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  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

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    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  2. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  3. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

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    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

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    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  5. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

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    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  6. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

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    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the price volatility of short-term in Brazil and its relation with the thermal generation; Avaliacao da volatilidade do preco de curto prazo no Brasil e sua relacao com a geracao termica

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    Heideier, R.B.; Prado, F.A.A.; Saidel, M.A.; Ueocka, M.Z. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mails: fernando@sinerconsult.com.br, saidel@pea.usp.br, marcos.ueocka@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article evaluate the intensity of volatility of the electric power prices in the short term market in selected countries. It were analyzed historical series of monthly prices of major energy markets worldwide, with assessment of the energy matrix of each region. The study, by analysis of data entry program for optimizing the operation of the SIN (NEWAVE and DECOM), concludes that the price volatility in short-term in Brazil is marked by the large variation of thermal power available, especially the lack of natural gas.

  8. Evaluation of the environmental conditioning factors in the perspective of expansion of ethanol production in Brazil; Avaliacao dos condicionantes ambientais na perspectiva de expansao da producao de etanol no Brasil

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    Silva, Conceicao Elaine Cardoso

    2010-03-15

    Various countries have studied the possibility of adding ethanol to gasoline or using pure fuel ethanol as an alternative to petroleum derivatives. Brazil occupies a leading position in this scenario because with its National Alcohol Program (Programa Nacional do Alcool - PROALCOOL), created in 1975, it became the pioneer in setting up a biofuels program. Since then it has accumulated experience and gained mastery of the technology to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Hence there is a strong expectation that the country can become the world's main ethanol exporter. This thesis examines the main environmental impacts associated with the ethanol productive chain, which are relevant conditioning factors for the expansion of this industry in Brazil. The study describes the evolution of PROALCOOL and the overview of current structure of the brazilian sugar-alcohol sector, identifies technologies and environmental management policies, and presents the perspective of expansion of ethanol production. Thus, the study undertakes an extensive review of the literature and examines to what extent the creation and implementation of public and private environmental management policies (legal restrictions and market instruments, respectively) interfere with the expansion of these productive activities. (author)

  9. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

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    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  10. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating; Avaliacao da potencialidade de argilas do Rio Grande do Norte quando submetidas a elevadas taxas de aquecimento

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    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  11. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

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    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  12. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

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    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  13. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

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    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  14. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

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    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  15. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

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    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  16. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

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    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  17. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

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    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  18. Assessment of stability of ceramics type perovskite, Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, submerged in crude oil taken from oil wells of Sergipe - Brazil; Avaliacao da estabilidade de ceramicas tipo perovskita, Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, submersas em petroleo cru retirado de pocos do estado de Sergipe - Brasil

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    Yadava, Y.P.; Sales, D.G.; Lima, M.M.; Ferreira, R.A.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: daniella_guedes@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Oil wells are harsh environments, thus, it is necessary to find materials that are able to resist the weather imposed by these sites. Many of the new technology incorporating ceramic components because their chemical properties, electrical, mechanical, thermal and structural. The ceramics exhibit high hardness and therefore resistant to high pressure, have high melting point, resisting the high temperatures, and make inert nature in hostile environments. The ceramics, type Perovskite Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, were submerged in crude oil for thirty days and then examined by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness to see if there were changes in structural characteristics, microstructural and mechanical properties. This work was evaluated and discussed by these results, the stability of these ceramics when subject to attack by crude oil taken from oil wells of land and sea state of Sergipe, Brazil. (author)

  19. Impact evaluation of the liquid effluent disposal of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in fluvial waters and sediments, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao do impacto do descarte de efluentes liquidos da Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC) sobre aguas e sedimentos fluviais, RJ, Brasil

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    Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Carla Maria; Camaz, Fernando Ribeiro; Jorge, Fabricio Goncalves [PETROBRAS/REDUC, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the contribution of the liquid effluents of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in the water and sediment contamination in the estuarine Iguacu-Sarapui system, a tributary of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since 2002 is being conducted a quarterly monitoring of some parameters in water, river sediments and treated liquid effluent, such as: pH, suspended solids, total sedimented solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, oil and grease (O and G), phenols, sulfide, ammonia, metals and metalloids (V, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Se , Co, Fe, Mn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coprostanol and cholesterol (indicators of domestic wastes). The obtained results show that the effluents meet the legal standards and the treated liquid effluents from REDUC in the estuarine system have little or no impact on river water quality. The higher levels of contaminants detected in water and sediments samples are directly related to untreated domestic sewage from urban areas. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the influence of percent labeling of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI on nuclear medicine procedures in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil; Avaliacao da influencia do percentual de marcacao do {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI em procedimentos de medicina nuclear em Recife, PE

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    Pereira, Jucilene Maria

    2003-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of percent labeling of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI on the procedures adopted by the nuclear medicine clinics in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, and their possible interference with image quality in myocardial perfusion examinations. This work was performed at two nuclear medicine services in Recife that use pharmaceuticals provided by two different manufacturers: Cardiolite, provided by Dupont and Cardiosyd, provided by SYDMA. The pH, percent labeling and stability of samples of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and the percent uptake in heart and liver of a number of patients were evaluated. The results showed that the pH values measured in all samples of both radiopharmaceuticals were within the limits recommended. In 48% of the Cardiolite samples, the percent labeling was less than 90%, which is the minimum recommended limit. On the other hand, 87,5% of the Cardiosyd samples measured values above 98%. Both radiopharmaceuticals had good labeling stability, even in samples with low percent labeling efficiencies. In spite of the higher percent labeling of Cardiosyd its heart uptake is similar to that observed with the Cardiolite, even when the percent labeling is lower than 90%. On the other hand, the image quality, according to physicians, evaluation was poorer for Cardiosyd images, due to high noise and poor sharpness. (author)

  1. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil; Avaliacao da incidencia e mortalidade por cancer na populacao residente em regiao com anomalia geologica na ocorrencia de uranio: estudo de caso: Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Leticia Rodrigues

    2009-04-15

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  2. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  3. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  4. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  5. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  6. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Blumer, L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  7. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM

  8. Characterization of clay of Vitoria da Conquista - BA - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Kaolinitic clay that are not coloured after firing are very useful in the production of ceramics because of their aesthetic aspect after firing. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (South- West Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by several techniques. The differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. The transformation of alpha to beta quartz characterized by a 573 deg C peak was also observed in DSC. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by flexural strength. (author)

  9. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil Epidemiologia da neurocisticercose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Agapejev

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100% was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67% between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%. In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62% and of the female sex (53-75%. The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 ± 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92% and intracranial hypertension (19-89%. Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical serie and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.Realizou-se revisão da literatura com o objetivo de tentar delinear um perfil epidemiológico da neurocisticercose no Brasil. A prevalência em necrópsias variou de 0,12-9%. A freqüência, nas casuísticas clínicas foi de 0,03-7,5% e, nos estudos soroepidemiológicos, de 0,68-5,2%. Compreendeu 0,08-2,5% das internações em hospitais gerais. A procedência foi rural em 30-63% dos doentes. Comprometeu mais (64-100% na faixa etária dos 11 aos 60 anos, predominantemente (22-67% entre 21 e 40 anos. O sexo masculino foi mais atingido (51-80%. Nas formas graves, houve predomínio da origem urbana (53-62% e do sexo feminino (53-75%. O período de

  10. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  11. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  12. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  13. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  14. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  15. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available São divulgados os primeiros resultados da avaliação da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil através de técnicas de análise da distribuição espacial. São revisadas questões metodológicas, apontando as dificuldades de estabelecer regiões geográficas homogêneas no Brasil. Descrevem-se tendências recentes da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil - pauperização, interiorização e alteração na participação proporcional das categorias de exposição. Avalia-se a distribuição de casos de AIDS por Unidades da Federação (UFs, confeccionando-se mapas relativos à disseminação da epidemia no período 1987-1993 nas diversas UFs, estabelecendo-se os Centros Gravimétricos (CGs relativos a esses anos. A análise do posicionamento e deslocamento pluri-anual desses CGs indica a força atrativa do Estado de São Paulo como pólo de difusão da epidemia e uma expansão simultânea da epidemia em direção às fronteiras de ocupação. Essas tendências colocam dificuldades adicionais às atividades de prevenção ao acrescentarem novos segmentos populacionais e regiões geográficas ao quadro observado inicialmente nas principais regiões metropolitanas e segmentos mais afetados.The first of a series of papers concerning the evaluation of the dynamics of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil employing techniques of geographical analysis, is here presented. Results of research undertaken in the US (especially in New York City are compared with those of a recent investigation carried out in the city of S.Paulo, Brazil (Grangeiro, 1994. In both, geographical patterns of socio-demographic variables correlate with different patterns of the spread of the AIDS epidemic through the transmission groups. Recent trends of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil: the displacement toward medium sized cities and expansion frontiers, increasing report of AIDS cases among the poor and underprivileged, changes in the pattern of transmission with proportional

  16. O Não-dito da AIDS The Hidden Face of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores historiam a evolução da epidemia de AIDS no Brasil do ponto de vista da construção de representações sociais acerca dos segmentos envolvidos na transmissão da doença. Enfatizam a necessidade de desmistificar a correlação simplista AIDS- transmissão homossexual. Procuram retirar do relativo esquecimento o papel dos usuários de drogas injetáveis e da transmissão heterossexual na disseminação da doença, "segmentos" cuja relevância epidemiológica, crescente em nosso meio, não se tem feito acompanhar da devida atenção, seja por parte dos meios de comunicação, seja pelos órgãos formuladores de políticas de saúde.The authors report on the evolution of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil from the point of view of the construction of social representations about "risk groups" involved in the spread of the disease. They emphasize the need to demystify the immediate correlation between AIDS and homosexual transmission. They highlight the role of intravenous drug users and of heterosexual transmission in new AIDS cases in Brazil - groups and behaviours that are not included in the priorities of local health authorities.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan

    1999-08-01

    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  18. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  19. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  20. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected

  1. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz; José Eloi Guimarães Campos; Getulio Teixeira Batista; Tatiana Diniz Gonçalves; Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2007-01-01

    This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate sc...

  2. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In

  3. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  4. A história da maconha no Brasil The history of marihuana in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaldo Araújo Carlini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A história da maconha no Brasil tem seu início com a própria descoberta do país. A maconha é uma planta exótica, ou seja, não é natural do Brasil. Foi trazida para cá pelos escravos negros, daí a sua denominação de fumo-de-Angola. O seu uso disseminou-se rapidamente entre os negros escravos e nossos índios, que passaram a cultivá-la. Séculos mais tarde, com a popularização da planta entre intelectuais franceses e médicos ingleses do exército imperial na Índia, ela passou a ser considerada em nosso meio um excelente medicamento indicado para muitos males. A demonização da maconha no Brasil iniciou-se na década de 1920 e, na II Conferência Internacional do Ópio, em 1924, em Genebra, o delegado brasileiro Dr. Pernambuco afirmou para as delegações de 45 outros países: "a maconha é mais perigosa que o ópio". Apesar das tentativas anteriores, no século XIX e princípios do século XX, a perseguição policial aos usuários de maconha somente se fez constante e enérgica a partir da década de 1930, possivelmente como resultante da decisão da II Conferência Internacional do Ópio. O primeiro levantamento domiciliar brasileiro sobre consumo de psicotrópicos, realizado em 2001, mostrou que 6,7% da população consultada já havia experimentado maconha pelo menos uma vez na vida (lifetime use, o que significa dizer que alguns milhões de brasileiros poderiam ser acusados e condenados à prisão por tal ofensa à presente lei. No presente, um projeto de lei foi aprovado no Congresso Nacional propondo a transformação da pena de reclusão por uso/posse de drogas (inclusive maconha em medidas administrativas.The present study describes of history of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana since the arrival in Brazil in the Portuguese discovers, in 1500. During the following centuries Cannabis cultivation was stimulated by the Portuguese Crown, which included sending seeds to Brazil; the medicinal use of Cannabis was also common

  5. Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Ramos Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study carried out an insect gall inventory in restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 along the full extension of seven beaches. A total number of 147 gall morphotypes associated with 70 plant species were found, distributed in 33 plant families, and at least 54 genera. Myrtaceae was the botanical family with the highest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, followed by Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Malpighiaceae. Most of the gall morphotypes occurred in leaves (78 morphotypes, 38 in stems, 14 in flowers, eight in buds and fruits, and one in adventitious roots. The galling insects belong to the five orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most common galling taxon (78 morphotypes, represented by 87 species, being 78 gallers, seven inquilines and two predators. In addition to the gallers, parasitoids, inquilines, and predators were also found.

  6. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment; Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  8. Phosphorus in agroforestry systems : a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the most thr

  9. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams; Avaliacao do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes e elaboracao de recomendacoes para equipes multidisciplinares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de, E-mail: lirio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  10. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  11. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  12. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em aguas potaveis, de superficie e subterraneas da regiao de Caetite, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total {alpha} and {beta} activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 {+-} 0,0004 Bq.L{sup -1} to 0,80 {+-} 0,04 Bq.L{sup -1} for total alpha activity and from 0,045 {+-} 0,003 to 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1} for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L{sup -1} described in its recommendations, 0,80 {+-} 0,040 Bq.L{sup -1} and 0,57 {+-} 0,03 Bq.L{sup -1} respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L{sup -1} limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1}; 1,63 {+-} 0

  13. Characterization of clay of Vitoria da Conquista - BA - Brazil; Caracterizacao de uma argila caulinitica por Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H., E-mail: orley10@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Kaolinitic clay that are not coloured after firing are very useful in the production of ceramics because of their aesthetic aspect after firing. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (South- West Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by several techniques. The differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. The transformation of alpha to beta quartz characterized by a 573 deg C peak was also observed in DSC. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by flexural strength. (author)

  14. Aborto na Suprema Corte: o caso da anencefalia no Brasil Abortion at the Supreme Court: the anencephaly case in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Diniz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o desafio jurídico e ético imposto pela anencefalia ao debate sobre direitos reprodutivos no Brasil. O fio condutor da análise é a ação de anencefalia apresentada ao Supremo Tribunal Federal em 2004. O artigo demonstra como o debate sobre o aborto provoca os fundamentos constitucionais da laicidade do Estado brasileiro e expõe a fragilidade da razão pública em temas de direitos reprodutivos, em especial sobre o aborto.This paper analyses the ethical and legal challenges of the anencephaly case in Brazil. The case study is the Supreme Court case on anencephaly proposed in 2004. This paper shows how the abortion debate forces the fundamentals of the Brazilian secular state and demonstrates the weakness of the public reason to mediate reproductive rights, mainly abortion, in Brazil.

  15. O uso religioso da Internet no Brasil / The religious use of Internet in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Luiz Jungblut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A intenção deste texto é socializar algumas observações feitas nestes últimos dez anos a respeito da utilização que indivíduos, grupos e instituições têm feito da Internet para tornar públicas no Brasil suas crenças e traços identitários religiosos. Com isso, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão do, até certo ponto, recente “mercado religioso brasileiro”, observando mais atentamente o impacto dessa nova mídia neste processo. Outrossim, buscar-se-á verificar até que ponto a noção de “mercado religioso” proposta por autores como Rodney Stark, William Sims Bainbridge, Laurence Iannaccone e Roger Finke, se mostra útil à prospecção de elementos analíticos interessantes para a compreensão da utilização que indivíduos e grupos fazem da Internet. / The intention of this paper is to share some remarks made over the past ten years regarding the use individuals, groups and institutions have made of Internet to publicize their beliefs and religious identity lines in Brazil. With this, we intend to contribute to the understanding of the somehow recent "Brazilian religious market", noting more carefullythe impact of this new media on the process. Furthermore, it will seek to verify to what extent the notion of "religious market" proposed by authors such as Rodney Stark, William Sims Bainbridge, Laurence Iannaccone and Roger Finke, proves itself useful to the prospecting of analytical elements of interest for the understanding of the use individuals and groups make of Internet.

  16. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio

    2011-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential

  17. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  18. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  19. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  20. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.

  1. Farmacovigilância da heparina no Brasil Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rezende Garcia Junqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a origem das preparações de heparina, na forma farmacêutica injetável, disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, discutindo o impacto do perfil dos produtos comercializados e das alterações na monografia da heparina na segurança do fármaco. MÉTODOS: Pesquisou-se o banco de dados de Produtos Registrados das Empresas de Medicamentos da Anvisa e o Dicionário de Especialidades Farmacêuticas (DEF 2008/2009. Foi realizado inquérito com as indústrias com autorização ativa para o comércio do fármaco no Brasil. RESULTADOS: Cinco indústrias possuem autorização para o comércio de heparina não fracionada no Brasil. Três são de origem suína e duas de origem bovina, sendo que apenas uma possui essa informação explicitada na bula. A efetividade e a segurança da heparina, estudadas em populações estrangeiras, podem não representar a nossa realidade, já que a maioria dos países não produz a heparina bovina. A heparina atualmente comercializada tem, ainda, aproximadamente 10% menos atividade anticoagulante que a anteriormente produzida, e essa alteração pode ter implicações clínicas. CONCLUSÃO: Evidências acerca da ausência de intercambialidade de doses entre as heparinas de origem bovina e suína e o diferenciado perfil de segurança entre esses fármacos indicam necessidade de acompanhamento do tratamento e da resposta dos pacientes. Eventos que ameacem a segurança do paciente devem ser comunicados ao sistema da farmacovigilância do país.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. METHODS: The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009 were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug

  2. On the routes of Social Psychology in Brazil Sobre os rumos da Psicologia Social no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pereira de Sá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the different paths of knowledge production that Social psychologists have run in Brazil, the text makes a distinction between a stricto sensu Social Psychology and the lato sensu one. The stricto sensu Social Psychologycomprises the trends found in the historical development of the discipline and in scientific modernity: the mainstream "psychological" Social Psychology; the European "sociological" Social Psychology; the "micro-sociological" perspectives, since Mead. The lato sensu Social Psychology comprises the trends that emerged aside the subject's history or very recently, following other epistemological guidelines: the Marxist Social Psychology, institutional analysis, socio-historical Psychology, socio-constructionism, and the philosophical Social Psychology. The eight trends listed are then submitted to evaluations regarding the two basic dimensions of Social Psychology: societal and psychological. A comparative picture of those evaluations discloses differences between the stricto and lato sensu sets of Social Psychology, as well as between the several trends in the scope of each set.Considerando os variados rumos de produção de conhecimento trilhados no Brasil pelos psicólogos sociais, o texto faz distinção entre uma Psicologia Social stricto sensu e outra lato sensu. À Psicologia Social stricto sensu correspondem as correntes que se situam no desenvolvimento histórico da disciplina e na modernidade científica: a Psicologia Social "psicológica" mainstream; a Psicologia Social "sociológica" europeia; as perspectivas "microssociológicas", desde Mead. À Psicologia Social lato sensu correspondem as correntes surgidas à margem da história da disciplina ou muito recentemente, com outras diretrizes epistemológicas: Psicologia Social marxista, análise institucional, Psicologia sócio-histórica, sócio-construcionismo e Psicologia Social filosófica. As oito correntes listadas são em seguida submetidas a avalia

  3. Perfil da automedicação no Brasil Aspects of self-medication in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio D. Arrais

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os dados apresentados fazem parte de um estudo multicêntrico sobre automedicação na América Latina realizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. Objetivou-se traçar um perfil da automedicação através da análise da procura de medicamentos em farmácias sem prescrição médica ou aconselhamento do farmacêutico/balconista. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As especialidades farmacêuticas foram classificadas pelo código "Anatomical Therapeutical Classification" e analisadas sob quatro aspectos qualitativos: valor intrínseco, essencialidade (lista da OMS e Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME, combinação em dose fixa e necessidade de prescrição médica. RESULTADOS: Foram solicitadas 5.332 especialidades farmacêuticas (785 diferentes princípios ativos, sendo 49,5% combinações em dose fixas, 53,0% de valor intrínseco não elevado, 44,1% sujeitos a prescrição médica, 71,0% não essenciais e 40,0% baseados em prescrições médicas anteriores. Os medicamentos mais solicitados foram analgésicos (17,3%, descongestionantes nasais (7,0%, antiinflamatório/antireumático e antiinfecciosos de uso sistêmico, ambos com 5,6%. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados sugerem que a automedicação no Brasil reflete as carências e hábitos da população, é consideravelmente influenciada pela prescrição médica e tem a sua qualidade prejudicada pela baixa seletividade do mercado farmacêutico.INTRODUCTION: The data presented are part of a World Health Organization (WHO multicenter study of self-medication in Latin America. Brazilian sites included: Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza, the city of S. Paulo and outlying locations. The objective was to characterize self-medication practices by analyzing drugs sought by consumers in pharmacies without a physician's prescription. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Drugs were classified according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification codes, and analyzed with respect to 1 intrinsic value; 2 recognition as

  4. O campo da fotografia profissional no Brasil The field of professional photography in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz R. De V. Coelho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura traçar um panorama do campo da fotografia profissional no Brasil desde o primeiro governo Vargas até o final do século XX. Nas décadas de 1930 e 1940, nova leva de fotógrafos estrangeiros se mudou para o país. Alguns ocuparam postos no governo federal e construíram a imagem fotográfica da Nação. Em meados do século, a maneira de se fazer fotografias para a imprensa sofreu profunda alteração e pela primeira vez um museu brasileiro expôs fotografias. A ditadura militar interferiu decisivamente na produção da indústria cultural. Os anos de 1970 foram marcados pela transformação no perfil profissional e do status dos fotógrafos, causados principalmente pela entrada no mercado de jovens saídos das universidades. Nesta mesma década foi criada uma instituição destinada a valorizar a fotografia brasileira em todas as suas dimensões: o Núcleo de Fotografia da Fundação Nacional de Arte. Finalmente, o campo da fotodocumentação recebeu um forte impulso com a criação de bolsas e de leis de incentivo que, ao lado de um aumento significativo do mercado consumidor de livros de fotografia, permitiu a multiplicação não só de trabalhos autorais, como também de publicações.This article draws an overview of the field of professional photography in Brazil since the first Vargas administration to the end of the Twentieth Century. In the 30.s and 40.s, a new host of photographers came to live in Brazil from various countries. Some of them took positions in the Federal Government and were responsible for building a photographical image of the Nation. In the middle of the Century, the technique to make photos for newspapers suffered a profound change and, for the first time, a Brazilian museum organized an exhibit of photographs. The military dictatorship decisively interfered in the cultural industry. The 70.s were marked by changes in the status and in the professional profile of photographers, brought about

  5. Energy and economic evaluation of the cotton agr o-ecosystem: a boarding between family systems of Paraguay and Brazil productions; Avaliacao energetica e economica do agroecossistema algodao: uma abordagem entre sistemas familiares de producao do Paraguai e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Maria Gloria Cabrera [Pos-graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: gloriac@fca.unesp.br, ayacabrera@hotmail.com; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Sutsui [Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the energy and economic efficiency indexes per unit of cotton agr o-ecosystem area in family production systems of Paraguay and Brazil; and, to establish a relationship between the energy and economic. Typologies presented by the Program to Support Small Cotton Holdings (Paraguay), and by the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture (Brazil). Family systems of the two countries were identified; these are located from Paraguay (San Juan-Ca) and from Brazil (Le me-Sp). To construct the energy expenditure structure of the cotton agr o-ecosystem, as well as to assess the economic efficiency, the mean values obtained were considered, when they presented similarities in production systems and they were within the typology proposed in this study. From the technical itinerary observed the Paraguayan agr o-ecosystem depended (fossil fuel 56.76%) and industrial source (35.99%). Thus, the energy balance of the agricultural stage was established, which attained a value of 17,740.69 MJ ha{sup -1}; an energy efficiency of 5.28, and a cultural efficiency of 3.04. The Brazilian agr o-ecosystem depended on energy from industrial source (insecticides 39.82%) and from fossil fuel (33.59%); it reached an energy balance of 19,547.88 MJ ha{sup -1}; an energy efficiency of 2.12, and a cultural efficiency index of 0.71. In the economic and energy indicator ratio, with regard to the months referring to the harvest time, that is to say, March, April, and May, the maximum economic efficiency indicator of paraguay was attained in the month of May (1,00), and from Brazil in the month of May (1,71). Both production systems analyzed were presented efficient, however, dependent of external circumstances and non-renewable energy sources. (author)

  6. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in caves of the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice A. B. Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county, seven in the central area (Bonito county and two in the south (Jardim county. These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932, Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942, Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947, Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989, Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970, Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962, Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942, Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929, Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939, Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929, Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998, Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927 and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5% over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there

  7. Diversity and composition of Trichoptera (Insecta) larvae assemblages in streams with different environmental conditions at Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lucia Henriques-Oliveira; Jorge Luiz Nessimian; Darcílio Fernandes Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aim The goal of this study is to examine the composition and richness of caddisfly assemblages in streams at the Serra da Bocaina Mountains, Southeastern Brazil, and to identify the main environmental variables, affecting caddisfly assemblages at the streams with different conditions of land use. Methods The sampling was conducted in 19 streams during September and October 2007. All sites were characterized physiographically by application of environmental assessment protocol to At...

  8. INOCULATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING BACTERIA IN MAIZE GROWN IN VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA, BAHIA, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Joelma da Silva Santos; Tarciana de Oliveira Viana; Cristina Meira de Jesus; Vera Lúcia Divan Baldani; Joilson Silva Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Maize is among the most important crops in the world. This plant species can be colonized by diazotrophic bacteria able to convert atmospheric N into ammonium under natural conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inoculation of the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae (ZAE94) and isolate new strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria in maize grown in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Experimental Area of the Uni...

  9. Evapotranspiration of caupi beans culture in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil; Evapotranspiracao da cultura do feijao caupi na zona da mata de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Ana Lucia; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Dall' Olio, Attilio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Carneiro, Clemente Jose Gusmao [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1996-07-01

    A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)

  10. Dose evaluation due to the effluent liberation by medical installations at city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao de doses devido a liberacao de efluentes por instalacoes medicas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Jane; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: jshu@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares; Heilbron, Paulo F.L., E-mail: paulo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (COREJ/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper, the city of Rio de Janeiro was taken as a case study. It was processed deterministic and probabilistic simulations vor evaluation of the dose in two exposure sceneries, one of them referring to public members exposure and the other relative to exposure of sewage sanitary treatment plant workers. The results showed that at present the doses for inhabitants of the city and operators of treatment station are lower to dose limit established for the public, the approach presently in use in Brazil is not sufficient to accomplish whit international requirements and the regulation should be revised to be adopted specific values for each radionuclide

  11. Karyotype description of two species of Hypostomus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) of the Planalto da Bodoquena, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereali, S S; Pomini, E; Rosa, R; Zawadzki, C H; Froehlich, O; Giuliano-Caetano, L

    2008-01-01

    Hypostomus sp 3-Córrego Salobrinha NUP 4247 and Hypostomus sp 2-Rio Perdido NUP 4249, collected in the Planalto da Bodoquena, Paraguay River basin, Brazil, were characterized cytogenetically. Hypostomus sp 3-Córrego Salobrinha showed two modal numbers. This polymorphism consists of the presence of two extrachromosomes. It was not possible to define the diploid number in four specimens, where cell lineages had 2n = 83 and 2n = 84 chromosomes in one individual, and 2n = 82, 2n = 83 and 2n = 84 chromosomes in the others. These results reveal the existence of a genetic mosaic due to the occurrence of one or two extrachromosomes in this species. Hypostomus sp 2-Rio Perdido NUP 4249 showed a 2n = 84, FN = 106 with size heteromorphism in one pair of chromosomes stained with AgNO3. In both species, C banding showed a pattern of heterochromatin distribution with a few small bands in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions coinciding with chromomycin A3 staining. Until now, the major diploid number for the genus Hypostomus was 2n = 80, but the species studied here had chromosomes that in creased this number and the variation for this genus. Our results are also the first cytogenetic data on Hypostomus from the Paraguay River basin. PMID:18752185

  12. Avaliation of forest fire occurrence in the Serra da Canastra National Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rodrigues de Magalhães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the forest fires in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data basis were the records of fire occurrence in 1988-2008 period. The results showed that 219 fires were recorded, burning 415,572.50 ha. In the average, 10.43 fires occurred per year, resulting in 19,789.17 ha burned. Incendiaries caused largest fires regarding the affected area, followed by fires caused by debris burning and lighting, that is first in number of occurrences. Fires caused by incendiaries and the unknown causes were more frequent in August and September. Fires caused by lightings occurred mainly in October and February, and those associated to debris burning were concentrated in the month of July. The largest fires occurred in areas with steep slopes, while the fires smaller than 4.0 ha, occurred in flat or smooth areas. Most of fires that occurred during the study period burned up to 200.000 ha and the larger fires occurred in the park region where the IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e do Desenvolvimento Sustentável already has the ownership or land control. These fires were possibly caused by incendiaries.

  13. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao de kerma de entrada na pele em exames radiologicos no Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/DEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  14. Qualitative evaluation of environmental radiological impact in a phosphate associated uranium conventional mine: Santa Quiteria Project, CE, Brazil; Avaliacao qualitativa do impacto radiologico ambiental em uma mineracao convencional de fosfato com uranio associado: o Projeto Santa Quiteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio G. dos; Santo, Aline Sa E., E-mail: rocio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: alinesah@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate qualitatively the main potential sources of mineral and installation terms of Santa Quiteria, CE, Brazil, evaluating their possible impacts on the environment. The key terms sources in the production of phosphoric acid are usually: the dig of the mines, tailings dams and phospho plaster stack. Thus, this work intends to inform the academic community about this issue, as well as the population in general and also, acting proactively in order to warn about the possible environmental impacts, so that actions to compensate, minimize or avoid these radiological impacts on the environment, can be included in the planning of the industrial mineral project of Santa Quiteria (author)

  15. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  16. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators; Avaliacao da taxa de equivalente de dose ambiente utilizando monitores de area para neutrons em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  17. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  18. Prospective evaluation of biorefinery routes in Brazil, from sugar cane bagasse as a basic feedstock; Avaliacao prospectiva das rotas de biorefinaria no Brasil, a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como materia-prima basica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Romulo Neves

    2009-12-15

    Bio refineries have been identified either as an alternative to oil refineries or as a supplement. This work seeks to understand these plants applied to the Brazilian case, which has in the alcohol-sugar sector a large number of lignocellulose material (sugar-cane bagasse) produced in large scale as a residue of the process of sugar and alcohol production. In this case, technological routes that are able to use this product as a basic feedstock for the industrial process will be described. Therefore, a model based on a set of economical and technological variables is applied to the routes. In this model, different profiles of bio refinery plants are described and compared with different hypothetical regions, which are characterized by a combination of both access to different amounts of raw material and different types of consumers. Overall, this work describes a model of both location and competition of the main bio refinery technological routes in Brazil that have the sugar-cane bagasse as the basic raw material. (author)

  19. Phosphorus in agroforestry systems : a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, I. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life on Earth. Originally, forest covered the region but nowadays only about 7.5 % of the original vegetation remains. Most of the trees were cut for wood and...

  20. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  1. First reported outbreak of green tobacco sickness in Brazil Primeiro relato do surto da doença da folha verde do tabaco no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pereira Vasconcelos de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermal absorption of nicotine by people harvesting tobacco may cause an acute intoxication called green tobacco sickness. Although Brazil is the second largest producer of tobacco in the world, green tobacco sickness had not been reported in the country to date. We conducted a 1:1 matched case-control study among persons involved in tobacco farming to determine the occurrence of green tobacco sickness in the northeast region of Brazil and to identify the risk factors involved. A case-patient was a person who received a diagnosis by health professional of acute intoxication during the study period and had a cotinine level over 10ng/mL detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. We identified 107 case-patients. The main signs and symptoms observed were dizziness, weakness, vomit, nausea and headache. Independent risk factors identified were being male, a non smoker and having worked in the harvest of tobacco leaves. Case-patients had higher median urinary cotinine levels than controls (p A absorção dérmica da nicotina por agricultores que trabalham com o cultivo do tabaco provoca uma intoxicação aguda denominada doença da folha verde do tabaco. Apesar de o Brasil ser o segundo produtor mundial de tabaco, a doença da folha verde do tabaco ainda não havia sido relatada no país. Conduzimos um estudo de caso-controle pareado (1:1 entre pessoas envolvidas na cultura do tabaco para determinar a ocorrência de doença da folha verde do tabaco na Região Nordeste do Brasil e identificar fatores de risco. Um paciente-caso foi a pessoa que no período de estudo foi diagnosticada de intoxicação aguda por profissionais de saúde e teve nível de cotinina acima de 10ng/mL pela Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Identificamos 107 pacientes-caso. Principais sinais e sintomas observados foram tontura, fraqueza, vômito, náusea e cefaléia. Foram associados ao adoecimento ser do sexo masculino, não-fumantes e ter trabalhado na fase da

  2. Evaluation of {sup 137}Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil; Avaliacao da mobilidade do {sup 137}Cs em perfis de solos da regiao do Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for {sup 137}Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to {sup 137}Cs soil and can be used in the task of remediation in case of rural areas by accident and {sup 137}Cs contamination establishing geographic areas where we should prioritize treatment due to a greater vulnerability. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis; Avaliacao de cimento Portland a partir da difracao de raios X associada a analise por agrupamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbo, Luciano de Andrade, E-mail: luciano.gobbo@panalytical.com [Panalytical Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Tarcisio Jose, E-mail: tarcisio.montanheiro@gmail.com [Instituto Geologico, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Filipe, E-mail: flpmontanheiro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LEBAC/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia Aplicada. Lab. de Estudos de Bacias; Sant' Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas, E-mail: agostino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2013-12-15

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  4. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  5. Power engineering education in Brazil; Repensando o ensino da engenharia de potencia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutto Filho, M.B. do; Silva, A.M. Leite da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1994-12-31

    This work presents elements to the reflection about power engineering education in Brazil, taking into account transformations such as, improve technology, new paradigms of professional behavior and economic recession. (author) 13 refs.

  6. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the maximum energy achieved through generation of hydro and wind power in the Northeast subsystem; Avaliacao da maxima energia assegurada atraves de geracao hidro-eolica no subsistema do Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Pedro T.; Teixeira, Marcos A.; Kissel, Johannes [Gesellschaft Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context to encourage sustainable development, wind energy plays an important role in the spread of renewable energy sources. In this paper, the possibilities and difficulties of wind power integration in large-scale are evaluated, specifically in the northeastern region of Brazil. From the seasonal complementarity with the water source, scenarios are set out where the maximum participation of only these two sources in the energy supply of the region is sought. Aiming to evaluate the possibilities of a completely sustainable regional energy supply, the northeast subsystem is isolated, excluding, in principle, imports and exports. Therefore, the energy storage capacity of reservoirs in the region is used as a key factor, combined with the seasonal availability of data sources and the annual energy consumption of the region. (author)

  8. Strategic pathways for energy in Brazil; Os caminhos da eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Alan Douglas; Hollanda, Jayme Buarque de; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest steps and policies to increase the introduction of cost-effective energy in conservation measures in Brazil. This report first addresses the motivations for a policy of energy efficiency and summarizes experiences in Brazil. It then considers the roles and perspectives of the diverse agents and review the instruments of policy. It concludes with an overview of strategic needs and lines of action.

  9. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  10. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea from Serra da Jibóia, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Zacca

    2011-12-01

    Resumo. Uma lista das espécies de borboletas da Serra da Jibóia, um maciço montanhoso no Recôncavo baiano, é apresentada com base no exame da coleção entomológica Prof. Johann Becker do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (MZUEFS, visando contribuir para o conhecimento da fauna de borboletas do estado da Bahia. A lista inclui 140 espécies, das quais 86 espécies são novos registros para o estado da Bahia e uma nova espécie do gênero of Perophthalma Westwood (Riodinidae. Nymphalidae foi a família de maior riqueza com 60 espécies. A maioria das espécies listadas possui ampla distribuição geográfica no Brasil e ocorre em áreas abertas.

  11. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos; Santos D'Angelo Neto

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and se...

  12. Familismo (antihomossexual e regulação da cidadania no Brasil (Antihomosexual familism and citizenship regulation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pouco mais de dez anos depois da apresentação do projeto de lei que institui a parceria civil entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, neste artigo são reunidas reflexões, no âmbito do debate teórico e político, sobre as relações afetivo-sexuais entre homossexuais como uma expressão da diversidade da instituição social família. O ponto de partida é que o vazio jurídico relativo aos direitos conjugais e parentais de gays e lésbicas é uma expressa negação de sua condição de cidadãos. Procura-se mostrar que a vivência de relacionamentos amorosos e sexuais, algo que nos faz intrinsecamente humanos, ainda é, em termos legais, uma prerrogativa heterocêntrica, marca da injustiça erótica e da opressão sexual que atinge gays e lésbicas no Brasil e na maior parte do planeta.Ten years after the presentation of the project of law that institutes the civil partnership between same-sex people, this article is a collection of reflections about the theoretical and political debate regarding relationships between homosexuals as an expression of diversity of family institution. The lack of legal rights for gay and lesbian partners and parents is an explicit denial of their citizenship. It will be shown that amorous and sexual relationships, that make us intrinsically humans, is still, in legal terms, a heterocentric possibility, which is an expression of the erotic injustice and sexual oppression that affect gays and lesbians in Brazil and most of the world.

  13. Firewood and wood-shaving use energy assessment for energy generation in sericulture agroindustry; Avaliacao energetica do uso da lenha e cavaco de madeira para producao de energia em agroindustria seropedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mario Donizeti do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: mariovmr@fca.unesp.br; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: biaggioni@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform an energy assessment of firewood and wood-shaving use for energy generation in sericulture agroindustry boilers. In this research, we used a boiler from a silk spinning factory located in the city of Duartina, Sao Paulo, Brazil, that currently uses eucalyptus firewood as fuel to generate water vapour used in silk fiber production. In the studied fuels utilization system energy consumption structure development, we considered energy input in Megajoule (MJ) by type, source and form involved in several firewood use technical itinerary operations, as well as in wood-shaving use technical itinerary operations. From these fuels utilization built structure, we performed a firewood- and wood-shaving-generated energy input comparative analysis, in Megajoule/hour (MJ.h{sup -1}), to produce 2.968,80 kg.h{sup -1} of vapour, which is the boiler average production, during the following years: 2004, 2005, and 2006. The energy analysis results revealed that to replace eucalyptus firewood with wood-shaving is something possible in the boiler, reducing total energy consumption approximately by 21%. (author)

  14. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  15. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  16. Acai oil development and evaluation of immobilization and release in poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao da incorporacao e liberacao de oleo de acai em hidrogeis de poli(N-vinil-2-pirrolidona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Henriques Ribeiro

    2010-07-01

    Acai (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. The benefits of the hydrogels are known as dressings. The purpose of this study was to develop devices for controlled release of acai oil on poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels. The behavior of the acai oil front to the radiation was evaluated by the composition of fatty acids of the oil before and after irradiation. Two different matrices of PVP hydrogel were evaluated physically and chemically through assays of swelling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Both matrices were considered adjusted to be used as an active release system. The devices were obtained by acai oil immobilization in PVP hydrogel matrices, were also characterized through assays of sweeling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Moreover, they were characterized by assays of scanning electron microscopy and in vivo primary cutaneous irritation. Both devices were submitted to assay of active release kinetics, and the acai oil was quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The devices showed to be satisfactory to compose a release system of actives. (author)

  17. The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURÍCIO B. SCHEER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed δ13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas.Muitos solos dos picos da Serra do Mar, como em muitas outras serras, apresentam horizontes hísticos espessos com elevados estoques de carbono. No entanto, a idade e constituição da matéria orgânica destes solos ainda é pouco conhecida e não se sabe se é predominantemente proveniente de comunidades de plantas do final do Pleistoceno ou do Holoceno. Este estudo foi realizado em três perfis, dois em campos altomontanos sobre Organossolos (1.335 m s.n.m e um em um colo (ponto de sela, onde a floresta altomontana sobre Gleissolos alcança seu patamar mais alto (1.325 m s.n.m. Foram realizadas análises isotópicas (δ13C da matéria orgânica de horizontes do solo para saber se plantas C3 ou C4 dominaram

  18. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  19. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  20. Fenologia da figueira-da-índia em Selvíria - MS Phenology of cactus pear in Selvíria - MS State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A figueira-da-índia é uma cactácea de origem mexicana, com grande potencial produtivo para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brasil, porém a falta de conhecimento faz com que a cultura seja pouco cultivada. Com o objetivo de avaliar a fenologia da figueira-da-índia, o presente trabalho foi realizado em plantas com 4 anos de idade, no espaçamento de 1,0 x 2,5 m, na área experimental da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS, de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, com uma planta por parcela experimental, ocasião em que foram avaliados a fenologia e o crescimento dos frutos. O período de emissão das gemas concentrou-se nos meses de setembro e outubro. O florescimento, ocorreu 30 dias após a emissão da gema florífera. Os frutos atingiram a maturidade fisiológica (ponto de colheita aos 66 dias após o florescimento e aos 72 dias apresentavam-se maduros, aptos para o consumo. O período de desenvolvimento dos frutos, desde a emissão da gema florífera até a maturidade fisiológica, foi de 96 dias. A curva de crescimento dos frutos foi do tipo quadrática. A cultura da figueira-da-índia pode tornar-se uma alternativa principalmente para pequenos produtores, visto que não exige grandes investimentos para sua implantação e condução, além de se adaptar bem às condições ambientais de nosso País. Seus frutos possuem excelentes preços tanto no mercado nacional como no internacional, e o aproveitamento na forma de doces e geleias pode incrementar a renda dos produtores.The cactus pear is a cactaceous with Mexican origin and great productive potential for the edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil, but for lack of knowledge, the culture is still little cultivated. With the objective to evaluate the phenology of cactus pear, the present research was

  1. Quality evaluation of image segmentation of brain magnetic resonance for mapping and functional analysis; Avaliacao da qualidade de segmentacao de imagens de ressonancia magnetica cerebral para mapeamento e analise funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, F.K.; Canova, C.V.; Marques da Silva, A.M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisas em Imagens Medicas (NIMed)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of the brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) through a comparison between automatic and semiautomatic volumetric segmentation techniques. T1-weighed volumetric acquired stacks of MRI head images from Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens at the Hospital Sao Lucas da PUCRS were used in this study. In the semi-automatic segmentation technique were applied procedures like pre-processing and region-growing using Image J software. The automatic method of volume segmentation was carried through by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), a statistical analysis tool written for software MATLAB. The automatic method of volumetric segmentation had better performance in time. However the quality of image that the half-automatic segmentation presents a better detailing, but it required longer image processing time. The best method to be used, whether automatic or semi-automatic, depends on the region of interest. (author)

  2. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  3. The scenario of power generation in Brazil; O cenario da geracao de energia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Abreu Junior, Otavio Castor de; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Carajilescov, Pedro; Leite, Patricia Teixeira; Cicogna, Marcelo A.

