais Vitamin A deficiency in school children of the rural area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Margarete Aparecida Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o presente estudo, procurou-se identificar a prevalência da hipovitaminose A em escolares da zona rural do município de Novo Cruzeiro, MG, bem como possíveis fatores predisponentes para sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 241 crianças, de seis a catorze anos de idade, de quatro escolas rurais. Os níveis séricos de retinol foram interpretados pelos critérios do Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense. A importância epidemiológica da hipovitaminose A foi avaliada segundo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram adotados como fatores predisponentes da hipovitaminose A, as parasitoses intestinais, a desnutrição energético-protéica, o consumo inadequado de fontes de vitamina A e a renda familiar per capita. Por se tratar de um estudo transversal, com variáveis dicotômicas, empregou-se o teste qui-quadrado na análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se a hipovitaminose A em 29,0% dos indivíduos estudados; 23,2% deles apresentaram desnutrição pregressa (stunting, 8,7% eram desnutridos segundo o índice de massa corporal; em 63,1% dos casos identificou-se inadequação no consumo de fontes alimentares de vitamina A e 78,8% dos escolares eram portadores de algum tipo de parasita intestinal. A maioria das famílias dos escolares (87,1% tinha renda mensal per capita de até um quarto do salário mínimo; as demais famílias apresentavam-se, 10,4%, na faixa de renda per capita entre um quarto de salário e meio salário mínimo inclusive; 2,1%, na faixa entre meio salário e um salário mínimo inclusive; e apenas 0,4% das famílias, na faixa de renda maior que um salário mínimo. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a hipovitaminose A é um problema de saúde pública entre os escolares. Não se observou associação estatisticamente significante entre hipovitaminose A e os fatores predisponentes estudados.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the

  17. Long expansion planning of electrical power availability in Brazil under the real options theoretical approach; Planejamento de longo prazo da expansao da oferta de energia eletrica no Brasil sob uma perspectiva da teoria das opcoes reais

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    Marreco, Juliana de Moraes

    2007-05-15

    This thesis considers uncertainty on the long term generation expansion planning in the Brazilian Electric System, under a Real Options Approach . First, Real Options Theory is used to demonstrate the importance of thermo power plants insertion in Brazil, through a flexibility valuation on hydrothermal system. This is the first objective of this thesis. In the second part a Real Options Model is proposed to support long term expansion studies, based in a levelized costs analysis. The adequacy of proposed models to real problem is illustrated by a case study of the Brazilian Power System. The results show the importance of the energetic matrix diversification on the Long Term Planning. In the expansion model proposed, results are in favor of higher participation of biomass, nuclear power and coal in Brazilian electricity generation matrix. (author)

  18. Vacina antivariólica: seu primeiro século no Brasil (da vacina jenneriana à animal The small pox vaccine: its first century in Brazil (from the Jennerian to the animal vaccine

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    Tania Fernandes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo abordamos aspectos da institucionalização da vacina antivariólica no Brasil, em cerca de um século. Apresentamos descobertas e discussões ocorridas em outros países, mostrando seus reflexos em nosso país desde a introdução da vacina humanizada até a chegada da vacina animal e a criação do Instituto Vacínico Municipal, por iniciativa particular do dr. Pedro Affonso Franco, o barão de Pedro Affonso. A introdução da vacina animal significou um avanço no controle da doença e impulsionou as discussões que redundaram no alinhamento de grupos médicos e políticos em torno de Oswaldo Cruz ou do barão de Pedro Affonso. Com a incorporação do Instituto Vacínico aos laboratórios de Manguinhos, terminou a polêmica que agitou os meios acadêmicos e políticos.Covering a period of roughly hundred years, the article looks at some of the more meaningful events during the period in which the small pox vaccine was institutionalized in Brazil. Discoveries and discussions then taking place in other countries are also examined, particularly as they influenced Brazil. The process is followed from introduction of the human vaccine to the arrival of the animal vaccine and creation of the Municipal Vaccine Institute - a private initiative by physician Pedro Affonso Franco, also known as the barão de Pedro Affonso. Adoption of the animal vaccine not only represented progress in controlling the disease but also spurred discussions that saw medical and political groups in Brazil taking sides with either Oswaldo Cruz or the barão de Pedro Affonso. The debate continued within the academic and political arenas until the Vaccine Institute was made part of the Manguinhos laboratories.

  19. Fecundidade em Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae) da lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fecundity of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae) in lagoa da Conceição, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco; Marcelo Gentil Avilar

    1992-01-01

    The estimate for the average fecundity for the C. danae population of Lagoa da Conceição (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina) was of 598.885 eggs by female. The average number of eggs and the weight of the mass of eggs, in general, increase with the female size. The variation in colour and in the diameter of the eggs is associated with the degree of development of the embryo.

  20. Fecundidade em Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae da lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fecundity of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae in lagoa da Conceição, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate for the average fecundity for the C. danae population of Lagoa da Conceição (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina was of 598.885 eggs by female. The average number of eggs and the weight of the mass of eggs, in general, increase with the female size. The variation in colour and in the diameter of the eggs is associated with the degree of development of the embryo.

  1. Robotic rectosigmoidectomy: pioneer case report in Brazil. Current scene in colorectal robotic surgery Retossigmoidectomia laparoscópica robô-assistida: relato de caso pioneiro no Brasil. Panorama atual da cirurgia robótica colorretal

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    Marcelo Averbach

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is believed to be technically and oncologically feasible. Robotic surgery is an attractive mode in performing minimally-invasive surgery once it has several advantages if compared to standard laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this paper is to report the first known case of colorectal resection surgery using the robotic assisted surgical device in Brazil. A 35-year-old woman with deep infiltrating endometriosis with rectal involvement was referred for colorectal resection using da Vinci® surgical system. The authors also reviewed the most current series and discussed not only the safety and feasibility but also the real benefits of robotic colorectal surgeryA cirurgia laparoscópica colorretal é considerada tecnicamente factível e segura, com resultados oncológicos comparáveis à cirurgia aberta. A cirurgia robótica é uma atraente modalidade de cirurgia minimamente invasiva, com algumas vantagens claras sobre a laparoscopia convencional. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a experiência pioneira da cirurgia colorretal robô-assistida no Brasil. A paciente de 35 anos operada com auxílio do sistema da Vinci® tinha endometriose profunda, com envolvimento do reto. É feita ampla revisão da literatura, discutindo não apenas a indicação e segurança da cirurgia robótica colorretal, mas também seus reais benefícios

  2. Thalidomide Analogs in Brazil: Concern About Teratogenesis / Análogos da Talidomida no Brasil: Preocupação com a Teratogênese

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    Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been more than 50 years since thalidomide was withdrawn from the world market due to its teratogenic potential. However, its widespread use around the world resumed due to its immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties. The drug established itself in new therapies, and interest continued with the emergence of more potent analogs, the most notable being lenalidomide and pomalidomide, which are not approved in Brazil. The question that arises after analog synthesis is: Do these drugs also have the same teratogenic potential? The answer to this question is based only on experimental studies because exposure to humans is not authorized and has not yet been descri-bed. Although thalidomide has been recognized as a powerful human teratogen for many years, its molecular mechanisms of teratogenesis remain to be fully explained. Efforts with animal models and human genetic studies have clarified some important pathways that are most likely involved in the teratogenic action of thalidomide. However, it has not yet been possible to identify the teratogenic domain of the molecule from the therapeutic ones. Moreover, there are species-specific differences that must be taken into consideration when teratogenicity is evaluated. -------------------------------------------------------------- Faz mais de 50 anos que a talidomida foi retirada do mercado mundial devido ao seu potencial teratogênico. Entretanto, seu uso disseminado em todo o mundo foi retomado devido às suas propriedades imunomodulatórias e antiangiogênicas. A droga foi utilizada em novas terapias e o interesse continuou com a emergência de análogos mais potentes, os mais notáveis deles sendo a lenalidomida e a pomalidomida, que não estão aprovados no Brasil. A questão que surge após a síntese dos análogos é: Estas drogas também têm o mesmo potencial teratogênico? A resposta a esta pergunta baseia-se apenas em estudos experimentais, pois a exposição a humanos não est

  3. Modelos da distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas em Piracicaba, SP Time distribution models of intense rainfall in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

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    Décio E. Cruciani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da variação temporal de chuvas intensas é de grande importância na hidrologia, para a análise e previsão de eventos extremos, necessárias em projetos de controle de engenharia. Com esse objetivo, foram analisados dados de pluviogramas da cidade de Piracicaba, SP, do período de 1966 a 2000, para se determinar a distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas de 60 e de 120 min de duração. As chuvas de 60 min foram subdivididas em três intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 20 min cada um, enquanto as chuvas de 120 min foram subdivididas em quatro intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 30 min cada um. O modelo de distribuição da precipitação que predominou para as chuvas de 60 e 120 min, foi do tipo exponencial negativo, com 85,7 e 50,7% dos casos, respectivamente. Para as chuvas de 60 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 20,7 mm, a distribuição foi de 72,3, 21,4 e 6,2% do total precipitado, respectivamente, nos três intervalos sucessivos de 20 min. Para as chuvas de 120 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 33,3 mm, o resultado foi de 60,1, 25,2, 11,1 e 3,6%, respectivamente, nos quatro intervalos sucessivos de 30 min. O modelo de distribuição temporal dessas chuvas não foi modificado pelo total precipitado nem pela sua duração, nos intervalos em questão.Time distribution models of intense and short rains are very important in hydrology and for extreme predictions in engineering projects. With this purpose, rain data of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, from 1966 to 2000 were analyzed to establish time distribution models of 60 and 120 min intense rains, during the rainy season from October through March. Time distribution models were assessed by three intervals of twenty minutes duration, for 60 min rains and by four intervals of thirty minutes duration for 120 min rains. The prevailing precipitation model for both, 60 and 120 min rains was a negative exponential distribution, in 85.7 and 50.7% of cases, respectively. For 60 min