    2008-07-01

    The values concerning to the production of national power today, the evolution of composition and the installed capacity of electric matrix between the years 1980-2005, the outlook for demand and supply of energy according to the 'Plano Decenal de Energia' (2006-2015) were used as information basis for this study and analysis of some peculiar characteristics of the management of the energy sector in Brazil. The main objective was to highlight the importance of hydroelectric generation in Brazil. Finally we tried to make the comparison of the costs of hydroelectric generation in relation to other alternative sources available in the country.

  4. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  6. Peixes recifais da costa da Paraíba, Brasil Reef fishes from Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef is an ecossystem which evokes great interest, for its beaury, species diversity and fisheries potential. The coast of Paraíba State, northeast Brazil, possesses several natural reefs and shipwrecks which are inhabited by a rich fish fauna. In order to survey the reef fish fauna of Paraíba State, a total of 118 dives, utilizing SCUBA diving techniques, were carriedoutin 27samplingpoints (depths: 0,5-66m, from February/1995 to May/1996. Specimens were collected whenever underwater identification was precluded. A total of 157 known species belonging to 59 families were found. Four unidentified species, one dasyatid, one haemulid, one scarid, and one labrid were recorded. Haemulidae was the most representative family in number of individuais, whereas Carangidae was the most speciose family. This paper is part of a broader study of the northeast Brazilian reef fishes.

  7. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  8. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  9. Evaluation of the shield calculation adequacy of radiotherapy rooms through Monte Carlo Method and experimental measures; Avaliacao da adequacao do calculo de blindagens de salas de radioterapia atraves do metodo de Monte Carlos e medidas experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao

    2016-07-01

    The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the

  10. Echoes of the emergence of the Cold War in Brazil (1947-1953 Ecos da emergência da Guerra Fria no Brasil (1947-1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Munhoz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to advance the study of possible relationships between the emergence of the Cold War and the political repression that took place in Brazil in the immediately after the Second World War. The article examines the hypothesis that there were both endogenous and exogenous origins of the political repression. Furthermore, it supports the idea that the Brazilian elites, faced with the deterioration of the wartime alliances, returned to their conservatism and traditional anticommunism. As result, the registration of Communist Party was cancelled, the working-class movement and other popular organizations were severely repressed, the press was censured and even progressive military groups and suspected left-wing diplomats became targets of repression.O propósito deste texto é estudar as possíveis relações entre a emergência da Guerra Fria e a repressão política ocorrida no Brasil no imediato pós II Guerra Mundial. O artigo trabalha com a hipótese de que as raízes dessa repressão política são tanto endógenas quanto exógenas. Além disso, defende a idéia de que tão logo as relações envolvendo a grande aliança da II Guerra Mundial deterioraram as elites brasileiras retornaram ao seu conservadorismo e tradicional anticomunismo. Como resultado, o registro do partido comunista foi cancelado, o movimento operário e outras organizações populares foram duramente reprimidos, a imprensa foi censurada e mesmo grupos militares progressistas e diplomatas supostamente vinculados à esquerda tornaram-se alvos da repressão.

  11. Morcegos do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Serra da Tiririca State Parke Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.

  12. [Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcor, Núria Serre; Araújo, Tania M; Reis, Eduardo J F B; Porto, Lauro A; Carvalho, Fernando M; Oliveira e Silva, Manuela; Barbalho, Leonardo; de Andrade, Jonathan Moura

    2004-01-01

    The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of minor psychological disorders and certain characteristics of teaching work, emphasizing teachers' exposure to stress.

  13. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

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    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  14. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  15. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the

  16. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength

  17. Avanços da segurança de alimentos no Brasil | Advances in food safety in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Tondo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, um expressivo avanço na regulação e utilização de sistemas de gestão da segurança de alimentos (SGSA tem ocorrido no Brasil. Ainda que seja difícil afirmar que o número de Doenças Transmissíveis por Alimentos (DTA tenha diminuído, sistemas como as Boas Práticas de Fabricação ou Boas Práticas (BPF/BP, Procedimentos Operacionais Padronizados (POP e Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC estão cada vez mais presentes nos serviços de alimentação e indústrias de alimentos brasileiras. Além disso, ultimamente o Brasil vem utilizando os conceitos de Análise de Riscos (AR na elaboração de suas legislações e no estudo de problemas relacionados à segurança de alimentos. Como resultado desses avanços, as vigilâncias estão cada vez mais preparadas e atuantes, as legislações têm contemplado as especificidades brasileiras e, ao mesmo tempo, estão alinhadas com algumas das mais modernas do mundo e os órgãos que fomentam as implementações dos SGSA têm trabalhado incessantemente. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de abordar alguns dos recentes avanços da segurança de alimentos no Brasil, enfocando principalmente legislações sobre os SGSA e dados de implementação desses sistemas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In recent years, developments related to food safety regulation and implementation of food safety management systems (FSMS have occurred in Brazil. Although it is difficult to affirm if the number of foodborne diseases has decreased, implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, Standard Operation Procedures (SOP, and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP have increased in Brazilian food services and food industries. Furthermore, at present, Brazil uses the risk analysis concept for the elaboration of food regulation and to carry out food safety studies. As a result of this development, sanitary

  18. A visão brasileira da futura ordem global Brazil's vision of the future global order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flemes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa desdobrar a concepção brasileira da futura ordem global localizada entre os polos extremos de um concerto de grandes potências e de uma ordem mundial multirregional. O autor demonstra como os formuladores de política externa brasileira contribuem para um tipo de ordem global que oferece espaço de manobra para a potência emergente. As opções de política externa do Brasil são limitadas, diante do superior poder material (hard power das grandes potências estabelecidas. A estratégia de soft balancing do Brasil envolve estratégias institucionais, como a formação de coalizões diplomáticas limitadas ou alianças para restringir o poder das grandes potências estabelecidas. O Brasil tem estado entre os mais poderosos condutores de mudança incremental na diplomacia mundial e é beneficiado em grande parte pelas conectadas mudanças de poder global. Em uma ordem global moldada por grandes potências por meio de arranjos e instituições internacionais, esses jogadores que efetivamente operam em ambos como inovadores, construtores de coalizões e porta-vozes, ao mesmo tempo em que preservam grande parcela de soberania e autonomia, têm o potencial de influenciar substancialmente os resultados da futura política global.This article aims to unfold the Brazilian conception of the future global order located between the extreme poles of a concert of great powers and a multiregional world order. The author demonstrates how Brazilian foreign policy makers contribute to the kind of global order, which offers most room to manoeuvre to the rising power. The foreign policy options of Brazil are limited in view of the superior hard power of the established great powers. Brazil's soft balancing strategy involves institutional strategies such as the formation of limited diplomatic coalitions or ententes to constrain the power of the established great powers. Brazil has been amongst the most powerful drivers of incremental change in

  19. Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta da Chapada da Ibiapaba, Ceará, Brasil Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta of the Ibiapaba Plateau, Ceará state, Brazil

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    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chapada da Ibiapaba, localiza-se ao norte do estado do Ceará, possuindo uma extensão de 110 km com alitudes variando entre 800 e 1100 m. No inventário florístico de briófitas realizado na área, foram encontradas 15 espécies de hepáticas folhosas, pertencentes a odaem Jungermanniales, distribuídas em oito gêneros e seis famílias. Das espécies encontradas, cinco representam novos registros para o estado do Ceará e quatro para a região Nordeste. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil. São fornecidos chaves de identificação para as famílias e espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários referentes à ambiente, substratos e caracteres taxonômicos pertinentes, além de ilustração para Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.The Ibiapaba Plateau, north zone of Ceara, Brazil, has a length of 110 km with altitudes between 800 and 1.100 m. In the bryophytes floristic survey conducted in the area, 15 species of liverworts were found, wich belong to the order Jungermanniales, distributed in eight genera and six families. Among the species found, five represent new records for the state of Ceara and four for the Northeast region. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. is cited by the second time for Brazil. Identification keys to the families and species, geographic distribution, comments on the environment, substrate and important taxonomic characters are provided for the species found. An Illustration has been made for Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.

  20. Diagnóstico da floricultura no Rio Grande do Sul Diagnosis of floriculture in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Atelene Normann Kämpf

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o segmento da produção de flores e plantas ornamentais no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio de um levantamento a campo. O estudo faz parte de um projeto global, apoiado pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Floricultura (IBRAFLOR e pelo Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento (MAARA, através do Departamento Nacional de Cooperativismo (DENACOOP. Com base nos formulários preenchidos nas propriedades, foi elaborado um cadastro dos floricultores, com seus endereços e produções. A floricultura gaúcha conta com 257 produtores, que cultivam o total de 304ha em 65 municípios; 30% dessa área é ocupada com flores de corte, 33% com mudas para jardim, 29% com outros produtos da floricultura e 8% com plantas envasadas. O sistema de cultivo predominante é a céu aberto (89%, com baixos investimentos tecnológicos.A survey was conducted to quantify flower and ornamental plant production in the State of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Brazilian Floriculture Institute (IBRAFLOR and the Agriculture Ministry (MAARA - DENACOOP granted this research. Based on an inventory formulary a catalog including the nurseries, addresses and main crops was elaborated. There are 257 growers in this State with an area of 304ha distributed among 65 counties; 30% of this area are cultivated with cut flowers, 33% with annuals and perennials for garden, 29% with other floriculture products and 8% with potted plants. The main system of cultivation is not protected with low technological investments.

  1. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  2. A história da maconha no Brasil The history of marihuana in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Elisaldo Araújo Carlini

    2006-01-01

    A história da maconha no Brasil tem seu início com a própria descoberta do país. A maconha é uma planta exótica, ou seja, não é natural do Brasil. Foi trazida para cá pelos escravos negros, daí a sua denominação de fumo-de-Angola. O seu uso disseminou-se rapidamente entre os negros escravos e nossos índios, que passaram a cultivá-la. Séculos mais tarde, com a popularização da planta entre intelectuais franceses e médicos ingleses do exército imperial na Índia, ela passou a ser considerada em ...

  3. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  4. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Andressa Alencastre Fuzari Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%, Migonemyia migonei (20.6%, Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%, Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%, Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%, Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%, Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%, Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%, Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2% and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%. Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  5. Farmacovigilância da heparina no Brasil Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Rezende Garcia Junqueira; Thércia Guedes Viana; Eliane R. de M Peixoto; Fabiana C. R. de Barros; Maria das Graças Carvalho; Edson Perini

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar a origem das preparações de heparina, na forma farmacêutica injetável, disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, discutindo o impacto do perfil dos produtos comercializados e das alterações na monografia da heparina na segurança do fármaco. MÉTODOS: Pesquisou-se o banco de dados de Produtos Registrados das Empresas de Medicamentos da Anvisa e o Dicionário de Especialidades Farmacêuticas (DEF 2008/2009). Foi realizado inquérito com as indústrias com autorização ativa para o comér...

  6. O Brasil e a ALCA: um estudo a partir da Argentina Brazil and the FTAA: a study from Argentina

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    María Julieta Cortes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA, lançada por George Bush (pai, e seu novo impulso, dado por Clinton, foram recebidos com muita cautela no Brasil. A partir de 1990, o governo Collor de Mello, diante do esgotamento do modelo de desenvolvimento interno baseado na substituição de importações, pleiteou uma recomposição da política externa adaptada ao novo projeto. Desse modo, iniciou-se a abertura paulatina do mercado interno, acompanhada de um incremento nas importações superior ao das exportações. Nesse contexto, o Brasil propôs a liberalização do comércio internacional em bases recíprocas. No presente trabalho, e tendo como marco de referência o projeto ALCA, identificam-se no Brasil posturas favoráveis e contrárias ao mesmo, que resumem os inúmeros debates em torno da melhor forma de se defender os interesses nacionais brasileiros: privilegiar a ALCA ou o Mercosul?; a negociação via acordos bilaterais ou conjunta com os sócios do Mercosul, via Acordos 4+1?; o recomeço do Mercosul e a concretização de acordos com a União Européia ou a busca de novas parcerias (associações no sistema internacional? Em seguida, consideram-se as posições assumidas pelas administrações de Fernando Collor de Mello, Itamar Franco e Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Por último, analisa-se a atitude assumida pelo governo de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva diante do projeto de integração continental em seus primeiros onze meses de governo (janeiro-dezembro de 2003.Brazil cautiously received former president George Bush's proposal and Clinton's new impulse on FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas. Due to the weakening of an internal development pattern based on import substitution, Collor de Mello's government put forward a recomposition foreign policy according to a new project, since 1990. Hence, a slow opening to the internal market began. This was accompanied by an import increase, which surpassed exports. Framed

  7. O valor da marca: conceitos, abordagens e estudos no Brasil Brand equity: concepts, approaches and studies in Brazil

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    Marta Olivia Rovedder de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O valor da marca é um importante construto a ser estudado porque é associado a benefícios-chave tanto para os consumidores quanto para as empresas, de forma que existe um crescente reconhecimento de que as marcas são recursos capazes de melhorar o valor ao acionista. O presente estudo visa verificar os estudos relativos ao valor da marca realizados no Brasil. Para tanto, primeiramente revisa conceitos e construtos existentes. Após, aponta alguns modelos de mensuração e, por fim, realiza um levantamento, dentre algumas das principais publicações brasileiras de administração, sobre os trabalhos realizados atinentes a esse tema. O levantamento dos estudos demonstrou que, nos últimos anos 2007 e principalmente 2006 , ocorreu um crescimento dessas pesquisas, mas ainda há um amplo caminho para esses estudos no Brasil. Muitos estudos são de caráter teórico-conceitual, existindo espaço para avanços em pesquisas de caráter empírico. Crê-se que ainda haja espaço para pesquisas que relacionem o desempenho da marca ao desempenho empresarial, seja lucratividade ou valor ao acionista. Também existe uma carência de estudos que observem concomitantemente a perspectiva de valor dos consumidores e das empresas. Dentre as contribuições que essa pesquisa buscou oferecer destacam-se, além dos conceitos, modelos e estudos levantados, a indicação de futuras pesquisas no Brasil.Brand equity is an important construct to be studied because it is associated to key benefits for both customers and companies, as it is increasingly acknowledged that brands are resources able to improve the stockholder value. This study seeks to review the studies related to brand equity performed in Brazil. As such, it first reviews existing concepts and constructs. Then it points out some measuring models, and finally performs a survey of the papers published on this theme in the main Brazilian administration publications. The survey of the studies has shown that

  8. A etiologia da "cara inchada", uma periodontite epizoótica dos bovinos The etiology of "cara inchada", a bovine epizootic periodontitis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Döbereiner; Iveraldo dos Santos Dutra; Ivan Valadão Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Uma versão condensada em português de um artigo de revisão sobre a periodontite da "cara inchada" dos bovinos, publicado em inglês, está apresentada com algumas informações adicionais. A doença foi responsável por grandes perdas de bovinos jovens, principalmente nas décadas de 1970 e l980 no Brazil Central. Em face da periodontite progressiva e a perdas de dentes, os animais não podem se alimentar convenientemente, tornam-se emaciados e podem morrer. A doença foi tida como uma deficiência ou ...

  9. Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Envenomation by Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae in Bahia, Brazil

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    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação é um estudo descritivo dos aspectos clínicos dos acidentes causados pelo escorpião Tityus stigmurus no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foram analisados 237 casos confirmados, tratados pelo Centro de Informações Antiveneno da Bahia (CIAVE, no período de 1982-1995. O envenenamento por T. stigmurus caracterizou-se por manifestações locais: dor (94,4%, dormência (30%, edema (17,8%, eritema (17,8% e parestesia (15,6% e gerais: cefaléia (14%, vômitos (4,4% e sudorese (3,3%. A maioria dos envenenamentos (94% foi leve e todos evoluíram para cura. A ausência de letalidade, com o restabelecimento dos pacientes, inclusive casos graves, sugere a eficácia do tratamento com o antiveneno específico, apesar do veneno desta espécie não estar presente no pool de produção nacional do soro. Há necessidade de revisão dos critérios regionais nos esquemas atuais de soroterapia. Os dados apontam para a semelhança da gravidade do envenenamento por T. serrulatus, com exceção da ocorrência de óbitos e complicações sistêmicas.The present investigation is a descriptive study regarding the clinical aspects of accidents caused by the scorpion Tityus stigmurus in Bahia, Brazil. We analyzed 237 confirmed cases treated by the Antivenom Information Centre (CIAVE from 1982 to 1995. Envenomation by T. stigmurus was mainly characterized by local symptoms: pain (94.4%, dormancy (30.0%, edema (17.8%, erythema (17.8, paresthesia (15.6% and general manifestations such as headache (4.4%, vomiting (4.4% and sudoresis (3.3%. Most of the envenomation cases were mild (94% and all were successfully cured. Although T. stigmurus venom is not in the pool of anti-venom serum (SAE, the absence of lethality and benign nature of the cases suggest the efficiency of SAE. With the exception of deaths and systemic complications, envenoming gravity was similar to those of Tityus serrulatus.

  10. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Di-Nizo; Carolina Neves; Júlio Fernando Vilela; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the...

  11. An annotated list of Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Ribeiro Leite, Luis Anderson; Silva Dias, Fernando Maia; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    We provide an illustrated list of species belonging to the genus Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) collected during an expedition conducted between September 10-21, 2011 in the northern part of the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, a remote region of Amazon rainforest. A total of 46 individuals were collected belonging to 15 species. For all recorded species, drawings of male genitalia and behavioral information are provided to support future stu...

  12. O último refúgio da língua geral no Brasil The last refuge of indigenous language in Brazil

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    Eduardo de Almeida Navarro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a situação atual de uso da Língua Geral Amazônica, as causas de seu desaparecimento de grande parte do Norte do Brasil e as iniciativas atuais para sua revitalização.This paper focuses the present situation of Língua Geral Amazônica, the reasons for its extinction in most areas in Northern Brazil and the present efforts towards its revitalization.

  13. O último refúgio da língua geral no Brasil The last refuge of indigenous language in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo de Almeida Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo mostra a situação atual de uso da Língua Geral Amazônica, as causas de seu desaparecimento de grande parte do Norte do Brasil e as iniciativas atuais para sua revitalização.This paper focuses the present situation of Língua Geral Amazônica, the reasons for its extinction in most areas in Northern Brazil and the present efforts towards its revitalization.

  14. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  15. O uso religioso da Internet no Brasil / The religious use of Internet in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Airton Luiz Jungblut

    2010-01-01

    A intenção deste texto é socializar algumas observações feitas nestes últimos dez anos a respeito da utilização que indivíduos, grupos e instituições têm feito da Internet para tornar públicas no Brasil suas crenças e traços identitários religiosos. Com isso, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão do, até certo ponto, recente “mercado religioso brasileiro”, observando mais atentamente o impacto dessa nova mídia neste processo. Outrossim, buscar-se-á verificar até que ponto a noção de “merc...

  16. INOCULATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING BACTERIA IN MAIZE GROWN IN VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA, BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Joelma da Silva Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is among the most important crops in the world. This plant species can be colonized by diazotrophic bacteria able to convert atmospheric N into ammonium under natural conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inoculation of the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae (ZAE94 and isolate new strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria in maize grown in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Experimental Area of the Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. Inoculation was performed with peat substrate, with and without inoculation containing strain ZAE94 of H. seropedicae and four rates of N, in the form of ammonium sulfate (0, 60, 100, and 140 kg ha-1 N. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter accumulation in shoots, percentage of N, and total N (NTotal were evaluated. The bacteria were isolated from root and shoot fragments of the absolute control; the technique of the most probable number and identification of bacteria were used. The new isolates were physiologically characterized for production of indole acetic acid (IAA and nitrogenase activity. We obtained 30 isolates from maize plants. Inoculation with strain ZAE94 promoted an increase of 14.3 % in shoot dry mass and of 44.3 % in NTotal when associated with the rate 60 kg ha-1 N. The strains N11 and N13 performed best with regard to IAA production and J06, J08, J10, and N15 stood out in acetylene reduction activity, demonstrating potential for inoculation of maize.

  17. Diversity and composition of Trichoptera (Insecta larvae assemblages in streams with different environmental conditions at Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil

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    Ana Lucia Henriques-Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The goal of this study is to examine the composition and richness of caddisfly assemblages in streams at the Serra da Bocaina Mountains, Southeastern Brazil, and to identify the main environmental variables, affecting caddisfly assemblages at the streams with different conditions of land use. Methods The sampling was conducted in 19 streams during September and October 2007. All sites were characterized physiographically by application of environmental assessment protocol to Atlantic Forest streams and by some physical and chemical parameters. Of the 19 streams sampled, six were classified as reference, six streams as intermediate (moderate anthropic impact and seven streams as poor (strong anthropic impact. In each site, a multi-habitat sampling was taken with a kick sampler net. The sample was composed by 20 units, each one corresponded to 1 m2 of collected substrate, corresponding 20 m2 of sampling area. The material was placed in a plastic container (500 µm of mesh, washed, homogenized and sub-sampled. For each stream, 6 subsamples were randomly sorted. Results Were collected 2,113 caddisfly larvae, belonging to 12 families and 28 genera. Hydropsychidae and Leptoceridae were the most abundant families, and Smicridea was the most abundant genus. Sorensen’s index results showed that the streams studied were grouped according to environmental integrity. The Indicator Species Analysis showed only characteristic taxa to reference streams. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that caddisfly assemblage was strongly influenced by nitrate concentration, pH and condition of riparian vegetation. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant correlations to five genera with some environmental parameters, besides total abundance of Trichoptera. Conclusions Ours results showed that degree of environmental impact, mainly the nitrate concentration, pH, and condition of cover vegetation acted as a major factor in determining the

  18. Pleistocene gastropods from Toca da Esperança, municipality of Central, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Lais Clark Lima

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil shells collected during excavations in Toca da Esperança, BA, were identified on morphological grounds as: Artemon intermedius intermedius (Albers, 1857; Gastrocopta (Privatula corticaria (Say; Bulimulus (Rhinus heterotrichus (Moricand, 1836 and Polygyratia polygyrata polygyrata (Born, 1780. Bone samples found associated with these shells were dated by the Uranium - Thorium method as being between 204,000 and 295,000 years old (Middle - Upper Pleistocene. Species of the mastofauna also found associated, on the other hand, were identified as being of the Upper Pleistocene or even of the beginning of the Holocene. The material studied here was not dated.

  19. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION CHAIN IN THE STATE OF TOCANTINS, BRAZIL COMPETITIVIDADE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DA CARNE BOVINA NO ESTADO DO TOCANTINS

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    Adriano Firmino Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze the beef cattle chain competitiveness in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, based on some indicators and using as parameters three Brazilian states, which present the largest slaughtering and beef cattle production volume numbers: Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. The beef cattle chain, in Tocantins, depicts a formation process scenery and, as compared to the other three mentioned states, a still low competitive performance. The detailed examination of the present situation points out that, in all segments studied (livestock production, slaughtering/processing, distribution, and consumption, the indexes indicate a necessity of efforts to reach development factors that bring competitiveness and that will allow the Tocantins results to approach the national sector leaders.

    KEY-WORDS: Beef cattle chain; competitiveness; Tocantins.

    O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a competitividade do sistema agroindustrial da carne bovina do Tocantins, com base em alguns direcionadores, tendo como parâmetro as tr

  20. Morfometria da bacia hidrografica da Cachoeira das Pombas, Guanhães - MG Morphometric characteristics of Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, Guanhães - MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Tonello

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a morfometria da bacia hidrográfica da Cachoeira das Pombas, localizada no Município de Guanhães, MG. A base de dados foi disponibilizada pelo convênio SIF/CENIBRA/UFV e consistiu dos dados matriciais Modelo Digital de Elevação Hidrologicamente Consistente (MDEHC, rede hidrográfica e direções de escoamento. As características morfométricas e delimitação da bacia e sub-bacias hidrográficas foram obtidas automaticamente pelo software Hidrodata 2.0. A área de drenagem encontrada foi de 6,981 km² e o perímetro de 14,864 km. De forma geral, constatou-se que a área estudada possui forma alongada, com baixa densidade de drenagem, relevo forte-ondulado e declividade média de 33,9%. Esses parâmetros possuem grande influência sobre o escoamento superficial e, conseqüentemente, sobre o processo de erosão, que resulta em perda de solo, água, matéria orgânica, nutrientes e microfauna, que podem vir a provocar o assoreamento e eutrofização dos corpos d'água. Quanto à orientação do terreno, pôde-se se constatar que 41% do terreno da bacia hidrográfica está exposto à face norte-oeste, e 33% de sua área total encontra-se sombreada. Para um estudo mais detalhado, procuraram-se caracterizar suas sub-bacias, onde cada uma foi analisada individualmente, concluindo-se que as cinco sub-bacias apresentam deficiência de densidade de drenagem e forma alongada. Em termos de declividade média, os valores variaram entre 29,6 e 40,4%, representando o relevo forte-ondulado. Pôde-se constatar, também, que a morfometria diferenciada entre as sub-bacias evidencia a necessidade de um manejo específico de cada uma delas.The objective of this work was to study the morphometric characteristics of the Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, in Guanhães- MG, Brazil. The database was provided by the cooperative agreement SIF/CENIBRA/UFV and consists of the following raster datasets: hydrologically consistent

  1. [Work and psychological distress among public school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; Porto, Lauro Antônio; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with all the teachers in the municipal school system in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, investigated the association between work content (psychological demand and control over work) and the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among teachers. The Karasek demand-control model was used to evaluate control over work. The Self-Report Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate minor psychiatric disorders. MPD prevalence was 55.9% among the 808 teachers studied. Crude prevalence of MPD showed a positive and significant association with psychological demand and a negative and significant association with control over work. MPD prevalence was higher in teachers with highly demanding work, characterized by heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.44-2.10), and in those with active work, with heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.61), as compared to teachers with low-demand work (light demand and high control), after adjusting for confounders in a multiple logistic regression model. As a conclusion, teachers' mental health is strongly associated with their work content.

  2. [Evaluation of potential drug interactions in primary health care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Danyllo Fábio Lessa; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2014-01-01

    Drug interactions are risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The risk for drug interactions includes factors related to prescription that are intrinsic to the patient. This study sought to evaluate the potential drug interactions in primary care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia to fill the knowledge gap on this topic in Brazil. Information about several variables derived from the primary health care prescriptions was collected and drug interactions were evaluated based on information from Medscape and Micromedex(R) databases. Polypharmacy frequency and its association with the occurrence of drug interactions were also evaluated. Results revealed a 48,9% frequency of drug interactions, 74,9% of moderate or greater severity, 8,6% of prescriptions in polypharmacy that in the chi-square test showed a positive association with the occurrence of drug interactions (p Conquista in the state of Bahia showed a high frequency of drug interactions, however it is necessary to analyze other risk factors for their occurrence at this level of health care.

  3. Efeito da área e da produtividade na produção de celulose no Brasil Effect of area and productivity in pulp production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaio Henrique Adame de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a evolução tecnológica da produção de madeira para celulose, para tanto, a produção de celulose de fibra curta derivada do eucalipto foi decomposta em efeito área e efeito produtividade. Para isso foi usado o modelo shift-share com o qual se verificou qual dessas duas variáveis mais contribuiu para a evolução na produção de celulose no país nos últimos anos. Foram avaliados os seguintes períodos: 1960 a 1970; 1970 a 1980; 1980 a 1990; 1990 a 2000; 2000 a 2007 e 1960 a 2007. No geral, foi observado que 1960 a 2007 o principal fator que explicou o crescimento da produção de celulose foi a produtividade, porém o valor baixo para o efeito área foi devido a sua expansão só ter começado na década de 90. Também foi observado que os reflorestamentos no Brasil são muito recentes quando comparado a outros países, mesmo assim o setor de celulose brasileiro conseguiu se tornar competitivo tanto no mercado nacional quanto no internacional.The objective of this work was to study the technological production of pulpwood.Therefore, production of hardwood pulp derived from eucalyptus effect was broken down into area and productivity effects. For this purpose, we used the shift-share model with which was found that these two variables contributed most to the trend in pulp production in the country in recent years. The following periods were evaluated: 1960 to 1970; 1970 to 1980; 1980 to 1990; 1990 to 2000; 2000 to 2007 and 1960 to 2007. Overall, it was observed that from 1960 to 2007, the main factor that explained the growth of pulp production was the productivity, but the low value for the area effect was due to expansion that started only in the 1990s. We also found that the planted forests in Brazil are very recent when compared to other countries, although the Brazilian pulp industry has managed to become competitive in both within the country and abroad.

  4. Fauna de Culicidae da Serra da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brasil Culicidae fauna of Serra da Cantareira, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Joyce Montes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a fauna de culicídeos nos ambientes de mata, ecótono e peridomicílio quanto ao número de espécies e de indivíduos, estimativas de diversidade, riqueza, heterogeneidade e similaridade. Determinou-se ainda as espécies dominantes e as relações entre dominância específica e fatores climáticos. MÉTODOS: Foram conduzidas no Parque Ecológico da Cantareira coletas quinzenais com armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC-CO2, dispostas em cinco ambientes ecologicamente diferentes, de fevereiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2002. As análises foram feitas utilizando o índice de Diversidade de Margalef e o de Menhinick. Para similaridade, foi utilizado o índice de Sorensen e, para dominância de espécies, o índice de Berger-Parker. A heterogeneidade foi estimada pelos índices de Simpson e de Shannon. A relação entre dominância específica e fatores climáticos foi estimada por correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 2.219 culicídeos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 21 espécies. O ambiente mata apresentou maior riqueza (Mg=3,64 de espécies e o peridomicílio maior dominância (d=0,85. A temperatura mostrou a correlação mais elevada (Rs=0,747; pOBJECTIVE: To compare the Culicidae fauna in forest, ecotone and anthropic environments and to analyze their composition according to the number of species and individuals, species richness, diversity, heterogeneity and similarities and to determine species dominance and the relationship between species dominance and climatic factors. METHODS: CO2 -baited CDC light traps were used for mosquito collection twice a month in the Serra da Cantareira State Park from February 2001 to January 2002. CO2 - baited CDC light traps were placed in five different environments. The analyses were carried out using Margalef and Menhinick's diversity indexes. Similarity was calculated using the Sorensen index and species dominance was indicated by the Berger-Parker index. Mosquito heterogeneity was

  5. Os sertões e os (descaminhos da mudança social no Brasil Os sertões and the (misdirection of social change in Brazil

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    Maria José de Rezende

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A obra Os sertões tem sido amplamente discutida em vários campos de interpretação do Brasil, ou seja, na literatura, na sociologia, na antropologia e na história. Este artigo visa demonstrar que o modo de caracterização da existência social do sertanejo fez deste trabalho de Euclides da Cunha um marco na formação das ciências sociais no país. Ao buscar compreender, a partir do evolucionismo spenceriano, os (descaminhos da mudança social no país o autor contribuiu com a fundação dos primeiros pilares de uma reflexão acerca das singularidades socioculturais brasileiras.Os sertões has been amply discussed in various fields of interpretation in Brazil, be it in literature, sociology, anthropology or history. This article aims to demonstrate that the means of characterization of the social existence of the peasant from the arid countryside has turned this work of Euclides da Cunha's into a landmark in the formation of the social sciences in Brazil. Based on Spencerian evolutionism, the author analyzes the (misdirection of social change in the country, as a means to contribute towards the reflection on Brazilian socio-cultural singularities.

  6. Evaluation of radiochemistry purity and p H of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Pernambuco, Brazil; Avaliacao da pureza radioquimica e pH de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Poliane A.L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are cellular or molecular structures that have a radionuclide in its composition and they are used for diagnosing or treating diseases. The evaluation of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images with artifacts free, as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Since they are administered in humans is important and necessary that they undergo rigorous quality control. Due to this fact, the norm in ANVISA RDC 38/2008 declaring the mandatory completion of a minimum of tests in routine nuclear medicine services before human administration. (author)

  7. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  8. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  9. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  10. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  11. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results; Avaliacao da presenca de NORM no tratamento de agua do municipio de Pocos de Caldas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianomotaferreira@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  12. Evaluation of demand for water and electricity for papaya micro sprinkler irrigation system in Paraiba state, Brazil; Avaliacao das demandas de agua e energia eletrica para mamao irrigado por microaspersao no estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Riuzuani Michelle Bezerra Pedrosa; Dantas Neto, Jose; Farias, Soahd Arruda Rached Farias; Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Vieira de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: riuzuani@yahoo.com.br, zedantas@deag.ufcg.edu.br, soahd_rached@hotmail.com, cazevedo@deag.ufcg.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an assessment on the demands for water and electricity for fruit irrigated by micro sprinkler irrigation in agricultural planning. We obtained the demands of gross water and electricity for papaya in 15 municipalities spread over the Rio Paraiba-PB, which was used by micro irrigation system with 90% application efficiency. The city of Joao Pessoa is the place to lower water consumption, requiring 32.9% of the amount required for papaya in Exile, which had the highest annual and daily evapotranspiration, combined with the lowest annual rainfall likely at a 75 % probability. The municipalities were chosen because they had a greater variance in terms of climate, in order to examine various irrigation demands. In Exile is a necessary volume of water-to 8.006,9 m{sup 3}.ha{sup -1}.year{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya while in Joao Pessoa need to 2.712,89 m{sup 3}.ha-1.year{sup -1}. The consumption of electricity in the city of Desterro is higher among the cities studied, necessitating 2.009,0 kW.ha{sup -1}.ano{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya, while in Joao Pessoa we only need 876,54 kW.ha {sup -1}.ano{sup -1} (author)

  13. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation rate was determined by the passive detection technique with the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) and the sealed can technique, assuming a ventilation rate of 0.5 h{sup -1} and an annual exposure time of 7000 h. The results for this studies show that the annual effective dose ranged from (62 {+-} 3) {mu}Sv.y{sup 1} to (138 {+-} 1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and the internal annual effective dose ranged from (0,39 {+-} 0,04) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} to (70 {+-} 4) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. These values are below the maximum limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1} suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection, meaning that the granitic rocks evaluated can be used without radiological implications since the considered scenario is obeyed. The values obtained for the contribution due to the internal dose ranged from 1 % to 78 % of the values obtained for the respective external dose showing the radon contribution varies strongly with the rock type. The results of the correlations between {sup 222}Rn superficial exhalation rate, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, density, porosity and major oxides of the samples, showed that, in terms of influence in the emanation fraction of radon, the most important parameter is the density, due to low porosity and similarity in terms of chemical composition amid the studied samples. (author)

  14. Geological, geotechnical and environmental evaluation of influence area of the oil production in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao geologico-geotecnica e ambiental da zona de influencia do duto petrolifero no municipio de Mangaratiba (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Andre Ferreira; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Silva, Jorge Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geografia; Oliveira, Wilson J. de [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is applicable for a specials and strategies areas that must be permanently controlled called pipelines and their proximities. Those areas are liable to be under the influence of different situations like potential environmental risks - eg. conflagrations, floods, soil erosion, slumps and also accidental risks like located spills. Besides those negatives environmental situations, the pipelines also cross different regions that has an important natural resource like forests, watersheds, urban, industrial and agricultural areas. For main regulator of this work the pipeline was developed a series of maps that can be used single or overlayed with another maps. Those maps can be useful for Mangaratiba city urban management and demonstrate possible environmental risks that can occur on pipelines proximities of this city. (author)

  15. Diversity of Ephemeroptera (Insecta of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emilia Siegloch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the mayfly fauna, based on nymphal and alate stages, in Serra da Mantiqueira and in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, as well as to present information about habitats used by the genera. Nymphs were collected in several streams and mesohabitats with a Surber sampler and the winged stages with light attraction methods, entomological nets, and Malaise traps. In all, eight families and 33 genera were recorded, representing a very significant portion of the Brazilian fauna (80% of families and 49% of genera. Furthermore, it was possible to identify 11 species, of which two are new records for the state: Tricorythodes santarita Traver and Caenis reissi Malzacher. Despite the high diversity recorded, the accumulation curves presented an ascending form, indicating an increase in the number of genera with additional sampling effort. The high richness found in these areas are in agreement with the high biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest biome and the sampling effort employed, which included the use of different methods, the collection of both nymphs and winged stages, and the sampling of a large area with diverse streams and habitats.

  16. Archaeozoology of marine mollusks from Sambaqui da Tarioba, Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa C. C. L. de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A reference inventory of prehistoric marine mollusks from the Rio das Ostras region was created based on an excavation carried out at the Sambaqui da Tarioba shellmound. Patterns of richness and biogeography were studied, and the representativeness of bivalve and gastropod diversities found at this archaeological site were inferred. A total of 47 taxa belonging to 28 families, most of which from unconsolidated substrates, was identified. The shellmound species composition does not differ from the present-day composition. All recorded species are characteristic of a wide transition zone between the south of the states of Espírito Santo (21°S and Rio Grande do Sul (32°S. Thus, the data show little evidence of evolution in the composition, richness,and biodiversity distribution patterns of mollusks in the Rio das Ostras region. Likewise, a reconstitution of the paleoenvironment from the functional characteristics of the shellmound species indicates that the locality's geomorphology and climate remained largely unchanged in the last 4,000 years BP.

  17. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 5422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felice, G.D. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Lage, M.C.S.M. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Quimica, Campus da Ininga, Ininga, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Guidon, N. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@usp.br

    2008-02-15

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho's limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 {+-} 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245-14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guerin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes/ Earth and Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, ]. This region is challenging the classical theories about the peopling of America. In agreement with such theories the first human groups would have arrived in America, through Behring, only about 20,000 years ago. The site Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada is a rock-shelter situated at the cliff that is the frontier between the Pre-Cambrian Sao Francisco plain and the Devonian-Permian highlands of the Maranhao-Piaui basin. It was excavated from 1978 till 1988 and presented a very consistent stratigraphy, with thousand of lithic implements and hearths [F. Parenti, Le gisement quaternaire de la Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil), Stratigraphie, chronologie, evolution culturelle, Editions Recherches sur les civilisations, Paris, 2002, ; F. Parenti, Le Gisement Quaternaire de la Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil) dans le Contexte de la Prehistoire Americaine Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Chronologie, Evolution Culturelle, Ph.D. diss, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1993, 411p, ; F. Parenti, M. Fontugne, N. Guidon, C. Guerin, M. Faure, Chronostratigraphie des gisements archeologiques et paleontologiques de Sao Raimundo Nonato (Piaui, Bresil): contribution a la connaissance du peuplement pleistocene de l'Amerique, Supplement de la Revue d

  18. CONTROL OF EROSION PROCESSES RESULTING FROM DISRUPTION OF ADDUCTOR IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, SP, BRAZIL

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    Admilson Clayton Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the erosion processes, a methodology was developed consisting of the use of four barriers (numbered I to IV formed by seedlings of Bambusa mutiplex (Lour., whose purpose was to divert the water runoff in order to provide the regeneration of native vegetation. Stalks of bamboo intercropped with Bambusa multiplex were used to contain debris in two gullies formed by erosion. The development of vegetation was monitored for 18 months and evaluated by the application of a Leopold Matrix composed of 5 points, which are: erosion, regeneration of vegetation, success of bamboo planting, installed conservation structures and functionality. The purpose of the matrix was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions using bamboo. The result of the classification matrix enabled the quantitative and qualitative classification of the interventions, resulting in five levels, where the barriers I, II and IV were considered to be of very high efficiency, and barrier III was considered to be of high efficiency. The contention of the gully was considered to be of medium to very high efficiency.