  4. Contribuições da antropologia à medicina: uma revisão de estudos no Brasil Contributions from anthropology to medicine: a bibliographic review in Brazil

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    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita revisão e análise, sob um ponto de vista antropológico, da literatura mais representativa sobre saúde e doença e práticas de cura no Brasil. Nessa literatura, em primeiro lugar, houve a preocupação de coletar documentos sobre as tradições regionais do mundo rural, expressando uma ampla variedade de pontos de vista. Em geral, "medicina popular" era vista como um conjunto de práticas e idéias rudes e imitativas, provenientes tanto da medicina erudita do passado como das tradições étnicas brasileiras. Em segundo lugar, as ciências sociais exerceram uma grande influência neste tipo de estudo. Depois dos anos 30 e, principalmente, dos anos 40 aos 70, um número importante de trabalhos tiveram lugar nesse campo de estudo, influenciados pelas posturas acadêmicas como, por exemplo, o funcionalismo, a teoria da aculturação, e as teorias do desenvolvimento. Durante os anos 70 o campo atingiu a sua maturidade com um grande número de pesquisas sob várias influências teóricas. As teorias estruturalistas e funcional-estruturalistas (que variam entre o formalismo abstrato e o substantivismo tiveram um peso mais consistente nessa década. Três importantes estudos recentes foram também analisados, e as principais tendências abertas nesse campo foram também discutidas, particularmente as tentativas marxistas de análise.An analysis was made of the most representative literature both on health and illness representations and on practices of cure in Brazil from an anthropological point of view. Firsttly, there was in this litterature the concern of collecting the folk traditions from the rural world, expressing a great variety of viewpoints. In general, "popular medicine" was seen as a set of rude and imitative ideas and practices stemming from both the erudite medicine of the past and Brazilian ethnic traditions. Secondly, social sciences have had a great influence on this kind of study. After the 30's, particularly from the

  5. Prevalência de tabagismo em localidade urbana da região sudeste do Brasil Prevalence of smoking in a city of southeasthern Brazil

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    Cecília Amaro de Lolio

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal de prevalência da hipertensão arterial da população de 15-74 anos de idade, residente na zona urbana do Município de Araraquara, localidade situada a 250 km da cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1987. Na ocasião foram perguntadas aos 1.199 entrevistados (533 do sexo masculino e 666 do sexo feminino questões sobre o uso de tabaco (fumo, a forma de uso, o hábito de tragar, bem como variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi equiprobabilística, por conglomerados, em três estágios. A prevalência de tabagismo foi bastante alta, de 45,2% entre os homens e 22,8% entre as mulheres. Os ex-fumantes eram em percentagem de 15,9% entre os homens e 8,0% das mulheres. O sexo masculino fumava maior quantidade de equivalentes de cigarro do que o feminino. As camadas de mais baixa renda familiar fumavam mais, em ambos os sexos, do que os estratos de renda mais alta. Entre os homens, a prevalência de tabagismo diminuía com a maior escolaridade e nas mulheres, este aspecto não foi notado. Comparando com os resultados já publicados sobre a alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial e de obesidade, nota-se que a população de Araraquara, cidade média do interior urbano afluente do Brasil, apresenta uma freqüência bastante alta de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.A cross-sectional study for prevalence of arterial hipertension in the population aged 15-74 years of age of the urban area of Araraquara County, 250 km from the city of S. Paulo, S. Paulo, State, Brazil, in 1987, was performed. The questionnaires presented to 1,199 people (533 men and 666 women at the interview consisted of regarding sociodemographic variables, as well as the use of tobacco (smoking, the ways in which tobacco was used and the habit of inhaling the smoke. The sample was taken by the procedure of clustering, carried out in three stages. The sample was equiprobabilistic. The prevalence of

  6. Cólera e condições de vida da população Cholera and living conditions, Brazil

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    Moacir Gerolomo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fatores relacionados às condições de vida da população e condições ambientais precárias são freqüentemente citados como os maiores obstáculos para o controle de surtos e epidemias por cólera. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o peso de fatores referentes às condições de vida da população, relacionando questões ambientais com a instalação e o impacto da cólera. MÉTODO: Através de uma regressão linear múltipla, pelo método "backward stepwise", com influência do investigador, foram correlacionados os indicadores socioeconômicos com as taxas de incidência por cólera observadas nos municípios do Estado de Pernambuco, no ano de 1992. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: O modelo ajustado indica que a proporção de domicílios que utilizam água não proveniente de uma rede geral é a variável que tem maior peso na flutuação positiva das taxas de incidência de cólera. As variáveis "proporção de domicílios não ligados à rede geral de esgotos" e "proporção de chefes de família com renda igual ou menor do que um salário-mínimo mensal" também se associam positivamente, com coeficientes de regressão estatisticamente significativos, às taxas de incidência de cólera. A proporção de domicílios sem nenhuma instalação sanitária, por outro lado, se associa negativamente às taxas de incidência de cólera, sugerindo que instalações sanitárias, sem existência de rede de esgoto, aumentam o risco de contaminação ambiental. Os resultados apontam que a maior prioridade em saneamento é a oferta de água de boa qualidade.INTRODUCTION: Factors associated with precarious living and environmental conditions are frequently cited as major obstacles for the control of cholera outbreaks and epidemics. The purposes of the study are to evaluate the contribution of factors associated with the population living conditions and correlate the environmental problems with the onset of cholera

  7. Análise espacial dos casos humanos de esquistossomose em uma comunidade horticultora da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil Spatial analysis of schistosomiasis human cases in the horticultural community of Zona da Mata of Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a distribuição espacial da esquistossomose na comunidade horticultora de Natuba, Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco. Foi conduzido um inquérito parasitológico, onde foi examinado o material fecal de 310 moradores da comunidade. Os casos positivos para Schistosoma mansoni foram georreferenciados e incluídos no croqui da localidade, gerando os mapas de distribuição espacial com estimadores de kernel. Os resultados apresentaram uma alta prevalência para esquistossomose, com 28,4% da população parasitada. Outros parasitos foram encontrados em 25,8% da população. O uso das ferramentas de geoprocessamento permitiu mapear e compreender a distribuição dos casos de esquistossomose no espaço ocupado pela comunidade, destacando e relacionando locais de menor altitude (passíveis de alagamento, com uma maior frequência de casos humanos. Estudos como este fornecem informações para que os serviços de saúde local possam intervir e promover mudanças para que indivíduos residentes em áreas com baixas condições habitacionais minimizem sua exposição ao risco de contrair a esquistossomose.The objective of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in horticultural community of Natuba, district of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco state. It was conducted a parasitological survey, examined the fecal material of 310 community residents. The cases positive for Schistosoma mansoni were geocoded and included in the computerized template of the community, generating maps of spatial distribution with kernel estimators. The results showed a high prevalence of schistosomiasis, with 28.4% of the parasites. Other parasites were found in 25.8% of the population. The use of GIS tools to map and understand the possible distribution of cases of schistosomiasis in the space occupied by the community highlighting and listing locations of lower elevation (able to flooding, with a

  8. A desnutrição e obesidade no Brasil: o enfrentamento com base na agenda única da nutrição Malnutrition and obesity in Brazil: dealing with the problem through a unified nutritional agenda

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    Janine Giuberti Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, assim como outros países em desenvolvimento, convive atualmente com a transição nutricional, determinada freqüentemente pela má-alimentação. Os inquéritos populacionais mostraram a tendência contínua de redução da desnutrição no país, associada ao aumento do excesso de peso em diferentes fases da vida. O monitoramento do perfil nutricional permite a geração de uma atitude de vigilância e o direcionamento das ações de promoção de saúde. A Estratégia Saúde da Família, em conjunto com diversos aspectos conjunturais do país, mostrou resultados concretos para a redução da desnutrição; contudo, a má-alimentação contribuiu de forma expressiva para o aumento da prevalência de obesidade e de outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, que, além de ter grande impacto na qualidade de vida do indivíduo, oneram significativamente o Sistema Único de Saúde. Para atuar nesse dilema da saúde pública contemporânea, é necessário priorizar uma agenda única de nutrição, no enfoque do curso da vida, quebrando um ciclo vicioso que se inicia ainda no período intra-uterino e se perpetua ao longo da vida.Brazil, like other developing countries, is currently experiencing a nutritional transition that is often determined by poor eating. Population-based surveys have shown a continuing downward trend in undernutrition in this country, together with increases in excess weight at different stages of life. Monitoring the nutritional profile helps generate an attitude of surveillance and orientation of health promotion activities. The Family Health Strategy, together with various situational aspects in Brazil, has shown tangible results in the reduction of undernutrition; still, poor eating has played a major role in the increased prevalence of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases, besides having a heavy impact on individual quality of life and placing a significant burden on the Unified National

  9. Prevenção da Aids com adolescentes encarcerados em São Paulo, SP AIDS prevention among incarcerated teenagers, Brazil

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    Camila Alves Peres

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil de adolescentes quanto ao apoio social e familiar, ao uso de drogas e os conhecimentos, as práticas e atitudes relacionadas à Aids e sua prevenção. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 275 jovens internos, do sexo masculino, de um centro de internação da Fundação Estadual do Bem Estar do Menor (Febem, em São Paulo, SP. A pesquisa foi feita em duas fases: a primeira por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 20 internos; a segunda, com questionários para auto-respostas aplicados aos 275 internos, com perguntas fechadas referentes a características sociodemográficas, criminalidade, práticas sexuais, uso de drogas, conhecimento, atitudes e práticas relativas à Aids. RESULTADOS: Do total estudado, 90% dos jovens internos residiam com suas famílias antes da internação; todos haviam estudado em escolas públicas, ainda que 61% já houvessem abandonado os estudos; 12% já haviam usado drogas; e 5,5% eram usuários de drogas intravenosas. A maioria (98% era sexualmente ativa; 35% haviam tido mais de 15 parceiras(os sexuais ao longo da vida; 8% haviam tido experiências homossexuais (dentro ou fora da Febem; 12% já haviam trocado sexo por benefícios materiais; e 22% já eram pais. Muitos dos adolescentes afirmaram que adquirir o HIV "é parte da vida" e que suas vidas apresentam riscos piores, como sobreviver na criminalidade. Acreditam que o preservativo é frágil (83% e atrapalha a relação sexual (58%; 72% já haviam utilizado preservativo, mas apenas 9% o utilizavam sempre. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes apresentaram um elevado risco de aquisição do HIV. Assim, torna-se necessário integrar a prevenção da Aids em sua problemática de vida e em temas como racismo, esperança pelo futuro, criminalidade, uso de drogas, direitos fundamentais, incluídos nestes os referentes ao sexo e à reprodução, mostrando existir alternativas a adquirir o HIV ou morrer na criminalidade.OBJECTIVES: To describe social and

  10. Em defesa da vida: : modelo do Sistema Único de Saúde de Volta Redonda In defese of life: a SUS model in Volta Redonda, Brazil

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    Roseni Pinheiro

    2001-12-01

    contextos econômico, político e social.Brazil's health system reform is one of the most successful examples of a non-centralized process of institutional building. Nevertheless, this was a limited process and those limits are related both with the nature of the institutions in charge of health services supply and with the population's demands, heavily committed with political democracy, considering that health is a citizenship right. This right placed the issues related to health services access to a central place in the Brazilian political debate; the poli ti cal and institutional reform of the State were guided to an empowerment of local government, now the main supplier of health services, since the 1988 Brazilian Constitution, a universal right to local health services. This thesis focuses on the relationship between demand and supply in health services, within the perspective of the daily life of the different social actors. The case of Volta Redonda - a historical birth land of the Brazilian steel metallurgy - is the basis of a local experience related to the health system reform. The building of the "Unified Health System (SUS" - the new health system created by 1988's BraziIian Constitution - in Volta Redonda was very successful, with the model named "Em Defesa da Vida" (In Defense of Life that reached the four main institutional principies of the national health reform, also adopting a very efficient family's health program, along with a homeopathy medical assistance program at the local level. The Volta Redonda success had been a limited one, because of non-biological factors. That means that social, political and economical variables were also very actively present on that scene.

  11. A interiorização da epidemia de HIV/AIDS e o fluxo intermunicipal de internação hospitalar na Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brasil: uma análise espacial Decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and inter-municipal flow of hospital admissions in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a spatial analysis

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    Cláudia Tartaglia Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar o processo de interiorização da epidemia de AIDS e investigar o acesso aos serviços em HIV/AIDS, entre 1988-2002, na Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Realizou-se estudo ecológico, com abordagem têmporo-espacial. Construiu-se um fluxo de internação hospitalar, tendo como referência pacientes maiores de 15 anos, internados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, nos anos de 1996 e 2004, residentes nos municípios da região. Foram registrados 2.469 casos de AIDS em maiores de 15 anos no período; as taxas médias de incidência e mortalidade foram calculadas e reestimadas pelo estimador bayesiano empírico local para representar de maneira mais clara os municípios com maior concentração de casos e de óbitos. Verificou-se a interiorização da epidemia. Juiz de Fora é o município com maior número de casos e provável centro difusor da AIDS na região. A assistência hospitalar dos casos de AIDS da Zona da Mata está concentrada nesse município. Destaca-se necessidade de investigações adicionais sobre causas da não-participação de hospitais de referência em outros municípios da região na gerência e prestação de cuidados aos pacientes que vivem com HIV/AIDS.The aim of this article was to analyze the decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (a shift towards rural areas or away from the coast and to investigate access to HIV/AIDS services from 1988 to 2002 in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An ecological study was performed using temporal and spatial approaches. A hospital admissions flow between municipalities developed, and the reference group was AIDS patients over 15 years of age admitted in 1996 and 2004, residing in municipalities in the Zona da Mata. There were 2,469 reported AIDS cases in individuals over 15 during the period. Mean incidence and mortality rates were calculated and recalculated by a local empirical Bayesian method in order to more clearly represent the

  12. Evaluation of bank efficiency in Brazil: a DEA approach / Avaliação da eficiência bancária brasileira: uma abordagem DEA

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    Patricia Benites Cava

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research aims to evaluate the efficiency of banks that operated in the Brazilian market in 2013. To achieve this goal, efficient banks were identified according to the production approach. To detect and explain efficiency standards, additional analyses were carried out related to: 1. capital origin, 2. size, 3. business segment, and 4. risk rating. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The Brazilian literature on bank efficiency features several studies linking the efficiency of banks to capital origin and size. However, the relationship between efficiency and business segment has been poorly explored and the relationship between efficiency and risk rating is scarce. In this sense, this research contributes to the literature by exploring the relationship between efficiency and business segment, as well as the relationship between efficiency and risk rating. Key methodological aspects: The research uses a quantitative approach and employs the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA technique to calculate efficiency scores. The data were obtained from the Central Bank of Brazil (Bacen. Summary of key results: Federal public banks and large banks are, on average, more efficient. Banks operating in foreign exchange and retail, as well as banks with high credit ratings, also achieved high levels of efficiency. Key considerations/conclusions: Efficient banks proved to be more profitable, lent less money in proportion to their total assets, and received fewer complaints filed with the Central Bank of Brazil in 2013. Objetivo: A pesquisa tem como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de bancos que atuaram no mercado brasileiro no ano de 2013. Para atingir este objetivo foram identificados os bancos eficientes sob a abordagem de produção. A fim de detectar e explicar padrões de eficiência, foram realizadas análises complementares relacionadas a (1 origem de capital, (2 porte, (3 segmento de atuação e (4 classificação de risco (rating da institui

  13. Insetos indutores de galhas da porção sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brasil Gall inducing insects from southern portion of the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de insetos galhadores é maior nas latitudes intermediárias em hábitats quentes e com vegetação esclerófila sob estresse hídrico e de nutrientes. Em regiões tropicais, os campos rupestres são indicados como hábitats ricos em espécies de insetos galhadores. Neste trabalho, foram descritas as galhas induzidas por insetos e suas plantas hospedeiras na porção sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço, sudeste do Brasil. Foram selecionados 60 sítios em seis regiões ao longo na porção sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço no estado de Minas Gerais. Em cada sítio 100 plantas foram amostradas totalizando 6.000 plantas censuradas ao longo de um gradiente altitudinal de 668 a 1860m. Foram encontrados 241 morfotipos de galhas em 142 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 29 famílias e de um total de 384 espécies de plantas amostradas. As famílias mais ricas em espécies de insetos galhadores foram Asteraceae (42%, principalmente espécies do gênero Baccharis. A maior parte das galhas (85% foi induzida por insetos da família Cecidomyiidae seguidos por Lepidoptera (4% e Homoptera (3%. Os ramos foram os órgãos mais freqüentemente atacados (72% enquanto que os morfotipos mais comuns foram o elíptico (37% e o globóide (36%. A espécie de planta hospedeira que apresentou mais morfotipos de galhas foi Baccharis pseudomyriocephala com 10 galhas distintas. Este estudo sustenta a afirmativa que campos rupestres apresentam uma elevada riqueza em espécies de insetos galhadores.Galling species richness is higher at intermediate latitudes on warm habitats and sclerophyllous vegetation under water and nutrient stress. In the tropical region, galling species richness is higher in rupestrian fields. Here the gall-inducing insects and their host plants of the southern portion of the Espinhaço range, southeastern Brazil are described. 60 study sites from six distinct regions along the Espinhaço range, at Minas Gerais state were selected. In each study site 100

  14. Fundamentos éticos da esfera discursiva da imprensa no Brasil: um jogo de epígrafes e memórias Ethical fundaments of the discursive sphere of press in Brazil: a game of epigraphs and memories