  19. Macroalgas de riachos da Serra da Prata, leste do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Stream macroalgae from Serra da Prata, eastern Paraná State, Southern Brazil

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    Cleto Kaveski Peres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos florísticos das comunidades de macroalgas lóticas no Brasil são quase que exclusivamente baseadas em material do Estado de São Paulo. Informações sobre macroalgas de riachos são escassos no Estado do Paraná. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento florístico das comunidades de macroalgas de riachos da Serra da Prata, uma área bem preservada e protegida de Floresta Ombrófila Densa. As amostras foram realizadas em 14 segmentos de riachos. O levantamento resultou na identificação de 19 táxons (15 infragenéricos, três genéricos e uma fase do ciclo de vida de Batrachospermum spp., distribuídos em quatro divisões. Cyanophyta foi a divisão com maior número de representantes (58% das espécies e Microcoleus subtorulosus Gomont ex Gomont foi a espécie mais bem distribuída. A maioria dos táxons encontrados (53% são primeiros registros no Estado do Paraná, ao passo que alguns outros são considerados de ocorrência rara em riachos brasileiros. Estes resultados reforçam a importância e a necessidade de mais estudos florísticos e taxonômicos para que se amplie o conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade das comunidades de macroalgas de riacho no Brasil.Studies of stream macroalgal communities in Brazil are almost exclusively based on data from São Paulo state. There are no extensive studies concerning stream macroalgae in Paraná state. In this context, the main objective of this study was to survey the flora of stream macroalgal communities in the Serra da Prata, a well-preserved and protected area of dense Atlantic rain forest. Sampling was carried out in 14 stream segments. The survey resulted in the identification of 19 taxa (15 infrageneric, three generic and one life cycle stage of Batrachospermum spp., distributed in four divisions. Cyanophyta was the division with the highest number of taxa (58% of the species and Microcoleus subtorulosus Gomont ex Gomont was the most widespread

  20. Morbidade da doença de Chagas: III. Estudo longitudinal, de seis anos, em Virgem da Lapa, MG, Brasil Morbidity of Chagas disease: III. Six-year longitudinal study, at Virgem da Lapa, MG, Brazil

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    José Borges Pereira

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo longitudinal clínico, radiológico e eletrocardiográfico do tipo caso-controle realizado no município de Virgem da Lapa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o acompanhamento de 124 chagásicos crônicos durante seis anos, revelou que 62,1% dos pacientes permaneceram com o quadro inicial inalterado, a maioria deles na forma indeterminada, 32,3% evoluíram com progressão da doença e 5,6% tiveram normalização do eletrocardiograma. Os resultados mencionados, quando comparados aos obtidos no grupo controle composto de pares não chagásicos da mesma idade e sexo, demonstraram uma progressão de 27,4% maior entre os pacientes com sorologia positiva, o que representa o excesso de risco ou componente exclusivamente chagásico na evolução da doença. Não houve diferença de progressão da doença em relação ao sexo, porém ela foi mais precoce e sete vezes mais freqüente em relação à cardiopatia do que ao megaesôfago, ambas ocorrendo na maioria das vezes em grau leve ou moderada. Em 192 chagásicos e 188 não chagásicos observados na área, no referido período, houve uma mortalidade 3,6 vezes maior entre os chagásicos, com uma letalidade pela cardiopatia de 8,9%, sem diferença entre os sexos, porém mais precoce no sexo masculino. A morte súbita foi mais freqüente do que a morte por insuficiência cardíaca. O prognóstico foi bom para os pacientes da forma indeterminada e digestiva e reservado para os casos de cardiopatia, principalmente os de graus mais elevados.In a clinical, radiological and electrocardiographical, follow-up study of the "case control" type performed in Virgem da Lapa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 124 chagasic patients were followed during six years. The results of the patients, the majority in the indeterminate form, did not register any change, in 32.2% there was a progress in the disease and in 5.6% the electrocardiogram returned to normal. These results when compared to that achieved by the control group

  1. Estudo da difusão da tecnologia móvel celular no Brasil: uma abordagem com o uso de Dinâmica de Sistemas Study of the cellular phone diffusion in Brazil: a system dynamics approach

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    Júlio César Bastos de Figueiredo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um modelo para estudo da difusão da tecnologia móvel celular. Baseado na teoria de difusão de produtos de Frank Bass (1969, e na metodologia de Dinâmica de Sistemas, o modelo foi aplicado ao caso brasileiro. Como resultado, foi possível reproduzir, com bom grau de aderência, as curvas acumuladas de celulares adotados no Brasil (pós-pagos, pré-pagos e total, bem como a curva de vendas anuais. Os resultados das projeções apontam para uma saturação da penetração de telefones celulares no Brasil por volta do ano de 2013, quando então o mercado deverá atingir um total aproximado de 150 milhões de aparelhos.This work presents a model to study the diffusion of the mobile cell phone technology. Based on the Frank Bass' theory of Products Diffusion (1969, and on the System Dynamics methodology, the model was applied to the Brazilian case. As a result, it was possible to reproduce, with a good degree of adherence, the accumulated curves of cellular adopted in Brazil (post-paid, pre-paid and total, as so the annual sales curve. The projected results indicates a saturation of cell phones diffusion in Brazil around the year 2013, when the market will supposed to reach a total of approximately 150 millions of devices.

  2. Fitossociologia de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, Jardim, MS, Brasil Phythossociologic along a riparian forest at rio da Prata, Jardim, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Joanice Lube Battilani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a riqueza e a diversidade em espécies e analisar os aspectos fitossociológicos de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, localizado na Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Jardim, MS. Seis transectos de 150 m cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente perpendiculares à margem do rio e subdivididos em 90 parcelas de 10 m×10 m. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP > 3,18 cm, totalizando 661 indivíduos pertencentes a 33 famílias, 57 gêneros e 66 espécies. As famílias Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae destacaramse pelo elevado número de espécies. Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg D. Legrand, Adelia membranifolia (Müll. Arg. Chodat & Hassl., Dalbergia sp., Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Unonopsis lindmanii R.E. Fr., Guarea kunthiana A. Juss., Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Guarea guidonea (L. Sleumer, Averrhoidium paraguaiense Radlk.e Astronium graveolens Jacq. foram as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' obtido foi 3,413 nats/indivíduo e a eqüabilidade (J' foi 0,815. A densidade e a área basal estimada foi 734,44 indivíduos/ha e 21,32 m²/ha respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho reforçam a necessidade de preservação da mata ciliar do rio da Prata e são de extrema importância para subsidiar projetos de manejo e recomposição nestas formações.The present study describes species richness and diversity, and analyses phythossociologic aspects of a riparian forest at Rio da Prata, Jardim district, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The phytosociological study was carried out on six 150 m transects perpendicular to the river subdivided in 90 quadrats (10 m×10 m. All trees and shrubs with a minimum of 3,18 cm diameter at breast height were recorded, totalizing 661 individuals of 33 families, 57 genera and 66

  3. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

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    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  4. O campo da sexologia no Brasil: constituição e institucionalização The field of sexology in Brazil: constitution and institutionalization

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    Jane A. Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos e discutimos os resultados parciais da investigação sobre a constituição do campo da sexologia contemporânea no Brasil, parte da pesquisa comparativa "Sexualidade, ciência e profissão na América Latina". Uma segunda onda sexológica surgiu no Brasil em finais dos anos 1970 no Rio de Janeiro, com um viés essencialmente clínico, e em São Paulo, com um viés educacional. A década seguinte marcou um período de institucionalização no qual são criadas as duas associações que hoje polarizam o campo em torno de uma sexologia mais eclética e multiprofissional e da chamada "medicina sexual", em geral dominada pelos urologistas. Discutimos os significados dessa polarização em termos das disputas profissionais subjacentes e das concepções de gênero implicadas em tais disputas.In this paper we present and discuss the preliminary results of an investigation on the constitution of the contemporary field of sexology in Brazil, which is part of the comparative research "Sexuality, science and profession in Latin America". A second sexology arose in Brazil in the late 70's in Rio de Janeiro, with an essentially clinical approach, and in São Paulo, with an educational approach. The following decade brought a period of institutionalization in which the two associations that nowadays dominate the sexological field were created. They represent the two main trends in modern sexology; a more eclectic and multiprofessional approach and the so-called "sexual medicine", dominated by urologists. We discuss the meanings of this polarization in terms of its underlying professional disputes and the gender assumptions implied in such disputes.

  5. Obstacles to the nuclear technology development in Brazil: from the beginning of atomic age to the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement; Entraves ao desenvolvimento da tecnologia nuclear no Brasil: dos primordios da era atomica ao Acordo Nuclear Brasil-Alemanha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Tharsila Reis de

    2005-07-01

    This paper intends to comprehend the Brazilian social actors' efforts applied to the nuclear energy control, from the beginning of Atomic Age to Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement. It tries to demonstrate that the limits of The Brazilian nuclear development in this period derive from the capitalist development dynamics in Brazil and from the absence of continuity on the motivations of its nuclear policy. (author)

  6. Hepáticas do Pico da Caledônia, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Hepatics of Pico da Caledônia, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Denise Pinheiro da Costa

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available No Pico da Caledônea, Município de Nova Friburgo, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foram encontradas 12 famílias de hepáticas distribuídas em 16 gêneros e 21 espécies, das quais 2 são citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado e 3 para o Brasil. São apresentadas descrições, chave para identificação das espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações.Twelve families of hepatics distributed in sixteen genera and twenty one species are mentioned for the Pico da Caledônea, Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro. These, two species are new records to the State and three to Brazil. Descriptions, ilustrations, Keys to species and comments are presented.

  7. Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil

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    L.M.L. Parente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a antiguidade propriedades medicinais são atribuídas às flores da Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Estudos sobre a atividade geral de plantas medicinais na cicatrização vêm sendo realizados, sem especificar sobre qual das fases da cicatrização a planta atua. Neste trabalho a atividade cicatrizante e antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico das flores da C. officinalis cultivada no Brasil foi avaliada em feridas cutâneas de ratos Wistar, por meio de avaliação macroscópica e histológica. A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato e das frações hexânica e diclorometano também foi avaliada. A atividade antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico da calêndula foi atribuída à diminuição da exsudação serosa, da hiperemia, da deposição de fibrina e da hiperplasia epidermal, além de resultar em crostas mais delgadas e umedecidas. Observaram-se também aumento de colágeno no tecido de granulação e efeito antibacteriano. Assim, o extrato etanólico da calêndula atuou de forma positiva sobre a atividade cicatricial em feridas cutâneas de ratos, bem como apresentou atividade antibacteriana in vitro.Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae, mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and healing activity of the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis flowers cultured in Brazil was evaluated in cutaneous wounds of Wistar rats through macroscopic and histological evaluation. The antibacterial activity of the extract and dichloromethane and hexane fractions was also evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity of calendula ethanolic extract led to a reduction in plasmatic exudation, hyperemia, fibrin deposition and epidermal hyperplasia, besides

  8. Paradoxos da humanização em uma maternidade no Brasil The paradoxes of humanized childbirth care in a public maternity ward in Brazil

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    Carmen Susana Tornquist

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Maternidade do Hospital Universitário em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, procura seguir as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde no sentido da humanização da assistência ao parto, entre elas: o incentivo ao parto vaginal, ao aleitamento materno, ao alojamento conjunto, à presença de acompanhante e à redução do excessivo intervencionismo tecnológico no processo do parto. Neste artigo, são analisadas as diferenças relativas ao público que a ela acorre: mulheres de classes médias e de grupos populares. A análise busca observar as diferenças entre estas usuárias no que tange à escolha de acompanhante e experiências de dor e de amamentação.The maternity ward of the University Hospital in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, attempts to follow World Health Organization guidelines for humanized childbirth care, including the encouragement of non-surgical delivery, breastfeeding, rooming-in, extended family visitation, and reduction of excessive technological intervention in the delivery process. The study focuses specifically on the choice of delivery procedure and on family presence during labor/childbirth, as well as women's experience with labor and breastfeeding.

  9. A invenção da ordem: intelectuais católicos no Brasil Inventing order: catholic intellectuals in Brazil

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    Fernando Antonio Pinheiro Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho investiga a gênese social e as características da emergência de uma experiência intelectual diretamente ligada à propagação da doutrina católica, que se configurou no Brasil entre as décadas de 1920 e 1940. A análise centra-se na atividade do Centro Dom Vital e da revista A Ordem, órgãos que expressam a militância política e cultural de Jackson de Figueiredo, principal líder laico do movimento. Em seguida, procura compreender como se dá a aproximação de artistas e literatos que incorporam o catolicismo como tema e forma de suas produções no interior dos círculos modernistas, a partir da análise da trajetória da tríade formada por Ismael Nery, Jorge de Lima e Murilo Mendes, que lograram inscrever sua produção no pólo mais dinâmico das realizações do período.The work investigates the social genesis and characteristics of the emergence of an intellectual experience directly linked to the propagation of Catholic doctrine, which took shape in Brazil between the 1920s and 1940s. The analysis centres on the activity of the Dom Vital Centre and the magazine A Ordem, entities which expressed the political and cultural militancy of Jackson de Figueiredo, the movement's main lay leader. The text then looks to comprehend the approximation of artists and literary figures who incorporated Catholicism as both the theme and form of their productions within modernist circles, basing its analysis of the trajectory of the triad formed by Ismael Nery, Jorge de Lima and Murilo Mendes, who succeeded in including their production in the period's most dynamic pole of artistic activity.

  10. Fuel distribution logistics in Brazil: technical and economic aspects; Aspectos tecnico-economicos da logistica da distribuicao de combustiveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Heloisa Borges B.; Bicalho, Lucia N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, there are around 250 companies operating in the automotive fuel distribution segment, responsible for the automotive fuels wholesale commercialization activity. Those companies supply not only gas stations, but also final consumers and TRR's. Their clients are distributed regionally, which requires flexibility and the ability to supply clients efficiently at the smaller possible cost, transforming variables such as the transportation alternatives adopted, the location of the storage facilities and its correct dimension on key decisions. This paper analyses the general scenario of the fuels distribution logistics in Brazil from a economic perspective, and its impacts on the companies competitive strategies. (author)

  11. Desenvolvimento da Química Inorgânica no Brasil Development of Inorganic Chemistry in Brazil

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    Henrique E. Toma

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of Inorganic Chemistry in Brazil, including historical perspectives, scientific production (WEB-ISI data, international cooperation, teaching, literature and human resources, with particular emphasis on the last 25 years.

  12. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  13. Impacto da terapia anti-retroviral na magnitude da epidemia do HIV/AIDS no Brasil: diversos cenários Impact of antiretroviral therapy on the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil: various scenarios

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    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, utilizaram-se os algoritmos EM e EMS aplicados ao método do Cálculo Retroativo para estimar a magnitude da epidemia do HIV no Brasil. Fazendo-se suposições a respeito do comportamento dos infectados, em relação à utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais, construíram-se cinco cenários para a epidemia brasileira. O objetivo foi o de ilustrar os impactos que a utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais possam estar tendo ou possam vir a ter na incubação do vírus e, por conseguinte, nas avaliações da epidemia realizadas a partir dos casos de Aids notificados.We applied the back-calculation method to estimate the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in Brazil, using the EM and EMS algorithms. Under certain assumptions regarding the behavior of infected patients towards combined antiretroviral therapy, we discuss five different scenarios applied to the Brazilian epidemic. Our objective was to illustrate the impact of combined antiretroviral treatment on the incubation period and thus on estimates of the size of the HIV-infected population, based on reported AIDS cases.

  14. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L; Avaliacao da concentracao dos radionuclideos naturais das series do {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th nas variedades Burley e Virginia da Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-07-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, members from the {sup 238}U decay series, and the radionuclides {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra members of the {sup 232}Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and {sup 210}Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The

  15. Avaliação do estado nutricional de seringais implantados na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Nutritional evaluation of rubber tree plantations at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciríaca Arcangela Ferreira de Santana do Carmo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o estado nutricional de seringais implantados na Zona da Mata, em Minas Gerais, visando contribuir com um programa racional de adubações. Em seringais do clone IAN 873 foram determinadas a classe do solo, fertilidade, nutrição e produção de borracha seca. Grande parte dos seringais encontra-se em Latossolos extremamente ácidos com Al alto e N, P, K, soma de bases trocáveis e capacidade de troca de cátions baixos. Os teores de Ca e Mg variaram de médios a altos nos Latossolos e foram muito altos nos Nitossolos, correlacionando-se negativamente com a produção de borracha seca. A análise foliar detectou desequilíbrios nutricionais no que se refere aos baixos teores de N e K evidenciados pela correlação positiva significativa com a produção de borracha seca. A correlação significativa negativa entre a produção de borracha seca e os teores de Ca foliares, associados aos altos teores de Mg, sugerem a redução desses nutrientes nas adubações. Dos micronutrientes, apenas o Cu apresentou correlação positiva e significativa com a produção de borracha seca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nutritional status of rubber tree plantations at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to contribute with fertilization programs. Soil class, fertility levels, nutritional state and production of dry rubber were determined in rubber plantations of the clone IAN 873. Most plantations occur over extremely acid Oxisols with high contents of Al and low values of N, P, K, sum of exchangeable basis and cation exchange capacity. Calcium and Mg contents varied from medium to high and showed negative correlation with dry rubber production. Plant analysis showed unbalanced contents of N and K with low values but positive and significant correlation with dry rubber production. Significant and negative correlation between dry rubber production and Ca contents, associated to high contents of Mg

  16. Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil Avaliação da saúde da ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae no Litoral Sul da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil

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    Rosana Pinho Brandão

    Full Text Available This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis revealed the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus in the sporocyst phase, a nonspecific metacercaria, and a metacestode of genus Tylocephalum. The prevalence of infection was low except for parasitism by Nematopsis sp. which also caused histopathological changes. The presence of Bucephalus sp. caused parasitic castration. These two pathogens significantly affect the health of C. rhizophorae.Este estudo investigou a saúde de ostras da espécie Crassostrea rhizophorae de estoques naturais do Litoral Sul do Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil, durante o verão e o inverno de 2010, em três pontos amostrais distribuídos nos estuários dos rios Maraú (Baía de Camamu e Graciosa. Um total de 180 ostras (30/ponto amostral/período foram examinadas macroscopicamente para a presença de patógenos e alterações anatômicas e posteriormente fixadas em solução de Davidson, processadas para inclusão em parafina, seccionadas e coradas com hematoxilina de Harris e eosina. A análise histológica evidenciou a presença de organismos com características similares a Rickettsia (RLOs, Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus em fase esporocística, metacercária inespecífica e metacestóide de Tylocephalum. As prevalências de infecção foram baixas, com exceção do

  17. When rare is just a matter of sampling: unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae) through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Vinícius Oliveira de Almeida; Ângelo Parise Pinto; Alcimar do Lago Carvalho; Daniela Maeda Takiya

    2013-01-01

    When rare is just a matter of sampling: Unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae) through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Capture of dragonfly adults during two short expeditions to Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, using three distinct collecting methodsaerial nets, Malaise and light sheet trapsis reported. The results are outstanding due the high number of species of Gomphidae (7 out of...

  18. Estudo da competitividade dos principais autoveículos compactos brasileiros A study on the competitiveness of the most important compact automotive vehicles manufactured in Brazil

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    Juan Hidalgo Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a metodologia e os resultados da pesquisa empírica qualitativa realizada para identificar os fatores determinantes da competitividade dos principais autoveículos compactos brasileiros produzidos pela Fiat, Ford, General Motors e Volkswagen. Optou-se pela utilização da metodologia prescrita pelo modelo de campos e armas da competição, visto que é qualitativa e quantitativa e consegue representar com bastante clareza as estratégias competitivas de negócios e as operacionais da empresa. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram as hipóteses, validadas segundo o método popperiano dedutivo de prova: 1 não há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os campos da competição escolhidos para os autoveículos mais competitivos e os escolhidos para os menos competitivos, pois todos eles competem basicamente em projeto, qualidade e preço do produto; e 2 o foco (variável matemática que mede o alinhamento das armas da competição aos campos da competição escolhidos para cada veículo explica por que um autoveículo é mais competitivo que outro.This article describes the methodology and the results of a study carried out to identify the determinants of competitiveness of the most important compact automotive vehicles produced by the four major car manufacturers operating in Brazil: Fiat, Ford, General Motors and Volkswagen. The methodology chosen was the one suggested by the Fields and Weapons of the Competition model, because it is both qualitative and quantitative, and because it provides a very clear representation of the competitive business and operational strategies of companies. The results validated the hypotheses formulated, and it is possible to conclude that: 1 there is no statistically significant difference between the fields of competition chosen for the more competitive automotive vehicles and the ones chosen for the less competitive, since they all compete primarily on design, quality and price of product

  19. Josué de Castro e a Geografia da Fome no Brasil Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil

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    Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma releitura do clássico Geografia da Fome, publicado pela primeira vez em 1946. Realiza-se uma síntese dos mapas das cinco áreas alimentares e das principais carências nutricionais existentes no Brasil, de acordo com o delineamento realizado por Josué de Castro. Nos dias atuais, ao perfil epidemiológico nutricional desenhado por Josué de Castro, caracterizado pelas carências nutricionais (desnutrição, hipovitaminoses, bócio endêmico, anemia ferropriva etc., sobrepuseram-se as doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis (obesidade, diabetes, dislipidemias etc.. Entretanto, a questão da complexa e paradoxal problemática da fome permanece como uma temática recorrente no Brasil. Diante de alguns dilemas da atualidade, tais como aqueles que dizem respeito à sustentabilidade ecológica do planeta e à garantia do direito humano à alimentação, torna-se imperante reacender a luta defendida por Josué de Castro pela adoção de um modelo de desenvolvimento econômico sustentável e uma sociedade sem miséria e sem fome.The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc., overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.. However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro

  20. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  1. Síndrome da cauda flácida em cão da raça labrador retriever: primeiro relato no Brasil Limber syndrome in a labrador retriever dog: first report in Brazil

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    Maria Lígia Mistieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da cauda flácida é uma enfermidade que acomete cães de caça, principalmente Labradores Retriever e do grupo Pointer. Embora sua etiologia não esteja totalmente definida, sabe-se que sua ocorrência é precedida de esforço físico extenuante, exposição ao frio ou água fria e confinamento em caixas de transporte. O presente trabalho descreve o caso de um cão da raça Labrador Retriever, macho não castrado, de quatro anos de idade que apresentou súbita dor e flacidez da cauda após banho frio. Fratura vertebral, síndrome da cauda eqüina, outras enfermidades da medula espinhal ou de glândulas adanais e afecções prostáticas foram descartadas após exames auxiliares. A divulgação deste relato é relevante uma vez que esta síndrome ainda não foi descrita no Brasil.Limber syndrome is a disease that occurs in hunting dogs, commonly Labrador retriever and in dogs that belong to the group of Pointer. The aetiology is still unknown, but its occurrence is prior to extenuating exercises, cold exposure and cold water and transport jail maintenance. This article describes the case of a 4-year-old-intact-male Labrador Retriever that suddenly developed tail pain and limberness after cold bath. It was possible to exclude vertebral fracture, cauda equina syndrome, spinal cord or adanal gland injuries and prostatic disease as the auxiliary evaluations were made. This publication is important because there are no reports of Limber syndrome in Brazil.

  2. Outras famílias: a construção social da conjugalidade homossexual no Brasil Different families: the social construction of homosexual conjugality in Brazil

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    Luiz Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre a construção social da conjugalidade homossexual no Brasil contemporâneo, especialmente no âmbito do Poder Legislativo, espaço privilegiado de discussão acerca do projeto de lei que institui a parceria civil entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. A análise dos elementos estruturantes nos embates ideológicos decorrentes das disputas em torno do reconhecimento social e jurídico das uniões homossexuais como entidades familiares, também é perpassada por discursos originários da Igreja Católica e de representantes da população homossexual.This article presents some reflections on the social construction of homosexual conjugality in contemporary Brazil, particularly concerning the Legislative sphere - where most of the debate on the law project for civil partnership between people of the same sex has taken place. The main objective is to analyze the structuring elements of the ideological struggles stemming from the disputes around the social and juridical recognition of homosexual unions as familial entities. The discourses that come from the Catholic Church and those of homosexual representatives are also given priority in the analysis.

  3. Detecção do vírus da laringotraqueíte das galinhas no Brasil Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens in Brazil

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    Nilzane Beltrão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi detectar a presença do vírus da laringotraqueíte infecciosa (VLTI das galinhas em algumas granjas do Brasil. Tecidos da traquéia e suabes foram coletados de 10 lotes de frangos de corte e galinhas de postura com sinais respiratórios. O material foi inoculado em ovos embrionados e as membranas corioalantóides examinadas por histopatologia. Além disso, as amostras foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Três lotes foram positivos para VLTI por isolamento viral e PCR. Os resultados confirmam a presença do VLTI nas galinhas no Brasil.A study was carried out in search for evidences of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV infections in some Brazilian chicken flocks. Tracheal tissues and swabs were collected from 10 different flocks of layers and broilers displaying respiratory signs of disease. Samples were processes for virus isolation in embryonated eggs and the membranes examined by histopathology. In addition, specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Three flocks had ILTV positive chickens by virus isolation and PCR. These results confirm the occurrence of ILTV in chickens in Brazil.

  4. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires.

  5. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  6. Evolução da mortalidade geral, infantil e proporcional no Brasil Trends in general, infant and proportional mortality in Brazil

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    João Yunes

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da evolução da mortalidade geral, infantil e proporcional para o Brasil e Regiões Fisiográficas de 1941 a 1970. Nos últimos 30 anos a redução de mortalidade geral para o Brasil foi de 47,5%, tendo sido maior a queda na região Centro-Oeste. No último decênio observa-se o aumento do coeficiente em todas as regiões iniciando-se em diferentes períodos, sendo em parte devido ao aumento da mortalidade infantil. Ao se comparar a mortalidade geral do Brasil com a de países mais desenvolvidos, ela pode ser considerada elevada, uma vez que cerca de 42% da população tem menos de 14 anos de idade, indicando nível de saúde insatisfatório. Para a mortalidade infantil, em 30 anos houve uma redução de seu coeficiente em 46,2%, tendo sido maior esta queda na região Centro-Oeste. No último decênio, observa-se um aumento deste coeficiente, sugerindo, portanto, uma piora do nível de saúde e ao se comparar com outros países é notória a diferença observada. Ao se comparar a mortalidade proporcional (percentagem do total de óbitos de crianças menores de 1 ano de 1940/1970, observa-se uma elevação de 16,3%, sendo no último decênio o maior aumento para as regiões Centro-Oeste (57,7% e Sudeste (36,1%. Ao se comparar os dados do Brasil com o Estado e Município mais desenvolvido (São Paulo, observa-se sempre que estes indicadores para o país como um todo apresentam-se mais elevados, sugerindo um pior nível de saúde. Entre os principais fatores condicionantes da piora do nível de saúde do Brasil no último decênio, destaca-se o econômico onde ocorre um aumento na concentração da distribuição de renda, declíneo do salário mínimo real de 20%, com conseqüente diminuição do poder aquisitivo da população assalariada. Acresce-se ainda, o aumento da população descoberta dos recursos de saneamento básico.Study of the evolution of general mortality, infant mortality rate and mortality ratio in Brazil and

  7. An overview and profile of the ICF's use in Brazil - a decade of history Panorama e perfil da utilização da CIF no Brasil : uma década de história

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Ruaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2001the World Health Organization (WHO adopted a classification system for understanding functioning and human disability: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The ICF’s acceptance and use has been facilitated by the development and global consensus process, with increasing evidence about its validity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the overview of the use of the ICF in Brazil, since its conception in 2001 until the year 2011. METHOD: We conducted an integrative literature review by searching SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed and ISI databases. To be included in the review, the study must have been published as scientific article, editorial or technical note, and had to having the participation of Brazilian researchers or have been developed in Brazil. RESULTS: One hundred and two publications were identified, but only 47 studies were included based in the inclusion criteria. Most of eligible studies were related to neurology (n=16 and orthopaedics (n=12 subdisciplines. The university that most appeared in the publications in national journals was The Universidade de São Paulo (11 and in the international journals was Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (4. In 2003 there was only one publication; in 2010 and 2011 were 10 and 8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although incipient, the use of ICF in the Brazilian scientific community is rising. There is a concentration of studies related to the locomotor system, as well as performed by universities in the southeast area of Brazil.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Em 2001, a OMS aprovou um sistema de classificação para o entendimento da funcionalidade e da incapacidade humana: a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF. A aceitação e a utilização da CIF vêm sendo facilitadas pelo seu desenvolvimento e processo de consenso global, com crescente evidência sobre a sua validade. OBJETIVOS: Investigar o panorama do uso da CIF no Brasil

  8. An overview and profile of the ICF's use in Brazil - a decade of history Panorama e perfil da utilização da CIF no Brasil - uma década de história

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Ruaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2001the World Health Organization (WHO adopted a classification system for understanding functioning and human disability: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The ICF’s acceptance and use has been facilitated by the development and global consensus process, with increasing evidence about its validity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the overview of the use of the ICF in Brazil, since its conception in 2001 until the year 2011. METHOD: We conducted an integrative literature review by searching SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed and ISI databases. To be included in the review, the study must have been published as scientific article, editorial or technical note, and had to having the participation of Brazilian researchers or have been developed in Brazil. RESULTS: One hundred and two publications were identified, but only 47 studies were included based in the inclusion criteria. Most of eligible studies were related to neurology (n=16 and orthopaedics (n=12 subdisciplines. The university that most appeared in the publications in national journals was The Universidade de São Paulo (11 and in the international journals was Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (4. In 2003 there was only one publication; in 2010 and 2011 were 10 and 8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although incipient, the use of ICF in the Brazilian scientific community is rising. There is a concentration of studies related to the locomotor system, as well as performed by universities in the southeast area of Brazil.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Em 2001, a OMS aprovou um sistema de classificação para o entendimento da funcionalidade e da incapacidade humana: a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF. A aceitação e a utilização da CIF vêm sendo facilitadas pelo seu desenvolvimento e processo de consenso global, com crescente evidência sobre a sua validade. OBJETIVOS: Investigar o panorama do uso da CIF no Brasil

  9. Vacinação, varíola e uma cultura da imunização no Brasil Vaccination, smallpox, and a culture of immunization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Hochman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a emergência e o estabelecimento de uma "cultura da imunização" no Brasil contemporâneo a partir da erradicação da varíola. Essa cultura está associada a um longo processo de introdução de vacinas, de campanhas de vacinação e de vacinação em massa empreendidas pelo Estado brasileiro desde o final do século XIX. Particular importância é atribuída à campanha de erradicação da varíola no Brasil (1966-1973. A experiência da vacinação em massa da população contra a varíola é contrastada com episódios de resistência como a "Revolta da Vacina", e considerada como crucial na configuração de novas políticas e novas compreensões sobre o papel da imunização na saúde pública e seu lugar na sociedade brasileira.The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence and establishment of a "culture of immunization" in the contemporary Brazil from the eradication of smallpox. This culture is associated with a long process of introduction of vaccines, vaccination campaigns and mass vaccination undertaken by the Brazilian government since the late nineteenth century. Particular importance is attributed to the campaign to eradicate smallpox in Brazil (1966-1973. The experience of mass vaccination of the population against smallpox is contrasted with episodes of resistance as the "revolt against the vaccine", and regarded as crucial in shaping new policies and new understandings about the role of immunization in public health and its place in society Brazil.

  10. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50{sub 15min} = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50{sub 48h} = 91,25 mg L{sup -1}) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50{sub 48h} = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was

  11. Determination of atmospheric opacity by radiometric technique : preliminary results at 'Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra Geral' - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric water vapor content was measured in two different regions in Brazil during the tests of a portable microwave receiver tuned at 22 GHz, the frequency of maximum emission of water vapor. The results are correlated with measurements made simultaneously at the 13.7 m radio-telescope from Radio Observatorio de Itapetinga, Atibaia, SP. (Author)

  12. Sazonalidade e variabilidade espacial da qualidade da água na Lagoa do Apodi, RN Spatial variability and seasonality of the water quality in the Lagoa do Apodi Lagoon, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcírio de Lemos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se propõe avaliar a qualidade da água da Lagoa do Apodi, RN, em pontos compreendidos em todo o seu espelho, com ênfase ao monitoramento da qualidade da água sob influência da bacia urbana da cidade de Apodi e do aporte de materiais trazidos pelas águas continentais que adentram e eutrofizam a lagoa, em períodos extremos de temperatura e de precipitação. Amostras sistemáticas no espelho da lagoa foram coletadas seguindo-se seu formato ou ao longo de seu leito. A condutividade elétrica da água da Lagoa varia em todo o seu espelho, principalmente nas extremidades oeste e sudeste, aumentando após o início do período seco e diminuindo após a chegada das chuvas. Há uma grande variabilidade espacial nas características físicas e químicas, sobretudo para pH, CE, RAS e teores de Na e Cl; pode-se inferir, também, que nas águas da lagoa os íons encontrados em maiores níveis foram o cloreto e o sódio, tanto para os pontos de coleta como para a época de coleta. A variação na qualidade bacteriológica da água compromete a balneabilidade da Lagoa do Apodi, principalmente logo após o período das chuvas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Apodi lagoon, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, at points along its surface. The monitoring of the water quality is emphasized as it is under influence of the urban basin of Apodi and due to incorporation of material by the influx of continental waters that lead to eutrophization of the lagoon water in periods of extreme temperatures and precipitation. Systematic samples were collected from the lagoon water surface throughout its length. The electrical conductivity of the Apodi water varies along the surface, mainly in the west and southeast extremities. The water salinity increased with the beginning of the dry period and decreased after the rains. There is a great spatial variability in the physical and chemical characteristics, mainly

  13. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

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    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  14. A Brazilian in the Reich of Wilhelm II: Henrique da Rocha Lima, Brazil-Germany relations and the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1901-1909.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2013-03-01

    This article follows the career of the Brazilian physician Henrique da Rocha Lima, one of the first to join the group of young researchers working at the Instituto Soroterápico de Manguinhos (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). It describes his first voyage to Germany where he specialized in microbiology and pathological anatomy, training that shaped his subsequent professional identity. The tensions and dilemmas experienced by Rocha Lima provide an insight into what it meant to dedicate oneself to a scientific career in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century. They also reveal the importance of the relations with the German-speaking world for the experimental medicine that became established under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz.

  15. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status.

  16. A instituição da microbiologia e a história da saúde pública no Brasil Microbiology as an institution and the history of public health in Brazil

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    Jaime Larry Benchimol

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a instituição da microbiologia e suas conseqüências para a saúde pública brasileira durante o último quarto do século XIX e o começo do atual. O autor examina o trabalho realizado pela Escola Tropicalista Baiana, a trajetória de outra geração de médicos que, no Rio de Janeiro e em São Paulo, investigaram a febre amarela e outras doenças à luz da teoria dos germes, procurando descobrir tanto o seu micróbio específico como imunobiológicos e tratamentos eficazes. O artigo examina também a transição da problemática etiológica para a do meio de transmissão da febre amarela e da malária, correlacionando-as com o amadurecimento do pasteurianismo e da Medicina Tropical. A adoção da teoria de Finlay no Brasil e as campanhas sanitárias bem-sucedidas que Oswaldo Cruz empreendeu no Rio de Janeiro, enquanto a cidade era remodelada de acordo com o molde "haussmaniano", inauguram um nova era em que o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz e outras instituições biomédicas logram desenvolver dinâmicos programas de pesquisa em estreita sintonia com a bacteriologia e medicina tropical européia e norte-americana.This article deals with the institution of microbiology and its consequences to Brazilian public health during the last quarter of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth century. The author examines the work done by members of Escola Tropicalista Baiana and then by several constituents of another generation of physicians who, in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, researched yellow fever and other diseases from the perspective of the germ theory, trying to discover both its specific microbe as well as effective therapeutic and immunobiological treatments to those diseases. The article also examines the transition of the etiologic issue to the question of the means of transmission not only of yellow fever but also of malaria, correlating it with the coming of age both of Pasteurianism and Tropical Medicine. The

  17. Strategic Biodiversity Risk Assessment (SBRA) of the offshore oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) plans and programs in Brazil; Avaliacao estrategica do risco a biodiversidade (AERB) nos planos e programas de E e P offshore de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Katia Cristina

    2007-07-15

    This thesis proposes a methodological framework, called Strategic Biodiversity Risk Assessment (SBRA), within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), as a way to efficiently incorporate the risks to biodiversity caused by accidental spills into the strategic levels of offshore oil and gas E and P decision-making process. Moreover, this approach can also indicate the exclusion (or postponement) of bidding areas with extreme environmental sensitivity, as well as the choices for environmental-friendly E and P technologies. In order to exemplify this methodological framework application, two case studies are presented, one of the offshore O and G development program in southern Bahia state, Northeast of Brazil, and other of the offshore development plan in Abrolhos region, Brazil. (author)

  18. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

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    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.. In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the ground pearl were found in the roots of three cultivated berry plants: blackberry (Rubus spp., raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.. Observed symptoms included: chlorotic leaves, gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality. Given the increasing popularity of berry orchards in the region, this study serves as an alert for farmers to avoid establishing them in areas infested with the ground pearl and to check for the insects in the root cuttings used to establish berry crops.A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae é uma cochonilha subterrânea, polífaga, nativa do sul do Brasil, que se alimenta de diversas espécies vegetais causando prejuízos, principalmente à cultura da videira (Vitis spp.. Nesta comunicação, três espécies vegetais são relatadas como novos hospedeiros da praga. Em 2007 e 2010, plantas infestadas foram registradas nos municípios de Farroupilha (29°14'34"S e 51°23'20"W e Vacaria (28°26'30"S e 50°52'59"W, RS. Exemplares da cochonilha foram encontrados em raízes de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. e mirtileiro (Vaccinium sp.. Os sintomas observados foram folhas cloróticas, definhamento progressivo, diminuição na produção e morte das plantas. Devido à ampliação do cultivo de pequenas frutas na região, essa informação serve de alerta aos produtores para que evitem o plantio em áreas infestadas com a cochonilha e observem a presen

  19. Professor Antonio Branco Lefèvre: the forefather of child neurology in Brazil Professor Antonio Branco Lefèvre o pai da neurologia infantil no Brasil

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    Rubens Reimão

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the life and works of Prof. Antonio Branco Lefèvre and the relevance that led him to be considered the Forefather of Child Neurology in Brazil. METHOD: The method utilized was the historical documents research; bibliographical. RESULTS: Antonio Branco Lefèvre (1916-1981 was born in São Paulo city; graduated in 1941 from the São Paulo Medical School. The date - 1950 - can be considered when Child Neurology took shape for a fully specialty, when Lefèvre presented his two internationally acclaimed thesis. Lefèvre was recognized as he founder of Child Neurology in Brazil since the early years of his brilliant academic activities. In 1967 achieved the title of professor in the Child Neurology Clinic. His numerous trainees and Residents - from -1950 to 1981 - held today key positions in Brazilian Child Neurology. CONCLUSION: The extension and importance of the Child Neurology School of which he is the legitimate founder is recognized.OBJETIVO: Relatar a vida e obra do Prof. Antonio Branco Lefèvre e a relevância que leva a ser denominado o Pai da Neurologia Infantil no Brasil. MÉTODO: Pesquisa de documentos históricos e bibliográfica. RESULTADOS: Antonio Branco Lefèvre (1916-1981 nascido em São Paulo; formou-se na Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo em 1941. A data de 1950 pode ser considerada quando a Neurologia Infantil tornou-se uma especialidade completa quando Lefèvre defendeu suas duas teses aclamadas internacionalmente. Lefévre foi reconhecido como o Pai da Neurologia Infantil no Brasil desde os primeiros anos de sua carreira acadêmica brilhante. Em 1967 atingiu o título de Professor de Neurologia Clínica Infantil. Seus numerosos estagiários e Residentes - de 1950 a 1981 - têm hoje posições de destaque na Neurologia Infantil brasileira. CONCLUSÃO: É reconhecida a extensão e a relevância da escola de Neurologia Infantil da qual Lefèvre é o legítimo fundador.