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    Anderson Salvaterra Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutem-se as epígrafes dos dois primeiros periódicos a circularem no Brasil como metonímias da postura ética assumida por cada projeto discursivo editorial. de um ponto de vista dialógico bakhtiniano de linguagem, distinguem-se memória subjetiva e memória objetiva e identifica-se, no jogo de epígrafes, um processo interacional a partir do resgate de diferentes memórias objetivas. o diálogo entre instituições atualizado pelas epígrafes revela a tensão ética e discursiva fundadora da esfera da imprensa brasileira e contribui para a construção de possibilidades identitárias nacionais. as memórias recuperadas pela Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, jornal áulico, sustentam uma organização interacional orientada por um senso de individualidade que alimenta hierarquia entre sujeitos e opera com o princípio de exclusão no fundamento de identidades sociais. diferentemente, a memória recuperada pelo Correio Braziliense, jornal independente, opera com um senso de coletividade que problematiza a noção de povo, traz para discussão o caráter de brasilidade e, assim, sustenta o princípio de participação na construção identitária nacional. este trabalho contribui para o amadurecimento teórico-metodológico de pesquisas sócio-históricas porque demonstra, a partir do conceito de memória do objeto, como a pesquisa que lida com a historicidade do objeto é orientada também pelo que o objeto diz do fenômeno investigado.In this paper, the epigraphs of the first two periodicals circulating in Brazil are discussed as metonymies of the ethical posture taken by each editorial discursive project. From a Bakhtinian dialogic point of view of language, subjective and objective memories are distinguished and, in the game of epigraphs, an interactional process is identified by recovering of different objective memories. The dialogue between institutions actualized by the epigraphs reveals the ethical and discursive tension which

  15. Teses interativas sobre um debate analógico a respeito da novela da implementação da TV digital no Brasil | Interactive thesis on an analogical debate about the long-winded implementation of digital TV in Brazil

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    Adilson Vaz Cabral Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A proposta deste artigo é promover uma análise abrangente do recente processo decisório do sistema de TV Digital terrestre a ser adotado no Brasil, do ponto de vista das negociações entre governo e empresas, da mobilização e reivindicações das organizações da sociedade civil, bem como da movimentação de consórcios estrangeiros. Parte de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, para apresentá-lo como um processo que carece da adoção de uma regulação compatível com o ambiente de convergência e interatividade a ser implementado, na qual seja manifesta a construção de um sistema diversificado e plural, capaz de evidenciar a competência de nossos técnicos, artistas e produtores culturais. Palavras-chave: tv digital, digitalização das comunicações, políticas de comunicação.   Abstract This paper proposes a broad analysis of the recent decision process of the Digital Television System to be adopted in Brazil, from the point of view of the negotiations between government and companies, from mobilization and reivindications of civil society organizations, and from the movement of foreign groups of the sector. It is based on bibliographical and documental research, to show it as a process that needs a compatible regulation with convergence and interactivity environment to be adopted, in which is manifested the building of a diversified and plural system, capable of putting in evidence the competence of our technicians, artists and cultural producers. Keywords digital television, communication digitisation, communication policies

  16. Gestão coletiva de bens comuns no extrativismo da mangaba no nordeste do Brasil Collective mangement of common goods in mangaba extractivism in the northeast of Brazil

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    Heribert Schmitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a gestão coletiva de bens comuns no extrativismo da mangaba destacando o acesso aos recursos, os arranjos institucionais e os conflitos sociais entre os atores envolvidos. A pesquisa foi realizada no Nordeste do Brasil a partir de observações, entrevistas e dados secundários. O trabalho mostra a existência de remanescentes de mangabeiras bem conservados a partir da gestão coletiva.This article analyses the collective management of common goods within the context of mangaba fruit collection; it focuses on the access to resources, the institutional arrangements and the social conflicts among the involved actors. The research was undertaken in northeastern Brazil and is based on observations, interviews and secondary data. The study demonstrates the existence of well preserved mangaba trees due to collective management.

  17. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

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    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  18. Malacofauna límnica da área de influência do lago da usina hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa, Goiás, Brasil.: I. Estudo qualitativo Freshwater molluscs of the lake of Serra da Mesa dam, Goiás, Brazil.: I. Qualitative study

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    Silvana C. Thiengo

    2005-12-01

    conditions unique to particular projects, necessitate studies in each particular locality in order that appropriate preventive measures can be implemented. The increasing number of dams being built throughout Brazil is a problematic issue because these dams not only create conditions suitable for the establishment of the vector molluscs but also lead to increased permanent human settlement and tourism. The World Health Organization, as well as the Brazilian National Health Foundation, recommend a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis foci, including monitoring mollusc populations. This paper focuses on our work at Serra da Mesa dam, Goiás, where qualitative and quantitative surveys of the freshwater mollusc fauna have been undertaken during the period of 1997 to 2004, aiming mainly to investigate the occurrence and distribution of species of medical importance. Twenty-eight species, belonging to nine families, were found. In addition to documenting new records in the state this paper gives details of the distribution of the two species of medical importance, Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 and Lymnaea columella Say, 1817, as well as the invasive freshwater species Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 and Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774.

  19. Brazil's strategic partnerships: an assessment of the Lula era (2003-2010 Parcerias estratégicas do Brasil: um balanço da era Lula (2003 - 2010

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    Antônio Carlos Lessa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the priority bilateral relations of Brazil, named "strategic partnerships", both because of their tradition and historical relevance and due to the existence of political and economic cooperation projects. An assessment of these relationships, especially under Lula's administration, is made in this work, bearing in mind the concept of "strategic partnerships" and its development in Brazilian foreign policy. There will be considered partnerships with the US; Argentina; Japan; China; India; South Africa and the European Union. In the article, the meaning of the increase in these relationships is interpreted on the grounds of its significance to the international insertion strategy of BrazilNo trabalho são examinados os relacionamentos bilaterais prioritários do Brasil, que receberam a denominação de "parcerias estratégicas", tanto por causa da sua tradição e relevância histórica, quanto por causa da existência de projetos de cooperação política e econômica. A partir da elaboração do conceito de "parcerias estratégicas", e de como ela se construiu na política externa brasileira, neste trabalho se propõe um balanço desses relacionamentos especialmente durante a administração Lula da Silva (2003-2010. São examinadas as parcerias com os Estados Unidos, Argentina, Japão, China, Índia, África do Sul e União Européia. Propõe-se uma interpretação sobre o significado que o incremento desses vínculos possui para a estratégia de inserção internacional do País

  20. Epidemiologia e diferenças regionais da retinopatia diabética em Pernambuco, Brasil Epidemiology and regional differences of diabetic retinopathy in Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Escarião

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os dados de freqüência e estadiamento da retinopatia diabética em Pernambuco, Brasil, comparando a região metropolitana com cidades do interior do estado. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de 2.223 pacientes diabéticos (1.568 mulheres e 655 homens; idade média de 58,4 ± 12,0 anos; duração média do diabetes de 8,1 ± 6,3 anos, que fizeram parte de um programa de triagem para retinopatia diabética na Fundação Altino Ventura entre os meses de junho de 2004 e junho de 2005, foram revistos quanto à presença de retinopatia. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos quanto à origem: grupo I, pacientes residentes em Recife e região metropolitana; grupo II, pacientes residentes no interior do estado de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: No grupo I, 477 (24,2% pacientes apresentavam retinopatia diabética ao passo que no grupo II, 89 (39,4% pacientes (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy among patients cared for in a screening program in Pernambuco, Brazil, comparing regional differences between urban and rural zones. METHODS: The charts of 2,223 diabetic patients (1,568 females and 655 males; mean age 59.3 ± 12.0 years; mean duration of diabetes 8.1 ± 6.3 years that took part in a screening program for diabetic retinopathy at Altino Ventura Foundation from June 2004 to June 2005 were reviewed for the presence of the disease. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, patients living in Recife and the metropolitan area; group II, patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state. RESULTS: In group I, 477 (24.2% patients had diabetic retinophathy, while in group II, 89 (39.4% patients (p<0.0001. The frequency of proliferative diabetic retinophathy, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment was higher in group II patients (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state have a higher incidence of diabetic retinophathy and the advanced forms than

  1. Aspectos florísticos da vegetação de restinga no litoral de Pernambuco Floristics aspects of restinga vegetation in the coast of Pernambuco - Brazil

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    Ana Cláudia Sacramento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As zonas costeiras acolhem quadros de alta riqueza e relevância ecológica que as qualificam como importante ecossistema para conservação. O objetivo deste estudo foi listar as espécies que compõem a restinga da praia do Paiva e descrever a sua fisionomia. A área de restinga compreende 147 ha, situa-se no Município do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE, sob as coordenadas 08º07'30"S e 35º00'55"W. As coletas florísticas foram realizadas durante 28 meses, em todos os estratos. O solo foi classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico; foram determinadas duas fisionomias: a floresta não-inundável e o fruticeto aberto não-inundável. Foram listadas 124 espécies, distribuídas em 103 gêneros e 55 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae, com 11 espécies, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 e Asteraceae (5. As espécies Anacardium occidentale, Tapirira guianensis, Chamaecrista ramosa, Protium heptaphyllum, Byrsonima sericea, Myrcia rotundifolia e Marlierea schotti são encontradas na maioria das restingas do Nordeste. No entanto, devido à incipiência dos estudos na Região não foram verificadas espécies endêmicas.The high biodiversity and richness of the coastal zone make it an important ecosystem to be preserved. The aim of this study is to list the species composition of the restinga area (147 ha. of Paiva beach, in Cabo de Santo Agostinho-Pernambuco (08º07'30"S and 35º00'55"W and describe the physiognomies. Floristic survey was carried out for 28 months for all strata. The soil was classified as Quartzarenic Neosoil and two physiognomies were determined: unflooded forest and unflooded open shrubby vegetation. One hundred-twenty-four species were recorded, distributed in 103 genera and 55 families. The families with the highest number of species were: Myrtaceae (11, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 and Asteraceae (5. Anacardium occidentale, Byrsonima sericea

  2. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  3. PINTURAS RUPESTRES DA REGIÃO ARQUEOLÓGICA DE PIRIPIRI, PIAUÍ, BRASIL (Rock Paintings from the Archaeological Area of Piripiri, Piauí, Brazil

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    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O município de Piripiri, no estado do Piauí (Brasil, tem diversos sítios arqueológicos, essencialmente abrigos sob rocha e paredões decorados com pinturas rupestres e/ou gravuras, testemunhos excepcionais de atividade humana antiga. Em particular, os povoados Buriti dos Cavalos, Cadoz Velho e Jardim, localizados na área rural de Piripiri, apresentam algumas inscrições pré-históricas caracterizadas pela beleza exuberante, elevada densidade de registros gráficos e frequente policromia, tornando-se assim áreas de especial interesse para o estudo arqueológico de arte rupestre. Além da policromia, há sobreposições e recorrência dos registros rupestres, pintados em diferentes momentos de evolução gráfica. As pinturas rupestres consistem de grafismos puros e geométricos, carimbos de mãos humanas, motivos antropomórficos e zoomórficos, pintadas em amarelo, preto, cinza (inclusive na cor cinza-esverdeada, rosa, branco, alaranjado e predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho. ENGLISH: The municipality of Piripiri, in the state of Piauí (Brazil, has several archaeological sites, essentially rock shelters and walls decorated with rock paintings or engravings, which are exceptional testimonies of ancient human activity. In the rural area of Piripiri, the villages Buriti dos Cavalos, Cadoz Velho, and Jardim, present some prehistoric inscriptions characterized by lush beauty, high density of graphic records, and frequent polychrome. These are areas of special interest to the archaeological study of rock art. In addition to the polychrome, there are overlaps and recurrences of rock records, painted in different moments of graphic evolution. The rock paintings consist of pure and geometric graphisms, human handprints, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs, predominantly made in different tonalities of red, but also painted in yellow, black, gray (including a greenish-gray color, pink, white, and orangish tones.

  4. Racial inequalities in access to women's health care in southern Brazil Desigualdades raciais no acesso à saúde da mulher no Sul do Brasil

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    Fernanda Souza de Bairros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate access by 20 to 60 year-old women - both black and white - to early detection (pap-smear exams for breast and cervical cancer in two towns - São Leopoldo and Pelotas - in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. Estimates of the association between race/color and access to pap-smear and breast exams were adjusted for income, education, economic class and age. Of the 2,030 women interviewed, 16.1% were black and 83.9%, white. Black women were significantly less likely to have had a pap-smear and/or breast exam than white women. Racial inequalities in access to cancer early detection exams persisted after controlling for age and other socioeconomic factors. Racial differentials in access to early detection (pap-smear exams for breast and cervical cancers might result from racial and socioeconomic inequalities experienced by black women in access to reproductive health care services and programs.O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar o acesso de mulheres negras e brancas aos exames de detecção precoce de câncer de mama e colo de útero (citopatológico, em duas cidades no Sul do Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional realizado com mulheres de 20-60 anos, residentes em São Leopoldo e Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As análises foram ajustadas por renda, escolaridade, classe econômica e idade para verificar a associação entre raça/cor e acesso aos exames. Foram entrevistadas 2.030 mulheres, sendo que 16,1% eram negras e 83,9% brancas. A probabilidade das mulheres não realizarem os exames citopatológico e de mama foi significantemente maior nas negras. A desigualdade racial no acesso aos exames de detecção precoce de câncer persistiu após controle para idade e variáveis socioeconômicas. O diferencial na realização dos exames de detecção precoce pode ser um reflexo das desigualdades raciais e socioeconômicas vividas por

  5. Modelling air temperature for the state of São Paulo, Brazil Modelagem da temperatura do ar para o estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Luis Rodríguez-Lado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial modelling of air temperature (maximum, mean and minimum of the State of São Paulo (Brazil was calculated by multiple regression analysis and ordinary kriging. Climatic data (mean values of five or more years were obtained from 256 meteorological stations distributed uniformly over the State. The correlation between the climatic dependent variables, with latitude and altitude as independent variables was significant and could explain most of the spatial variability. The coefficients of determination (P Foram utilizadas técnicas de análise de regressão linear múltipla e krigagem ordinária para a modelagem espacial das temperaturas máximas, mínimas, médias do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Os dados climáticos foram obtidos de 256 estações climatológicas distribuídas na totalidade do Estado. O período mínimo das séries climáticas utilizadas foi de cinco anos. Os resultados das análises de regressão apresentaram uma boa correlação entre as variáveis dependentes analisadas (temperaturas médias, máximas e mínimas com a latitude, e a altitude como variáveis independentes. Os coeficientes de determinação (P < 0,05 variam entre 0,924 e 0,953 indicando que a regressão múltipla é um método preciso de estimativa da temperatura do ar no Estado de São Paulo. As equações de regressão obtidas foram utilizadas, em conjunto com mapas dos resíduos interpolados por krigagem, para a elaboração de 15 mapas de temperatura do ar sobre um modelo de elevação digital de 0,5 km² de resolução espacial com a ajuda de geoprocessamento.

  6. Briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Bryophytes of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Caio Amitrano de Alencar Imbassahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho representa uma síntese do conhecimento florístico de briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, com resultados de campo, material de herbário e publicações. Foram registrados 61 táxons de briófitas, pertencentes a 15 famílias e 33 gêneros. Para cada táxon foram analisados a distribuição geográfica, o tipo de substrato e a forma de vida. A família predominante foi Lejeuneaceae (25 espécies, seguida de Jubulaceae (sete, Calymperaceae (quatro e Sphagnaceae (quatro. Entre as espécies, predominaram as de distribuição Neotropical (35%. Com relação ao substrato preferencial, a maior parte dos táxons é corticícola. A forma de vida predominante foi o tapete, seguido pelo tufo e a trama. O Parque possui brioflora bastante representativa no que diz respeito à vegetação de restinga, com 45% dos táxons de briófitas conhecidas para as restingas no Brasil e 82% das conhecidas para as restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. É apresentada uma chave para identificação das espécies.We present a synthesis of the bryophyte flora in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, based on field work, herbaria material and bibliography. Sixty one taxa were recorded, in 15 families and 33 genera. For each taxa, we analyze geographic distribution, substrata and life form. The most species-rich family was Lejeuneaceae (25 species, followed by Jubulaceae (seven, Calymperaceae (four and Sphagnaceae (four. Most taxa have a Neotropical (35% distribution, and most taxa prefer the corticicolous substrate. Mat was the most common life form. The bryoflora of this National Park is an important reservoir of bryophyte diversity in the restingas, with 45% of the taxa known from the sandy coastal plains of Brazil and 82% known from the this habitat in Rio de Janeiro state. A key to identification of the species is given.

  7. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil Spatio-temporal analysis of vegetation cover and land use in the middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil

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    Seyla Poliana Miranda Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram alterações em todas as classes durante os últimos 20 anos, com a diminuição de 22,89% da vegetação nativa, relacionada com o aumento de 58,42% da pastagem e 490,26% de monocultura de cana-de-açúcar. Foi verificado o conflito de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas de mata ciliar, fato que pode influenciar negativamente na conservação da interbacia e, consequentemente, do pantanal mato-grossense.This study analyzed spatial and temporal land use changes in the Middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil using Landsat images from 1991, 2001 and 2011. Images were geo-referenced, classified and processed using Spring software, and thematic classes were edited and quantified using ArcGis software. Seven map classes were identified, and native vegetation, pasture and sugarcane were the most significant ones. The results showed changes in all classes during the past 20 years, primarily a 22.89% decrease of native vegetation, a 58.42% increase in pasture and 490.26% increase of sugarcane monoculture. We verified land use conflicts, mostly in riparian areas, which may negatively influence Interbasin and, consequently, Pantanal conservation in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  8. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  9. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  10. Tabagismo passivo no Brasil: resultados da Pesquisa Especial Do Tabagismo, 2008 Passive smoking in Brazil: results from the 2008 Special Survey on Smoking

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    Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi descrever prevalência e características sócio-demográficas associadas ao tabagismo passivo no domicílio e no trabalho, em participantes (15+ anos de amostra populacional da Pesquisa Especial do Tabagismo, sub-amostra da PNAD 2008. O tabagismo passivo é definido como a exposição ao tabaco por não-fumante, em casa, no trabalho ou em outros locais fechados, excluídas ocupações ao ar livre. Associações com características sócio-demográficas foram estimadas por análise de regressão logística. Nos 25.005 não-fumantes, a exposição domiciliar é diária para 12,5% e ocasional para 21%. À regressão multinomial (referência: não-expostos, a exposição diária diminui com aumento de idade e tanto a exposição diária como a ocasional diminuem com maiores escolaridade e renda. Comparada à Região Sudeste, há menor exposição diária no Norte e no Centro-Oeste, e maior ocasional no Nordeste. Dos 10.933 trabalhadores, 55% dos homens e 45% das mulheres relataram exposição no trabalho e 67% exposição domiciliar adicional. A exposição no trabalho é maior em homens, nos mais velhos (55+anos e com menor escolaridade e renda; e menor no Sul. A desigualdade social no Brasil se revela também na maior exposição ao tabagismo passivo daqueles com menor escolaridade e renda.The scope of this article was to describe indoor passive smoking, at home and at work, among Brazilians (15+ years participants of the "Special Research on Smoking", a sub-sample of the PNAD 2008. Non-smokers who reported exposure to indoor household smoking were classified as daily or occasional passive smokers, based on the frequency of exposure. Associations with socio-demographic factors were verified by logistic regression analysis. Among 25,005 participants, prevalence of daily and occasional household exposure were 12.5% and 21%, respectively. Compared to those not exposed, daily exposure decreased with increasing age, schooling and income