  20. Expansão e qualidade da educação básica no Brasil Expansion and quality of primary and secondary education in Brazil

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    Paulo Sérgio Marchelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho consiste em uma apreciação crítica sobre a taxa de escolarização bruta, fluxo escolar, desempenho do estudante, evasão, repetência e outros indicadores utilizados como parâmetros para a avaliação da qualidade na educação básica brasileira. Trata-se de matéria de caráter ensaístico sobre o fato de que o custo de universalizar as matrículas foi uma perceptível queda no rendimento dos alunos. No entanto, o trabalho mostra que a qualidade deve ser considerada em termos representados pelos ganhos sociais da universalização do ensino e não unicamente pelas notas obtidas nas provas. São expostos problemas conceituais referentes ao novo Índice de Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica, utilizado na formulação de políticas públicas para que o Brasil melhore sua posição no ranking internacional da educação.This paper is a critical appreciation of the overall schooling rate, school flow, student performance, truancy, repeat years and other indicators used as parameters for assessing the quality of Brazilian education. This is essay material about the fact that the cost of making school enrollment universal led to a perceptible drop in student performance. Nevertheless, the work shows that quality must be considered in terms that are represented by the social gains achieved as a result of the universilization of education and not only from the marks obtained in tests. Conceptual problems are revealed, such as those relating to the new Basic Education Development Index (primary and secondary education, which is used in Brazil for formulating public policies in order to improve its position in the international education ranking.

  1. Spittlebug Cephisus siccifolius damaging eucalypt plants in the State of Bahia, Brazil Cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius em plantio de eucalipto clonal no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Most common pests of eucalyptus plants in Brazil are leaf cutting ants and defoliating caterpillars. Other groups, eventually, feeding on eucalyptus include Heteroptera and cicadas. The objectives of this work were to identify and to describe attack symptoms of Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae on eucalyptus trees in a stand of 25.77 hectares in the State of Bahia, Brazil, where 99.3% of them were attacked by this spittlebug. Damage was more severe on branches and leaves. Tree death was, relatively, low while those cut showed 4.7 colonies of this spittlebug with 21.9 nymphs per colony. Cultural control with the removal of trees attacked was recommended.Os insetos-praga mais comuns em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil são formigas cortadeiras e lagartas desfolhadoras. Eventualmente, outros insetos como percevejos e cigarrinhas podem danificar essas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e descrever os sintomas de ataque, em um plantio de eucalipto de 25,77 hectares, no Estado da Bahia, onde 99,3% das árvores tinham sido atacadas pela cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae. Os danos foram maiores em galhos e folhas. A mortalidade de árvores foi baixa, apesar de se observar 4,7 colônias de cigarrinhas por árvore, com 21,9 ninfas por colônia. O corte das árvores infestadas foi recomendado como controle.

  2. Qualidade da castanha-do-brasil do comércio de Rio Branco, Acre Quality of Brazil nuts marketed in Rio Branco, Acre

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    Virgínia de Souza Álvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de castanhas-do-brasil beneficiadas e comercializadas em Rio Branco, Acre. Foram analisadas amostras das três marcas de castanha encontradas no mercado local quanto às variáveis: atividade de água, teor de umidade, contagem total de fungos filamentosos, quantificação de Aspergillus flavus e de A. parasiticus, bem como quantificação de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2. As castanhas do comércio se encontravam com um teor de umidade e atividade de água adequados, o que pode ter sido responsável pela baixa contaminação por fungos e por aflatoxinas. Quanto a estas micotoxinas, as amostras estão de acordo com o recomendado pela Anvisa, podendo ser esta uma consequência da grande divulgação no Estado do uso de Boas Práticas no manejo da castanha.The goal of this paper was to evaluate the quality of Brazil nuts processed and marketed in the city of Rio Branco, in the state of Acre (Brazil. We analysed three samples for water activity, moisture content, total fungus quantification of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, as well as quantification of total aflatoxin, Afla B1, Afla B2, Afla G1 and Afla G2. The nut samples from the market showed an appropriate moisture content and water activity, which may have been responsible for the low fungus contamination and aflatoxin production. As to these mycotoxins, the samples were consistent with Anvisa's recommendations, which may be a consequence of good management of the nuts in Acre.

  3. Ecomorphometric structure of Restinga da Marambaia lizard community, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Estrutura ecomorfométrica da comunidade de lagartos da Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil

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    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In restinga areas of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, we recorded nine species of lizards, grouped in four families. The morphometric analysis suggested an invasion-structured pattern, with two distinct groups of species in the community: the "ground-runners", composed of animals with robust bodies and long limbs, represented by Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 and Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; and the "hiders", composed of small-bodied animals with short limbs, represented by Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1947. The morphological relationships within the restinga lizard community reflect the influence of the habitat physical structure: bromeliad availability and other refugia, used by the "hiders", and the distribution of open areas, used by the "ground-runners". Our results also indicate that the restingas hold "ecomorphological spaces" (vacant niches available for occupation by additional lizard species.Em áreas de restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, foram registradas nove espécies de lagartos, pertencentes a quatro famílias. A análise morfométrica sugeriu um padrão de estruturação por invasão, com dois grupos distintos de espécies compondo a comunidade: os "corredores de chão", formado pelos animais de corpo mais robusto e membros mais longos, representados por Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938,Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 e Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; e os "escondedores", reunindo lagartos de menor tamanho e membros mais curtos, representados por Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 e M. macrorhyncha

  4. Use of residues of cattle in Lagoa da Prata, MG, Brazil as an energy source and its environmental implication; Aproveitamento de residuos de gado leiteiro em Lagoa da Prata-MG como fonte de energia e sua implicacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Flavio Soares [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Cienciaas e Tecnologia Nuclear], E-mail: flaviosol@gmail.com; Ferreira, Joao Coutinho; Egute, Nayara dos Santos; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Carvalho, Fatima Maria Sequeira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Abrao, Alcidio

    2009-07-01

    The environmental and energy gains with the use of milk cattle residues in the Lagoa da Prata, MG, Brazil are investigated. Nine farms were visited and a questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant energy and environmental data. The data from the field were correlated to the productive process of the cattle and the energy consumption. It was obtained, as the result of the field research, a generation average of 3 ton of residues a day, an electric energy average monthly consumption of 2.500 kWh, a set of energy intensive equipment and an daily consumption average of 27 m{sup 3} of water day. The use of the cattle residues can solve the problem of residues, effluents and several pollutants generated in the region and bring an energy gain with the production of biogas, that can be converted in energy.

  5. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds; Avaliacao da radiomarcacao da anexina A5 com tecnecio-99m: influencia do metodo de marcacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas e biologicas do composto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several {sup 99}mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O]{sup +3}, [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc{identical_to}N]+2 and [Tc(CO{sub 3})]{sup +1}. In this study, we evaluated the influence of {sup 99}mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc{identical_to}N]{sup +2} core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of {sup 99}mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} and PDTA to obtain the intermediate {sup 99}mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O]{sup +3} core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the {sup 99}mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound

  6. Uso das terras da parte norte da bacia do Rio Descoberto, Distrito Federal, Brasil Land use in the northern region of the descoberto river watershed, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    Aurélio Alves Amaral Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o uso das terras da porção norte da Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Descoberto, englobando as microbacias dos Córregos Barrocão, Bucanhão e Capão da Onça, com auxílio de técnicas de geoprocessamento. Elaborou-se o mapa de uso das terras a partir de processamentos da imagem de satélite SPOT 4, obtida em 2003, por meio do software ENVI 3.6. Posteriormente, verificou-se a adequabilidade do uso das terras, com base em técnicas de cruzamento e operações de tabulação cruzada entre os mapas de uso e aptidão agrícola das terras, utilizando-se o software ArcView 8.3, permitindo a geração do mapa de adequabilidade de uso das terras. Pelos resultados, constatou-se que a maior parte da área estudada a utilização das terras está abaixo do seu potencial agrícola, caracterizando sustentabilidade da utilização dos recursos naturais, particularmente solos.This work had the objective to evaluate the land use in the northern region of the Environmental Protection Area of Descoberto River, which encompasses the watersheds of the streams Barrocão, Bucanhão and Capão da Onça, accomplished with the support of geoprocessing techniques. A land use map of the area was produced through analysis and treatment of SPOT 4 satellite images, obtained in 2003, using the software ENVI 3.6. Then, the adequation of land use was checked using cross-tabulation between the maps of present and potential use for agriculture, with the software ArcView 8.3, allowing development of a map of land use suitability. The results showed that most of the area has been used under its agricultural potential, characterizing sustainability in the use of the natural resources, particularly of the soils.

  7. Estimativa da produtividade do milho em função da disponibilidade hídrica em Guarapuava, PR, Brasil Corn yield as a function of water availability in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil

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    Marcus V. Wagner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se estimar o potencial médio de produção da cultura do milho em função das variações da disponibilidade hídrica considerando-se a realização da semeadura em diferentes momentos dentro do período recomendado para o município de Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná. Os estudos foram realizados com base na série ininterrupta de dados climáticos do período de 1984 a 2007. A duração do ciclo da cultura foi calculada pelo acúmulo de soma térmica e a disponibilidade de água avaliada pelo balanço hídrico da cultura, ponderando-se a distribuição da precipitação pluvial e a evapotranspiração da cultura. A probabilidade de redução de produtividade de grãos por deficiência hídrica foi estimada considerando-se a porcentagem de redução de produção de grãos a partir da ocorrência de deficiência hídrica nos diferentes estádios do ciclo de desenvolvimento no campo. Verificou-se que a cultura do milho é afetada pela distribuição da disponibilidade hídrica ao longo do ciclo, sendo que a maior probabilidade de perdas de produção por deficiência hídrica ocorre no estádio da antese-fecundação. As semeaduras mais tardias no período recomendado tendem a ocasionar menores riscos de obtenção de produtividade de grãos abaixo da média regional.This study aimed to estimate the average potential of production of the corn crop in consequence of the variation of the water availability and the planting performed at different dates within the recommended period for Guarapuava, Paraná State, Brazil. The study was conducted considering uninterrupted series of climate data for the period from 1984 to 2007. The duration of the crop cycle was calculated by the accumulation of the thermal sum and the availability of water evaluated by the water balance of the crop considering the distribution of the precipitation and the evapotranspiration of the crop. The probability of reduction of the grain yield due to

  8. Supply chain management of the castor biodiesel in the Bahia state, Brazil; Gestao da cadeia de suprimentos do biodiesel de mamona no estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freires, Francisco G.M.; Goncalo, Thomas E.E.; Oliveira, Danillo R.S.B. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: francisco.gaudencio@univasf.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    In front of the global trend for developing new ways of energy that pollute less and are renewable, Brazil emerges as a major actor in the development and use of technology for the production of biofuels. In the context of the potential of semi-arid to produce some oil used in production, the Brazilian government is enabling the production of Northeastern region. The State of Bahia is the largest producer of castor oil from Brazil, with an estimated production of 102.8 thousand tonnes of grain in the season 2008/2009 (CONAB, 2009). The development of the sector depends on appropriate government actions to support their competitive sustainability, and encouraging the improvement of management techniques in all involved. In that scenario, the logistics contributes to the development of this sector through the supply chain management. One conclusion is that the competitiveness and sustainability of the supply chain of castor in the Semi-arid of Bahia practices depends on the adoption of integrated logistics, without which the current failures prevent the consolidation of governmental objectives defined. (author)

  9. Briófitas da Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil The bryophytes from the Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Olga Yano

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra de Itabaiana, foram encontradas 15 espécies de musgos pertencentes a 14 gêneros de 11 famílias e 14 de hepáticas de oito gêneros de quatro famílias. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Destas espécies, 26 estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o estado.Fifteen species of mosses and fourteen species of liverworts are reported from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil. The mosses are distributed among 14 genera and 11 families, and the liverworts for eight genera and four families. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. is cited for the first time from Brazil. Altogether, 26 species are cited for the first time for the State.

  10. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and several adjacent sites, located in the municipalities of Gonçalves and Camanducaia. We recorded 206 bird species, of which 57 (27.7% are endemic to the Atlantic forest. Several records represent the first specimens for Minas Gerais, in the hinterlands of Serra da Mantiqueira, proving that many Atlantic species also occur in the intern most slope of this mountain range. Examples are: Dysithamnus xanthopterus, Chamaeza ruficauda, Leptasthenura setaria, Heliobletus contaminatus, Hemitriccus obsoletus, Phylloscartes difficilis, Piprites pileata, Poospiza thoracica, and Cacicus chrysopterus. The region is also a previously unknown area of sympatry of other closely related species: Scytalopus notorius and S. speluncae, Lepidocolaptes squamatus and L. falcinellus, and Basileuterus culicivorus and B. hypoleucus. Both species of Lepidocolaptes and Basileuterus hybridize in the region. We also comment on the avifauna conservation, which have been threatened by eco-tourism, building of new styles of houses, domestic animals, forest fragmentation, and plantations.A avifauna das florestas de Araucaria das partes mais elevadas da Serra da Mantiqueira é pouco conhecida e documentada. Esta região é reconhecida como uma importante área de diferenciação de aves no sudeste do Brasil. Apresentamos o primeiro levantamento ornitológico das florestas de Araucaria e ambientes associados nas montanhas do extremo sul de Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira. A área de estudo

  11. Actual overview on the wind energy and perspectives for Brazil; Panorama atual da energia eolica e perspectivas para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, Fernanda Fortes; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Wilss, William [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LIMA/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente], Emails: fforteswestin@yahoo.com.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br, wwills@lima.coppe.ufrj.br; Goodward, Jenna [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present stage of energy in the world and its developpement although recent in Brazil. pointing out the main advantages and disadvantages face to other existent electric energy sources, considering the perspectives o sustainable development and their risks for the electric sector. The growing perspective of participation of that source in the Brazilian electric matrix, it complementary paper of that source in front of other sources, between other points are considered in this study.

  12. Obesidade e pobreza: o aparente paradoxo. Um estudo com mulheres da Favela da Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Obesity and poverty: the apparent paradox. A study among women from the Rocinha slum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Vanessa Alves Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, a população brasileira experimentou intensas transformações em suas condições de nutrição, especialmente com o incremento da obesidade. De acordo com a Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição, realizada em 1989, 32,0% dos adultos apresentaram excesso de peso. No entanto, a distribuição do problema não é homogênea. A maior prevalência ocorre em mulheres pobres da Região Sudeste do país. A compreensão desse aparente paradoxo impõe a busca de abordagens capazes de superar interpretações simplistas sobre as práticas alimentares. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo é compreender a obesidade combinada à pobreza, focalizando além dos determinantes econômicos, constrangimentos de natureza cultural e simbólica. Nesta perspectiva, o estudo analisou o cotidiano de vida de mulheres pobres e obesas, usuárias de um Centro Municipal de Saúde e moradoras da Favela da Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro. Os resultados revelaram a complexidade da relação entre obesidade e pobreza. Os aspectos culturais e materiais de vida, assim como as diferentes concepções de alimentação e de corpo demonstraram ser elementos fundamentais para a análise das múltiplas faces da obesidade no Brasil.In recent decades the Brazilian population has undergone intense changes in its nutritional conditions, especially with an increase in obesity. According to the National Survey on Health and Nutrition in 1989, 32.0% of adults were overweight. However, distribution of the problem is not homogeneous. The highest prevalence occurs among poor women in the Southeast. Understanding this apparent paradox requires the search for approaches capable of overcoming simplistic interpretations about eating practices. Thus, the objective of this study was to understand obesity combined with poverty, focusing beyond economic determinants on constraints of a cultural and symbolic nature. From this perspective, the study analyzed the daily lives of poor women

  13. Solar thermal energy utilization in Brazil: a perspective; Utilizacao da energia solar termica no Brasil: uma perspectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although Brazil has a large insolation potential, utilization of solar thermal energy is still limited to few applications, like residential and commercial water heating and drying of grains. However, there are in other countries more intensive applications, like electricity generation, industrial heat and fresh water production. The present work describes which are the other ways of using solar thermal energy that have been developed in the world, approaches the main technical aspects that affect its utilization, the perspective of increasing it in Brazil and its possible barriers and, finally, PETROBRAS' studies in this area, positioning itself as an Energy Company. The main solar thermal technologies currently used in the world are evacuated collectors, that work efficiently at temperatures up to 130 deg C, and concentrating solar technologies, that can reach the temperature of 1200 deg C. Among the latter, solar trough is the technology that is already considered mature, and near to become economically viable. Brazil, at the moment, has two technological challenges: development of national technology to manufacture high performance solar collectors, like evacuated collectors and solar troughs, and the development of thermal equipment to operate at temperatures under 120 deg C, like adsorption and absorption chillers and desalination towers, that can be economically competitive. (author)

  14. Demodicose bovina no Estado da Paraíba Bovine demodicosis in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil

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    João Luiz H. Faccini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Casos de demodicose bovina foram observados em um rebanho da raça Sindhi no período de dezembro 1989 a janeiro 1992. Ambas as formas, localizada e generalizada, foram diagnosticadas. Este é o primeiro relato da forma generalizada no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros anos, a demodicose foi diagnosticada somente em animais Cases of bovine demodicosis caused by Demodex bovis were reported in a Sindhi herd from December 1989 to January 1992. Both localized and generalized forms were diagnosed. This is the first report of the generalized form in Brazil. In the first two years, demodicosis was diagnosed only in cattle 2 years old, respectively. Clinical signs varied from a few small nodules to a thickened skin with soft large nodules in the localized and generalized forms, respectively. Main microscopic features of the nodules in the generalized form consisted of acanthosis with hyperqueratosis, chronic sebaceous adenitis, subcutaneous muscular necrosis, focal cellular degeneration of the epidermis basal layer and presence of large number of mites inside the lumen of dilated hair follicles. In addition, a chronic perifoliculitis was observed, characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate which also contained macrophages and neutrophils. It is suggested that poor nutrition and stress due to prolonged drought probably contributed to the increase of susceptibility of the herd to mite infestation.

  15. Comunidade de aves da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Pernambuco, Brasil Bird communities of the Gurjaú Reserve, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Rachel Maria de Lyra-Neves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados em um fragmento florestal da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram registradas 220 espécies de aves no levantamento qualitativo. Através da contagem por pontos, foram identificadas 175 espécies em 6.470 contatos (270 amostras. A freqüência de ocorrência de 75% foi registrada para 43 espécies (19,6%; para a maioria das espécies a freqüência de ocorrência esteve abaixo de 25%.A qualitative and quantitative bird surveys were carried out in a forest fragment in Gurjau Reserve, Santo Agostinho Cape, Pernambuco State, Brazil. By qualitative census were registered 220 different bird species. Concerning the point counts, were identified 175 different species in 6.470 contacts (270 samples. A frequency of occurrence of 75% was registered for 43 species (19,6%; the most part of species had a frequency of occurrence below 25%.

  16. Controle operacional da fluoretação da água de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Operational control of water fluoridation in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Lucianne Cople Maia

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o controle operacional da fluoretação da água na estação de tratamento (ETA que abastece o Município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2000. Um questionário elaborado para avaliar o processo de fluoretação da água foi respondido pelos responsáveis pelo tratamento da água na ETA. Além disso, amostras de água, antes e após a adição de flúor, foram coletadas quinzenalmente na ETA para a análise do flúor. As amostras foram analisadas por laboratório externo por meio de eletrodo íon específico. Embora os responsáveis pela ETA tenham afirmado que o processo de controle da fluoretação da água era rigoroso e seguia a legislação brasileira, observou-se que 96% das amostras analisadas encontravam-se inadequadas, considerando-se os riscos/benefícios da fluoretação da água. Assim, verificou-se incoerência entre as informações obtidas pelos responsáveis pela fluoretação na ETA e os valores obtidos nas análises das amostras de água. Esses dados demonstram que deve ser estabelecido um programa independente de controle da concentração de flúor na água do município de Niterói, a fim de garantir à população os benefícios do flúor no controle e na prevenção da cárie dental.The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational control of water fluoridation at the city water supply plant in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to December 2000. The water treatment supervisor filled out a questionnaire on the control of water fluoridation. In addition, water samples were collected every two weeks for fluoride analysis before and after treatment. Samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory using an ion-specific electrode. According to the water treatment supervisor, the entire process for controlling fluoride concentration in the water was rigorous and complied with Brazilian guidelines, but according to testing, 96% of

  17. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos registros de hospedeiros para Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) da restinga de Grussaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcio André Viana; Gisele Regina Winck; Marlon Almeida-Santos; Felipe Bottona da Silva Telles; Gilberto Salles Gazêta; Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptil...

  18. Aspectos sócio-econômicos da desnutrição no Brasil Socio-economic aspects of subnutrition in Brazil

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    Antonio Carlos Coelho Campino

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se mostrar os fatores sócio-econômicos que têm sido identificados como os principais determinantes da situação nutricional de um país. Conclui-se que a renda é o fator isoladamente mais importante na determinação do estado nutricional, mas uma vez fixada esta variável, outros fatores - tais como extensão do sistema de atendimento de saúde, nível educacional, programa de alimentação - também desempenham um papel relevante. Procura-se avaliar, empiricamente, com base em pesquisas até agora realizadas, quais seriam os determinantes da situação nutricional para o Brasil. Evidencia-se a hipótese, esperada na literatura, de que a renda é o fator mais importante, e, dado esta, também no caso brasileiro surgem como fatores relevantes o acesso a serviços de saúde e saneamento. Em face disto, discutem-se algumas alternativas de uma política de nutrição, mostrando-se a magnitude da redistribuição de renda necessária para cobrir o hiato nutricional e debatendo-se o papel dos programas de alimentação e nutrição, na forma em que foram explicitados no Programa de Prioridades Sociais do atual Governo.It is proposed here to offer a general view of the social and economic factors that have been identified as the main determinants of a country's nutritional situation. The conclusion is reached that income, considered in isolation, is the most important factor in determining the nutritional condition, but once this variable is fixed, other factors such as the extent of the health attendance system, educational level, food and nutrition programs - also play an important part. An attempt is made impirically to decide, which are the determinants of the nutritional situation for Brazil, in the light of previous research. It becomes evident, as the literature leads one to expect that income is the most important factor, and once that is established as true for the case of Brazil too, there also appear as relevant factors ease

  19. Pesquisa e produção científica em economia da saúde no Brasil Research and scientific production in health economics in Brazil

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    Eli Iola Gurgel Andrade

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo elabora um diagnóstico sobre a área de economia da saúde (ES no Brasil, a partir de inquérito enfocando os grupos de pesquisa em ES cadastrados no Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq e de um levantamento da produção científica brasileira em ES, publicado entre janeiro de 1999 e junho de 2004 e disponibilizado na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde Bireme (Paho/WHO. Os dados foram descritos considerando regiões geográficas, tipos de instituições e áreas temáticas de pesquisa. Dos grupos de pesquisa com trabalhos relacionados às áreas temáticas em ES, 48 apresentam ampla diversidade de atuação e concentram-se na região Sudeste do país. Apenas 14% (376 das 2.617 publicações avaliadas se relacionam à ES. A maioria dos estudos foi publicada em 2002 e apresenta como principais temas: gestão, financiamento, eficiência alocativa e eqüidade na distribuição de recursos de saúde. A análise permite identificar aspectos importantes para compreender o desenvolvimento do campo da ES no Brasil, entre 1999 e 2004.This article presents a diagnosis of the health economics (HE in Brazil, based on a survey of HE research groups currently registered in the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, as well as an inventory of the Brazilian scientific production in HE, published between January 1999 and June 2004, available in the Bireme Virtual Health Library (Paho/WHO. It describes the data considering geographic regions, types of institution and topics of research. Of the research groups with works related to HE subject matters, 48 have very diversified activities, concentrated in the Southeastern region of the country. Only 14% (376 of the 2.617 publications that had been evaluated were related to HE. Most of the studies were published in 2002 and their main topics were management, financing, allocative efficiency and equity in the distribution of health resources. The

  20. Alunos do ensino médio e atratividade da carreira docente no Brasil Secondary school students and the attractiveness of a teaching career in Brazil

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    Gisela Lobo B. P. Tartuce

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz os resultados de pesquisa cujo objetivo foi investigar a atratividade da carreira docente no Brasil pela ótica de alunos concluintes do ensino médio, uma vez que se tem divulgado a perda de interesse pela opção profissional pelo magsitério por parte dos adolescentes. O estudo foi realizado em escolas públicas e particulares de cidades de grande ou médio porte das diferentes regiões do país. Os dados utilizados para as análises têm origem em duas fontes: questionário e grupos de discussão. Nos resultados, a rejeição à carreira docente é recorrente entre os jovens pesquisados. As justificativas dos estudantes para a falta de atratividade da carreira se relacionam à ausência de identificação pessoal com a docência, às condições sociais e financeiras de exercício da profissão, à própria experiência escolar dos alunos e à influência familiar.The article presents the results of research, the objective of which was to investigate the attractiveness of a teaching career in Brazil from the viewpoint of students in the final year of secondary education, since it has been widely disclosed that there is a loss of interest in choosing teaching as a profession on the part of adolescents. The study was carried out in public and private schools in large or medium-size cities in different regions in Brazil. The data used for the analyses originated from two sources: a questionnaire and discussion groups. The results show that rejection of a teaching career is a recurrent theme among the young people involved in the research. The justifications of the students for the lack of attractiveness of the career are related to the absence of a personal identification with teaching, the social and financial conditions associated with exercising the profession, the students' own school experience and family influence.

  1. Ilusões de modernidade: o fetiche da marca McDonald's no Brasil Illusions of modernity: the fetish of McDonald's' brand in Brazil

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    Isleide Arruda Fontenelle

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se apresentar e discutir as relações atuais entre imagem e entretenimento a partir de pesquisas realizadas sobre a construção da imagem de marca McDonald's e sobre as modernas técnicas de marketing. Visando compreender porque nos tornamos consumidores de imagens, procurou-se recuperar, a partir da própria historia do McDonald's, os acontecimentos econômicos, sociais, culturais, políticos, que teriam nos transformado em uma sociedade na qual "estar na imagem é existir". Embora trágica em seu sentido de fundo, essa perda da forma nos é compensada por imagens de diversão e felicidade que as marcas nos transmitem. Ao final, questiona-se o alcance global dessa promessa a partir de uma digressão sobre o Brasil: como a marca McDonald's nos fornece as imagens para uma certa constituição identitária; e o seu nome para um sentimento de permanência? Como falar de "identificação" com uma marca que, aparentemente, não teria uma relação histórica e cultural com o Brasil?This article presents and discusses the current relationship between image and entertainment, based on the results of research studies on the constitution of McDonald's' brand image all over the world and contemporary marketing. Aiming to understand why we have become image consumers, those studies tried to recover, based on McDonald's history, economical, social, cultural, and political events that have lead us towards an obsessed image society, in which, "being in the image is the same as existing". Although tragic in its bottom line, that inexistence of form is compensated to us by amusement and happiness images conveyed by the brands. Finally, the research questions the global reach of that promise, starting from a digression on Brazil: how does McDonald's' brand supply us images for a certain identity constitution; and its brand name for a permanence feeling? How is it possible to speak of "identification" with a brand that, seemingly, would not have a

  2. Interfaces e organização da pesquisa no Brasil: da Química à Nanotecnologia Research organization in Brazil: from chemistry to Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique E. Toma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology can be viewed as a powerful tool, capable of shaping the chemistry of atoms and molecules, converting them into exciting nanosized and nanostructured materials, devices and machines. However, in pursuing this task, an exceptional ability is required to deal with complex inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, as imposed by the nanoscale. A new research organization framework, capable of promoting cooperative interactions in many complementary areas, including the industries, is demanded. In this sense, an interesting example are the nanotechnology networks and millenium institutes recently created in Brazil. The highlights and weakness of such cooperative research networks are discussed, in addition to relevant nanotechnology themes focusing on the special needs and resources from the developing nations.

  3. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires. PMID:27497904

  4. A transformação da educação em mercadoria no Brasil The transformation of education into commodity in Brazil

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    Romualdo Portela de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta pesquisa que estuda as consequências perceptíveis do processo de penetração dos fundos financeiros na educação superior no Brasil e, posteriormente, a emissão de ações de instituições de ensino diretamente na bolsa de valores. Entre os resultados observados encontra-se o rápido crescimento das instituições que adotaram tal estratégia. A forma mais visível desse crescimento é a compra de outras instituições e seu aperfeiçoamento, por meio da implantação de uma gestão mais profissionalizada. Tal processo tem propiciado o crescimento acelerado de algumas instituições, generalizando a educação como uma mercadoria, assim como a tendencial oligopolização da oferta. Conclui-se afirmando que é cabível falar-se em uma financeirização da educação, posto que é o setor financeiro que assume a hegemonia na educação privada no país.This paper presents a research on the noticeable consequences of the supply of private equities and venture capital in Brazilian Higher Education and of the subsequent going public of many teaching institutions. These are growing fast, mainly through the purchase of other schools, whose administration is professionalized. Such process has generalized both education as a commodity and the oligopolization of provision. It is thus possible to conclude that education has been financialized, since private education is nowadays hegemonic in Brazil.

  5. Case history: recovery of the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline at the Vocoroca reservoir crossing Parana state; Caso historico: recuperacao da travessia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil no reservatorio da barragem de Vocoroca-Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 Km. Of this total, 2.593 Km are in Brazilian soil. In the kilometer 526+500m of the south spread, GASBOL crosses the reservoir of the Vocoroca's dam (COPEL), which had its operational level reduced, in face of the station of the droughts that usually reaches the area in the months of March to September. The lowing of the reservoir caused the turn of the course of Fojo River (Sao Joaozinho River) to its natural quota, forming a waterfall, whose hydraulic gradient caused the removal of the sediment and part of the foundation soil, discovering the pipe that was with space free from approximately 13 m of length. This paper discusses the solution adopted, as well as the several details of the recovery project, besides geotechnical and hydraulic studies and the aspects of safety of the Gas Pipeline. (author)

  6. Estratégia intersetorial para o controle da dengue em Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brasil An intersectoral strategy for dengue control in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rosiene Maria de Freitas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os altos índices larvários e a complexidade dos fatores ambientais relacionados à proliferação e sobrevivência do Aedes aegypti levaram a Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte a adotar políticas integradas e agregar parceiros para a definição de ações que possibilitem resultados mais efetivos no controle da dengue, instituindo o Grupo Executivo para o Controle da Dengue - GECD. Esse artigo traz um estudo descritivo que analisa os documentos do GECD - atas, relatórios, avaliações - e descreve as intervenções, em 2007 e 2008, resultantes em: mutirões de limpeza; mobilização da sociedade civil; intensificação de ações de fiscalização; atividades em escolas; comunicação; articulação com empresas privadas, órgãos estaduais e federais; assistência. A experiência de Belo Horizonte, com o fortalecimento do espaço interno de discussão, possibilitou a tomada de decisões de forma mais ágil e o avanço na implementação das ações de prevenção e controle. Possibilitou a emergência de questões e desafios a serem enfrentados para o desenvolvimento da gestão intersetorial no controle da dengue.The high larvae rates found in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil and the complexity of environmental factors related to Aedes aegypti proliferation and survival led the municipal government authorities to adopt integrated policies and add partners to define effective actions for dengue control, establishing in 2007 the Executive Group for Dengue Control - GECD. This paper offers a descriptive study which analyzes the documents of GECD - reports, minutes, evaluations - and describes interventions in the years of 2007 and 2008 that resulted in: cleaning efforts; civil society mobilization; surveillance activities intensification; activities in schools; conjunction with private companies, state and federal bureaus; health care; and media. Belo Horizonte's experience, with the strengthening of internal groups for discussion

  7. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Aspectos metodológicos da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, RS

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    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.Descrever aspectos metodológicos do estudo da coorte de crianças que podem ser relevantes para pesquisadores que estejam planejando investigações semelhantes. Em 1993, uma coorte de base populacional foi recrutada em Pelotas, RS. Os 5.249 recém-nascidos nos hospitais da cidade foram acompanhados com um, três e seis meses, e com um e quatro anos de idade. Subestudos estão sendo realizados sobre saúde bucal, desenvolvimento psicológico e saúde mental, composição corporal e aspectos etnográficos. Em 2004-5 foi possível entrevistar 87,5% da coorte inicial, com a idade de 10-12 anos. Estudos de coortes de nascimentos são essenciais para investigar os determinantes precoces da morbidade e estado nutricional de adultos. No entanto, há poucos estudos com esta metodologia em países de renda média e baixa, e alguns dos determinantes da situação de saúde podem ser distintos daqueles observados em países ricos.

  8. FUNDEB: AVANÇOS E LIMITES NO FINANCIAMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO BÁSICA NO BRASIL. FUNDEB: PROGRESS AND LIMITS ON BASIC EDUCATION FUNDING IN BRAZIL

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    Danielle Cristina de Brito Mendes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o processo de formulação e implantação do FUNDEB (Fundo de Manutenção e Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica e de Valorização dos Profissionais da Educação com o objetivo de avaliar os avanços e limites desta política no financiamento da educação básica no Brasil. Para isso analisamos o processo legislativo para aprovação do Fundo, a sua legislação regulamentadora, bem como os dados financeiros e de matrículas no período de 2007 a 2010. A metodologia de análise foi qualitativa. A discussão foi dividida em duas partes, no primeiro momento caracterizamos o processo de formulação do FUNDEB, com a finalidade de compreender o debate em torno da reformulação da política de financiamento da educação básica ocorrida por meio deste Fundo. Em seguida, analisamos os dados financeiros e educacionais, para avaliar os impactos iniciais do Fundo nos Estados e municípios brasileiros. Concluiu-se que, com o FUNDEB, existe atuação regulatória por parte da União, pelo estabelecimento de fatores de ponderação diferenciados, que contribuem para priorização, por parte de Estados e municípios, de etapas e modalidades de ensino mais “rentáveis”. Outro fator que aponta na mesma direção é a complementação do governo federal ao Fundo ter sido estipulada em 10%, o que tende a balizar os Estados contemplados por este recurso por um padrão mínimo de financiamento e, consequentemente, de qualidade, tal qual ocorria com o FUNDEF (Fundo de Manutenção e Desenvolvimento do Ensino Fundamental e de Valorização do Magistério. Desta feita, faz-se necessária a revisão da engenharia do FUNDEB e da política educacional do país, para a adoção de padrão de qualidade e regime de colaboração entre os entes federados.This paper analyzes FUNDEB’s (Fund of Maintenance and Development of Basic Education and Valorization of the Education Professionals formulation and implementation process in order to evaluate

  9. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de urucum em Vitória da Conquista, BA Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of the annatto flowers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Augusto Jorge Cavalcante Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O urucum é um arbusto da família Bixaceae, utilizado na fabricação de corantes naturais para a indústria alimentícia e cosmética. No Brasil, somente nos últimos 15 anos, houve maior interesse pelo cultivo, pois se tornou uma alternativa agrícola promissora. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores do urucuzeiro em Vitória da Conquista, BA. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental da UESB, em uma lavoura do tipo cultivado Peruana Paulista. A coleta das abelhas visitantes foi feita na época principal de floração do urucueiro: março/abril, das 6h às 18h. Foram coletadas 3019 abelhas de 22 espécies, com predominância na visitação das 8h às 14h em relação ao número de indivíduos e número de espécies capturadas. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Apis mellifera L., Schwarziana quadripunctata (Lepeletier e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille. Espécies de maior porte, como Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, Bombus morio (Swederus e Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, consideradas como eficientes na polinização da cultura do urucum, não foram abundantes neste estudo.Annatto is a shrub from Bixaceae family, which natural pigment (annatto is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. In Brazil, the interest for this crop started in the last fifteen years, once it became a promising agricultural alternative. This study was aimed at identifing visitor bees of annatto flowers at the agriculture region of Vitória da Conquista (BA. The research was carried out in the experimental field of UESB, in an experimental plot planted with the cv. Peruana Paulista. The visitor bees were collected during the main blooming period: March/April, between 6:00h and 18:00h. A total of 3,019 bees from 22 species was collected, with higher visitation during the period from 8:00 to 14:00h, regarding the number of individuals and species. The species most frequent were Trigona spinipes

  10. Desafios da pós-graduação em Psicologia no Brasil Challenges to graduate courses in Psychology in Brazil

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    Emmanuel Zagury Tourinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com menos de cinco décadas de regulamentação, o sistema de pós-graduação no Brasil pode ser considerado bem sucedido do ponto de vista de suas realizações, embora inacabado quanto a algumas de suas feições fundamentais. Na área de Psicologia, o sistema compreende 64 Programas, 42 deles com o nível de Doutorado. Para responder de modo eficiente às demandas dirigidas à pós-graduação no Brasil, a área de Psicologia precisará enfrentar um conjunto de desafios, dentre os quais destacamos: a expansão da abrangência geográfica e temática, de modo a vencer assimetrias regionais e desequilíbrios na cobertura das subáreas e temas de pesquisa em Psicologia; o aperfeiçoamento do sistema de avaliação, a fim de contemplar a diversidade das estratégias de formação e da produção de conhecimento nas subáreas da Psicologia; a articulação dos diferentes resultados possíveis da pós-graduação em Psicologia, a partir do reconhecimento de que as bases para a produção de conhecimento na área variam quanto à imposição de demandas adicionais e à possibilidade de associar produção de conhecimento ao desenvolvimento de tecnologias de intervenção; e a formulação de políticas voltadas à qualificação do sistema, por exemplo, por meio do incremento das redes de pesquisa, da internacionalização dos grupos, da divulgação da produção científica e da formação metodológica mais sólida e ampla. Um diagnóstico mais cuidadoso desses e de outros desafios, em suas múltiplas dimensões, poderá conduzir a um aproveitamento mais eficiente das potencialidades dos grupos brasileiros de pesquisa em Psicologia, na formação de novos pesquisadores e na produção de conhecimento.The regulation of Graduate Programs in Brazil is less than five decades old. Along this period, the system has been successful concerning its results, even though some of its essential features remain unfinished. In the field of Psychology, the

  11. Avaliacao neuropsicologica de idosos praticantes de capoeira

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    Diogo Miranda Petry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo procura contribuir com uma relação pouco explorada no meio acadêmico: capoeira, cognição e envelhecimento. Relacionando estudos sobre funções executivas e a capoeira, busca-se investigar a interligação desta arte e as funções executivas. Estas se referem a desempenhos de comportamentos complexos (memória de trabalho, flexibilidade mental, tomada de decisão e a memória léxico-semântica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de funções executivas em idosas praticantes de capoeira e idosas não praticantes de exercício físico. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que coletou as informações de cada participante apenas uma vez. Serão comparados dois grupos: 1 grupo de idosos praticantes de capoeira e 2 idosos que não fazem exercício físico. Para seleção e caracterização dos grupos utilizaram-se: questionário sociodemográfico, aspectos gerais de saúde e escala de hábitos de leitura e escrita, mini-exame de estado mental (MEEM e escala de depressão de Yesavage (GDS-30. Para avaliar o desempenho das funções executivas foi realizado o teste de trilhas e as tarefas de fluência verbal. Para análise estatística dos dados será utilizado o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para normatização dos dados. O teste de t de Student e o teste U de Mann Whitney serão usados para comparar duas médias de amostras independentes. Utilizou-se a improvisação, a ação, a tomada de decisão, o equilíbrio e as noções de espaço, tempo, ritmo, música, e a compreensão do jogo da capoeira como intervenção devido à possível utilização dos processos executivos nessa arte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa nos testes realizados. Porém houve superioridade nos testes de fluência verbal e testes de trilha A e B, sendo maior em B no grupo de capoeira do que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A prática de capoeira tem uma tendência em contribuir para a melhora das funções executivas, embora os

  12. Demand outlook for jet fuel in Brazil; Perspectivas da demanda de querosene de aviacao (QAV) no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saide, Clara Santos Martins; Aragao, Amanda P.; Machado, Giovani V.; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.B.; Valle, Ricardo Nascimento e Silva do [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to forecast the demand for jet fuel for the next years, by applying aggregate models. The relevance of this issue is evidenced by the strong growth of air transport in recent years and the growth prospects of the sector, especially regarding the evolution of the use of this modal in middle-income population classes, since the number of trips per capita in Brazil is still much lower than in developed countries. The key variables in the models' specifications proposed in this study are: Brazil's GDP, the activity level of the sector (measured in passenger-kilometers and ton-kilometers, respectively, for air transport of passengers and cargo) and energy intensity. Findings show that the demand for jet fuel is expected to grow by an average of 6-8% per year until 2020, under the assumptions of an average GDP growth of 4.7% per year and energy efficiency gains of 1% per year. (author)