  11. Características da gravidez na adolescência em São Luís, Maranhão Characteristics of adolescent pregnancy, Brazil

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    Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as principais características socioeconômicas, demográficas, antropométricas e comportamentais, bem como os resultados perinatais da gravidez na adolescência. Conhecer os tipos de serviços de saúde utilizados pelas gestantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A amostra de 2.429 partos de mulheres residentes em São Luís, MA, abrangeu 94% dos nascimentos hospitalares. As mulheres foram separadas em seis grupos de idade para melhor avaliação do comportamento das variáveis entre os dois grupos de adolescentes (abaixo de 18 anos; 18 a 19 anos e entre as adolescentes e as demais mulheres. O teste do qui-quadrado foi utilizado para a comparação de proporções e a razão de prevalências foi empregada como medida de efeito. RESULTADOS: Das 2.429 mulheres, 714 eram adolescentes (29,4%. Seu coeficiente específico de fecundidade, 72,2 por mil, foi mais elevado que em outras regiões do País. As adolescentes apresentaram piores condições socioeconômicas e reprodutivas que as demais mulheres, maior proporção de pré-natal inadequado (39,2% e muitas não tinham companheiro (34,5%. Por outro lado, tiveram menor proporção de parto cesáreo (23,0% e de fumantes (3.5%. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da situação socioeconômica igualmente desfavorável, as adolescentes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram resultados perinatais semelhantes às mulheres de 25 a 29 anos. Já as menores de 18 anos tiveram maiores proporções de filhos com baixo peso ao nascer, prematuros e com maior risco de mortalidade infantil. Isto sugere que a imaturidade biológica possa estar associada a maiores taxas de prematuridade, baixo peso ao nascer e mortalidade infantil.OBJECTIVE: To identify the main socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes of adolescent pregnancy and to assess health services used by pregnant adolescents. METHODS: Data were collected from a cross-section of 2,429 deliveries by women residing

  12. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region; Avaliacao do conteudo de mercurio, metilmercurio e outros elementos de interesse em peixes e em amostras de cabelos e dietas de pre-escolares da regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-07-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  13. Impurity-related point defects and gamma-radiation response of massive quartz from the Borborema pegmatite province, in Brazil; Estudo da suscetibilidade ao escurecimento por radiacao gama de quartzo roseo-leitoso da provincia pegmatitica da Borborema

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    Miranda, Milena Ribas de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mineral; Gonzaga, Raysa Sthefany Gomes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Barreto, Sandra de Brito [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Melgarejo, Joan Carles, E-mail: milaribas@hotmail.com, E-mail: raysagonzaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: pguzzo@ufpe.br, E-mail: sandrabrito@smart.net.br, E-mail: joan.carles.melgarejo.draper@ub.edu [Universidade de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Cristalografia, Mineralogia e Depositos Minerais

    2012-06-15

    This work has investigated the changes induced by {gamma}-radiation on impurity-related point defects in massive rose quartz from one deposit located at The Borborema Pegmatite Province (Northeast Region, in Brazil). Samples extracted from rose and colorless (milky) quartz blocks were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co, from 0.5 to 96 kGy. Point defects related to Al, Ge, Li and OH were measured by optical, infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, prior and after irradiation. The contents of Al, Li, Ge, Fe, Ti and other impurities were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in quartz fragments exhibiting rose, pale-rose, and milky colorations. It was found that [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0}, [AlO{sub 4}/H]{sup 0} and [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} were generated by the dissociation of [AlO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} and [Li-OH] centers with doses as lower as 0.5 kGy. Above 8 kGy, the electron paramagnetic resonance signal related to [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} decreases due to the intense mobility of Li species throughout the quartz lattice, giving rise to E'{sub 1} centers perturbed by Ge. The increase in [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} content with {gamma} doses and the consequent rise in the intensity of smoky color were similar for both rose and colorless quartz. Scanning electron microscopy carried out in insoluble residues obtained after chemical dissolution of each type of quartz revealed the presence of nanometric fibers only in rose specimens. These results suggested that the cause of rose color in massive quartz from Borborema Pegmatite Province is probably related to the presence of dumortierite inclusions. (author)

  14. Diversidade e uso de recursos medicinais do carrasco na APA da Serra da Ibiapaba, Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil Diversity and use of medicinal resources of "carrasco" in the EPA of Serra da Ibiapaba, Piauí, Northeast Brazil

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    E.M.F. Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Ibiapaba no município de Cocal, Piauí. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento das plantas utilizadas pela comunidade, das partes usadas, das indicações, das formas de uso e de administração dessas plantas. Foram realizadas 80 entrevistas com 100% dos moradores de notório saber, residentes no município que utilizavam e/ou comercializavam plantas de uso medicinal. Para definição da amostra utilizou-se o método de bola de neve. Em incursões guiadas por membros da comunidade, foram coletadas as etnoespécies citadas. Após essa etapa, as espécies foram identificadas em laboratório e calculado o Fator de Consenso dos Informantes (FCI para cada categoria de doença. O material foi incorporado ao acervo do Herbário Graziela Barroso (TEPB/UFPI. Foram identificadas 76 espécies, distribuídas em 61 gêneros e 36 famílias. Sobresairam-se Leguminosae com 22 espécies (28,9%, seguida por Euphorbiaceae com 6 (7,8%, e Solanaceae 4 (5,2%. Os gêneros Croton L. e Hymenaea L. obtiveram o maior destaque, somando 8 (10,5% do total de espécies. As espécies mais presentes nas indicações de uso foram Ximenia americana com 14 (5,9%, Tabebuia impetiginosa com 9 (3,9% e Anacardium occidentale com 7 (2,9%. Observou-se que 80,5% dos entrevistados tinham mais de 50 anos e residiam no município a mais de 20 anos, sendo que 70% possuíam apenas ensino fundamental incompleto e 20 % eram analfabetos. Houve maior consenso entre os informantes para tratamento das doenças do sistema respiratório (0,66 e do aparelho digestório (0,65. A maioria das indicações de usos 81 (34,17% relatados para 28 (36,8% das espécies visavam curar males do sistema respiratório, tais como asma, bronquite, gripe, inflamação na garganta, pneumonia e sinusite. Para o preparo dos remédios, as partes mais utilizadas foram as cascas (30,5%, as folhas (29,4% e as raízes (12,6%. As preparações mais

  15. Heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil External control of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar mensalmente e oficializar um programa de heterocontrole dos níveis de flúor na água de abastecimento público de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O município foi dividido geograficamente em dez pontos e a coleta realizada de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005, em duplicata. Após a coleta, as amostras eram enviadas para o Laboratório de Vigilância Sanitária de Flúor da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, que realizou as análises utilizando o método eletrométrico (Orion 920A/Eletrodo Orion 9609. Após doze meses, 45,8% das amostras de água coletadas apresentaram teores inadequados de flúor. Verificou-se uma elevada e contínua variabilidade nos resultados. Entre os pontos que apresentaram teores inadequados de flúor, houve predomínio daqueles com excesso de fluoretos (35,8%. Também houve um significativo número de unidades amostrais com uma concentração adequada de flúor (54,2%. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o heterocontrole em Lages é fundamental para a manutenção de um correto programa de fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público.The purpose of this study is a monthly assessment of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This town was divided into ten regions, where water samples were collected from October 2004 to September 2005. Two samples were drawn from each region and sent to the Fluoride Health Surveillance Laboratory at Vale do Itajaí University for analysis through an electrometric method (Orion 920A/Orion Electrode 9609. After twelve months, 120 samples had been collected, demonstrating gaps in the fluoride levels and some points with excessive fluoride levels (35,8%. Several points with ideal fluoride concentrations (54.2% also appeared. These findings lead to the conclusion that external controls are required for monitoring fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages.

  16. A falta de informacao sobre os Organismos Geneticamente Modificados no Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-01-01

    .... Dispoe tambem sobre a importancia do principio da precaucao na avaliacao da aplicacao de novas tecnologias ou de tecnologias das quais nao se conhece ou existam conhecimentos cientificos relevantes...