  13. Mortalidade por câncer em trabalhadores da indústria da borracha de São Paulo Cancer mortality among rubber industry workers in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Hélio Neves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as mortes por câncer em trabalhadores da indústria da borracha de acordo com o tamanho da empresa. MÉTODOS: Coorte histórica com 9.188 trabalhadores masculinos, matriculados em sindicato de trabalhadores da indústria de borracha do Estado de São Paulo entre 1975 e 1985, sobreviventes em janeiro de 1990 e acompanhados até o final de 2000. As mortes por câncer foram comparadas internamente à coorte, cujos membros foram subdivididos em estratos por porte e sub-ramo da empresa, setor de trabalho e qualificação profissional. A abordagem por conjuntos de risco e regressão logística condicional foi utilizada para o cálculo dos riscos relativos, ajustados por idade, tempo desde o primeiro emprego e tempo de trabalho na indústria da borracha. RESULTADOS: Quando comparados aos empregados de grandes empresas, trabalhadores de pequenas empresas mostraram excesso de mortes por todos tipos de câncer (RR=2,33; IC 95%: 0,90-6,03; tumores de estômago (RR=3,47; IC 95%: 2,57-4,67 e do trato aero-digestivo superior (RR=2,49; IC 95%: 1,78-3,48. Identificou-se excesso de mortes por câncer nos trabalhadores dos setores de manutenção (RR=2,23; IC 95%: 0,73-6,76; expedição, armazenamento e transporte (RR=2,97; IC 95%: 0,77-11,38; e produção (RR=3,51; IC 95%: 1,07-11,57, comparados aos trabalhadores dos setores administrativos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram evidências de aumento do risco de tumores de estômago e do trato aero-digestivo superior e, possivelmente, por câncer em geral em trabalhadores de empresas de pequeno porte da indústria da borracha quando comparados aos trabalhadores das grandes empresas.OBJECTIVE: To investigate cancer deaths among rubber industry workers according to company size. METHODS: This historical cohort study included 9,188 male workers, engaged as members of a workers' union in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1975 and 1985, alive in January 1990 and followed until the end of 2000

  14. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  15. The estimated magnitude of AIDS in Brazil: a delay correction applied to cases with lost dates Estimativa da magnitude da AIDS no Brasil: uma correção de atraso aplicada aos casos com data perdida

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    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of HIV-infected people is an important measure of the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil and allows for comparison with epidemic patterns in other countries. This quantity can be estimated from the number of reported AIDS cases, which in turn needs to be corrected for the distribution of reporting delays and under-recording of cases. These distributions are unknown and must also be estimated from the recorded dates, which were missed to the Brazilian National AIDS registry. This paper estimates the number of AIDS cases diagnosed by imputing the lost information based on an estimate of the pattern in registration delay until 1996. We first fitted a non-stationary bivariate Poisson regression model to estimate the pattern in reporting delay. In the subsequent steps these models were applied to impute new data, thus replacing the missing information, and to estimate the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in the country. Model estimates ranged from 36,000 to 50,000 AIDS cases diagnosed in Brazil and still unreported. Therefore, the epidemic was 20 to 30% greater than known from the available information as of February 1999. To be useful to health policy-makers, the surveillance system based on officially reported AIDS cases must be continuously improved.O número de pessoas infectadas pelo HIV é uma importante medida da magnitude da epidemia de AIDS no Brasil, e permite a comparação com o padrão epidêmico de outros países. Essa quantidade pode ser estimada a partir do número de casos notificados de AIDS, que necessita ser corrigido pela distribuição do atraso da notificação e pelas sub-notificações. Essas distribuições são desconhecidas e devem ser estimadas a partir das datas registradas, que no Brasil foram perdidas. Neste artigo, estima-se o número de diagnósticos de AIDS, imputando as informações perdidas a partir da estimativa do padrão de atraso até 1996. Primeiro, ajustou-se uma regressão de Poisson

  16. Idades e crescimento da cioba, Ocyururs chrysurus, da Costa Central do Brasil Age and growth of yellowtail snapper, Ocyururs chrysurus, from Central Coast of Brazil

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    Júlio Neves de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A idade e o crescimento da cioba da costa central do Brasil foram estudados a partir de leituras de otólitos obtidos em amostragens mensais de desembarques comerciais, realizados nas cidades de Vitória e Vila Velha, entre os anos de 1998 e 1999. Através da análise do incremento marginal, foi verificada a formação anual de uma zona translúcida a partir do final do outono e durante o inverno. Foram observadas ciobas de 2 a 19 anos. Os comprimentos furcais (CF médios retrocalculados variaram de 108 mm para idade 1 a 524 mm para idade 19. A equação de Von Bertalanffy ajustada aos CF médios retrocalculados foi CFt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773. A relação comprimento peso foi P = 2,68x10-5CF2.914, onde P = peso total em gramas. O crescimento é lento, com os incrementos anuais em peso aumentando gradativamente até atingir o máximo de 164 g entre as idades 7 e 8 anos. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que a cioba tem longa expectativa de vida e baixas taxas de crescimento somático, características das espécies mais sensíveis à exploração pesqueira.To age and study the growth of yellowtail snapper, we analyzed readings of otoliths obtained in monthly samplings from commercial landings in the cities of Vitória and Vila Velha, from 1998 to 1999. Marginal increment analysis showed that the formation of a translucent zone occurred in the early fall and during the winter. The observed ages range from 2 to 19 years. Mean back-calculated fork lengths (FL range from 108 mm for age 1 to 524 mm for age 19. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation fitted to the mean back-calculated FL was FLt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773, The length-weight relationship was W= 2,68x10-5FL2.914, where W = whole weight in grams. Yellowtail snapper has a slow growth with annual growth increments in weight raising progressively to the maximum of 164 g between the 7 and 8 years. The yellowtail snapper has long lifespan and slow growth rates, features of

  17. Fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil Determinant factors of capital structure for the largest companies active in Brazil

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    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estrutura de capital é um tema ainda controverso em teoria de finanças. Desde a discussão entre a teoria tradicional, que defende a existência de uma estrutura de capital ótima que leva à maximização do valor da empresa, e a proposta por Modigliani e Miller (1958, que considera que o valor da empresa não é afetado pela forma como ela é financiada, diversos estudos empíricos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de identificar os fatores que explicam a forma como as empresas se financiam. Esta pesquisa analisa a estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil, investigando a relação entre o nível de endividamento e os fatores apontados pela teoria como seu determinante. O estudo é baseado em dados contábeis extraídos das demonstrações financeiras de empresas de capital aberto e de empresas de capital fechado. A técnica estatística utilizada no estudo é a regressão linear múltipla. Os resultados indicam que os fatores risco, tamanho, composição dos ativos e crescimento são determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas, enquanto que o fator rentabilidade não é determinante. Os resultados, também, mostram que o nível de endividamento da empresa não é afetado pelo fato de ela ser de capital aberto ou de capital fechado.Capital structure is still a still controversial issue in finance theory. Since the discussion between traditional theory, which asserts the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the firm’s value, and Modigliani and Miller’s theory (1958, which considers that the value of a firm is unaffected by how it is financed, many empirical studies have been carried out to identify the factors that explain how a firm finances itself. This research analyses the capital structure of the largest firms in Brazil and investigates the relationship between the leverage ratio and the factors indicated by theory as determinant. The study is based on accounting data extracted from

  18. Dynamic behavior of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil (1954-2008 Comportamento dinâmico da febre amarela silvestre no Brasil (1954-2008

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    Fernando Portela Câmara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sylvatic yellow fever (SYF is enzootic in Brazil, causing periodic outbreaks in humans living near forest borders or in rural areas. In this study, the cycling patterns of this arbovirosis were analyzed. METHODS: Spectral Fourier analysis was used to capture the periodicity patterns of SYF in time series. RESULTS: SYF outbreaks have not increased in frequency, only in the number of cases. There are two dominant cycles in SYF outbreaks, a seven year cycle for the central-western region and a 14 year cycle for the northern region. Most of the variance was concentrated in the central-western region and dominated the entire endemic region. CONCLUSIONS: The seven year cycle is predominant in the endemic region of the disease due the greater contribution of variance in the central-western region; however, it was possible identify a 14 cycle that governs SYF outbreaks in the northern region. No periodicities were identified for the remaining geographical regions.INTRODUÇÃO: A febre amarela silvestre (FAS é enzoótica no Brasil, causando surtos periódicos em humanos que vivem próximos às áreas florestais ou em áreas rurais. Neste estudo, foram analisados os padrões de periodicidade desta arbovirose. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos a análise espectral de Fourier para capturar os padrões de periodicidades da FAS em séries temporais. RESULTADOS: Os surtos de FAS aparentemente não aumentaram em frequência, mas em número de casos. Há dois ciclos dominantes na FAS, um de sete anos predominando na região centro-oeste, e um de 14 anos predominando na região norte. A maior parte da variância concentrou-se na região centro-oeste e dominava toda região endêmica. CONCLUSÕES: O ciclo de sete anos é predominante para a região endêmica da doença devido a maior contribuição da variância do centro-oeste. No entanto, foi possível identificar um ciclo de 14 que rege a FAS na região norte. Não foram detectadas periodicidades nas demais

  19. Um breve balanço da pesquisa sobre violência escolar no Brasil A brief survey of the research on school violence in Brazil

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    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo realiza balanço da pesquisa sobre as relações entre violência e escola no Brasil, após 1980. Examina os raros diagnósticos quantitativos em torno do tema e a produção discente (dissertações e teses na pós-graduação em Educação, no mesmo período. Apesar de ainda ser incipiente, a produção já traça um quadro importante do fenômeno no Brasil, mostrando as principais modalidades: ações contra o patrimônio - depredações, pichações - e formas de agressão interpessoal, sobretudo entre os próprios alunos. Durante esse período a violência em meio escolar tanto foi examinada como decorrência de um conjunto significativo de práticas escolares inadequadas, quanto foi investigada como um dos aspectos que caracterizam a violência na sociedade contemporânea. Nesse último enfoque, parte dos trabalhos pesquisou a dinâmica de funcionamento de escolas situadas em áreas sob a influência do tráfico de drogas ou do crime organizado e um pequeno conjunto buscou entender o comportamento dos alunos como uma forma de sociabilidade marcada pelas agressões e pequenos delitos, caracterizada como incivilidade, que se origina na crise do processo civilizatório da sociedade contemporânea.The article surveys the research on the relationships between violence and school in Brazil after 1980. It examines the rare quantitative diagnostics about the issue, and the theses and dissertations produced in graduate programs in Education in the same period. Although still incipient those studies already draw an important picture of the phenomenon in Brazil, displaying the leading modes of violence: acts against property - vandalism, graffiti - and interpersonal aggression, mainly among the pupils. During this period, violence at school has been examined both as a consequence of a significant set of inadequate school practices, and as one of the aspects that characterizes the violence of contemporary society. Under the latter viewpoint

  20. Tendências da incidência e da mortalidade por Aids no Maranhão, 1985 a 1998 Trends in AIDS incidence and mortality in Brazil, 1985 to 1998

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    Maria Teresa S S B Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade por Aids no Brasil está decrescendo, principalmente, após a introdução dos anti-retrovirais. Nesse sentido, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar a incidência e mortalidade, segundo sexo, em uma determinada região do Brasil. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado a partir do número de óbitos ocorrido por Aids na população residente no Estado do Maranhão, segundo sexo, no período de 1985 a 1998. Utilizou-se como numerador a quantidade de óbitos do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM. De 1985 a 1995, foram utilizados registros com código 279/1 da nona revisão da Classificação Internacional de Doenças. A partir de 1996, foram utilizados os códigos B20 a B24 da décima revisão dessa classificação. Foram utilizados como numerador dos coeficientes de incidência os dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação Compulsória (SINAM. Os percentuais de variação dos coeficientes foram calculados utilizando-se modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 1.211 casos e 501 óbitos por Aids no período. Os coeficientes de incidência anual mostraram crescimento de 21,6% (pINTRODUCTION: AIDS mortality is decreasing in Brazil, especially after the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. A study was conducted to evaluate AIDS incidence and mortality in a certain area of Brazil. METHODS: The number of AIDS deaths according to sex in the study period, obtained from registry sources, were used as the numerator of mortality rates. From 1985 to 1995, deaths with underlying cause classified as code 279/1 in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD and, from 1996 onwards, B20 to B24 codes in the 10th Review were considered AIDS cases. SINAN/MS disease compulsory notification data were used as the numerator of incidence rates. Percentage of variation of the incidence and mortality rates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: In the study period

  1. Ottillie Hammes: pioneira da enfermagem catarinense Ottillie Hammes: pionera de la enfermería de Santa Catarina, Brasil Ottillie Hammes: a nursing pioneer in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Miriam Süsskind Borenstein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo sócio-histórico cujo objetivo foi revelar a trajetória profissional de Ottillie Hammes, apresentar alguns traços de sua biografia e analisar sua contribuição para a profissão da enfermagem em Santa Catarina. Na coleta de dados foram realizadas entrevistas e utilizadas outras fontes documentais. Os dados foram categorizados utilizando-se análise de conteúdo e com base no referencial foucaultiano. Os resultados evidenciaram que Ottillie Hammes provocou mudanças expressivas na enfermagem catarinense, em conseqüência da criação da Escola de Auxiliares de Enfermagem; da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem - SC e do estímulo a promulgação da Lei que possibilitou o enquadramento do enfermeiro na categoria técnica e científica, com conseqüente desenvolvimento da profissão e melhoria da assistência prestada à população.Tratase de un estudio socio-histórico, cuyo objetivo fue revelar la trayectoria profesional de Ottillie Hammes, presentar algunos aspectos de su biografía y analizar su contribución para la profesión de enfermería en el Estado de Santa Catarina - Brasil. Para la recolección de los datos fueron realizadas entrevistas con Ottillie Hammes y utilizadas fuentes documentales. Los datos fueron categorizados de acuerdo con analise del contenido e analizados con base en referencial Foucaultiano. Los resultados evidenciaron que la Ottillie Hammes provocó mudanzas expresivas en la enfermería catarinense, en consecuencia de la creación de escuela de auxiliares de enfermería en Florianópolis; de la Asociación Brasilera de Enfermería - Sección Santa Catarina y del estimulo a la promulgación de la ley No. 3175/63, la cual posibilitó la inclusión del enfermero en la categoría Técnico - Científica, propiciando así el desarrollo de esa profesión y el mejoramiento de la asistencia prestada a la población.This is a socio-historic study that aimed at revealing Ottillie Hammes' professional

  2. Palynological analysis of a late Holocene core from Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Renato B. Macedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A sedimentar core collected at Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul State, southmost Brazil, was submitted to pollen analysis to provide the vegetational history of this region, and the paleoecological and paleoclimatic changes. A total of 98 taxa of palynomorphs was identified from 35 subsamples. Three radiocarbonic datings were obtained along a section of 115 cm depth, including the basal age of 4730 ± 50 yr BP. Pollen diagrams and cluster analysis were performed based on palynomorphs frequencies, demonstrating five distinct phases (SAP-I to SAP-V, which reflected different paleoecological conditions. The predominance of plants associated with grasslands in the phase SAP-I suggests warm and dry climate conditions. A gradual increasing of humidity conditions was observed mainly from the beginning of the phase SAP-III, when the vegetation set a mosaic of grasslands and Atlantic rainforest. Furthermore, the presence of some forest taxa ( Acacia-type, Daphnopsis racemosa, Erythrina-type and Parapiptadenia rigida-type, from the phase SAP-IV, is interpreted as an influence of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the study region. From the phase SAP-V (ca. 4000 yrs BP, the vegetation became similar to the modern one (extant Atlantic rainforest Biome, especially after 2000 yrs BP (calibrated age.Um testemunho de sondagem coletado em Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi submetido para análise polínica a fim de revelar a história vegetacional e mudanças paleoecológicas e paleoclimáticas. Um total de 98 táxons foi identificado a partir de 35 subamostras. Três datações radiocarbônicas foram obtidas ao longo de uma seção de 115 cm de profundidade, incluindo a idade basal de 4730 ± 50 anos AP. Diagramas polínicos e análises de agrupamentos foramrealizadas com base nas freqüências dos palinomorfos, demonstrando cinco fases distintas (SAP-I a SAP-V, as quais refletiram diferentes condições paleoecol

  3. Os fios da trama: grandes temas da música popular tradicional brasileira The thread unraveled: the great themes of traditional popular music in Brazil

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    Marianna F. M. Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos cantos, danças e folguedos populares brasileiros, podemos encontrar um feixe de motivos entrelaçados, padrões multicores de um tecido de que conviria procurar e acompanhar cada um dos fios aí urdidos e tramados, agrupando-os segundo sua textura ou coloração. Essas diferentes linhas temáticas, os fios da trama das expressões artísticas e religiosas do povo brasileiro são o assunto deste artigo, que procura analisar formas culturais caracterizadas pela hibridação, as quais transitam muitas vezes na ambiguidade entre resistência e aceitação de um padrão cultural dominante. O dinamismo dos arranjos de um certo número de motivos condutores recorrentes no âmbito da cultura de tradição oral brasileira nos leva a especular sobre os processos de formação de suas práticas artísticas, bem como sobre sua circulação num país de dimensões continentais.In the Brazilian popular chants, dances and festivities one can detect different motifs and patterns of a tissue. It is interesting to investigate and follow each of these threads that constitute this weft, grouping them according to their texture or coloring. These different thematic lines, threads of the weft of artistic and religious expressions of the Brazilian people are the theme of this article, which intends to analyze cultural forms characterized by hybridization which often resides in the ambiguity between resistance and acceptance of a dominant cultural pattern. The dynamism of these arrangements makes us speculate about the formation or constitution of these artistic practices, as well as their circulation, trying to investigate about the processes that were responsible for the broadcasting of these characteristics and similarities in such an enormous country.

  4. Geologic and Geotechnical contributions to the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira mines projects, Lagoa Real, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical, geomechanical and hydrogeotechnical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira deposists, located in the Lagoa Real uranium District, are presented and discussed. These deposits occur in the Caetite massif, composed mainly of Gneissic lithologies. The studies were performed in order to provide the essential elements for an initial Geologic-Geotechnical characterization of the massifs. (D.J.M.)

  5. Avaliação da leishmaniose visceral canina em Poxoréo, Estado do Mato Grosso, Brazil Canine visceral leishmaniasis evaluation in Poxoréo, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Márcia Ávila A. de Azevedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O cão doméstico desempenha importante papel como reservatório na transmissão da leishmaniose visceral ao homem, zoonose de grande importância em saúde pública. Realizou-se avaliação epidemiológica da leishmaniose visceral em 1.112 cães domiciliados no município de Poxoréo, estado do Mato Grosso e observou-se prevalência de 7,8%. Observou-se ainda associação estatisticamente significativa entre a prevalência de leishmaniose visceral canina e as variáveis faixa etária, presença de sinais clínicos e presença de outra espécie animal co-habitando com os cães avaliados, tendo sido as galinhas mais freqüentemente observadas entre os animais soropositivos. O sexo, a coleta de lixo domiciliar bem como a renda familiar não apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com a prevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina. A análise dos resultados sugere que cães com idade superior a sete anos e a , presença de outra espécie animal co-habitando com os cães podem ser fatores de risco para a leishmaniose visceral canina.Dogs play an important role as reservoir in the domestic cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, a serious public health problem. An epidemiological survey in 1,112 dogs was conducted at the Municipality of Poxoréo State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test where the prevalence was 7.8%. Significant association was found between prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis and age of the dogs. Clinical signs and presence of other animals in the backyard, like chicken being more likely associated with seropositivity. Gender, garbage collection in the residence and family financial income were not associated with visceral leishmaniasis prevalence. Analysis of the results suggests that dogs aging more than 7 years and presence of another animal species co-inhabiting with the dogs may be risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  6. A produção do lugar de transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar: o caso da Localidade Pau da Fome na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Production of transmission foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: the case of Pau da Fome, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Hélia Kawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as características de um dos lugares de transmissão de maior relevância da leishmaniose tegumentar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, considerando sua configuração territorial e as relações desta com processos de organização do espaço. Utilizou-se o modelo de análise do processo de ocupação e organização do espaço urbano, em escala local, considerando-se as novas funções adquiridas pelos elementos espaciais expressos por diferentes relações de trabalho, uso do solo e valor da terra. Empregaram-se técnicas de geoprocessamento e de classificação de imagens obtidas por sensoriamento remoto, localização de domicílios e casos de leishmaniose tegumentar, associados a dados qualitativos sobre o processo histórico de ocupação e uso do solo. A análise mostrou áreas com distintas condições de vulnerabilidade, e que mudanças destas condições viabilizaram a produção da epidemia em um determinado período e sua posterior redução. O estudo contribui para o monitoramento da enfermidade em nível local e para a aplicação de medidas eficazes para as ações de vigilância e controle da leishmaniose tegumentar.This study analyzes the characteristics of one of the main foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, examining its territorial configuration and the relations with spatial organization processes. An analytical model was applied to the process of occupation and organization of urban space on a local scale, considering the new functions acquired by the spatial elements expressed by different work relations, land use, and land value. The study employed geoprocessing techniques and classification of images obtained by remote sensing, localization of households, and cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, associated with qualitative data on the historical process of land occupation and use. The analysis detected areas with distinct conditions of vulnerability

  7. The structure of the natural gas industry in Brazil; A estrutura da industria de gas natural no Barsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Cristiane R.; Fontes, Cristiane M.; Andrade, Marcelo C.; Goncalves, Raquel G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The opening of the Brazilian economy and the end of the state-owned oil company PETROBRAS monopoly made possible for national and international companies to become concessionaires of the rights and obligations regarding the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas. The increasing of the oil reserves and production, together with the technological development and the more restricted environmental legislation, resulted in a gradual increased participation of the natural gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply. Around 3% for many years, the participation of gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply has increased to 7.5% in 2002, as mentioned in the 2003 Brazil Energy Balance (BEN). The 2003 production was more than 100 millions boe, and the import was more than 37 millions boe according to the National Oil Agency (ANP). We present in this article a summary of today's situation, and the consumer market full development limitations. (author)

  8. Contaminação microbiana em carne moída de açougues da cidade de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Microbial contamination in minced meat of butcher shops of Santa Maria city, RS, Brazil

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    Elisabete Dockhorn Grünspan

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas aleatoriamente, 10 amostras de carne moída bovina em açougues da cidade de Santa Maria, RS, para determinar a presença de microorganismos totais, coliformes e Staphylococcus aureus. Respectivamente, usou-se os meios ágar para contagem total (PCA, ágar cristal violeta vermelho neutro bile e ágar bairdparker. Na contagem de microorganismos totais, 60% das amostras apresentaram entre 1,7 a 8,8 x 10(4 uFC/g de carne moída. Para Coliformes, 20% das amostras apresentaram um número menor que 1,0 x 10² uFc/g, 40% entre 1,0 a 3,2 x 10³ uFC/g, 30% entre 3,7 a 9,6 x 10(4 uFC/g e em 10% houve acidente laboratorial. Para Staphylococcus aureus, 100% das amostras resultaram positivas, sendo 50% entre 1,0 a 4,0 x 10³ uFC/g, 40% entre 1,3 a 2,8 x 10(4 e 10% entre 1,5 a 4,0 x 10(5 uFC/g de carne moída.Ten samples of minced meat beef were collected in butcher shops of Santa Maria City, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of total microorganism, total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus. Respectively, PCA (Plate Counter Ágar, violet cristal red neutral bile and baird parker ágar was used. In the ágar plate counter for total microorganism. 60% of the samples presented a number between 1.7 a 8.8 x 10(4 CFU/g of minced meat. For Coliforms, 20% of the samples presented a number less than 1.0 x 10² C FU/g, 40% were among 1.0 and 3.2 x 10³ CFU/g, 30% between 3.7 to 9.6 x 10(4 CFU/g and in 10% had laboratory acidental. For Staphylococcus aureus, 100% of the samples turns positives with 50% of that between 1.0 a 4.0 x 10³ CFU/g, 40% among 1.3 to 2.8 x 10(4 CFU/g and 10% among 1.5 to 4.0 x 10(5 CFU/g of minced meat beef.

  9. A regulação da TV no Brasil: 75 anos depois, o que temos? TV regulation in Brazil: 75 years after what we´ve got?

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    Othon Jambeiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma revisão histórica da regulação da TV no Brasil, para realçar que o ânimo predominante no desenvolvimento desta atividade tem sido o de continuidade e consolidação do modelo comercial. Além de analisar os tipos de modelo predominantes no mundo atual para exploração dos serviços de TV aberta, o autor mostra a situação dos vários serviços de televisão no país, inclusive a recém criada TV digital. Palavras-chave: TV no Brasil. Regulação da TV. Televisão. Radiodifusão. The text is a historic review from TV regulation in Brazil. It highlights that the dominant courage in the development of television industry in this country has been the continuity and consolidation of the commercial model. Besides analyzing existing models to explore TV broadcasting services, the author shows the situation of the different TV services in Brazil, including the newest of them, Digital TV. Keywords: TV in Brazil. TV regulation. Television. Broadcasting.

  10. Novas ocorrências de hepáticas (Marchantiophyta para o estado da Bahia, Brasil New records of liverworts (Marchantiophyta from Bahia State, Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra da Jibóia, foram registradas 13 espécies de novas ocorrências, sendo oito para a região Nordeste: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. e Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., e cinco espécies referidas pela primeira vez para o Estado: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell e Symphyogyna aspera Steph. Para cada espécie são fornecidos comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos e distribuição geográfica mundial e no Brasil, além de indicação de literatura contendo descrição e ilustração. Foram realizadas ilustrações para algumas espécies.In Serra da Jibóia were recorded 13 species of new ocurrence wich are eight species from region Northeastern: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. and Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., and five are recorded for the first time from Bahia, State: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell and Symphyogyna aspera Steph. from Bahia, State. For each specie are provided taxonomics and ecological comments, geographical general and in Brazil distribution, and indication of literature with description and ilustration. Some species were ilustrated.

  11. Transgênicos e percepção pública da ciência no Brasil GMOs and the public perception of science in Brazil

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    Julia S. Guivant

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo a análise de pesquisas sobre percepções de consumidores, produtores, cidadãos em relação ao uso de alimentos transgênicos, estabelecendo comparações entre as desenvolvidas no Brasil, na Europa, na Ásia e nos Estados Unidos. Tais pesquisas têm passado a desempenhar um papel central nos debates sobre seus riscos tanto entre os setores a seu favor quanto aos que se manifestam contrários a tal uso. Um dos argumentos centrais deste trabalho é que no Brasil há uma significante carência de dados sobre tal percepção pública. A falta de pesquisas, ou seu número limitadíssimo é aqui considerado uma evidência para caracterizar a trajetória da polêmica no Brasil, com uma significativa ausência de participação pública nos debates sobre transgênicos. Estes giram em torno de atores sociais organizados, que atuam sem ou com parcial representatividade. Também o número limitado de pesquisas expõe os limites da área de marketing, ainda assumindo no Brasil uma perspectiva positivista sobre o consumidor. E, por último, consideramos que podemos relacionar a falta de informação com a falta de problematização no espaço acadêmico sobre os conflitos ou consensos entre conhecimentos peritos e leigos quando estão em questão inovações tecnológicas que envolvem riscos incertos. Na primeira parte focalizamos nas pesquisas realizadas no contexto brasileiro, escolhendo as que passaram a ser destacadas como apóio a argumentos a favor ou contra os transgênicos entre os principais atores sociais envolvidos no debate. Na segunda parte consideramos as pesquisas realizadas em outros paises. Na terceira parte analisamos os limites e vantagens das diferentes pesquisas aqui selecionadas como representativas, o que nos permite nas conclusões formular sugestões para pesquisas de opinião pública no Brasil não só sobre transgenicos, mas também sobre percepção publica da ciência.This article has as its

  12. Doenças da mandioquinha-salsa e sua situação atual no Brasil Present situation of arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza diseases in Brazil

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    Gilmar P. Henz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo principal relatar as doenças registradas para a mandioquinha-salsa até a data presente e descrever sua situação atual no País. Na literatura, foram registrados para a cultura 27 gêneros de fungos, três de bactérias, doze de nematóides e cinco espécies de vírus. Destes, já foram relatados no Brasil treze fungos, e todos nematóides e bactérias, enquanto nenhum vírus foi oficialmente registrado, embora já tenham sido observadas plantas com sintomas típicos de viroses a campo. A maior parte dos registros estão na forma de resumos, capítulos de livros ou publicações genéricas, desprovidos de uma série de dados relevantes, como provas de patogenicidade, importância da doença, perdas, identificação mais acurada, entre outras. A cultura da mandioquinha-salsa ainda é tida como rústica, sendo poucas as doenças consideradas limitantes. O nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp. e a podridão-mole pós-colheita causada por Erwinia spp. são os principais problemas atualmente, e causam perdas significativas. Também ocorrem com muita frequência manchas foliares causadas por Septoria, Cercospora e Xanthomonas campestris pv. arracaciae, e em algumas regiões podridão de plantas a campo causadas por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e Sclerotium rolfsii. Como não existe nenhum produto químico oficialmente registrado para a mandioquinha-salsa no Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, as medidas de controle passíveis de recomendação incluem ações preventivas, como o uso de material propagativo sadio (preferencialmente mudas pré-enraizadas de origem conhecida, a adoção de rotação de culturas, a eliminação de plantas ou partes doentes, e a adubação e a irrigação adequadas. O estudo sistematizado das doenças e o registro cuidadoso de surtos ou novas enfermidades para a cultura são importantes para subsidiar futuras medidas de controle.The diseases of arracacha that have already

  13. Dinâmica da institucionalização de idosos em Belo Horizonte, Brasil Dynamics of institutionalization of older adults in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    Flávio Chaimowicz

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O processo de envelhecimento populacional brasileiro tem sido acompanhado por transformações epidemiológicas e sociais que, em outros países, aumentaram a demanda por instituições de longa permanência. Nesse sentido, desenvolveu-se estudo sobre dinâmica da institucionalização de idosos através da análise da oferta de leitos e características demográficas dos residentes em asilos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado levantamento dos asilos de idosos do Município de Belo Horizonte, MG. Foram registradas datas de nascimento e admissão de 1.128 residentes de 33 dos 40 asilos em funcionamento no município. A lotação foi calculada através da capacidade informada e da taxa de institucionalização, segundo dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD. RESULTADOS: As taxas de institucionalização de idosos (65+ do município foram 0,9% (mulheres e 0,3% (homens. A lotação mediana dos asilos era de 92%. Dentre os 1.128 residentes arrolados (92,5% do total, as mulheres (81% apresentavam maiores médias de idade (76,4 x 70,4 anos; p=0,00 e estada (5,6 x 4,5 anos; p=0,01. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÕES: Elevada lotação, listas de espera nos asilos filantrópicos (85% do total e rígidos critérios para admissão (metade recusava idosos demenciados ou dependentes sugerem que a baixa taxa de institucionalização se deve à escassez de vagas. A predominância de idosas reflete a prevalência de viúvas ou separadas na comunidade (66% contra 76% de homens casados. A proporção de homens adultos (31% INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and social changes related to population aging in Brazil will probably increase the need for nursing homes (NH. The study analyses the dynamics of institutionalization in Belo Horizonte, a 3 million inhabitant city of whom 8.0% are aged 60 or more. METHODS: Age and length of stay of 1,128 NH residents (92.5% of the estimated population was registered and occupancy and institutionalization rates were

  14. Impactos ambientais do manejo agroecológico da caatinga no Rio Grande do Norte Environmental impacts of caatinga agroecological handling in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Hilton Felipe Marinho Barreto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os impactos ambientais do manejo agroecológico da caatinga, em unidades de produção familiar no Rio Grande do Norte, pelo método Ambitec de produção animal - dimensão ambiental, desenvolvido pela Embrapa Meio Ambiente. Foram avaliadas sete unidades de produção familiar, em quatro projetos de assentamentos de reforma agrária do Município de Apodi, RN. Os dados para o levantamento foram obtidos por meio de questionários aplicados aos representantes das unidades produtivas familiares, que atribuíram, a cada variável estudada, um valor que representou a alteração proporcionada pela implementação da tecnologia. Após a inserção dos coeficientes de alteração de cada variável dos indicadores por unidade de produção, o coeficiente de impacto foi automaticamente calculado por meio da planilha Ambitec. O manejo agroecológico da caatinga resultou num impacto ambiental positivo, e suas maiores contribuições foram relacionadas aos efeitos positivos dos seguintes indicadores: capacidade produtiva do solo, uso de insumos materiais, qualidade do produto e diminuição da emissão de poluentes à atmosfera. Dois indicadores geraram efeitos negativos: o uso de energia e o uso de recursos naturais. Pela superioridade dos benefícios gerados, o manejo agroecológico da caatinga é uma inovação tecnológica geradora de impactos ambientais positivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental impacts of caatinga agroecological handling, in production unities of family farms, in Rio Grande do Norte, using the method Ambitec of animal production - environmental dimension, developed by Embrapa Meio Ambiente. Seven family farm production units were evaluated within four projects of agrarian reform in the county of Apodi, RN, Brazil. The data for surveying were obtained through applying queries to the responsibles for the production units, who attributed - to each studied variable - a

  15. Políticas públicas para o controle da anemia ferropriva Public policies to control iron deficiency in Brazil

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    Sophia C. Szarfarc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A anemia por deficiência de ferro configura um problema epidemiológico da maior relevância atuando nos gastos públicos de saúde, nas consequências sociais do aumento de riscos no período gestacional, na redução da produtividade e, ainda, nas consequências, em longo prazo, do desenvolvimento mental. Algumas datas marcam o envolvimento do governo brasileiro em busca de alternativas de controle da deficiência marcial: 1977 - 1ª Reunião do Ministério da Saúde (INAN, com especialistas nacionais e internacionais, para discutir perspectivas e intervenções para o controle da anemia; 1982/83 - distribuição de suplemento de ferro para a clientela do Programa de Atenção à Gestante e dosagem de hemoglobina na 1ª consulta; 1992 - assinatura de compromisso brasileiro de reduzir em 1/3 a prevalência de anemia em gestantes; 1994 - implantação do Programa de Leite Vivaleite, no estado de São Paulo, fornecendo leite fortificado com ferro a famílias com crianças até 6 anos e renda inferior a dois salários mínimos; 2002/junho 2004 - fortificação das farinhas de trigo e de milho com ferro; 2005 - programa de suplementação de ferro a lactentes; 2009/março - divulgação do resultado do levantamento de prevalência de anemia em mulheres (15-49 anos e crianças (6 - 59 meses no Brasil; 2009/agosto - foi reeditada a Portaria no 1793/GM/agosto/2009 do Ministério da Saúde, instituindo a Comissão Interinstitucional para implementação, acompanhamento e monitorização das ações de fortificação das farinhas de trigo e milho e seus subprodutos.Iron deficiency anemia is a vast epidemiologic problem evidenced by health public spending, the social consequences of increased risk in pregnancy, low production, and also by long term consequences of cognitive development. Some points in time highlight the involvement of the Brazilian government: 1977 - 1st Health Minister Meeting (INAN, with international and national specialists to

  16. Comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil Birds of the Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    José E. Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho divulga a composição da comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande (PEFG, Vitória, Espírito Santo, com base em levantamentos de campo realizados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003. Com um esforço de campo em torno de 450 horas, obtivemos um total de 120 espécies, distribuídas em 37 famílias. Pelo método Jackknife 1, estimou-se uma riqueza de 146 espécies (129 This paper provides the avifauna composition recorded between January and December 2003 in the Fonte Grande State Park (PEFG, municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We obtained a total of 120 species belonging to 37 families, after 450 hours of field work. We estimated a richness of 146 species (129 < IC(95% < 163, according to Jackknife 1 method. However, the species accumulation curve has not reached its assintotics. Four species out of 120 recorded are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Leucopternis lacernulatus, Phaethornis idaliae, Thamnophilus ambiguus and Attila rufus, and one of them (L. lacernulatus is included in the list of Brazilian birds threatened with extinction. The comparison among the three basic inventory methods (auditive, sightseeing and net capture revealed that the sightseeing method detected the largest number of species (x² = 17.55, p < 5%, of which 26 (22% were recorded exclusively by this method. This result is explained by the dominance of open landscape species in the Park, associated with the type of field work employed in this study.

  17. The fallacy of "equal treatment" in Brazil's bill of rights for internet users A falácia da "igualdade de tratamento" na carta brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Sidak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Brazilian bill of rights for internet users," or "marco civil," has been under consideration at the brazilian congress since 2011. Marco civil's provisions for network neutrality have been particularly controversial. Proponents of network neutrality in Brazil advocate for the "equal treatment" of all data packets, including banning internet service providers from offering to content providers the option to purchase enhanced quality of service in the delivery of data packets. These network neutrality rules conflict with the other goals and principles of marco civil-particularly goals to promote internet access, to foster innovation, and to protect the constitutional right of freedom of speech and the free flow of information.A "carta Brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet," ou "marco civil," tramita no congresso Brasileiro desde 2011. As disposições do marco civil relativas à neutralidade de rede são particularmente controversas. Os defensores da neutralidade de rede no Brasil advogam pela "igualdade de tratamento" de todos os pacotes de dados, inclusive proibindo que provedores de serviço de acesso à internet ofereçam aos provedores de conteúdo a opção de adquirir uma melhor qualidade de serviço na entrega de pacotes de dados. Essas disposições relativas à neutralidade de rede conflitam com outros objetivos e princípios do marco civil - especialmente os objetivos de promover o acesso à internet, promover a inovação, e garantir o direito constitucional de liberdade de expressão e informação.

  18. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo José de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s p...

  19. Orchidaceae no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha, RJ, Brasil Orchidaceae of Prainha Municipal Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faust Bocayuva Cunha; Rafaela Campostrini Forzza

    2007-01-01

    As espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha são apresentadas. O Parque está localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro e abrange uma área total de 126 hectares. A cobertura vegetal predominantemente é floresta pluvial atlântica, com uma pequena faixa de restinga e diversos afloramentos rochosos. Foram encontrados na área 18 gêneros e 26 espécies: Bifrenaria (1 sp.), Brassavola (1 sp.), Catasetum (1 sp.), Cattleya (2 sp.), Cyclopogon (1 sp.), Cyrtopodium (2 sp.)...

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF FIGUEIRA STREAM BELONGING TO THE WATERSHED QUEIMA-PÉ OF THE TANGARÁ DA SERRA, STATE OR MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    Josué Ribeiro da Silva Nunes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work has like purpose to evaluate the physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the Figueira stream water, belonging to the “Queima-pé” micro basin, at county of Tangará da Serra, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, through the comparison with the parameters established for the resolution n.º 357/05 of the Nacional Advice of Half Environment – CONAMA. The data had been collected in the hydrological period of filling and flood (November/2006 to March/2007 in which the aspects had been analyzed: depth, water transparency, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total and thermotolerant coliforms. The variations in the depth and transparency of the stream had suffered interference with bigger frequency from rain, the water temperature was steady, pH, dissolved oxygen and the turbidity had presented values inside of established for the legislation. The presence of termotolerantes coliformes had exceeded the limits for waters of Class 2. The biggest values of thermotolerant coliforms had been found in months of high pluviometric precipitation and relative humidity of air (January and February/2007. The results showed that in the studied period it had great concentration of coliforms bacteria due to environmental changes existing into same areas of the stream.

  1. Moraceae da Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Moraceae of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Leandro Cardoso PEDERNEIRAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o levantamento florístico das espécies nativas de Moraceae ocorrentes na Ilha Grande, município de Angra dos Reis, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Com base na análise de coleções científicas, revisão da literatura e excursões a campo, foram registradas 11 espécies nativas: Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus adhatodifolia, F. arpazusa, F. cyclophylla, F. gomelleira, F. nevesiae, F. organensis, F. pulchella, Sorocea hilarii, S. guilleminiana. Apresentamos, também, a chave de identificação para os táxons, descrições, ilustrações, informações sobre a distribuição geográfica e comentários sobre as espécies. This work presents a floristic survey of native species of Moraceae occurring in Ilha Grande, municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. It was based on analysis of herbarium collections, literature review and the field excursions, resulting in 11 native species: Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus adhatodifolia, F. arpazusa, F. cyclophylla, F. gomelleira, F. nevesiae, F. organensis, F. pulchella, Sorocea hilarii, S. guilleminiana. We also present the identification key to the taxa, descriptions, illustrations, information about geographic distribution and comments on these species that enriched the results.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of mites (Acari in domiciliary dust in rural dwellings in the "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Oliveira Aristeu José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From July to September, 2000 (winter, and from January to March, 2001 (summer, 30 dust samples were collected for each season, from beds of rural dwellings located in farms in the geographical area named "Zona da Mata", Minas Gerais, Brazil. After being sorted, the mites were identified and quantified. The prevalence of mites in the samples was 100%. 891 mites were found in winter (22.97%, and 2988 in summer (77.03%. In winter, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897 was the most prevalent (55.00%, followed by Blomia tropicalis (Bronswijk, Cock & Oshima, 1973 (27.06%, Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman, 1950 (8.85%, and predator mites from Cheyletidae family (8.07%. In summer, the most prevalent species was B. tropicalis (47.79%, followed by D. pteronyssinus (43.38%, Cheyletidae (6.87%, and E. maynei (1.28%. Few Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961, Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879, and mites from Tarsonemidae and Cunaxidae families were found, the last two occurring only in summer. No mites from Acaridae family were found. The greatest number of immature forms found in summer suggested a greater breeding activity in this season. It was also noted that different building materials and varied cleaning routines may influence the population size of domiciliary dust mites.

  3. Sepse Brasil: estudo epidemiológico da sepse em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva brasileiras An epidemiological study of sepsis in Intensive Care Units: Sepsis Brazil study

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    João Andrade L. Sales Júnior

    2006-03-01

    uma elevada mortalidade da sepse nas UTI em nosso país. A mortalidade no choque séptico é uma das mais elevadas no mundo. Nossos pacientes são mais graves e com tempo de internação maior. O momento é muito propício a uma reflexão ainda maior sobre esta doença que é a principal causa de morte nas UTI, haja vista o elevado impacto econômico e social. Precisa-se cada vez mais desenvolver Campanhas de Sobrevivência na Sepse e fazer uso racional, baseado em evidências, dos recursos por ora disponíveis e da forma mais precoce possível.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis represents the major cause of death in the ICUs all over the world. Many studies have shown an increasing incidence over time and only a slight reduce in mortality. Many new treatment strategies are arising and we should define the incidence and features of sepsis in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in sixty-five hospitals all over Brazil. The patients who were admitted or who developed sepsis during the month of September, 2003 were enrolled. They were followed until the 28th day and/or until their discharge. The diagnoses were made in accordance to the criteria proposed by ACCP/SCCM. It were evaluated demographic features, APACHE II score, SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score, mortality, sources of infections, microbiology, morbidities and length of stay (LOS. RESULTS: Seventy-five ICUs from all regions of Brazil took part in the study.3128 patients were identified and 521 (16.7% filled the criteria of sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Mean age was 61.7 (IQR 39-79, 293 (55.7% were males, and the overall 28-day mortality rate was 46.6%. Average APACHE II score was 20 and SOFA score on the first day was 7 (IQR 4-10. SOFA score in the mortality group was higher on day 1 (8, IQR 5-11, and had increased on day 3 (9, IQR 6-12. The mortality rate for sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock was 16.7%, 34.4% and 65.3%, respectively. The average LOS was 15 days (IQR 5

  4. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  5. Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura. Trinta Anos de Organizacao e Situacao Atual (Ministry of Education and Culture [Brazil]. Thirty Years Ago and Now). Volumes I and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Norma Carneiro Monteiro

    The economic rather than the educational aspect of Brazil's Ministry of Education and Culture is presented in this historical summary. The study was done as part of Brazil's national program of educational reform. Brazil is currently re-evaluating its school system with the view of adopting a nationally-administered system similar to that in…

  6. Competitiveness study on the bio diesel from castor oil related to the northeastern Brazil soybean; Estudo da competitividade do biodiesel da mamona em relacao ao da soja no Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Cesar das [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Economicas]. E-mail: cdn@pep.ufrj.br; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia]. E-mail: cosenza@pep.ufrj.br; Lima, Fernando Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: frlima@deg.ee.ufrj.br

    2006-07-01

    This article analyses the competitiveness of the bio diesel from the castor oil and the soybean of the Brazil northeastern. The methodology can be used for the comparative analysis among the other primary forms for production of bio diesel. This study were developed for the MME - Ministry of Mines and Energy with the financial support of UNDP - United Nations for Develop Program. This article focus some aspects of the developed study.

  7. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil; Avaliacao dos metais ambientalmente disponiveis em amostras de sedimento de pontos de captacao de agua para abastecimento publico de Palmas, TO, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-07-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO{sub 3} 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  8. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  9. Análise da evolução da produção e relação risco-retorno da cultura do alho, no Brasil e regiões (1991 a 2000 Evolution of the garlic production in Brazil and analysis of the risk and return ratio between 1991 and 2000

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    José Hortêncio Mota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a produção da cultura do alho no Brasil, visando verificar a relação risco/retorno da produção em função do comportamento de seu preço durante os anos de 1991 a 2000. Foram utilizadas séries históricas de preços com periodização mensal. Utilizou-se da taxa geométrica de crescimento (TGC como indicador de retorno comparada à dispersão dos preços e para indicar a tendência da produção em nível nacional e regional. Verificou-se que a cultura é favorável a investimentos e apresenta uma tendência de aumento de produtividade.The production of garlic in Brazil was studied to describe and to analyze the relation risk/return as a result of the behavior of the price during the period of 1991 to 2000. An historical series of prices with monthly periods was used. The geometric rate of growth (TGC was studied to analyse the comparative return to the dispersion of the prices and to indicate the trend of the national and regional production. The garlic production activity has a favorable response to the investments and presents a trend of productivity increase.

  10. Cold storage of peaches cv. Aurora grown in the Zona da Mata Mineira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Danielle Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postharvest behavior of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais in two ripening stages and kept under different storage temperatures. Fruits on mid-ripe and fully ripe stages were stored at three temperatures: 5.6 ± 1.57 °C and 72.8 ± 3.8% RH; 10.4 ± 0.5 °C and 95.8 ± 5.5% RH; 21.04 ± 1.63 °C and 96.9 ± 2.6% RH up to 28 storage days (SD . During storage, fruits stored at 21.04 ± 1.63 °C were evaluated every two days until 8 SD, and every four days for fruits stored at other temperatures. The harvest day was assigned as day zero. The variables evaluated were CO2 production, color of the pericarp and pulp, fresh mass loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids. The fresh mass loss increased during storage, peaking at 5.6 °C. The reduction in ascorbic acid content was higher in fully ripe fruits at all temperatures. Mid-ripe fruits reached the end of the storage period with better quality. The temperature of 10.4 °C was the most efficient in keeping postharvest quality of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region.

  11. Environmental adaptation of the source of the subbasin of Rico Stream, Monte Alto - SP, Brazil Adequação ambiental da nascente da sub-bacia do Córrego Rico, Município de Monte Alto - SP

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    Teresa C. T. Pissarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the photographic patterns that represent the use and occupation of the landcover of the "spring" of the Rico Stream subbasin, located at Monte Alto, state of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, for environmental adaptation regarding the Brazilian Forest Law. The mapping was performed using remote sensing techniques and visual interpretation of the World View image, followed by the digitalization of the net of drainage and vegetation (natural and agricultural at the AutoCad software with documents and field work. The study area has 2141.53 ha and the results demonstrated that the main crop is sugarcane with 546.34 ha, followed by 251.22 ha of pastures, 191.71 ha of perennial crops, 57.31 ha of Eucalyptus and 49.52 ha of onion, confirming the advance of sugarcane culture in the region. The region has 375.04 ha of areas of permanent preservation (APPs, and of this area it was found that only 72.17 ha (19.24% has arboreal vegetation or natural forest, and 302.87 ha of these areas need to be enriched and reforested with native vegetation from the region, according to the current legislation. The data of the area enable future proposals of models for environmental adaptation to the microbasin according to the current environmental legislation.Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo definir padrões fotográficos que representem o uso e a ocupação do solo da "cabeceira" de drenagem do Córrego Rico, localizada no Município de Monte Alto, Estado de São Paulo, para fins de adequação ambiental no que tange à legislação florestal brasileira. O mapeamento foi realizado utilizando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto e interpretação visual da imagem World View, seguida da digitalização da rede de drenagem e vegetações (naturais e agrícolas no AutoCad, com auxílio de documentos e trabalho de campo. A área de estudo apresenta uma superfície de 2.141,53 ha, e os resultados permitiram constatar que a principal cultura

  12. Diagnóstico da qualidade da água do rio Parauapebas (Pará - Brasil Diagnostic of the water quality of the Parauapebas river (Pará, Brazil

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    Gilmar W. Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi desenvolver um diagnóstico da qualidade da água do rio Parauapebas (Estado do Pará, Brasil, com base no monitoramento realizado nos períodos de baixa precipitação dos anos 2004, 2007 e 2009. Em 20 locais de amostragem ao longo do rio no entorno da cidade de Parauapebas, foram avaliados na água parâmetros físicos (transparência, temperatura da água e resíduo total, químicos (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, turbidez, alcalinidade, dureza, acidez, cloreto, DBO, DQO e fósforo, ferro e nitrogênio totais e biológicos (coliformes termotolerantes. A partir dos resultados foi desenvolvido o Índice de Qualidade de Água - IQA para o trecho monitorado. Para interpretação dos dados realizou-se estudos complementares de análise de componentes principais, regressão múltipla e regressão linear, além de levantamentos de informações a respeito dos meios físicos, bióticos e sócio-econômicos da região. O IQA determinado para o rio Parauapebas foi de 40,01 o que o enquadra na categoria "Regular". Com as análises de componentes principais e de regressão múltipla identificaram-se quatro variáveis que influenciaram significativamente na variação do índice: oxigênio dissolvido, demanda bioquímica do oxigênio, fósforo total e coliformes termotolerantes, que explicaram 75% da variação dos resultados. A expansão urbana, especialmente nas direções N-NO e S-SO, atingiu as áreas próximas às reservas de mata ciliar, comprometendo, em parte, a qualidade das águas superficiais do rio Parauapebas.The objective of this research was to develop a diagnostic of the water quality of the Parauapebas River (Pará, Brazil, in the dry periods of 2004, 2007 and 2009. In 20 sampling sites in Parauapebas River, around of the Parauapebas City, physical (transparency, water temperature and total solid residues, chemical (dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, acidity, chloride, Biochemical Oxygen Demand

  13. Magnitude, distribuição espacial e tendência da anemia em pré-escolares da Paraíba Magnitude, geographic distribution and trends of anemia in preschoolers, Brazil

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    Rejane Santana de Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a magnitude, a distribuição espacial e a tendência temporal da anemia em pré-escolares no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Corte transversal com amostra aleatória, do tipo multietapas, em oito cidades da zona urbana, de três mesorregiões do Estado da Paraíba, no ano de 1992, pela qual foram selecionados aleatoriamente 1.287 pré-escolares de ambos os sexos. A hemoglobina foi dosada pelo método da cianometa-hemoglobina em sangue venoso, empregando OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude, geographical distribution and trends of the prevalence of nutritional anemia among preschoolers and to identify risk groups in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with multistage random sampling procedure was conducted in 8 urban municipalities of three mid-regions (Zona da Mata, Agreste and Sertão in the state of Paraíba in 1992. A total of 1,287 preschoolers of both sexes were selected. Hemoglobin was determined by the cyanometahemoglobin method in venous blood, employing <11 g/dl as the cut-off for anemia. Statistical analysis of proportions employed the chi Square test, whereas for means Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were the choice, all with confidence interval of 95%.. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 36.4% (CI 33.7--39.1 in the state of Paraiba, greater (p=0.00 than that observed (19.3%, CI 17.3--21.5 in 1982. Only 1.0% (CI 0.61--1.8 and 6.8% (CI 5.5--8.3 of anemia cases were classified as severe and moderate, respectively. Boys presented lower mean hemoglobin concentration (p=0.00, and children under age 3 comprised the biological group of highest susceptibility for deficiency status (p= 0.00. It was found that the second year of life is the most critical for developing nutritional deficiency (p= 0.00. The Agreste mid-region revealed to be the geographical area of highest risk (p= 0.00, outlining a new epidemiological dynamics when compared to the year 1982, when the drought-ridden Sert

  14. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of

  15. Tendência secular da peste no Estado do Ceará, Brasil Secular plague trend in Ceará State, Brazil

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    Antonia Ivoneida Aragão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Após a sua introdução no Ceará, Brasil, em 1900, a peste focalizou-se em sete complexos ecológicos: Chapada do Araripe e Serras da Ibiapaba, do Baturité, do Machado, das Matas, da Pedra Branca e de Uruburetama. As atividades de vigilância nesses focos no período de 1935/2004 foram desenvolvidas sucessivamente pelo Departamento Nacional de Saúde, Serviço Nacional de Peste, Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais, Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública, Fundação Nacional de Saúde e finalmente pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. A análise dos dados levantados sobre a ocorrência de casos humanos nesses 70 anos permite identificar diferentes padrões de circulação da enfermidade na população humana, caracterizados pela alternância de momentos de elevadas incidências e de silêncio, possibilitando estabelecer uma periodização cronológica com características epidemiológicas próprias. Conclui-se desses resultados que a peste ainda deve ser considerada uma ameaça potencial, o que justifica revitalizar as ações de vigilância epidemiológica, o que só ocorrerá com o fortalecimento de todas as instâncias do Sistema Único de Saúde.After its introduction into the State of Ceará, Brazil, in 1900, the plague was established in seven ecological complexes: Chapada do Araripe and the Ibiapaba, Baturité, Machado, Matas, Pedra Branca, and Uruburetama mountains. These natural foci were monitored successively from 1935 to 2004 by the National Health Department, National Plague Service, National Department of Rural Endemics, Superintendency of Public Health Campaigns, National Health Foundation, and finally by the National Health Surveillance Secretariat. Data analysis on human cases during these 70 years allowing identifying different plague circulation patterns in the human population, alternating high incidence with silent periods and characterizing a chronological periodicity with unique epidemiological

  16. Contributions to the thorium occupational exposure in Brazil; Contribuicoes ao estudo da exposicao ocupacional ao torio no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kenya Moore de Almeida Dias da

    1997-12-31

    There are around 15.000 workers in Brazil involved in the mining and milling processes of thorium bearing minerals. It is necessary to estimate the exposure of workers to airborne particulate containing thorium to estimate the risk associated with the inhalation of aerosols. The aims of this study were: - to develop a national cascade impactor and - to characterize the exposure of workers to airborne particulate containing Th in two plants and one industry that were chosen. Plant A and Pant B process niobium ore and industry C uses thorium nitrate to manufacture gas mantle. The national cascade impactor - ICN was developed to collect particulate in the range of 0,64 up to 19,4 {mu}m. Its advantage over commercially available cascade impactors is the selections of particulate in the respirable and inhalable fractions of aerosol. The experimental calibration of the ICN agreed with the theoretical calibration. The results obtained with the ICN were compared to the ones obtained with other selective air samplers, in 3 plants. The particle size distribution and the Th mass concentration were determined in those plants. The size distribution of particulate containing Nb. U Zr, Pb. Fe, Y and Sr, and the elemental mass concentration was determined. A group of workers in installations B and C were also monitored through bioassay analysis of Th excreted in urine and feces. Air and bioassay results have shown that the systemic incorporation of Th is not significant. (author) 116 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Plague surveillance in Brazil: 1983 - 1992 Vigilância sorológica da peste no Brasil no período de 1983 a 1992

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    Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Plague caused by Yersinia pestis, has persisted in Brazil in several natural foci spread throughout rural areas in the States of Ceara, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. Nationwide surveillance of plague in Brazil based on serological testing started in 1983. We now present an update report of the examinations carried out in our laboratory from 1983 to 1992. The passive hemagglutination test for antibodies against fraction 1A antigen of Y. pestis and the passive hemagglutination inhibition control were employed for testing a total of 220,769 sera. Samples analyzed included 2,856 sera from clinically diagnosed plague cases or suspects, 49,848 sera from rodents of 24 species and 2 species of small wild carnivores (marsupials, 122,890 sera from dogs, and 45,175 sera from cats. Specific antibodies were found in 92 (3.22% human sera; 143 (0.29% sera from rodents of 8 species and from the two species of marsupials, 1,105 (0.90% sera from dogs and 290 (0.64% sera from cats. The presence of significant levels of specific anti-F1A antibodies among rodents and wild or domestic carnivores (dogs and cats indicates that all the Brazilian plague foci remain active in spite of the absence of human cases in some of them.A peste, infecção pela Yersinia pestis, se mantém no Brasil, em vários focos naturais, disseminados na área rural, dos Estados do Ceará, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro. Desde 1983, o teste de hemaglutinação passiva para anticorpos contra a fração antigênica "F1A" de Y. pestis, vem sendo empregado ininterruptamente na vigilância da peste nos focos brasileiros. A especificidade do PHA é controlada pelo teste de inibição da aglutinação. No período de 1983 à 1992 foram examinadas 220.769 amostras de soro, sendo 2.856 de origem humana, 49.848 de roedores pertencentes à 24 espécies e de 2 espécies de

  18. Gênero e feminismo no Brasil: uma análise da Revista Estudos Feministas Gender and feminist studies in Brazil: an analysis of Revista Estudos Feministas

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    Debora Diniz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Estudos Feministas (REF é uma das mais importantes publicações sobre gênero e feminismo no Brasil. Este artigo descreve o perfil das autoras e dos temas dos artigos publicados na REF de 1992 até 2002. Foram analisados os títulos, os resumos e as palavras-chaves dos artigos avulsos e os temas dos dossiês, em um total de 20 editoriais, 105 artigos avulsos e 20 dossiês. A classificação e indexação temática do material seguiram o vocabulário controlado do "Tesauro para Estudos de Gênero e sobre Mulheres", da Fundação Carlos Chagas. Os resultados da análise mostram que 95% das autoras são mulheres e que 54% são oriundos das Ciências Sociais. Há artigos em todas as áreas temáticas previstas no Tesauro, exceto em "Ciência e Tecnologia" e "Educação", havendo uma concentração de publicações nas áreas temáticas "Ciências Sociais e Cultura" (26%, "Linguagem, Literatura, Religião e Filosofia" (17% e "História e Mudança Social" (17%. Os assuntos mais discutidos foram nesta ordem: divisão sexual do trabalho, análise literária, reprodução e teoria feminista. A análise mostra ainda que o trabalho de pesquisa em gênero e feminismo é solitário, havendo poucos artigos em co-autoria (12% e a metodologia de pesquisa preferencial é a qualitativa, em 92%. A freqüência com que a mesma autora publica na REF é bastante baixa, havendo uma alta rotatividade de autoras.. A expectativa é que os resultados desta análise facilitem a definição de prioridades temáticas, favoreçam a criação de estratégias de pesquisa em áreas pouco exploradas, cooperando para a consolidação do trabalho educativo e político da revista, o que fortalecerá os estudos e pesquisas em gênero e feminismo no Brasil.Revista Estudos Feministas (REF is one of the most important gender and feminist journals in Brazil. This article describes the author background and the subjects of the articles published in REF from 1992 to 2002. It

  19. The new Africa and Brazil in the Lula era: the rebirth of Brazilian Atlantic Policy A nova África e o Brasil na era Lula: o renascimento da Política atlântica Brasileira

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    José Flávio Sombra Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Cold War world, Africa has been an important focus of Brazilian foreign policy. Having a significant historical weight in building our nation, African countries are also part of the moves adopted by Brazil's foreign policy. The main purpose of the present text is to show this relevant regional dimension regarding Brazil's international insertion during the Lula era. The work is divided in two parts: the first part approaches Africa's international insertion throughout recent years and the second analyses the dimension occupied by African affairs in Brazil during the Lula era. The main argument is that the new role played by Africa in the international scene coincides with a global BrazilNo mundo pós-Guerra Fria, a África tem tido um papel de destaque para política externa brasileira. Além de ter significativo peso histórico na formação da nação, os países africanos também são parte do movimento adotado pela política externa brasileira. O propósito central deste texto é mostrar essa dimensão regional relevante da inserção internacional do Brasil na era Lula. O trabalho está dividido em duas partes: a primeira versa sobre a inserção internacional da África em anos recentes e a segunda analisa a dimensão ocupada pelo continente na política externa brasileira. O argumento central é que o novo lugar ocupado pela África no cenário internacional coincide com o Brasil global

  20. Estrutura trófica da avifauna na Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Zona da Mata Sul, Pernambuco, Brasil Trophic structure of bird community of Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Zona da Mata Sul, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Wallace R. Telino-Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da estrutura trófica da avifauna da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú (8º14'S, 35º03'W envolveu 225 espécies de aves identificadas, das quais, 220 registradas por meio de observações in situ e capturas, quatro por meio de entrevistas com moradores da área do entorno e uma através de consulta à Coleção Ornitológica da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. As famílias que se destacaram com o maior número de espécies foram Tyrannidae (N = 43 e Emberizidae (N = 36. Dentre as guildas, os insetívoros (N = 99 e onívoros (N = 59 englobaram a maioria das espécies.The study of trophic structure of birds community from Gurjaú Estadual Reserve (8º14'S, 35º03'W has involved 225 bird species, from that 220 registered by observation and capture, four by interview with native people from surrounding area and one in the ornithological collection of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. The groups with the higher number of species were Tyrannidae (N = 43 and Emberizidae (N = 36. Concerning the guilds, insectivorous (N = 99 and omnivorous (N = 59 were the most representative among the especies.

  1. Classificação da capacidade de uso das terras da Microbacia do Riacho Una, Sapé, PB Classification of land use capacity of micro basin of Una stream in Sapé, PB, Brazil

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    Izaque F. C. Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente expansão das atividades agropecuárias sem a consideração das potencialidades e limitações das terras, constitui fonte potencial de degradação do meio ambiente. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se avaliar o meio físico das terras da microbacia hidrográfica do Riacho Una, Sapé, PB, a partir da classificação de capacidade de uso das terras. A área se localiza na porção leste do Estado da Paraíba, entre as coordenadas geográficas: 35º 08' 16" e 35º 15' 12" de longitude, a oeste de Greenwich e 06º 59' 18" e 07º 05' 42" de latitude sul. Utilizam-se, nos procedimentos adotados, técnicas de geoprocessamento, sendo a integração de informações realizada no Sistema de Informações Geográficas Idrisi Kilimanjaro versão 14.0. Para a avaliação das terras adotou-se o sistema de capacidade de uso. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a Microbacia Hidrográfica do Riacho Una apresenta resultados bastante satisfatórios, com indicação de aproximadamente 60% de terras aptas para uso agrícola.The growing expansion of agricultural activities without consideration of the potentialities and limitations of land constitutes a potential source of environment degradation. This work aimed to evaluate the physical proprieties of lands in the micro bosin of Una, Sapé in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, using the classification of the land use capacity . The area is located in the eastern part of the Paraíba state, between the geographical coordinates: 35º 08' 16" and 35º 15' 12" longitude, West of Greenwich and 06º 59' 18" and 07º 05' 42" latitude South. The adopted procedures utilized geoprocessing techniques and the integration of information was made in the Geographical Information Systems Idrisi Kilimanjaro, version 14.0. The system of soil use capacity was adopted to evaluate land. The results obtained demonstrated that the micro basin of stream Una presents satisfactory results with an indication that approximately 60% of its

  2. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil Preferências nutricionais entre adolescentes da classe média de Manaus, AM (Brazil

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    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.INTRODUÇÃO: O

  3. Obstáculos da atenção farmacêutica no Brasil Obstacles of the pharmaceutical care in Brazil

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    Andrezza Beatriz Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Atenção Farmacêutica, entendida como um modelo de prática profissional desenvolvida no contexto da assistência farmacêutica, de acordo com a proposta de Consenso Brasileiro de Atenção Farmacêutica, possui por finalidade aumentar a efetividade do tratamento medicamentoso, concomitante à detecção de problemas relacionados a medicamentos (PRMs. Compõe uma prática que vem sendo gradualmente aplicada em número crescente de farmácias comunitárias em diversas regiões, porém ainda como projetos individuais, enfrentando diversas dificuldades na sua incorporação, em parte devido ao desconhecimento e despreparo dos profissionais, bem como por certa rejeição por parte de proprietários de farmácias. Nesse contexto, realizou-se uma pesquisa com característica participativa, por meio de entrevista com questões abertas a farmacêuticos e proprietários de farmácia no Município de Curitiba, na qual houve interação das idéias, com o propósito de estabelecer permuta de informações sobre o referido conhecimento. Os resultados obtidos confirmam que a implantação da Atenção Farmacêutica enfrenta obstáculos que incluem o vínculo empregatício do profissional farmacêutico e a rejeição do programa por gerentes e proprietários das farmácias, além da insegurança e desmotivação por parte dos farmacêuticos, decorrente de elevada carga labutária e falta de tempo para dedicar-se ao atendimento, além da concorrência dos balconistas em busca de comissões sobre vendas. Constata-se a necessidade de estimular a atuação profissional, principalmente de acadêmicos e egressos profissionais, o que pode representar um primeiro passo ao sucesso da Atenção Farmacêutica e à abertura por parte dos empresários, uma vez que a sociedade começa a reconhecer a importância do atendimento realizado pelo farmacêutico.Pharmaceutical care, a professional practice in the context of pharmaceutical assistance, has the goal of

  4. Geochemistry of tourmalines associated with iron formation and quartz veins of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, Serra do Itaberaba Group (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gianna M. Garda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourmalines of intermediate schorl-dravite composition occur in iron formation (including metachert and tourmalinites, metasediments, calc-silicate and metabasic/intermediate rocks of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, a volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Serra do Itaberaba Group (northeast of São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil. The Morro da Pedra Preta Formation is crosscut by quartz veins that contain both intermediate schorl-dravite and an alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmaline, in which the occupancy of the X-site is ϑ0.51Ca0.33Na0.15, characterizing it as intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite end-members. Mg# values for this tourmaline are higher than those for intermediate schorl-dravite. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the presence of two groups of tourmalines. Stable isotope data indicate sediment waters as fluid sources, rather than fluids from magmatic/post-magmatic sources. Delta18O compositions for tourmalines, host metachert, and quartz veins are similar, showing that fluid equilibration occurred during crystallization of both quartz and tourmaline. Syngenetic, intermediate schorl-dravite tourmalines were formed under submarine, sedimentary-exhalative conditions; amphibolite-grade metamorphism did not strongly affect their compositions. Younger tourmalines of compositions intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite reflect the composition of the host rocks of quartz veins, due to fluid percolation along faults and fractures that caused leaching of Cr (and V and the crystallization of these alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmalines.Na Formação Morro da Pedra Preta, seqüência vulcano-sedimentar do Grupo Serra do Itaberaba (São Paulo, Brasil, turmalinas de composição intermediária schorl-dravita ocorrem em formação ferrífera (incluindo turmalinito e metachert, metassedimentos, rochas cálcio-silicáticas e metabásicas a intermediárias. A Formação Morro da Pedra Preta é cortada por veios de quartzo que

  5. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

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    Geraldo José de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  6. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    presented a bird survey of Rio Cipó valley from May 1998 to November 2002. The region is within the premises of 'Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó', one of the most important conservation units of southeastern Brazil. Bird census were carried out through transect, mist-net captures and recording bird vocalizations. Species richness was estimated by jackknife method. It was recorded 226 species, belonging to 43 families. This represents 27% of all 837 bird species recorded at the Cerrado (a Savannah-like biome region of central Brazil. A total of 2,249 bird individuals were captured with 4,486.82 net-hours. This represented 119 bird species of 23 families. Species richness was estimated at 239 ± 5 species. Six species are considered endemic to this biome: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, and Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Three species are considered near-threatened to extinction: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831, and Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. The Rio Cipó valley holds a significant number of the Cerrado bird species. Some habitats within this biome are becoming rare in the Cerrado region such as gallery forests, and the temporary lagoons along the rivers. Even waterfalls are disappearing in other regions of Brazil. In this sense, the 'Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó' is achieving one of its aims, which is biodiversity conservation.

  7. Saúde bucal em Diadema: da odontologia escolar à estratégia saúde da família Oral health in Diadema, Brazil: from schoolchildren dentistry to family health strategy

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    Bernadete Aparecida Tavares Cunha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora a política de saúde bucal no Município de Diadema, SP, no período de 1972 a 2007, objeto deste artigo, tenha acompanhado o processo de transformação das práticas do setor no Brasil, sua evolução nesta cidade industrial na Região Metropolitana da Grande São Paulo foi marcada pela singularidade do processo histórico local. Neste artigo analisa-se essa evolução, relacionando-a com o processo de lutas sociais que levou à criação do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e com as políticas nacionais, estaduais e municipais de saúde bucal. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo do tipo exploratório. Os dados foram obtidos em documentos oficiais e fontes bibliográficas variadas e por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com prefeitos, secretários municipais de saúde, coordenadores de saúde bucal e cirurgiões dentistas que vivenciaram as diversas fases das políticas de saúde bucal no município. Identificam-se as características mais marcantes na organização das práticas assistenciais em saúde desenvolvidas na cidade, localizando-as no cenário estadual e nacional. Conclui-se que, não obstante a consolidação da inserção da saúde bucal no SUS e a experiência adquirida no Município com a gestão dessa modalidade assistencial, também em Diadema observam-se dificuldades para superar o modelo de atenção focado nos grupos populacionais tradicionalmente priorizados, com destaque para escolares, pré-escolares e bebês. Nesse sentido, Diadema compartilha com os demais municípios brasileiros o desafio de reestruturar a atenção básica em saúde bucal, superar o tradicional modelo da odontologia escolar e criar novas possibilidades, como a abordagem familiar, com a finalidade de assegurar a universalidade e a integralidade da atenção.Although oral health policy in the city of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil, from 1972 to 2007, the subject of this article, has accompanied the process of transformation of the sector's practices

  8. Seasonal variation of 226Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 226Ra and 222Rn have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region, which is located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, one of the biggest weathered alkaline intrusions of the world. In this plateau can be found many health resorts[based on springs of thermal and mineral waters. The Aguas da Prata spring waters show a large variety of composition. It has been observed bicarbonates, carbonates and sulphates salts in these mineral waters. The 226Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of a Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate. The measurement was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. The 222Rn concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation method. Water samples were randomly collected at 9 spring sites over a period of one year, in order to evaluate the seasonal variation of these radionuclides. Lower concentrations were found mostly in the rainy season (summer), which presents 80% of the annual rainfall of the region (1500 mm/year). Higher concentrations up to 2223 mBq/L for 226Ra and 131 Bq/L for 222Rn have been observed in waters with low level of soluble salts. Waters which present high levels of carbonate and sulphate salts showed maximum values of 316 mBq/L for 226Ra and 30 Bq/L for 222Rn. This behaviour is mainly due to the physicochemical properties of these radionuclides in water as well as to the lithologic structure of the aquifers. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado da Bahia Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    A.J.S. Alves

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho consistiu em estratificar o Estado da Bahia em quatro regiões com características homogêneas (circuitos produtores para que fossem amostradas aleatoriamente, em cada uma delas, 300 propriedades. Em cada propriedade foram escolhidas, de forma aleatória, 10 a 15 fêmeas bovinas adultas, das quais foi obtida uma amostra de sangue. No total, foram amostrados 10.816 animais, provenientes de 1.413 propriedades. O protocolo de testes utilizado foi o da triagem com o teste do antígeno acidificado tamponado (Rosa Bengala e a confirmação dos positivos com o teste do 2-mercaptoetanol. O rebanho foi considerado positivo se pelo menos um animal reagiu às duas provas sorológicas. As prevalências de focos e a de fêmeas adultas soropositivas do Estado foram de 4,2% [3,1-5,3%] e 0,66% [0,41-0,93%], respectivamente. Para os circuitos produtores foram: circuito 1, 5,8% [3,6-8,7%] e 0,86% [0,41-1,3%]; circuito 2, 3,1% [1,5-5,6%] e 1,2% [0,25-2,1%]; circuito 3, 6,3% [4,0-9,3%] e 1,7% [0,66-2,7%]; e circuito 4, 0,60% [0,07-2,2%] e 0,07 [0,00-0,21%]. Para a análise de fatores de riscos associados à doença foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico em cada propriedade visitada. Os fatores de risco (odds ratio, OR associados à condição de foco foram: compra de reprodutores (OR= 2,27 e presença de áreas alagadiças (OR= 1,76. A vacinação de fêmeas de três até oito meses de idade foi um fator de proteção (OR= 0,53.A study to characterize the epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Bahia was carried out in 2004. The State was divided into four similar production regions, 300 herds were randomly sampled in each region, and 10 to 15 adult bovine females were sampled in each of these herds. A total of 10,816 serum samples from 1,413 herds were collected. The serum samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella spp. by the Rose-Bengal Test (RBT, and all RBT-positive sera were re-tested by the 2-mercaptoethanol

  10. The experience of CDTN/CNEN, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear: A medium size nuclear research centre in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first a university research centre, then a captive research centre of the state owned company in charge of establishing a nuclear industry in Brazil, then a research centre of CNEN (the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Authority), nearing its 50th anniversary, CDTN has a rich experience. even keeping the project portfolio around a number of traditional nuclear energy areas such as nuclear reactors, materials, environment, process engineering, waste management, radiological protection, the institution experienced an evolution in the substance of the proposed projects. This evolution represents the different institutional insertions, but the major changes occurred at a time when, due to a lesser demand from the nuclear sector and other factors, the explicit idea of producing outputs for the benefit of society received a large acceptance from the employees. The challenges to the institution at this time are commented upon. Retirements, coupled to the lack of job openings, work together for the decrease in the staff number, one major challenge. Up to a certain point, private companies have been hired to fill some of the organisational needs, but it is felt that a limit to this policy is being reached. It is argued that, even in the absence of a strong demand from the energy generation sector, a number of opportunities are still available to a NRC in a developing country. Maturity of nuclear energy and applications of radiation tend to transfer the focus of the activities from the fundamentals of nuclear science and technology to quality related issues, a requirement of the modern times. quality systems cannot substitute for the in depth knowledge of the fundamentals. (author)

  11. Fitossociologia de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, Jardim, MS, Brasil Phythossociologic along a riparian forest at rio da Prata, Jardim, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joanice Lube Battilani; Edna Scremin-Dias; Andréa Lúcia Teixeira de Souza

    2005-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a riqueza e a diversidade em espécies e analisar os aspectos fitossociológicos de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, localizado na Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Jardim, MS. Seis transectos de 150 m cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente perpendiculares à margem do rio e subdivididos em 90 parcelas de 10 m×10 m. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP) > 3,18...

  12. Ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp (Rosaceae em Timbó-SC, Brasil Pollination ecology of blackberry (Rubus sp. (Rosaceae in Timbo (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas João de Mello Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou experimentalmente a ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp.. Objetivou-se confirmar a síndrome de polinização de Rubus sp., por meio de análise de seu sistema reprodutivo, quantificação da produção diária de néctar, levantamento da entomofauna que visita as flores da amoreira na área de estudo e análise do seu comportamento polinizador. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma área de cultivo de amoreira-preta, no mês de dezembro de 2005, município de Timbó (SC. Constatou-se que a maior taxa de frutificação (48,3 % ± 3,2 ocorreu via polinização livre, onde os insetos não foram excluídos. Foi verificada a ocorrência de autopolinização, porém com taxa inferior de frutificação (12,2% ± 4,9. A anemofilia não foi constatada na espécie. A avaliação da produção de néctar em Rubus sp. resultou em valores compatíveis com a síndrome de melitofilia. Os visitantes florais coletados e observados sobre as flores de Rubus sp. foram predominantemente abelhas da ordem Hymenoptera (97%, que iniciam, em menor número, a atividade de forrageamento às 8h, com pico de atividade às 12h e declinando até às 16h. As coletas resultaram numa amostragem de 1.360 abelhas, divididas em quatro famílias e 13 espécies. A família com maior riqueza de espécies (N = 7 foi Halictidae e a mais abundante foi Apidae, com 1.288 indivíduos. Em Apidae, houve o predomínio da espécie exótica Apis mellifera, cuja representação na amostra foi de 1.246 indivíduos. Os dados da abundância e as observações naturalísticas do seu comportamento da flor apontaram A. mellifera como o principal polinizador de Rubus sp., mas confirmam que as demais espécies de abelhas também participam na polinização de Rubus sp.The pollination ecology of the blackberry (Rubus sp. was studied by means of determining its reproductive system, the analysis of flower's nectar production. Sampling the insects that visit

  13. Sistema de pré-aviso para o controle da sigatoka-amarela da bananeira no Recôncavo Baiano Forecasting for the control of banana 'yellow sigatoka' in the Recôncavo Baiano region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúzia Maria Vieira Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    ções do Recôncavo Baiano, a aplicação do sistema de pré-aviso biológico para o controle químico da Sigatoka-amarela, deve utilizar o valor de Soma Bruta 1600 como indicador da época correta de realização das pulverizações. Nesta condição, houve uma redução de treze para oito aplicações anuais, ou seja, 40% menos defensivos aplicados, sem perda na produtividade.Yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach is one of the most serious banana diseases in Brazil, it can cause yield losses higher than 50%. The main control method has been based on spraying fungicides. The use of a monitoring system able to indicate the appropriate moment for spraying fungicide, is a very important alternative to rationalize its uses. This work aimed to defining a Total Sum value for the biological forecasting system that allows to reduce the number of annual fungicide applications needed for Yellow Sigatoka control in Recôncavo Baiano Region. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - EMBRAPA , located in the Municipality of Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia. Eight treatments were evaluated: six of them using pre-established Total Sum values of the biological forecasting system (1000; 1300; 1600; 1900; 2200 and 2500, the sistematic disease control by fungicide spraying every 21 days, and the control treatment without spraying. The treatments consisted of eight plots containing 48 plants each, of the cultivar Grand Naine. Every week, ten plants of each treatment were evaluated for rate of leaf emission and disease incidence in the leaves 2, 3 and 4, in order to determine the highest degree of lesion intensity. The weekly data were used to calculate the respective Total Sum values thus indicating the necessity or not of fungicide application (propiconazole, 3 mL, plus mineral oil, 1 L. At harvest, data on production and disease severity were taken. Only three of the evaluated treatments were statistically different

  14. Heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público em Bauru, SP, Brasil External control over the fluoridation of the public water supply in Bauru, SP, Brazil

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    Irene Ramires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fluoretação da água de abastecimento público, comparando os resultados obtidos com dados prévios de fluoretação. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de março de 2004 a 2005, na cidade de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo. Mensalmente, em datas estabelecidas por sorteio, foram coletadas 60 amostras de água nos 19 setores de abastecimento, totalizando 737 amostras. A concentração de flúor presente nas amostras de água foi determinada em duplicata, utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado ao potenciômetro. Uma vez analisadas, as amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis ou inaceitáveis de acordo com a concentração de flúor. A análise estatística empregada foi do tipo descritiva. RESULTADOS: A concentração média de flúor observada nos diferentes meses de coleta variou entre 0,37 e 1,00 mg/l. Cerca de 85% das amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis. CONCLUSÕES: Comparados com dados de estudos prévios realizados na cidade, foi observada uma melhoria nas condições de fluoretação da água de abastecimento, um ano após a implantação do heterocontrole. A implantação do monitoramento da fluoretação da água de abastecimento por sistemas de vigilância deve ser incentivada, sendo fundamental para o controle da cárie dentária.OBJECTIVE: To assess the fluoridation of the public water supply and compare these results with previous data. METHODS: The study was carried out from March 2004-2005 in Bauru, a city of Southeastern Brazil. Every month, on dates established randomly, 60 water samples were collected from the 19 supply sectors of the city, totaling 737 samples. The fluoride concentration in the water samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion-specific electrode (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer. Following analysis, the samples were classified as acceptable or unacceptable according to their fluoride concentration. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized

  15. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of water quality in subtropical shallow lakes, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas como indicadores da qualidade da água em pequenos lagos rasos subtropicais, Sul do Brasil

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    Sabrina Amaral Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: We evaluated the potential of aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators in six small shallow lakes. METHODS: The sampling was conducted monthly for one year, during which all macrophytes were surveyed, and the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, total nitrogen (Nt and total phosphorus (Pt were measured. RESULTS: In total, forty-three species were recorded, and there were significant differences in the species richness and limnological conditions among the lakes studied. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that the concentration of nutrients (Nt and Pt, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important predictors of the distribution of macrophytes. Some emergents were related to the high concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and suspended matter. Moreover, the most submersed species were associated with environments with low nutrient concentrations and the lowest values chlorophyll-a and suspended matter. In addition, some species submerged and floating were related to low values pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Limnological differences between lakes may be cited as the main causes of the observed heterogeneous distribution of macrophytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the importance of limnological characteristics of the different environments in the macrophyte community composition and the potential role of this community as a bioindicator in shallow lakes in southern Brazil.OBJETIVO: Foi avaliado o potencial bioindicador da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em seis pequenos lagos rasos. MÉTODOS: O acompanhamento foi mensal durante um ano, sendo que em cada coleta, além do registro de todas as espécies de macrófitas foram determinadas a temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica, alcalinidade total, clorofila-a, material em suspensão, nitrogênio total (Nt e fósforo total