  17. Implementation of a computational system at the Center for Nuclear Technology Development, for systematization the application of the FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, for identification of dangerous and developed risks evaluation; Implementacao de um sistema computacional no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear para sistemarizar a aplicacao da tecnica FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - na identificacao de perigos e avaliacao de riscos desenvolvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Danyel Pontelo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de, E-mail: dpc@cdtn.b, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The regulatory bodies request risks evaluations for nuclear and radioactive licensing purposes. In Brazil those evaluations are contained by the safety analysis reports requested by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and risk analysis studies requested by the environment organisms. A risk evaluation includes the identification of the risks and the accident sequence which can occur, and the estimation of the frequency and his undesirable effects on the industrial installations, the public, and the environment. The identification and the risk analysis are particularly important for the implementation of a health, environment and safety integrated management according to the regulation instruments ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001. The utilization of the risk identification techniques and the risk analysis is performed at the non nuclear industry, in a non standard form by the various sectors of an enterprise, diminishing the effectiveness of the recommended actions based on risk indexes. However, for the nuclear licensing, the CNEN request through their regulatory instruments and standard formats, that the risks, the failure mechanisms and detection be identified, which can allow the preventive and mitigate actions. This paper proposes the utilization of the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) technique in the licensing process. It was implemented a software through the Excel program, using the Visual Basic for Applications program which allows the automation and the standardization of FMEA studies as well

  18. Possible consequences of increasing life expectancy in Brazil: the perspective of a European historical demographer Possíveis conseqüências da crescente longevidade no Brasil: perspectiva de um demógrafo

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    Arthur E. Imhof

    1987-10-01

    die after having reached their sixty-fifth birthday. It therefore seems to me to be high time that one began to give more consideration to the other side of the story in Brazil as well. And who is more suited intensively to consider the long-term perspectives than those engaged in the public health sector in whose competence, after all, such aspects, as "life certainty", "life expectancy" and "age at death" belong?Em 1985, as pessoas com mais de 60 anos de idade representavam 6,6% da população total do Brasil, enquanto na República Federativa da Alemanha esta proporção era, em 1984, de 20,3%; em 1950 havia chegado aos 14,5%. Esta proporção não será alcançada no Brasil, nem mesmo no ano 2000, pois se prevê que as pessoas acima de 60 anos comporão 8,8% da população total. Da mesma forma, no período 1982/84 a expectativa de vida ao nascer na República Federativa da Alemanha era de 70,8 anos, para homens, e de 77,5, para mulheres. No Brasil, para 1980/85, foi de 61,0 e 66,0, respectivamente. Com este pano de fundo entende-se porque o debate sobre o envelhecimento da sociedade com os seus múltiplos problemas - médicos, econômicos, individuais e sociais - tem demorado a assumir qualquer destaque no Brasil. Embora sejam importantes no Brasil estas considerações, elas constituem, no entanto, presentemente, apenas um lado da história. Para um europeu estudioso de demografia histórica com a vantagem de uma visão de 300 ou 400 anos, o outro lado da história é igualmente importante. O fato de a longevidade estar 10 anos mais baixa no Brasil não significa que ninguém nesse país viva até a idade avançada. Em 1981, pessoas de 65 anos ou mais representaram 34,4% do total de óbitos; ao mesmo tempo a mortalidade infantil representou 22,1% da mortalidade geral. Estas e as mortes "prematuras" entre jovens e adultos são responsáveis pela baixa cifra da vida média. Na Europa, por outro lado, as mortes "prematuras" já não desempenham importante papel

  19. Ginandromorfo de Arsenura armida (Cramer de Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae Gynandromorph of Arsenura armida (Cramer from Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae

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    Catarina da Silva Motta

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a rare ginandromorph specimen of Saturniidae collected in the State of Amazonas, Brazil is reported. This is the first unique deposit of a gynandromorph in the Collection of the National Institute for Amazonian Research.

  20. Geração e transmissão da energia elétrica: impacto sobre os povos indígenas no Brasil Electric power generation and transmission: the impact on indigenous peoples in Brazil

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    Sergio Koifman

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca retratar a distribuição de intercorrências nas comunidades indígenas no Brasil associadas à geração e à distribuição da energia elétrica. De acordo com dados da Fundação Nacional do Índio, há 156 áreas geograficamente distribuídas no país caracterizadas por afetarem, presente ou futuramente, assentamentos indígenas através da expansão do setor elétrico - 65% das quais situadas na Região Norte. As principais reclamações destas comunidades dizem respeito aos efeitos diretos acarretados pelo alagamento originado com a construção das barragens hidroelétricas: submersão de territórios sagrados (como cemitérios; proliferação de mosquitos (ampliando a difusão da malária e de outras doenças infecciosas; escassez de caça; restrição das terras para a agricultura; e a criação de condições facilitadoras da invasão de terras indígenas. O cenário de perspectivas futuras é esboçado em quadro marcado pelo planejamento da construção de novas usinas hidrelétricas - em especial, na região amazônica - com possíveis efeitos similares nas comunidades indígenas.This paper presents an overview of the effects of electric power generation and transmission on indigenous communities in Brazil. According to data from FUNAI (the Brazilian government's Board of Indian Affairs, there are 156 cases of direct impact, present or future, of the electric power sector on Indian settlements geographically distributed throughout Brazil, 65% of which are located in the Northern Region of the country. The principal complaints by indigenous communities relate to the direct effects of flooding following construction of hydroelectric dams, destruction of sacred sites like cemeteries, mosquito proliferation, and health-related hazards such as malaria and other infectious diseases, decrease in game for hunting, crowding out of farm land, and increased invasion of indigenous lands. Future perspectives include a

  1. Participação da sociedade civil no seguimento das ações frente à Aids no Brasil Monitoring and evaluating actions implemented to confront AIDS in Brazil: civil society's participation

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    Wilza Villela

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A Declaração de Compromisso sobre o HIV/Aids das Nações Unidas recomenda que os governos realizem análises periódicas das suas ações frente à epidemia do HIV/Aids, com a participação da sociedade civil. Para isso, devem ser criados mecanismos e instrumentos específicos. O presente trabalho examina algumas das respostas do governo brasileiro a esta recomendação. Foi feita uma análise da proposta de seguimento contida na Declaração e sua adequação à realidade brasileira, em relação à participação da sociedade civil. Discutiram-se os limites e as potencialidades do MONITORAIDS, matriz de indicadores construída pelo Programa Nacional de DST/Aids para monitoramento da epidemia. Os resultados mostraram que a complexidade do MONITORAIDS dificulta sua utilização pelo conjunto de atores envolvidos na luta contra a Aids. Sugere-se que se estabeleçam mecanismos que facilitem a apropriação desse sistema por todos aqueles comprometidos com o enfrentamento da epidemia no País.The United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/Aids recommends that governments conduct periodic analysis of actions undertaken in confronting the HIV/Aids epidemic that involve civil society's participation. Specific instruments and mechanisms should be created towards this end. This paper examines some of the responses of the Brazilian government to this recommendation. Analysis contemplates the Declaration's proposals as to civil society's participation in monitoring and evaluating such actions and their adequacy with respect to Brazilian reality. The limitations and potentials of MONITORAIDS, the matrix of indicators created by Brazil's Programa Nacional de DST/Aids [National Program for STD/AIDS] to monitor the epidemic are discussed. Results indicate that MONITORAIDS's complexity hampers its use by the conjunction of actors involved in the struggle against Aids. The establishment of mechanisms that facilitate the appropriation of this system by

  2. Conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da Baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil: peixes da família Serranidae e alterações no ambiente marinho = Local ecological knowledge of fishermen from Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil: fishes from the Serranidae family and marine environmental changes

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos aspectos gerais do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL depescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática sobre sete espécies de peixes marinhos da família Serranidae (habitat de ocorrência, tamanho máximo e denominação popular e as principais alterações percebidas no ambiente marinho na Baía Babitonga, Estado de Santa Catarina,Brasil. Em termos gerais, o CEL sobre os peixes corrobora a literatura em ictiologia, trazendo informações originais em escala local. Pescadores de comunidades vizinhas e/ou praticantes de diferentes artes de pesca podem desenvolver denominações e um corpo deCEL diferenciado sobre os recursos pesqueiros de uma mesma área. Verificamos que a legislação que institui a moratória da pesca de Epinephelus itajara desconsidera as denominações locais da espécie, impossibilitando a sua interpretação pelos pescadores locais e gerando conflitos na aplicação da lei. As principais alterações ambientais registradas foram: diminuição da abundância dos recursos pesqueiros em geral (especialmente do Parambijú Rachycentron canadum, e os efeitos da interrupção antrópica do “Canal do Linguado” na hidrologia e sedimentologia da Baía Babitonga (assoreamento e aumento da turbidez da água.General aspects of the Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK of long-line and spear fishermen on seven fish species of the Serranidae family (habitat use, maximum size and popular names and on the main marine environmental changes were investigated in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In general, LEK on fishes corroborates theichthyology literature, bringing original information in a local scale. Neighbor fishermen communities can develop different local species nomenclature and different LEK for fishery resources at the same area. We have verified that the fishing ban legislation on Epinephelus itajara in Brazil does not consider local species denominations, turning impossible its interpretation by local

  3. Brasil: nova classe média ou novas formas de superexploração da classe trabalhadora? Brazil: new middle class or new ways of overexploiting the working class?