  16. Socio-demographic determinants of self-rated health in Brazil Determinantes sócio-demográficos da auto-avaliação da saúde no Brasil

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    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health has been used extensively in epidemiologic studies, not only due to its importance per se but also due to the validity established by its association with clinical conditions and with greater risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. In this study, the socio-demographic determinants of good self-rated health are analyzed using data from the World Health Survey, adapted and carried out in Brazil in 2003. Logistic regression models were used, with age and sex as covariables, and educational level, a household assets index, and work-related indicators as measures of socioeconomic status. Besides the effects of sex and age, with consistently worst health perception among females and among the eldest, the results showed pronounced socioeconomic inequalities. After adjusting for age, among females the factors that contributed most to deterioration of health perception were incomplete education and material hardship; among males, besides material hardship, work related indicators (manual work, unemployment, work retirement or incapable to work were also important determining factors. Among individuals with long-term illness or disability, the socioeconomic gradient persisted, although of smaller magnitude.A auto-avaliação da saúde vem sendo amplamente utilizada nos estudos epidemiológicos, não só por ser importante por si, mas também pela sua validade, estabelecida por suas relações com as condições clínicas e com o maior risco de morbi-mortalidade subseqüente. Neste trabalho, são analisados os determinantes sócio-demográficos da auto-avaliação de saúde boa, utilizando os dados da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde, inquérito domiciliar realizado no Brasil, em 2003. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão logística, considerando idade e sexo como co-variáveis, e o grau de instrução, a posse de bens no domicílio e a situação de trabalho como indicadores do nível sócio-econômico. Além das diferenças por sexo e

  17. Seleção dos indicadores da qualidade das águas superficiais pelo emprego da análise multivariada Surface water quality indicators in low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil, using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores antrópicos e naturais que determinam a qualidade das águas superficiais na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foram identificados pelo emprego da técnica de Análise Fatorial/Análise da Componente Principal (AF/ACP. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas no período de fev./2003 a mar./2004, em sete pontos de amostragem localizados ao longo do Rio Acaraú. Foram analisados 25 parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos. Pelo emprego da AF/ACP, identificou-se que o modelo de melhor ajuste para expressar a qualidade das águas na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foi aquele composto por quatro fatores, explicando 82,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator representa a componente de sólidos em suspensão, expressando o processo de erosão e escoamento superficial. O segundo fator é definido por uma componente de nutrientes associados aos esgotos sanitários, às áreas agrícolas e a outras fontes de poluição difusa; o terceiro fator é indicativo da ação antrópica (componente orgânica, enquanto o quarto representa os sais solúveis que expressam o processo natural do intemperismo das rochas. Outro ponto observado é que a análise fatorial não resultou em grande redução no número de variáveis, uma vez que o melhor ajuste do modelo ocorreu com a inclusão de 18 das 25 variáveis analisadas.Multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis/principal component analysis (FA/PCA, was applied to identify the human activity effects and natural processes on surface water quality in Low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected in four different campaigns from Feb/2003 to Mar/2004, at seven sampling stations sited in low Acaraú watershed. Twenty-five physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined in this study. The FA/PCA allowed the identification of the total variance. The best model was adjusted with four components, explaining 82.1% of the data variance. The first factor was mainly associated with suspended

  18. O direito à prevenção e os desafios da redução da vulnerabilidade ao HIV no Brasil The right to prevention and the challenges of reducing vulnerability to HIV in Brazil

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    Vera Paiva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa a resposta brasileira em contraste com as metas estabelecidas para a prevenção do HIV/Aids pela UNGASS. Analisaram-se pesquisas nacionais, documentos e informações do Programa Nacional de DST/Aids e dos planos de ações e metas estaduais. O Brasil conta com vários programas de prevenção que atendem às metas da UNGASS propostas para 2005. Incluem o confronto do estigma e da discriminação, o estímulo ao teste anti-HIV, a distribuição de preservativos, a troca de seringas, a abordagem franca da sexualidade nas escolas, a prevenção entre trabalhadores do sexo e homossexuais e nos locais de trabalho, que resultaram no crescimento da testagem e do uso do preservativo masculino. Foram discutidos vários desafios: superar a descontinuidade das ações, especialmente junto a alguns grupos mais vulneráveis; capacitar equipes de prevenção; ampliar o monitoramento da qualidade e quantidade das ações de prevenção; superar as desigualdades regionais, de raça e de gênero. Concluiu-se que o direito à prevenção não é prioridade nas instâncias públicas de controle social ou nas agendas do movimento social, como tem sido o direito ao melhor tratamento dos portadores do HIV. Para ampliar a efetividade dessas ações, sugere-se compreendê-las e pactuá-las tendo como referência a promoção e garantia de direitos humanos, abrindo espaços para o debate ético-político no nível local e nacional.The study evaluates the Brazilian response to the targets established by UNGASS for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The analysis was based on national research, documents and information from the National Program STD/AIDS and on state-level action plans and targets. Brazil relies on various prevention policies to attain the UNGASS targets proposed for 2005. These include: addressing discrimination issues, promotion of HIV testing, distribution of condoms, needle exchange programs, discussion of sexuality in schools, prevention

  19. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  20. A etiologia da "cara inchada", uma periodontite epizoótica dos bovinos The etiology of "cara inchada", a bovine epizootic periodontitis in Brazil

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    Jürgen Döbereiner

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma versão condensada em português de um artigo de revisão sobre a periodontite da "cara inchada" dos bovinos, publicado em inglês, está apresentada com algumas informações adicionais. A doença foi responsável por grandes perdas de bovinos jovens, principalmente nas décadas de 1970 e l980 no Brazil Central. Em face da periodontite progressiva e a perdas de dentes, os animais não podem se alimentar convenientemente, tornam-se emaciados e podem morrer. A doença foi tida como uma deficiência ou desequilíbrio mineral. Mas as pesquisas de campo e de laboratório, realizadas durante 30 anos, mostraram que trata-se de doença infecciosa multifatorial a ser definida como Periodontite Epizoótica Bovina. Chegou-se à conclusão que os fatores principais para o seu desenvolvimento são: (1 a idade dos bovinos na fase de erupção dos dentes premolares e molares; (2 a presença de bactérias do grupo Bacteroides spp nos espaços subgengivais; e (3 a ingestão com a forragem de concentrações subinibitórias de antibióticos, sobretudo de estreptomicina, produzidos por actinomicetos cujo número é aumentado em solos virgens recém-cultivados na formação de pastagens após a derrubada da mata ou da vegetação de Cerrado; isto leva a um aumento da aderência dos bacteróides ao epitélio gengival e à destruição dos tecidos peridentários. Hoje em dia, a doença perdeu a sua importância e praticamente desapareceu, porque a microbiota do solo entrou novamente em equilíbrio e a abertura de grandes áreas virgens para a pecuária cessou. Porém, novos surtos podem ocorrer em áreas anteriormente positivas para a doença quando, na reforma de pastagens ou capineiras, houver um novo desequilíbrio da microbiota do solo. Outros antibióticos, como a espiramicina e virginiamicina, administrados por via oral ou adicionado a misturas minerais, podem controlar a periodontite.A condensed version in Portuguese of an extensive review on "cara

  1. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos; Mateus Pellanda; Ana Cristina Tomazzoni; Heinrich Hasenack; Sandra Maria Hartz

    2004-01-01

    A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The Nation...

  2. Renda e evolução da geração per capita de resíduos sólidos no Brasil Evolution of income and per capita generation of solid wastes in Brazil

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    Heliana Kátia Tavares Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A redução da geração de resíduos sólidos é a prioridade para o manejo dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil, de acordo com a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. Este texto apresenta dados sobre a evolução da geração per capita de resíduos sólidos no Brasil e em outros países desenvolvidos, bem como os esforços e as dificuldades encontradas por estes últimos para a sua redução ou estabilização. São levantadas hipóteses sobre fatores sociais, econômicos e culturais que interferem no consumo e na consequente geração de resíduos sólidos, visando contribuir com o debate sobre o tema. Em uma primeira análise sobre a evolução da geração per capita dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil verifica-se uma maior propensão ao seu crescimento em função, principalmente, da melhoria da renda da população pobre e fatores culturais como a redução do tamanho das famílias e a entrada da mulher no mercado de trabalho.Reducing solid wastes generation is a priority for solid waste management in Brazil, according to the National Policy of Solid Waste. This paper presents data on trends in per capita solid wastes generation in Brazil, and in other developed countries, as well as the efforts and difficulties to reduce or stabilize that flow. In order to contribute to the debate on the subject, some hypotheses are raised about social, economic and cultural factors that affect consumption and the consequent generation of solid wastes. In a first analysis of the evolution of the per capita generation of solid wastes in Brazil, there is a greater propensity for growth due mainly to the improvement in the income of the poor and to cultural factors, such as reduction of the family size and inclusion of women in the labor market.

  3. Stone tools associated with middle pleistocene fauna in the Toca da Esperanca, central region, Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excavations (1) organized on a 12 m2 surface have exhumed quaternary deposits under a 50 cm carbonate crust (layer I). These deposits were composed of angular broken stones compacted into breccia (layer II), yellowish sand (layer III) and reddish clayey sand (leyer IV), containing fossilized bones. These bones belong to extinct quaternary species, in particular Equidae. The uranium-thorium method was used to date several bone samples found in situ which gave these faunas an age of about 300,000 years. Several quartzite stone tools as well as fragments of quartzite and quartz pebbles were discovered among the fossil bones. In particular, the fragment of a pebble, broken by violent percussion and a chopper were found. The raw materials, quartzite and quartz, naturally absent from the cave could only have been brought there by prehistoric man. The Toca da Esperanca is, therefore, the most ancient site known on the American continent which contains evidence of early man. It provides evidence of human presence from the Middle Pleistocene period, about 300,000 years ago, well before the Calico sites in California (about 200,000 years) and the Santa Raimundo Nonato sites (about 30,000 years). In the light of these new discoveries, it is possible to surmise that Homo Erectus came from Asia very early during the Middle Pleistocene, passing the Behring Strait, during one of the big recessions in ocean levels which took place in the cold quaternary periods. (author)

  4. Projeto pedagógico do programa de graduação em nutrição da Escola de Nutrição da Universidade Federal da Bahia: uma proposta em construção The pedagogical project for the undergraduate program on nutrition at the Nutrition School, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil: a proposal in-the-making

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    Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Esse projeto pedagógico fundamenta-se em princípios que estão vinculados a oito eixos educacionais, a saber: perfil profissional, competências, objetivos educacionais, eixos temáticos, organização curricular, estratégias educacionais, sistema de avaliação da aprendizagem e processo de acompanhamento e avaliação do curso. Esses eixos educacionais baseiam-se na prática multiprofissional, bem como na integração do conhecimento, visando à superação das dicotomias: biológico versus social, teoria versus prática, ciclo básico versus ciclo profissional e abordagem individual versus abordagem coletiva. A busca da flexibilização curricular e a utilização de metodologias inovadoras, que visam a uma nova forma de aprender, pautadas na autonomia e independência do aluno, são também elementos centrais do projeto. Para tanto, o aprimoramento científico-pedagógico do corpo docente e o processo de avaliação - tanto do curso, quanto dos alunos - também são incorporados ao projeto. Pretende-se socializar esta discussão com vistas a contribuir para o aprimoramento da formação do nutricionista no Brasil.The pedagogical project principles are based on eight educational issues: professional profile, competency, educational strategies, topic issues, curriculum organization, learning assessment system and course evaluation. The fundamental aim of these issues is the integration of knowledge(s, in order to overcome dichotomies such as those of the biological versus the social, the theory versus practice, the basic cycle versus the professional, and the individual approach versus the collective and the multiprofessional practices. The searches for curricular flexibility and methodological innovation imply a new way of learning which is based on the autonomy and independence of the students. Incorporated in the project, as its central elements, are the scientific and pedagogical training of teachers and the course evaluation process

  5. Estudo da infecção e morbidade da doença de Chagas no município de João Costa: Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brasil Study of the infection and morbidity of Chagas' disease in municipality of João Costa: National Park Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brazil

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    José Borges-Pereira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar aspectos da infecção e morbidade da doença de Chagas no município de João Costa, Piauí, Brasil, realizamos pesquisa sorológica para detectar Ig G anti-T. cruzi em 2.080 moradores através dos testes de imunofluorescência indireta, hemaglutinação indireta e ELISA. Em seguida, 189 pacientes soropositivos e 141 soronegativos foram avaliados pelo exame clínico e eletrocardiograma (ECG, enquanto a parasitemia foi pesquisada em 106 chagásicos pelo xenodiagnóstico indireto e teste da reação polimerásica em cadeia (PCR. A soropositividade total para Ig G anti-T.cruzi foi de 9,8%, com variação de 0,5% em menores de 10 anos a 39,4% em maiores de 59 anos, independentemente do sexo. O percentual de ECG alterados foi de 41,3% entre os chagásicos e de 15,6% entre os não-chagásicos (p In order to investigate aspects of the infection and morbidity of Chagas' disease in the municipality of João Costa, Piauí State, Brazil, we carried out a serological survey to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 2,080 individuals, by indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. A total of 189 seropositive and 141 seronegative patients were evaluated by anamnesis, physical exam and electrocardiogram (EKG. The parasitaemia of 106 chagasic patients was evaluated by indirect xenodiagnosis and PCR (polymerase chain reaction. The total seropositivity was 9.8%, with intervals of 0.5% in patients younger than 10 years old, and 39.4% among patients older than 59 years old, independently of the sex. The PCR and xenodiagnosis were positive, respectively in 74.5% and 15.1% of the seropositive patients (p < 0.05. The rate of abnormal EKG was 41.3% in chagasic and 15.6% in non-chagasic patients (p < 0.05. In spite of the high prevalence of infection in the investigated population, the low rate of seropositivity among children is indicative of a possible decrease of the active transmission mediated by triatomines

  6. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

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    César L. Reichert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  7. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

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    César L. Reichert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group, as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  8. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  9. Evolução do ensino da contabilidade no Brasil: uma análise histórica Evolution of the accounting education in Brazil: a historical analysis

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    Ivam Ricardo Peleias

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa histórica permite identificar, resgatar e analisar marcos relevantes da evolução da sociedade, no mundo e no Brasil. Um marco importante é o impacto das ocorrências econômicas, políticas e sociais no ensino, pois tais mudanças demandam profissionais mais bem preparados. Em função do exposto, este trabalho apresenta o resultado de pesquisa realizada nas áreas de Contabilidade e Economia, sobre a evolução do ensino de Contabilidade no Brasil, e o impacto que alguns eventos econômicos, políticos e sociais tiveram nessa evolução. A pesquisa é histórica, documental, bibliográfica e descritiva. Foi analisada a legislação nacional sobre o ensino comercial e contábil promulgada no Brasil, do século XIX até os dias atuais. Foram identificadas ocorrências relevantes no cenário nacional, a partir da chegada da Família Real, em 1808, e os efeitos que esse fato e outros que se sucederam tiveram sobre a regulamentação do ensino da Contabilidade no Brasil. Os resultados obtidos permitiram identificar como algumas ocorrências econômicas, políticas e sociais afetaram o ensino contábil e a forma como a legislação analisada evoluiu até os dias atuais.The historical research allows to identify, to rescue and to analyze relevant landmarks of the evolution of the society, in the world and Brazil. An important landmark is the impact of the economic, social and politic occurrences on education, therefore such changes demand most prepared professionals. In function of the displayed one, this work presents the result of research carried through in the areas of Accounting and Economy, on the evolution of the Accounting Education in Brazil, and the impact that some economic, social and politic events had on this evolution. This is a historical, documentary, bibliographical and descriptive research. It was analyzed the nationwide legislation on commercial and Accounting Education in Brazil, from the nineteenth century until

  10. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Joao@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  11. Prevalência da hipovitaminose A em pré-escolares no Estado de Sergipe, 1998 Prevalence of hypovitaminosis A among preschool children from northeastern Brazil, 1998

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    Maisa Cruz Martins

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da deficiência de vitamina A em uma amostra de base populacional de crianças. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal realizado de maio a junho de 1998, no Estado de Sergipe, envolvendo 607 crianças de seis a 60 meses de idade. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares com os responsáveis pelas crianças. A coleta de sangue foi realizada por venipuntura e a dosagem do retinol sérico pelo método da cromatografia líquida de alta resolução. Para a análise simultânea das variáveis do estudo, aceitou-se o valor de pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in a population-based sample. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil, in May and June, 1998. It involved 607 children aged 6 to 60 months. The information was obtained by means of interviews with the persons responsible for these children, in their homes. Blood samples were collected via venous puncture and serum retinol assays were carried out by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In simultaneous analyses of the study variables, p<0.05 was accepted for testing statistically significant associations. RESULTS: A mean serum retinol value of 0.87 µmol/l (±0.38 was found among the children investigated. The prevalence of levels considered low (0.35 to 0.69 µmol/l was 22.5% and the prevalence of levels considered deficient (<0.35 µmol/l was 9.6%. Inadequate serum retinol levels were therefore seen in 32.1% of the children. The serum retinol level showed an association with per capita family income and the weight/age indicator. No statistically significant association was found for serum retinol level in relation to the child's age and sex, or the mother's variables. CONCLUSION: Vitamin A deficiency among preschool children is an important public health problem. Hypovitaminosis A is mainly related to low per capita

  12. A face oculta da transferência de renda para jovens no Brasil The hidden face of the income transference for youths in Brazil

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    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir da análise mais ampla do caráter das recentes políticas públicas dirigidas a jovens no Brasil e das orientações conflitivas inerentes a esse campo, o artigo discute os pressupostos contidos em três programas públicos implementados no país: o Projeto Agente Jovem, o Programa Serviço Civil Voluntário e o Programa Bolsa Trabalho Renda. Após uma caracterização geral de cada um deles, sem ignorar aspectos de sua diversidade, a análise concentra-se nos paradoxos e ambigüidades subjacentes a seu formato comum: a transferência de renda atrelada à exigência de algum tipo de contrapartida do público juvenil, em geral o retorno/permanência na escola e a realização de atividades de caráter socioeducativo ou comunitário. Sem negar o benefício promovido pelo acesso à renda, o artigo alerta para a possibilidade de disseminação de novas formas de dominação a partir da adoção desse modelo nas ações públicas dirigidas aos jovens.Based on a broader analysis of the character of recent public policies directed at youths in Brazil and on the conflicting orientations inherent in this field, this paper deals with the presuppositions contained in three public programs taking place in the country: the Young Agent Project, the Voluntary Civil Service Program and the Work-Income Grant Program. To begin with, a general characterization of each of these programs is made, taking into consideration the aspects of their diversity; secondly, the analysis focuses on the paradoxes and ambiguities feature to their common underlining: the transference of income linked to some kind of repayment by the youngsters, usually the return to or the carrying on at school and the fulfillment of socio-educational or community type activities. Taking into account the beneficial side of access to income, this paper cautions the reader on the possibility of dissemination of new forms of domination based on the adoption of this model in public policies

  13. Polinização do dendezeiro por besouros no sul da Bahia Pollination of oil palm by weevils in southern Bahia, Brazil

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    José Inácio Lacerda Moura

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a taxa de fecundação de dendezeiros, após introdução de Elaeidobius kamerunicus, no Sul da Bahia, e a flutuação populacional, distribuição espacial e a influência de fatores meteorológicos sobre E. kamerunicus e E. subvittatus. Análises físicas de 12 mil espiguetas de dendezeiros foram realizadas em 2004-2006. Na avaliação da relação entre a temperatura média mensal e o total mensal de indivíduos de E. kamerunicus e E. subvittatus, utilizou-se a correlação de Pearson. A taxa de fecundação foi de 79,4%, um incremento de 19% quando comparado aos dendezeiros polinizados apenas por E. subvittatus. Plantios comerciais de dendezeiros em Ituberá e Nazaré, BA, apresentaram taxas médias de fecundações de 76%. E. kamerunicus foi dominante nos plantios de dendezeiro de Una, BA. Populações de E. kamerunicus sobrepujaram as de E. subvittatus, em todos os municípios onde existem grandes maciços de dendezeiros subespontâneos. No entanto, em Itapebi, BA, as populações de E. subvittatus superaram as de E. kamerunicus. A temperatura e a precipitação pluvial afetam a atividade de vôo e densidade populacional de E. subvittatus.The objective of this work was to determine the fertilization rate of oil palm trees, after the introduction of Elaeidobius kamerunicus in Southern Bahia, Brazil, and the population fluctuation, spatial distribution and the influence of meteorological factors on E. kamerunicus and E. subvittatus. Physical analyses of 12 thousand oil palm spikelets were accomplished during 2004-2006. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the relation between monthly average temperatures and monthly totals of E. kamerunicus and E. subvittatus individuals. The fertilization rate was 79.4%, an increase of 19% when compared to palm trees pollinated only by E. subvittatus. Commercial plantations of oil palm, in Ituberá and Nazaré, BA, presented 76% mean rates of fertilization. E

  14. Anemia e obesidade: um paradoxo da transição nutricional brasileira Anemia and obesity: a paradox of the nutritional transition in Brazil

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    Malaquias Batista Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se analisar a prevalência crescente das anemias e do sobrepeso/obesidade, como tendências conflitantes da transição nutricional do Brasil. Fez-se uma seleção de 28 trabalhos publicados sobre anemia em crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva, considerando representatividade estatística, padronização de técnicas laboratoriais e critérios recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. O sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos foi avaliado pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC: entre 25 e 29,9kg/m² (sobrepeso e > 30kg/m² (obesidade. Para análise das tendências, foram comparados três inquéritos, 1974/1975 (36,4%, 1989 (53,5% e 2002-2003 (51,9%, para a prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade. No estudo mais representativo sobre anemias em crianças (The aim of this study was to analyze the growing prevalence of anemia and overweight/obesity as contrasting trends in Brazil's nutritional transition. Twenty-eight studies published on anemia in children and childbearing-age women were selected, based on statistical representativeness, standardization of laboratory methods, and World Health Organization criteria. Overweight/obesity in adults was assessed by body mass index: 25 to 29.9kg/m² (overweight and > 30kg/m² (obesity. Three surveys were compared for analysis of tendencies: 1974/1975 (36.4%, 1989 (53.5%, and 2002/2003 (51.9% for overweight/obesity prevalence. In the most representative study on anemia among children (< 11g/dL, the prevalence increased from 22.0% (1974 to 46.9% (1995/1996. For pregnant woman (< 11g/dL, results ranged from 14.7 to 40.4%. Prevalence of anemia among children and overweight/obesity among adults showed similar tendencies over time. Recent evidence of reduction in anemia can be attributed to flour supplementation with iron and folic acid. Anemia and overweight/obesity are associated with significant changes in food intake as a substratum of the nutritional transition.

  15. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae, to insecticides in Brazil Suscetibilidade da mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae, a inseticidas no Brasil

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    Antonio Thadeu Medeiros Barros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the active ingredient present in most insecticide products for horn fly control in Brazil, was detected in 98.46% of the populations, with resistance ratios (RR ranging from 2.5 to 719.9. Resistance to permethrin (RRs Desde a dispersão da mosca-dos-chifres, no Brasil, queixas sobre seu controle aumentaram em todo o país. Um amplo levantamento objetivando avaliar a suscetibilidade da mosca a inseticidas organofosforados (OF e piretróides foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2003. Bioensaios com papéis de filtro impregnados com cipermetrina, permetrina ou diazinon foram conduzidos em 154 populações da mosca-dos-chifres de 14 Estados e 78 municípios. Resistência à cipermetrina, ingrediente ativo presente na maioria dos produtos para controle da mosca-dos-chifres no Brasil, foi detectada em 98,46% das populações, com fatores de resistência (FR variando de 2,5 a 719,9. Resistência à permetrina (FR < 6,3 foi encontrada em 96,67% das populações testadas, apesar da falta de uso de produtos contendo este princípio ativo. Em geral, resistência a piretróides foi detectada em 97,18% das populações, com frequências acima de 87% em todas as regiões do país. A situação da suscetibilidade da mosca-dos-chifres a inseticidas, no Brasil, pode ser caracterizada por uma elevada suscetibilidade aos organofosforados e ocorrência generalizada de resistência aos piretróides, potencialmente comprometendo a eficácia desses produtos na maioria dos casos

  16. Molecular typing of dengue virus type 2 in Brazil Tipificação molecular do vírus da dengue tipo 2 no Brasil

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    Marize P. Miagostovich

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain typing is a critical tool for molecular epidemiological analysis and can provide important information about the spread of dengue viruses. Here, we performed a molecular characterization of DEN-2 viruses isolated in Brazil during 1990-2000 from geographically and temporally distinct areas in order to investigate the genetic distribution of this serotype circulating in the country. Restriction site-specific polymerase chain reaction (RSS-PCR presented the same pattern for all 52 Brazilian samples, showing the circulation of just one DEN-2 variant. Phylogenetic analysis using progressive pairwise alignments from 240-nucleotide sequences of the E/NS1 junction in 15 isolates showed that they belong to genotype III (Jamaica genotype.A tipagem de cepas é uma ferramenta fundamental para a análise epidemiológica molecular e pode fornecer informações importantes sobre a dispersão dos vírus dengue. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a caracterização molecular de amostras de vírus DEN-2 isoladas no Brasil entre 1990-2000, de áreas geograficamente e temporalmente distintas, com o objetivo de investigar a distribuição genética deste sorotipo circulante no país. A reação em cadeia pela polimerase baseada em sítios de restrição específicos (RSS-PCR apresentou o mesmo padrão para as 52 amostras Brasileiras, mostrando a circulação de apenas uma variante de vírus DEN-2. A análise filogenética utilizando alinhamento progressivo de sequências de 240 nucleotídeos da junção E/NS1 de 15 cepas mostrou que estas pertencem ao genotipo III (genotipo Jamaica.

  17. Implicações e perspectivas da pesquisa educacional no Brasil cotemporâneo Implications of and perspectives on educational research in contemporary Brazil

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    Bernadete A. Gatti

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca recuperar no tempo aspectos do desenvolvimento das pesquisas educacionais no Brasil, associando-os a conjunturas histórico-sociais. Trabalham-se algumas questões de teorias e métodos, hegemonias de grupos de investigação e questões institucionais. Ressalta-se o papel da década de 80, na qual vigorosos debates são travados, a partir dos quais vêm à luz problemas intrínsecos a procedimentos de pesquisa e sua validade. Discute-se em que condições se pode falar de impacto social das pesquisas educacionais, analisando-se a possível porosidade dos conhecimentos advindos de pesquisas em educação nas ações de educadores e em políticas educacionais, perguntando-se também se a consistência metodológica desempenha, nessa porosidade, algum papel.This article studies the development of educational research in Brazil over time, relating it to the social and historical context, working on such issues as theory and method, hegemony of the research groups and institutional questions. The 1980s stand out as a time when vigorous debates were engaged based on which problems intrinsic to research procedures and their validity came to light. The article discusses under what conditions we can speak of the social impact of educational studies on educational action and policy, analyzing the possible fallibility of knowledge derived from such research and also asking whether methodological consistency plays some role in this fallibility.

  18. Acidentes de transporte terrestre em município da Região Sul do Brasil Road accidents in a city of southern BraziL

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    Selma Maffei de Andrade

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as características dos acidentes de transporte terrestre, com 3.643 vítimas, ocorridos no primeiro semestre de 1996, em Londrina, PR. O tipo de acidente mais freqüente foi a colisão com carro/caminhonete. A frota de motocicletas foi a que gerou a maior taxa de vítimas (cerca de sete vezes a apresentada por carros/caminhonetes. Maior risco de óbito foi evidenciado entre motociclistas que colidiram com objeto fixo (letalidade de 29,4%, seguido por pedestres atropelados por caminhão ou ônibus (22,2%, muito superiores ao coeficiente médio (1,8%. O conhecimento desses aspectos é elemento norteador de políticas públicas para a redução da morbimortalidade por essa causa.The study was conducted in the municipality of Londrina, a medium-sized city of southern Brazil. Analysis was performed in the characteristics of road accidents that had occurred during the first semester of 1996, resulting in 3,643 victims. Car or small truck collisions were the most common type of accident. The rate of motorcycle-related injuries (per 1,000 registered vehicles was seven times higher than that resulting from cars or small trucks. Fatality rates were higher for motorcyclists who collided with stationary objects (29.4% and pedestrians who were injured by lorries or buses (22.2%, in comparison with a mean fatality rate of 1.8%. This information may provide a basis for the implementation of public policies aiming at reducing accidents.

  19. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

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    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  20. Incidência e fatores de risco da retinopatia da prematuridade no Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brasil Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in University Hospital Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brazil

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    Aline Macêdo Pinheiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de retinopatia da prematuridade e avaliar os principais fatores de risco implicados no seu desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Estudo coorte retrospectivo de base hospitalar realizado no período de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, no Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brasil. A amostra foi composta por 663 recém-nascidos, com idade gestacional 20 dias (p=0,022; ORaj=3,40; IC= 1,19-9,69 e a transfusão sanguínea (p=0,022; ORaj=2,06; IC= 1,11-3,83 são fatores independentes de risco para a doença. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo demonstra uma alta incidência da patologia no serviço. O baixo peso ao nascer, um tempo prolongado de oxigenoterapia, bem como a transfusão sanguínea são fatores associados ao desenvolvimento da retinopatia da prematuridade. Idade gestacional não é um dado confiável para a triagem dos neonatos realizada pelo setor.PURPOSES: To determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and assess the main risk factors involved in its development. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study carried out from January 2004 to December 2006, at University Hospital Onofre Lopes, Natal (RN - Brazil. The sample was composed of 663 newborns, with less than or equal to 36 weeks of gestational age and/or birth weight less than or equal to 1,500 g, submitted to the protocol of retinopathy of prematurity in the ophthalmology department of the hospital. The variables were: gender, birth weight, gestational age, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and blood transfusion. Data were analyzed through the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 663 cases, retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 414 (62.4%. Of the total sample, 338 (51.0% were male and 282 (42.5% female. Mean and standard deviation of weight, gestational age and duration of oxygen therapy were, respectively, 1,334.9 ± 345.6 g, 31.9 ± 2.3 weeks and 10.0 ± 14.0 days. The

  1. Geografia da diálise peritoneal no Brasil: análise de uma coorte de 5.819 pacientes (BRAZPD Geography of peritoneal dialysis in Brazil: analysis of a cohort of 5,819 patients (BRAZPD

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    Natália Maria da Silva Fernandes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Brasil é um país continental com grande diversidade demográfica, social e cultural. Esse fator pode determinar diferenças demográficas, clínicas e no desfecho apresentado por pacientes portadores de doença renal crônica em diálise peritoneal (DP. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características clínicas e os desfechos apresentados por pacientes em DP nas diversas regiões do Brasil, analisando uma coorte de pacientes (BRAZPD no período de dezembro de 2004 a outubro de 2007. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados mensalmente e os pacientes foram acompanhados até o desfecho (óbito, transplante renal, recuperação da função renal, transferência para hemodiálise ou perda de seguimento. RESULTADOS: Avaliados 5.819 pacientes incidentes e prevalentes. A maioria dos pacientes realizava terapia renal substitutiva (TRS no Sudeste, onde a média de tempo de acompanhamento foi maior (12,3 meses e há maior percentual de idosos (36,4%. A prevalência de diabetes mellitus é maior no Sudeste e Sul do país (38,1% e 37%, respectivamente. A maioria dos pacientes da região Norte realizou hemodiálise previamente, 66,2%. A taxa de saída por óbito foi maior na região Norte (30,1%, assim como por falência da técnica (22,3%. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados revelam diferenças demográficas, clínicas e em taxas de mortalidade e falência da técnica de DP refletindo as peculiaridades demográficas e sociais do Brasil. A geografia da DP no Brasil demonstra ser um espelho da geografia do Brasil. Portanto, políticas de saúde devem levar em conta as características de cada região para que possamos melhorar a sobrevida dos pacientes e da técnica em diálise peritoneal.INTRODUCTION: Brazil is a continental country with great diversity of population, social and cultural. This factor may determine different demographic, clinical and outcome presented by patients with chronic kidney disease on peritoneal dialysis (PD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the

  2. Comparativo de personagens da história da enfermagem brasileira Comparativo de personajes de la historia de la enfermería brasileña Comparative analysis of people who shaped the history of nursing in Brazil

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    Patrícia de Oliveira Furukawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma reflexão sobre a história de profissionais que se destacaram na Enfermagem. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa sobre algumas personagens que muito realizaram pela Enfermagem e pela saúde no país. A análise das histórias dessas enfermeiras revelou fatos em comum, como: o rompimento de paradigmas relacionados ao casamento; a formação em instituições renomadas; a ocupação em cargos de grande importância; a participação expressiva em entidades de classe, assim como uma relação com a formação de qualidade. Através de suas biografias, percebe-se que, apesar de o contexto político da época ter favorecido na formação dessas enfermeiras, muito esforço e dedicação foram necessários para essas trajetórias de sucesso, que colaboraram para a consolidação da Enfermagem brasileira.This article presents a reflection about the story of outstanding nursing professionals. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among some people who contributed a lot to nursing and health in Brazil. The analysis of these nurses' stories unveiled facts in common: breaking of paradigms relating to marriage, education at renowned institutions, holding of very important jobs, significant membership in professional associations, and quality education. The bios of these nurses reveal that, while the political scenario then existing contributed to their education, unswerving dedication and diligence, were the key for their successful careers and helped consolidate nursing in Brazil.Este artículo es una reflexión sobre la historia de los profesionales que se destacaron en la enfermería. Para ello, la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en algunos personajes que hicieron mucho para la enfermería y la salud en el país. El análisis de las historias de estas enfermeras puesto de manifiesto en hechos común como: la ruptura de paradigmas relacionado con el matrimonio, la formación en instituciones de renombre, la ocupación en puestos

  3. Modelo de vegetação potencial para a Região Nordeste decorrente da precipitação pluvial Potencial vegetation model for the Northeast Region of Brazil as a function of precipitation

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    Robson de Sousa Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aplica o modelo de Rey para calcular a vegetação potencial da Região Nordeste do Brasil e, assim, verificar se esse modelo identifica os principais tipos de vegetação dessa região. O método utilizado para calcular a taxa de Evapotanspiração (ET é embasado na equação de Penman-Monteith. O modelo também inclui parâmetros fixados e as variáveis altura da vegetação e índice de área foliar (IAF. De modo geral, o modelo conseguiu reproduzir bem os biomas da região Nordeste do Brasil, principalmente a Caatinga, o Cerrado e a Mata Atlântica.The present work applies the model of Rey to calculate the potential vegetation of the Northeast of Brazil and, thus, to verify if it properly identifies the biomes of that region. The method used to calculate the rate of Evapotranspiration (ET is based on the equation of Penman-Monteith. The model also includes fixed parameters and the variables vegetation height and leaf area index (LAI. In general, the model provided a good representation of the biomes of the Northeast of Brazil, mainly the Caatinga, the Cerrado, and the Atlantic Forest.