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    Mathias Seibel Luce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base na categoria da superexploração da força de trabalho, formulada no âmbito da teoria marxista da dependência, apresentamos uma crítica à tese de que o Brasil estaria se tornando 'país de classe média' e sustentamos que um contingente substancial dentre o que vem sendo nomeado de 'nova classe média' consiste, na verdade, de trabalhadores - e suas famílias - vivendo em condições de superexploração. O texto encontra-se dividido em três seções. Na primeira, questionamos os pressupostos básicos da tese Brasil, país de classe média. Na segunda, expomos os fundamentos da categoria da superexploração e demonstramos seu incremento nas relações de produção do capitalismo brasileiro na década de 2000. Na terceira, demonstramos como o acesso da população trabalhadora ao consumo de bens duráveis no período recente, antes que a ascensão de uma suposta 'nova classe média', configura uma forma renovada de superexploração. Por fim, salientamos os nexos entre as condições de trabalho, saúde e direitos da classe trabalhadora no Brasil e as tendências do capitalismo mundial, questionando o falso dilema neoliberalismo e neodesenvolvimentismo no debate atual e colocando a real disjuntiva do ponto de vista da emancipação da classe trabalhadora em relação ao poder despótico do capital.Based on the workforce overexploitation category, formulated in the context of the Marxist Theory of Dependence, we critique the thesis that Brazil is becoming 'a middle class nation' and state that a substantial contingent of what has been named the 'new middle class' is, in fact, one of workers - and their families - living in overexploitation conditions. The article is divided into three sections. In the first, we questioned the basic assumptions of the 'Brazil, a middle class nation' thesis. In the second, we explain the fundamentals of the overexploitation category and show how it increased in Brazilian capitalism production

  4. Acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde em um município do Estado da Bahia, Brasil, em gestão plena do sistema Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil

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    Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira Cunha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a implantação de ações voltadas para a acessibilidade à atenção básica em um município da Bahia, Brasil, foi realizado estudo de caso único a partir de dois níveis de análise: organização do sistema e dos serviços. Os dados foram obtidos por intermédio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, da observação das rotinas de atendimento e da análise documental. Das quatro unidades analisadas, três apresentaram nível intermediário de implantação de ações voltadas para a acessibilidade. As unidades de saúde da família tiveram melhor desempenho devido à presença de ações voltadas para o acolhimento e a referência a serviços especializados, porém apresentaram problemas para a marcação de consultas. Apesar do estabelecimento da atenção básica como porta de entrada ao sistema e da implantação da central de marcação de consultas especializadas, persistem barreiras organizacionais no município estudado. Recomenda-se a formulação de política específica para melhoria da acessibilidade voltada para a organização da oferta na perspectiva de mudança do modelo assistencial.In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are

  5. A bibliometria na pesquisa científica da pós-graduação brasileira de 1987 a 2007The bibliometrics in theses and dissertations produced in Brazil (1987-2007

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    Ronaldo Ferreira Araújo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometria, como área de estudo da ciência da informação, tem um papel relevante na análise da produção científica de um país, uma vez que seus indicadores retratam o grau de desenvolvimento de uma área do conhecimento de um campo científico ou de saber. O artigo verifica a inserção dos estudos bibliométricos na pesquisa científica da pós-graduação no Brasil a partir da analise de teses e dissertações que abordaram aspectos de estudos bibliométricos. Como fundamentação, discutiu-se a bibliometria e suas relações com a cienciometria. Foram analisados 82 trabalhos publicados no período de 1987 a 2007; chegou-se a esse universo após levantamento junto ao Banco de Teses da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo-descritivo, no qual se verifica o uso da bibliometria para estudos de campos científicos a partir das variáveis: ano, instituição, região geográfica, nível (mestrado ou doutorado, área do conhecimento e orientação. Os resultados apontam uma retomada mais do que significativa no estudo da temática, tendo 2007 como o ano de maior produção. Revela ainda uma multiplicidade na produção, que demonstra o interesse pela abordagem bibliométrica nas várias áreas de conhecimento no Brasil, ensejando análises sobre a interdisciplinaridade entre ciência da informação e outros campos de conhecimento.This paper seeks to identify and analyze the use of bibliometrics in theses and dissertations produced in Brazil. Data taken from the theses database of the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes, from 1987 to 2007 have found 82 works as universe of analysis. The works have been distributed by year, institution, graduate course level (doctor/master, area of knowledge and advisors. The results indicate a renewed interest for bibliometric studies, show a growth in the Brazilian production and interest in this

  6. A teoria da agência no setor da saúde: o caso do relacionamento da Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar com as operadoras de planos de assistência supletiva no Brasil Agency theory in the healthcare sector: the relationship between the National Supplementary Healthcare Agency and the supplementary health-care operators in Brazil

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    Fábio Ricardo Loureiro Sato

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento entre os atores do sistema supletivo de assistência à saúde no Brasil é caracterizado por uma complexa trama de conflitos de interesse e de poder, que podem ser analisados à luz da teoria da agência. Ela emprega elementos da ciência econômica, principalmente das teorias do consumidor e do funcionamento de mercado, conjuntamente com idéias derivadas dos estudos organizacionais e comportamentais, faz uma divisão entre os agentes econômicos em principais e agentes. Analisando o mercado de assistência supletiva, pode-se constatar que ele possui inúmeros atores, que exercem ao mesmo tempo papéis de agentes e principais. É justamente dessa dualidade de papéis que surgem grande parte dos conflitos, e, através de diversos mecanismos de regulação, tenta-se reduzir os custos de agência derivados dos conflitos de interesse que são a causa principal dos problemas de agência dentro desse setor.The relationship between the actors of the supplementary healthcare system in Brazil is characterized by complex conflicts of interests and power struggles, which can be analyzed by the agency theory. This theory - combining elements of economic sciences, mainly consumer and market theories, with ideas derived from organizational and behavioral studies - divides the economic agents in principals and agents. The analysis of the supplementary healthcare market reveals its many actors play simultaneously the roles of agent and principal. This duality of roles is the root of most conflicts, originating several regulation mechanisms which try to reduce agency costs derived from conflicts of interests that are the main cause of this sector's agency issues.

  7. Leitura e alfabetização no Brasil: uma busca para além da polarização Reading and literacy in Brazil: a search beyond polarization

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    Claudemir Belintane

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre o ensino de leitura e a alfabetização no Brasil, tomando como ponto de partida os confrontos contemporâneos entre os chamados 'métodos' e 'metodologias' ou ainda 'linhas', 'filosofias', 'teorias' de alfabetização e de leitura. Situa sua argumentação a partir de alguns embates e algumas preocupações que vêm ocorrendo nesse campo do ensino nesta primeira década do milênio e, como exemplo, analisa um documento publicado pela Comissão de Educação e Cultura da Câmara dos Deputados, intitulado "Relatório final do grupo de trabalho; Alfabetização infantil: os novos caminhos", (Brasília, 2003. Toma essa análise como uma referência para discutir a relação entre a produção científica no campo do ensino da leitura e da alfabetização e seus efeitos no ensino público. No final do texto, o autor evidencia sua perspectiva de pesquisa e expõe algumas sugestões específicas para a abordagem da alfabetização e do ensino da leitura no Brasil, enfatizando as singularidades da escola brasileira em que a oralidade - desde que vista a partir de suas possibilidades autênticas de uso - pode desempenhar um papel fundamental no ensino e na aprendizagem da leitura. Conclui afirmando que a política, muitas vezes, assume este ou aquele método como forma de fugir da responsabilidade mais complexa, que é a de assumir a alfabetização como prioridade absoluta do Estado.This article presents reflections on the teaching of reading and literacy in Brazil, taking as its point of departure the current disputes among the so-called 'methods' and 'methodologies', or still, 'lines', 'philosophies', 'theories' of literacy and reading. The text weaves its arguments from some of the clashes and concerns taking place in this field of teaching in this first decade of the new millennium and, as an example, analyzes a document published by the Commission for Education and Culture of the Federal House of

  8. Magnitude da depressão pós-parto no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática The extent of post-partum depression in Brazil: a systematic review

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    Gustavo Lobato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar uma revisão sistemática dos estudos sobre a magnitude da depressão pós-parto (DPP no Brasil. MÉTODOS: a busca e seleção da literatura baseouse em artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, SciELO e Medline. RESULTADOS: foram selecionados 14 estudos, sendo que 13 deles reportavam a prevalência de DPP e apenas um estudo de seguimento com limitada casuística (n=21 trazia estimativa da incidência do agravo (42,8%. A grande heterogeneidade em relação à população de estudo, método diagnóstico utilizado e período pós-parto focalizado dificultou a obtenção de uma estimativa agregada da prevalência de DPP no Brasil. Contudo, estudos conduzidos em unidades básicas de saúde, no âmbito da Estratégia de Saúde da Família ou em populações carentes apontaram uma prevalência entre 30 e 40% de DPP, enquanto pesquisas que incluíram amostras de base populacional e populações de unidades hospitalares terciárias revelaram uma prevalência de cerca de 20%. CONCLUSÕES: embora novos estudos sejam necessários para melhor caracterizar as peculiaridades que envolvem a magnitude da DPP no Brasil, as evidências disponíveis justificam uma atenção prioritária para os agravos à saúde mental materna no âmbito da saúde pública no país.OBJECTIVES: to carry out a systematic review of studies of the extent of post-partum depression (PPD in Brazil. METHODS: articles were searched for and selected from national and international periodicals included in the Lilacs, SciELO and Medline electronic databases. RESULTS: fourteen studies were selected, thirteen of which reported the prevalence of PPD and one, which followed up a limited number of cases (n=21 estimated the incidence of the disorder at 42.8%. The wide range of different populations studied, diagnostic methods used, and post-partum period monitored made it difficult to obtain an aggregate estimate for

  9. Hyphomycetes from soil of an area affected by copper mining activities in the State of Bahia, Brazil Hyphomycetes de solo de uma área de mineração de cobre no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Isabella P.M. Wanderley Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of observing the impact produced by copper-mining activities on soil fungi, samples were collected from an area at the Caraíba Mining, in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This area was divided in six sub-areas: one had native vegetation and was used as control, while the others varied according to degrees of impact. The samples, collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, were submitted to serial dilutions and placed on Petri dishes with Sabouraud medium plus antibiotic. Sixty five species and 16 genera of Hyphomycetes were identified: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphylotrichum, Stilbella and Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Crhysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum and Stilbella sebacea were isolated for the first time in Brazil.Com o objetivo de observar o impacto produzido pelas atividades da mineração de cobre em fungos do solo, amostras foram coletadas d