  4. A degradação social do trabalho e da natureza no contexto da monocultura canavieira paulista The degradation of labor and nature in the context of the sugarcane monoculture in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Aparecida de Moraes Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a dinâmica sócio-ambiental da moderna agricultura sucroalcooleira. O texto desenvolve uma análise concreta do fenômeno do agronegócio, resgatando as relações significativas que lhe dão sentido concreto - isto é, que lhe conferem posição compreensiva na unidade do diverso. Para tanto, são abordadas as dimensões de exploração do trabalho social e dos recursos naturais no âmbito deste fenômeno - com ênfase no caso da região de Ribeirão Preto, interior do Estado de São Paulo. As conclusões do estudo indicam: a as relações autoritárias que compõem o fenômeno estudado, próximas daquelas descritas por M. Weber em sua interpretação do capitalismo Junker alemão e; b a necessidade de articulação das esferas social e ambiental nas análises dos processos de acumulação no campo, desvendando as dimensões materiais e simbólicas que amparam a modernização conservadora representada pelo agronegócio no Brasil.This paper discusses the socio-environmental dynamics of the modern sugarcane farming. The article develops a concrete analysis of the agribusiness phenomenon, rescuing the significant relationships that give it concrete meaning - i.e., that give it a comprehensive position within the unity of the diverse. To this end, the paper examines the dimensions involved in the exploitation of social labor and natural resources within this phenomenon - emphasizing the region of Ribeirão Preto, in the interior of São Paulo state. The study concludes that: a the authoritarian relations that constitute the agribusiness phenomenon are in line with those described by M. Weber in his interpretation of the Junker capitalism in Germany; and b it is necessary to articulate the social and environmental spheres in the analysis of the accumulation processes in the agricultural field, revealing the material and symbolic dimensions that support the conservative modernization represented by the

  5. Estabilidade temporal da potenciometria e da salinidade em vale aluvial no semiárido de Pernambuco Temporal stability of piezometric levels and salinity in an alluvial valley in the semiarid Pernambuco - Brazil

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    Robertson V. de P. Fontes Júnior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As restrições no uso e na disponibilidade das águas subterrâneas nos aluviões do semiárido nordestino estão diretamente ligadas à sazonalidade e à variabilidade espacial de seus níveis potenciométricos e salinidade. A estabilidade temporal é de grande interesse, por facilitar o monitoramento, possibilitando se obter locais representativos acerca da área em estudo, constituindo-se em uma importante ferramenta para a gestão dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos. Com isto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar áreas com estabilidade temporal do nível potenciométrico e da salinidade, em aquífero aluvial do Agreste Pernambucano. Foram utilizados o método das diferenças relativas e a validação por correlação entre a média no tempo do piezômetro estável e a média dos demais piezômetros. Quanto ao nível potenciométrico identificaram-se áreas estáveis que representam o comportamento médio enquanto para a salinidade as áreas estáveis não representam adequadamente a média do vale aluvial devido, possivelmente, às restrições de circulação hídrica e ao uso agrícola do solo.The restrictions in the use and availability of groundwater in alluvial aquifers of the northeastern semiarid are directly related to seasonal and spatial variability of piezometric levels and salinity. Temporal stability is of high interest for monitoring, allowing representative locations about the studied area to be identified, being an important tool for groundwater resources management. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify areas with temporal stability for the water table level and salinity in an alluvial aquifer in the 'Agreste' region of Pernambuco State in Brazil. The relative difference method was used and also the validation by correlation between the mean response of one stable piezometer against the mean of all other piezometers, performed in time. For the water table level, stable areas representing the mean behavior

  6. Long expansion planning of electrical power availability in Brazil under the real options theoretical approach; Planejamento de longo prazo da expansao da oferta de energia eletrica no Brasil sob uma perspectiva da teoria das opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreco, Juliana de Moraes

    2007-05-15

    This thesis considers uncertainty on the long term generation expansion planning in the Brazilian Electric System, under a Real Options Approach . First, Real Options Theory is used to demonstrate the importance of thermo power plants insertion in Brazil, through a flexibility valuation on hydrothermal system. This is the first objective of this thesis. In the second part a Real Options Model is proposed to support long term expansion studies, based in a levelized costs analysis. The adequacy of proposed models to real problem is illustrated by a case study of the Brazilian Power System. The results show the importance of the energetic matrix diversification on the Long Term Planning. In the expansion model proposed, results are in favor of higher participation of biomass, nuclear power and coal in Brazilian electricity generation matrix. (author)

  7. Hipovitaminose A em escolares da zona rural de Minas Gerais Vitamin A deficiency in school children of the rural area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Margarete Aparecida Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o presente estudo, procurou-se identificar a prevalência da hipovitaminose A em escolares da zona rural do município de Novo Cruzeiro, MG, bem como possíveis fatores predisponentes para sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 241 crianças, de seis a catorze anos de idade, de quatro escolas rurais. Os níveis séricos de retinol foram interpretados pelos critérios do Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense. A importância epidemiológica da hipovitaminose A foi avaliada segundo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram adotados como fatores predisponentes da hipovitaminose A, as parasitoses intestinais, a desnutrição energético-protéica, o consumo inadequado de fontes de vitamina A e a renda familiar per capita. Por se tratar de um estudo transversal, com variáveis dicotômicas, empregou-se o teste qui-quadrado na análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se a hipovitaminose A em 29,0% dos indivíduos estudados; 23,2% deles apresentaram desnutrição pregressa (stunting, 8,7% eram desnutridos segundo o índice de massa corporal; em 63,1% dos casos identificou-se inadequação no consumo de fontes alimentares de vitamina A e 78,8% dos escolares eram portadores de algum tipo de parasita intestinal. A maioria das famílias dos escolares (87,1% tinha renda mensal per capita de até um quarto do salário mínimo; as demais famílias apresentavam-se, 10,4%, na faixa de renda per capita entre um quarto de salário e meio salário mínimo inclusive; 2,1%, na faixa entre meio salário e um salário mínimo inclusive; e apenas 0,4% das famílias, na faixa de renda maior que um salário mínimo. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a hipovitaminose A é um problema de saúde pública entre os escolares. Não se observou associação estatisticamente significante entre hipovitaminose A e os fatores predisponentes estudados.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the

  8. Análise espacial dos casos humanos de esquistossomose em uma comunidade horticultora da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil Spatial analysis of schistosomiasis human cases in the horticultural community of Zona da Mata of Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a distribuição espacial da esquistossomose na comunidade horticultora de Natuba, Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco. Foi conduzido um inquérito parasitológico, onde foi examinado o material fecal de 310 moradores da comunidade. Os casos positivos para Schistosoma mansoni foram georreferenciados e incluídos no croqui da localidade, gerando os mapas de distribuição espacial com estimadores de kernel. Os resultados apresentaram uma alta prevalência para esquistossomose, com 28,4% da população parasitada. Outros parasitos foram encontrados em 25,8% da população. O uso das ferramentas de geoprocessamento permitiu mapear e compreender a distribuição dos casos de esquistossomose no espaço ocupado pela comunidade, destacando e relacionando locais de menor altitude (passíveis de alagamento, com uma maior frequência de casos humanos. Estudos como este fornecem informações para que os serviços de saúde local possam intervir e promover mudanças para que indivíduos residentes em áreas com baixas condições habitacionais minimizem sua exposição ao risco de contrair a esquistossomose.The objective of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in horticultural community of Natuba, district of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco state. It was conducted a parasitological survey, examined the fecal material of 310 community residents. The cases positive for Schistosoma mansoni were geocoded and included in the computerized template of the community, generating maps of spatial distribution with kernel estimators. The results showed a high prevalence of schistosomiasis, with 28.4% of the parasites. Other parasites were found in 25.8% of the population. The use of GIS tools to map and understand the possible distribution of cases of schistosomiasis in the space occupied by the community highlighting and listing locations of lower elevation (able to flooding, with a

  9. A interiorização da epidemia de HIV/AIDS e o fluxo intermunicipal de internação hospitalar na Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brasil: uma análise espacial Decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and inter-municipal flow of hospital admissions in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a spatial analysis

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    Cláudia Tartaglia Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar o processo de interiorização da epidemia de AIDS e investigar o acesso aos serviços em HIV/AIDS, entre 1988-2002, na Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Realizou-se estudo ecológico, com abordagem têmporo-espacial. Construiu-se um fluxo de internação hospitalar, tendo como referência pacientes maiores de 15 anos, internados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, nos anos de 1996 e 2004, residentes nos municípios da região. Foram registrados 2.469 casos de AIDS em maiores de 15 anos no período; as taxas médias de incidência e mortalidade foram calculadas e reestimadas pelo estimador bayesiano empírico local para representar de maneira mais clara os municípios com maior concentração de casos e de óbitos. Verificou-se a interiorização da epidemia. Juiz de Fora é o município com maior número de casos e provável centro difusor da AIDS na região. A assistência hospitalar dos casos de AIDS da Zona da Mata está concentrada nesse município. Destaca-se necessidade de investigações adicionais sobre causas da não-participação de hospitais de referência em outros municípios da região na gerência e prestação de cuidados aos pacientes que vivem com HIV/AIDS.The aim of this article was to analyze the decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (a shift towards rural areas or away from the coast and to investigate access to HIV/AIDS services from 1988 to 2002 in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An ecological study was performed using temporal and spatial approaches. A hospital admissions flow between municipalities developed, and the reference group was AIDS patients over 15 years of age admitted in 1996 and 2004, residing in municipalities in the Zona da Mata. There were 2,469 reported AIDS cases in individuals over 15 during the period. Mean incidence and mortality rates were calculated and recalculated by a local empirical Bayesian method in order to more clearly represent the

  10. Contribuições da antropologia à medicina: uma revisão de estudos no Brasil Contributions from anthropology to medicine: a bibliographic review in Brazil

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    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita revisão e análise, sob um ponto de vista antropológico, da literatura mais representativa sobre saúde e doença e práticas de cura no Brasil. Nessa literatura, em primeiro lugar, houve a preocupação de coletar documentos sobre as tradições regionais do mundo rural, expressando uma ampla variedade de pontos de vista. Em geral, "medicina popular" era vista como um conjunto de práticas e idéias rudes e imitativas, provenientes tanto da medicina erudita do passado como das tradições étnicas brasileiras. Em segundo lugar, as ciências sociais exerceram uma grande influência neste tipo de estudo. Depois dos anos 30 e, principalmente, dos anos 40 aos 70, um número importante de trabalhos tiveram lugar nesse campo de estudo, influenciados pelas posturas acadêmicas como, por exemplo, o funcionalismo, a teoria da aculturação, e as teorias do desenvolvimento. Durante os anos 70 o campo atingiu a sua maturidade com um grande número de pesquisas sob várias influências teóricas. As teorias estruturalistas e funcional-estruturalistas (que variam entre o formalismo abstrato e o substantivismo tiveram um peso mais consistente nessa década. Três importantes estudos recentes foram também analisados, e as principais tendências abertas nesse campo foram também discutidas, particularmente as tentativas marxistas de análise.An analysis was made of the most representative literature both on health and illness representations and on practices of cure in Brazil from an anthropological point of view. Firsttly, there was in this litterature the concern of collecting the folk traditions from the rural world, expressing a great variety of viewpoints. In general, "popular medicine" was seen as a set of rude and imitative ideas and practices stemming from both the erudite medicine of the past and Brazilian ethnic traditions. Secondly, social sciences have had a great influence on this kind of study. After the 30's, particularly from the

  11. Prevalência de tabagismo em localidade urbana da região sudeste do Brasil Prevalence of smoking in a city of southeasthern Brazil

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    Cecília Amaro de Lolio

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal de prevalência da hipertensão arterial da população de 15-74 anos de idade, residente na zona urbana do Município de Araraquara, localidade situada a 250 km da cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1987. Na ocasião foram perguntadas aos 1.199 entrevistados (533 do sexo masculino e 666 do sexo feminino questões sobre o uso de tabaco (fumo, a forma de uso, o hábito de tragar, bem como variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi equiprobabilística, por conglomerados, em três estágios. A prevalência de tabagismo foi bastante alta, de 45,2% entre os homens e 22,8% entre as mulheres. Os ex-fumantes eram em percentagem de 15,9% entre os homens e 8,0% das mulheres. O sexo masculino fumava maior quantidade de equivalentes de cigarro do que o feminino. As camadas de mais baixa renda familiar fumavam mais, em ambos os sexos, do que os estratos de renda mais alta. Entre os homens, a prevalência de tabagismo diminuía com a maior escolaridade e nas mulheres, este aspecto não foi notado. Comparando com os resultados já publicados sobre a alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial e de obesidade, nota-se que a população de Araraquara, cidade média do interior urbano afluente do Brasil, apresenta uma freqüência bastante alta de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.A cross-sectional study for prevalence of arterial hipertension in the population aged 15-74 years of age of the urban area of Araraquara County, 250 km from the city of S. Paulo, S. Paulo, State, Brazil, in 1987, was performed. The questionnaires presented to 1,199 people (533 men and 666 women at the interview consisted of regarding sociodemographic variables, as well as the use of tobacco (smoking, the ways in which tobacco was used and the habit of inhaling the smoke. The sample was taken by the procedure of clustering, carried out in three stages. The sample was equiprobabilistic. The prevalence of

  12. Cólera e condições de vida da população Cholera and living conditions, Brazil

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    Moacir Gerolomo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fatores relacionados às condições de vida da população e condições ambientais precárias são freqüentemente citados como os maiores obstáculos para o controle de surtos e epidemias por cólera. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o peso de fatores referentes às condições de vida da população, relacionando questões ambientais com a instalação e o impacto da cólera. MÉTODO: Através de uma regressão linear múltipla, pelo método "backward stepwise", com influência do investigador, foram correlacionados os indicadores socioeconômicos com as taxas de incidência por cólera observadas nos municípios do Estado de Pernambuco, no ano de 1992. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: O modelo ajustado indica que a proporção de domicílios que utilizam água não proveniente de uma rede geral é a variável que tem maior peso na flutuação positiva das taxas de incidência de cólera. As variáveis "proporção de domicílios não ligados à rede geral de esgotos" e "proporção de chefes de família com renda igual ou menor do que um salário-mínimo mensal" também se associam positivamente, com coeficientes de regressão estatisticamente significativos, às taxas de incidência de cólera. A proporção de domicílios sem nenhuma instalação sanitária, por outro lado, se associa negativamente às taxas de incidência de cólera, sugerindo que instalações sanitárias, sem existência de rede de esgoto, aumentam o risco de contaminação ambiental. Os resultados apontam que a maior prioridade em saneamento é a oferta de água de boa qualidade.INTRODUCTION: Factors associated with precarious living and environmental conditions are frequently cited as major obstacles for the control of cholera outbreaks and epidemics. The purposes of the study are to evaluate the contribution of factors associated with the population living conditions and correlate the environmental problems with the onset of cholera

  13. Modelos da distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas em Piracicaba, SP Time distribution models of intense rainfall in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

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    Décio E. Cruciani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da variação temporal de chuvas intensas é de grande importância na hidrologia, para a análise e previsão de eventos extremos, necessárias em projetos de controle de engenharia. Com esse objetivo, foram analisados dados de pluviogramas da cidade de Piracicaba, SP, do período de 1966 a 2000, para se determinar a distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas de 60 e de 120 min de duração. As chuvas de 60 min foram subdivididas em três intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 20 min cada um, enquanto as chuvas de 120 min foram subdivididas em quatro intervalos iguais e sucessivos de 30 min cada um. O modelo de distribuição da precipitação que predominou para as chuvas de 60 e 120 min, foi do tipo exponencial negativo, com 85,7 e 50,7% dos casos, respectivamente. Para as chuvas de 60 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 20,7 mm, a distribuição foi de 72,3, 21,4 e 6,2% do total precipitado, respectivamente, nos três intervalos sucessivos de 20 min. Para as chuvas de 120 min, com altura pluviométrica média de 33,3 mm, o resultado foi de 60,1, 25,2, 11,1 e 3,6%, respectivamente, nos quatro intervalos sucessivos de 30 min. O modelo de distribuição temporal dessas chuvas não foi modificado pelo total precipitado nem pela sua duração, nos intervalos em questão.Time distribution models of intense and short rains are very important in hydrology and for extreme predictions in engineering projects. With this purpose, rain data of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, from 1966 to 2000 were analyzed to establish time distribution models of 60 and 120 min intense rains, during the rainy season from October through March. Time distribution models were assessed by three intervals of twenty minutes duration, for 60 min rains and by four intervals of thirty minutes duration for 120 min rains. The prevailing precipitation model for both, 60 and 120 min rains was a negative exponential distribution, in 85.7 and 50.7% of cases, respectively. For 60 min

  14. Geographic distribution's ampliation of Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in Brazil Ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo O Bordignon

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution ampliation of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 is related in this note with a new record from Corumba City, in pantanal ecossistem of Mato Grosso do Sul State. This record extend the geographic range of C. doriae over 630 km westward in Brazil from literature last reccord.Nesta nota é relatada a ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 com um registro inédito na cidade de Corumbá, na região do Pantanal do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Es...

  15. Em defesa da vida: : modelo do Sistema Único de Saúde de Volta Redonda In defese of life: a SUS model in Volta Redonda, Brazil

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    Roseni Pinheiro

    2001-12-01

    contextos econômico, político e social.Brazil's health system reform is one of the most successful examples of a non-centralized process of institutional building. Nevertheless, this was a limited process and those limits are related both with the nature of the institutions in charge of health services supply and with the population's demands, heavily committed with political democracy, considering that health is a citizenship right. This right placed the issues related to health services access to a central place in the Brazilian political debate; the poli ti cal and institutional reform of the State were guided to an empowerment of local government, now the main supplier of health services, since the 1988 Brazilian Constitution, a universal right to local health services. This thesis focuses on the relationship between demand and supply in health services, within the perspective of the daily life of the different social actors. The case of Volta Redonda - a historical birth land of the Brazilian steel metallurgy - is the basis of a local experience related to the health system reform. The building of the "Unified Health System (SUS" - the new health system created by 1988's BraziIian Constitution - in Volta Redonda was very successful, with the model named "Em Defesa da Vida" (In Defense of Life that reached the four main institutional principies of the national health reform, also adopting a very efficient family's health program, along with a homeopathy medical assistance program at the local level. The Volta Redonda success had been a limited one, because of non-biological factors. That means that social, political and economical variables were also very actively present on that scene.

  16. Prevenção da Aids com adolescentes encarcerados em São Paulo, SP AIDS prevention among incarcerated teenagers, Brazil

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    Camila Alves Peres

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil de adolescentes quanto ao apoio social e familiar, ao uso de drogas e os conhecimentos, as práticas e atitudes relacionadas à Aids e sua prevenção. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 275 jovens internos, do sexo masculino, de um centro de internação da Fundação Estadual do Bem Estar do Menor (Febem, em São Paulo, SP. A pesquisa foi feita em duas fases: a primeira por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 20 internos; a segunda, com questionários para auto-respostas aplicados aos 275 internos, com perguntas fechadas referentes a características sociodemográficas, criminalidade, práticas sexuais, uso de drogas, conhecimento, atitudes e práticas relativas à Aids. RESULTADOS: Do total estudado, 90% dos jovens internos residiam com suas famílias antes da internação; todos haviam estudado em escolas públicas, ainda que 61% já houvessem abandonado os estudos; 12% já haviam usado drogas; e 5,5% eram usuários de drogas intravenosas. A maioria (98% era sexualmente ativa; 35% haviam tido mais de 15 parceiras(os sexuais ao longo da vida; 8% haviam tido experiências homossexuais (dentro ou fora da Febem; 12% já haviam trocado sexo por benefícios materiais; e 22% já eram pais. Muitos dos adolescentes afirmaram que adquirir o HIV "é parte da vida" e que suas vidas apresentam riscos piores, como sobreviver na criminalidade. Acreditam que o preservativo é frágil (83% e atrapalha a relação sexual (58%; 72% já haviam utilizado preservativo, mas apenas 9% o utilizavam sempre. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes apresentaram um elevado risco de aquisição do HIV. Assim, torna-se necessário integrar a prevenção da Aids em sua problemática de vida e em temas como racismo, esperança pelo futuro, criminalidade, uso de drogas, direitos fundamentais, incluídos nestes os referentes ao sexo e à reprodução, mostrando existir alternativas a adquirir o HIV ou morrer na criminalidade.OBJECTIVES: To describe social and

  17. Urbanização, favelas e endemias: a produção da filariose no Recife, Brasil Urbanization, slums, and endemics: the production of filariasis in Recife, Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima P. M. Albuquerque

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discutimos a ocorrência da filariose como um problema de saúde pública na cidade do Recife, capital do Estado de Pernambuco, que apresenta ainda hoje, em algumas áreas, níveis de prevalência preocupantes. Procura-se mostrar o papel da evolução urbana da cidade, caracterizada por um crescimento desordenado e pela formação de um número crescente de favelas, na criação de condições propícias para a transmissão desta parasitose. Identificamos categorias de análise, ligadas à organização social do espaço urbano, que devem ser incluídas como "mediadoras" em um modelo compreensivo da transmissão da filariose. Os aglomerados de habitações inadequadas, construídas em favelas superpovoadas, sem saneamento básico e sem sistema de drenagem de águas, propiciam as condições adequadas à proliferação dos mosquitos vetores da infecção e à manutenção da endemia.In this article the filariasis endemic is discussed as a public health problem in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Prevalence figures for this parasitic disease in some urban settings are cause for concern. The urban development process, characterized by disordered growth of cities and an increase in the number of slums, is pointed out as an important factor for the maintenance of conditions favouring disease transmission. Some analytical categories linked to urban social organization are identified and included in a comprehensive filariasis transmission model. Clusters of inadequate houses built in overcrowded slums without basic sanitation or a proper drainage system produce adequate conditions for proliferation of infection vectors and maintenance of the endemic.

  18. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the coastal plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil Erosividade da chuva e tempo de retorno na bacia experimental da Aracruz, região dos tabuleiros costeiros brasileiros

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    Sérgio Gualberto Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the factors influencing water erosion is fundamental for the choice of the best land use practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is one of the most important factors of water erosion. The objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and the return period of rainfall in the Coastal Plains region, near Aracruz, a town in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, based on available data. Rainfall erosivity was calculated based on historic rainfall data, collected from January 1998 to July 2004 at 5 min intervals, by automatic weather stations of the Aracruz Cellulose S.A company. A linear regression with individual rainfall and erosivity data was fit to obtain an equation that allowed data extrapolation to calculate individual erosivity for a 30-year period. Based on this data the annual average rainfall erosivity in Aracruz was 8,536 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Of the total annual rainfall erosivity 85 % was observed in the most critical period October to March. Annual erosive rains accounted for 38 % of the events causing erosion, although the runoff volume represented 88 % of the total. The annual average rainfall erosivity return period was estimated to be 3.4 years.O conhecimento dos fatores que influenciam a erosão hídrica é de fundamental importância no planejamento do uso do solo. Dos fatores que alteram a erosão, a precipitação pluvial, expressa pela erosividade da chuva, é um dos mais importantes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a erosividade e o tempo de retorno para a região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, no município de Aracruz, ES. Para o cálculo da erosividade, foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de janeiro de 1998 a julho de 2004, obtidos em estações climatológicas automatizadas, localizadas em área experimental da Aracruz Celulose AS, que, para este estudo, geraram dados de 5 em 5 min. A análise de regressão linear entre precipitação pluvial e erosidade para esse per

  19. Fundamentos éticos da esfera discursiva da imprensa no Brasil: um jogo de epígrafes e memórias Ethical fundaments of the discursive sphere of press in Brazil: a game of epigraphs and memories

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    Anderson Salvaterra Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutem-se as epígrafes dos dois primeiros periódicos a circularem no Brasil como metonímias da postura ética assumida por cada projeto discursivo editorial. de um ponto de vista dialógico bakhtiniano de linguagem, distinguem-se memória subjetiva e memória objetiva e identifica-se, no jogo de epígrafes, um processo interacional a partir do resgate de diferentes memórias objetivas. o diálogo entre instituições atualizado pelas epígrafes revela a tensão ética e discursiva fundadora da esfera da imprensa brasileira e contribui para a construção de possibilidades identitárias nacionais. as memórias recuperadas pela Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, jornal áulico, sustentam uma organização interacional orientada por um senso de individualidade que alimenta hierarquia entre sujeitos e opera com o princípio de exclusão no fundamento de identidades sociais. diferentemente, a memória recuperada pelo Correio Braziliense, jornal independente, opera com um senso de coletividade que problematiza a noção de povo, traz para discussão o caráter de brasilidade e, assim, sustenta o princípio de participação na construção identitária nacional. este trabalho contribui para o amadurecimento teórico-metodológico de pesquisas sócio-históricas porque demonstra, a partir do conceito de memória do objeto, como a pesquisa que lida com a historicidade do objeto é orientada também pelo que o objeto diz do fenômeno investigado.In this paper, the epigraphs of the first two periodicals circulating in Brazil are discussed as metonymies of the ethical posture taken by each editorial discursive project. From a Bakhtinian dialogic point of view of language, subjective and objective memories are distinguished and, in the game of epigraphs, an interactional process is identified by recovering of different objective memories. The dialogue between institutions actualized by the epigraphs reveals the ethical and discursive tension which

  20. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

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    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  1. Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae da coleção de invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae of the invertebrate collection of the National Institute of Research of Amazonia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Hector Jaime Gasca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA possui 554 espécimes de Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, pertencentes a 7 gêneros, 16 espécies e 2 subespécies. As distribuições geográficas das espécies são fornecidas, sendo que 97% do material examinado procedem de coletas feitas em diferentes locais da Amazônia brasileira.The Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, has 554 specimens of Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, belonging to seven genera, 16 species and two subspecies. Information about geographical distribution are provided, of which 97% of the material examined was collected from several places in the Brazilian Amazon.

  2. Diversity of Ephemeroptera (Insecta of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil Diversidade de Ephemeroptera (Insecta da Serra da Mantiqueira e Serra do Mar, região Sudeste do Brasil

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    Ana Emilia Siegloch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the mayfly fauna, based on nymphal and alate stages, in Serra da Mantiqueira and in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, as well as to present information about habitats used by the genera. Nymphs were collected in several streams and mesohabitats with a Surber sampler and the winged stages with light attraction methods, entomological nets, and Malaise traps. In all, eight families and 33 genera were recorded, representing a very significant portion of the Brazilian fauna (80% of families and 49% of genera. Furthermore, it was possible to identify 11 species, of which two are new records for the state: Tricorythodes santarita Traver and Caenis reissi Malzacher. Despite the high diversity recorded, the accumulation curves presented an ascending form, indicating an increase in the number of genera with additional sampling effort. The high richness found in these areas are in agreement with the high biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest biome and the sampling effort employed, which included the use of different methods, the collection of both nymphs and winged stages, and the sampling of a large area with diverse streams and habitats.O objetivo do trabalho foi inventariar a fauna de Ephemeroptera, com base em ninfas e estágios alados, da Serra da Mantiqueira e Serra do Mar no estado de São Paulo, bem como gerar informações sobre os hábitats utilizados pelos gêneros registrados. As ninfas foram colecionadas em diversos riachos e mesohábitats com amostrador de Surber e os alados por métodos de atração luminosa, rede entomológica e armadilha de Malaise. Considerando o esforço conjunto de todos os métodos de coleta foram registradas oito famílias e 33 gêneros, o que representa uma porção bastante significativa da fauna brasileira (80% das famílias e 49% dos gêneros. Além disso, foi possível identificar 11 espécies, das quais Tricorythodes santarita Traver e Caenis reissi Malzacher são novos

  3. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil Spatio-temporal analysis of vegetation cover and land use in the middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil

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    Seyla Poliana Miranda Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram alterações em todas as classes durante os últimos 20 anos, com a diminuição de 22,89% da vegetação nativa, relacionada com o aumento de 58,42% da pastagem e 490,26% de monocultura de cana-de-açúcar. Foi verificado o conflito de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas de mata ciliar, fato que pode influenciar negativamente na conservação da interbacia e, consequentemente, do pantanal mato-grossense.This study analyzed spatial and temporal land use changes in the Middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil using Landsat images from 1991, 2001 and 2011. Images were geo-referenced, classified and processed using Spring software, and thematic classes were edited and quantified using ArcGis software. Seven map classes were identified, and native vegetation, pasture and sugarcane were the most significant ones. The results showed changes in all classes during the past 20 years, primarily a 22.89% decrease of native vegetation, a 58.42% increase in pasture and 490.26% increase of sugarcane monoculture. We verified land use conflicts, mostly in riparian areas, which may negatively influence Interbasin and, consequently, Pantanal conservation in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  4. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

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    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  5. Brazil's strategic partnerships: an assessment of the Lula era (2003-2010 Parcerias estratégicas do Brasil: um balanço da era Lula (2003 - 2010

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    Antônio Carlos Lessa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the priority bilateral relations of Brazil, named "strategic partnerships", both because of their tradition and historical relevance and due to the existence of political and economic cooperation projects. An assessment of these relationships, especially under Lula's administration, is made in this work, bearing in mind the concept of "strategic partnerships" and its development in Brazilian foreign policy. There will be considered partnerships with the US; Argentina; Japan; China; India; South Africa and the European Union. In the article, the meaning of the increase in these relationships is interpreted on the grounds of its significance to the international insertion strategy of BrazilNo trabalho são examinados os relacionamentos bilaterais prioritários do Brasil, que receberam a denominação de "parcerias estratégicas", tanto por causa da sua tradição e relevância histórica, quanto por causa da existência de projetos de cooperação política e econômica. A partir da elaboração do conceito de "parcerias estratégicas", e de como ela se construiu na política externa brasileira, neste trabalho se propõe um balanço desses relacionamentos especialmente durante a administração Lula da Silva (2003-2010. São examinadas as parcerias com os Estados Unidos, Argentina, Japão, China, Índia, África do Sul e União Européia. Propõe-se uma interpretação sobre o significado que o incremento desses vínculos possui para a estratégia de inserção internacional do País

  6. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

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    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  7. Briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Bryophytes of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Caio Amitrano de Alencar Imbassahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho representa uma síntese do conhecimento florístico de briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, com resultados de campo, material de herbário e publicações. Foram registrados 61 táxons de briófitas, pertencentes a 15 famílias e 33 gêneros. Para cada táxon foram analisados a distribuição geográfica, o tipo de substrato e a forma de vida. A família predominante foi Lejeuneaceae (25 espécies, seguida de Jubulaceae (sete, Calymperaceae (quatro e Sphagnaceae (quatro. Entre as espécies, predominaram as de distribuição Neotropical (35%. Com relação ao substrato preferencial, a maior parte dos táxons é corticícola. A forma de vida predominante foi o tapete, seguido pelo tufo e a trama. O Parque possui brioflora bastante representativa no que diz respeito à vegetação de restinga, com 45% dos táxons de briófitas conhecidas para as restingas no Brasil e 82% das conhecidas para as restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. É apresentada uma chave para identificação das espécies.We present a synthesis of the bryophyte flora in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, based on field work, herbaria material and bibliography. Sixty one taxa were recorded, in 15 families and 33 genera. For each taxa, we analyze geographic distribution, substrata and life form. The most species-rich family was Lejeuneaceae (25 species, followed by Jubulaceae (seven, Calymperaceae (four and Sphagnaceae (four. Most taxa have a Neotropical (35% distribution, and most taxa prefer the corticicolous substrate. Mat was the most common life form. The bryoflora of this National Park is an important reservoir of bryophyte diversity in the restingas, with 45% of the taxa known from the sandy coastal plains of Brazil and 82% known from the this habitat in Rio de Janeiro state. A key to identification of the species is given.

  8. Spiders from the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: Part III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida Aranhas da Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil: Parte III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida

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    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 is described for the first time and Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, a species introduced from Europe, is recorded for the first time on the island of Fernando de Noronha, state of Pernambuco. The latter, along with T. lyonneti (Audouim, 1826 recorded from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, is the second species of this genus to be reported from Brazil. The spiders were collected with pitfall traps in five points of the island. Ecological data showed that Gnaphosidae was the fifth best sampled spider family, with 179 specimens, belonging to two species, T. kulczynskii and Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii was the most abundant with 118 adults while Z. hortenciae was represented by only 21 adults. Both species were collected during the dry and wet seasons but T. kulczynskii was more abundant during the wet season while Z. hortenciae was more abundant during the dry season. The male:female ratio for the dry season was similar for both species but in the wet season it was three times higher for T. kulczynskii.A fêmea de Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 é descrita pela primeira vez. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, uma espécie de origem européia, é registrada pela primeira vez na Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, no estado de Pernambuco. Junto com T. lyonneti (Audouin, 1826, já registrado para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é a segunda espécie do gênero introduzida no Brasil. As aranhas foram coletadas com armadilhas de solo em cinco pontos da ilha e os dados ecológicos detectados para Gnaphosidae foram de que esta foi a quinta família melhor amostrada dentre Araneae, com 179 espécimes de duas espécies, T. kulczynskii e Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii foi mais abundante com 118 adultos enquanto Z. hortenciae teve 21 adultos coletados. Ambas foram coletadas nas estações seca e chuvosa, sendo que T. kulczynskii foi mais

  9. Epidemiologia e diferenças regionais da retinopatia diabética em Pernambuco, Brasil Epidemiology and regional differences of diabetic retinopathy in Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Escarião

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os dados de freqüência e estadiamento da retinopatia diabética em Pernambuco, Brasil, comparando a região metropolitana com cidades do interior do estado. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de 2.223 pacientes diabéticos (1.568 mulheres e 655 homens; idade média de 58,4 ± 12,0 anos; duração média do diabetes de 8,1 ± 6,3 anos, que fizeram parte de um programa de triagem para retinopatia diabética na Fundação Altino Ventura entre os meses de junho de 2004 e junho de 2005, foram revistos quanto à presença de retinopatia. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos quanto à origem: grupo I, pacientes residentes em Recife e região metropolitana; grupo II, pacientes residentes no interior do estado de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: No grupo I, 477 (24,2% pacientes apresentavam retinopatia diabética ao passo que no grupo II, 89 (39,4% pacientes (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy among patients cared for in a screening program in Pernambuco, Brazil, comparing regional differences between urban and rural zones. METHODS: The charts of 2,223 diabetic patients (1,568 females and 655 males; mean age 59.3 ± 12.0 years; mean duration of diabetes 8.1 ± 6.3 years that took part in a screening program for diabetic retinopathy at Altino Ventura Foundation from June 2004 to June 2005 were reviewed for the presence of the disease. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, patients living in Recife and the metropolitan area; group II, patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state. RESULTS: In group I, 477 (24.2% patients had diabetic retinophathy, while in group II, 89 (39.4% patients (p<0.0001. The frequency of proliferative diabetic retinophathy, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment was higher in group II patients (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state have a higher incidence of diabetic retinophathy and the advanced forms than

  10. Mortalidade perinatal em cabritos no semi-árido da Paraíba Perinatal mortality in kids in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Josemar Marinho de Medeiros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As causas de mortalidade perinatal em cabritos foram estudadas de maio de 2002 a agosto de 2004. Em 118 cabritos necropsiados as causas de morte foram: infecção neonatal (50%, distocia (12,71%, complexo hipotermia/inanição (11,86%, malformações (7,62%, síndrome do cabrito mole (6,77% e abortos (1,69%. Com relação ao momento da morte 1,69% dos cabritos morreram antes do parto, 16,94% durante o parto e 81,34 % após o nascimento. A alta ocorrência de infecções neonatais, distocias e hipotermia/inanição é provavelmente devido a fatores relacionados com erros no manejo sanitário, reprodutivo e nutricional. Artogripose dos membros anteriores foi a principal malformação observada. Este defeito é endêmico em rebanhos de caprinos no semi-árido do Brasil. A maioria das mortes ocorreu após o nascimento (25,42% e do quarto ao vigésimo dia de vida (38,98% sugerindo que o cuidado com os cabritos durante os primeiros 28 dias de vida é importante para melhorar as taxas de sobrevivência dos mesmos.The causes of perinatal kid mortality were studied from May 2002 to August 2004 in the semiarid region of Paraíba. In 118 necropsied kids the frequency of different causes of death were neonatal infections (50%, distocia (12.71%, hypothermia/starvation (11.86%, malformations (7.62%, floppy kid (6.77% and abortions (1.69%. Regarding the time of death, 1.69% of the kids died before parturition, 16.94% during the parturition and 81.34 % after birth. The high occurrence of neonatal infections, dystocias, and hypothermia/starvation is probably to due to factors related with error in the sanitary, reproductive and nutritional management. Arthrogryposis of the forelimbs was the main malformation observed. This defect is endemic in goat flocks in the semi-arid of Brazil. Most deaths occurred after birth (25.42% and from the 4th to the 28th day of life (38.98% suggesting that care with the kids during their first 28 days of life is important for the

  11. PINTURAS RUPESTRES DA REGIÃO ARQUEOLÓGICA DE PIRIPIRI, PIAUÍ, BRASIL (Rock Paintings from the Archaeological Area of Piripiri, Piauí, Brazil

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    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O município de Piripiri, no estado do Piauí (Brasil, tem diversos sítios arqueológicos, essencialmente abrigos sob rocha e paredões decorados com pinturas rupestres e/ou gravuras, testemunhos excepcionais de atividade humana antiga. Em particular, os povoados Buriti dos Cavalos, Cadoz Velho e Jardim, localizados na área rural de Piripiri, apresentam algumas inscrições pré-históricas caracterizadas pela beleza exuberante, elevada densidade de registros gráficos e frequente policromia, tornando-se assim áreas de especial interesse para o estudo arqueológico de arte rupestre. Além da policromia, há sobreposições e recorrência dos registros rupestres, pintados em diferentes momentos de evolução gráfica. As pinturas rupestres consistem de grafismos puros e geométricos, carimbos de mãos humanas, motivos antropomórficos e zoomórficos, pintadas em amarelo, preto, cinza (inclusive na cor cinza-esverdeada, rosa, branco, alaranjado e predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho. ENGLISH: The municipality of Piripiri, in the state of Piauí (Brazil, has several archaeological sites, essentially rock shelters and walls decorated with rock paintings or engravings, which are exceptional testimonies of ancient human activity. In the rural area of Piripiri, the villages Buriti dos Cavalos, Cadoz Velho, and Jardim, present some prehistoric inscriptions characterized by lush beauty, high density of graphic records, and frequent polychrome. These are areas of special interest to the archaeological study of rock art. In addition to the polychrome, there are overlaps and recurrences of rock records, painted in different moments of graphic evolution. The rock paintings consist of pure and geometric graphisms, human handprints, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs, predominantly made in different tonalities of red, but also painted in yellow, black, gray (including a greenish-gray color, pink, white, and orangish tones.

  12. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  13. Impurity-related point defects and gamma-radiation response of massive quartz from the Borborema pegmatite province, in Brazil; Estudo da suscetibilidade ao escurecimento por radiacao gama de quartzo roseo-leitoso da provincia pegmatitica da Borborema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Milena Ribas de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mineral; Gonzaga, Raysa Sthefany Gomes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Barreto, Sandra de Brito [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Melgarejo, Joan Carles, E-mail: milaribas@hotmail.com, E-mail: raysagonzaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: pguzzo@ufpe.br, E-mail: sandrabrito@smart.net.br, E-mail: joan.carles.melgarejo.draper@ub.edu [Universidade de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Cristalografia, Mineralogia e Depositos Minerais

    2012-06-15

    This work has investigated the changes induced by {gamma}-radiation on impurity-related point defects in massive rose quartz from one deposit located at The Borborema Pegmatite Province (Northeast Region, in Brazil). Samples extracted from rose and colorless (milky) quartz blocks were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co, from 0.5 to 96 kGy. Point defects related to Al, Ge, Li and OH were measured by optical, infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, prior and after irradiation. The contents of Al, Li, Ge, Fe, Ti and other impurities were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in quartz fragments exhibiting rose, pale-rose, and milky colorations. It was found that [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0}, [AlO{sub 4}/H]{sup 0} and [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} were generated by the dissociation of [AlO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} and [Li-OH] centers with doses as lower as 0.5 kGy. Above 8 kGy, the electron paramagnetic resonance signal related to [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} decreases due to the intense mobility of Li species throughout the quartz lattice, giving rise to E'{sub 1} centers perturbed by Ge. The increase in [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} content with {gamma} doses and the consequent rise in the intensity of smoky color were similar for both rose and colorless quartz. Scanning electron microscopy carried out in insoluble residues obtained after chemical dissolution of each type of quartz revealed the presence of nanometric fibers only in rose specimens. These results suggested that the cause of rose color in massive quartz from Borborema Pegmatite Province is probably related to the presence of dumortierite inclusions. (author)

  14. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region; Avaliacao do conteudo de mercurio, metilmercurio e outros elementos de interesse em peixes e em amostras de cabelos e dietas de pre-escolares da regiao Amazonica

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    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-07-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  15. Estrutura arbórea da Floresta Ombrófila Densa Altomontana de serras do Sul do Brasil Tree component structure of tropical upper montane rain forests in Southern Brazil

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    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve os objetivos de agrupar informações sobre a estrutura arbórea da floresta altomontana da Serra do Mar paranaense e de compará-las com as de florestas altomontanas de outras serras do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizados levantamentos fitossociológicos em diversas montanhas de quatro importantes serras (ou subserras do Paraná. Nas quatro subserras foram amostrados 2294 indivíduos (PAP > 10 cm pertencentes a 28 famílias, 43 gêneros e 78 espécies. Foi observada maior riqueza de espécies na amostragem da Serra Gigante (41 espécies, seguida pelas serras da Prata (37, da Igreja (34 e do Ibitiraquire (26. A altura média obtida para os indivíduos foi de 4,8 m, o PAP médio de 22,9 cm, a densidade média de 4779 ind/ha, a área basal média de 33,5 m²/ha e o índice de diversidade de Shannon total de 2,68 nat/ind. Agrupando informações de estudos realizados em outras subserras paranaenses, totalizando 11 levantamentos e 204 parcelas (10200 m², obteve-se uma matriz com 75 espécies determinadas, onde as cinco com maior porcentagem de importância estrutural foram Ilex microdonta, Siphoneugena reitzii, Drimys angustifolia, Ocotea porosa e Ilex chamaedrifolia. Os trechos amostrados na Serra do Mar do Paraná, apresentaram menor riqueza e diversidade que os da Serra da Mantiqueira (MG e maior que os dos Aparados da Serra Geral (SC. Tais diferenças, possivelmente, estão relacionadas às influências antrópicas, das distâncias geográficas, dos diferentes centros de endemismo, dos entornos tropicais ou subtropicais dominantes, das feições geomorfológicas, entre outros fatores.The aims of this study were: (1 to group information about the tree structure of the upper montane rain forest of Serra do Mar in the state of Paraná (PR, Southern Brazil; and (2 to compare this information with available data from other mountain ranges in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. In the four mountain ranges studied, 2294

  16. Estimativa da prevalência de HIV em gestantes por análise espacial, Porto Alegre, RS Estimate of HIV prevalence in pregnant women by means of spatial analysis in Southern Brazil

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    Christovam Barcellos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de técnicas de análise espacial foram estimados os diferenciais intra-urbanos da prevalência de HIV entre gestantes no município de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. As estimativas foram obtidas por meio da suavização espacial dos pontos referentes às residências de nascidos vivos e gestantes HIV positivas para o ano de 2003. Foi identificada a sobreposição de áreas de alta prevalência com favelas da cidade, o que ratifica o processo de pauperização da Aids e aponta locais onde estratégias de atenção primária e educação devem ser reforçadas.Spatial analysis techniques were used to estimate the interurban differential HIV prevalence among pregnant women in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. The estimates were produced through the spatial smoothing of residence pinpoints with live newborns and HIV infected pregnant women for the year of 2003. The overlay of high prevalence areas in city slums was identified. This finding confirms the intensification of AIDS epidemic among poor urban populations, and indicates areas where basic care and educational strategies should be reinforced.

  17. CURRENT LAND USE IN ILHA SOLTEIRA, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATED RISKS = USO ATUAL DA TERRA NO MUNICÍPIO DE ILHA SOLTEIRA, SP, BRASIL: RISCOS AMBIENTAIS ASSOCIADOS

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    André Luis Altimare

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of the Geographical Information System SPRING/INPE for mapping the current usage of the land in Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. This map was utilized as a base to determine the environmental risks resulting from antrophic activities to hydrography watershed components. It was also presented a discussion on the state of degradation of the landscape, with suggestions of options to the definition of strategies of environmental conservation. = Esse trabalho apresenta a utilização do sensoriamento remoto e do geoprocessamento na elaboração da Carta de Uso Atual da Terra no Município de Ilha Solteira, SP. Com base nessa carta foram identificados possíveis riscos ambientais para os ecossistemas aquáticos, associados aos usos atuais da terra. Discutiu-se ainda, o estado atual de degradação da paisagem, visando a definição de estratégias para a conservação ambiental.

  18. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  19. Tabagismo passivo no Brasil: resultados da Pesquisa Especial Do Tabagismo, 2008 Passive smoking in Brazil: results from the 2008 Special Survey on Smoking

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    Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi descrever prevalência e características sócio-demográficas associadas ao tabagismo passivo no domicílio e no trabalho, em participantes (15+ anos de amostra populacional da Pesquisa Especial do Tabagismo, sub-amostra da PNAD 2008. O tabagismo passivo é definido como a exposição ao tabaco por não-fumante, em casa, no trabalho ou em outros locais fechados, excluídas ocupações ao ar livre. Associações com características sócio-demográficas foram estimadas por análise de regressão logística. Nos 25.005 não-fumantes, a exposição domiciliar é diária para 12,5% e ocasional para 21%. À regressão multinomial (referência: não-expostos, a exposição diária diminui com aumento de idade e tanto a exposição diária como a ocasional diminuem com maiores escolaridade e renda. Comparada à Região Sudeste, há menor exposição diária no Norte e no Centro-Oeste, e maior ocasional no Nordeste. Dos 10.933 trabalhadores, 55% dos homens e 45% das mulheres relataram exposição no trabalho e 67% exposição domiciliar adicional. A exposição no trabalho é maior em homens, nos mais velhos (55+anos e com menor escolaridade e renda; e menor no Sul. A desigualdade social no Brasil se revela também na maior exposição ao tabagismo passivo daqueles com menor escolaridade e renda.The scope of this article was to describe indoor passive smoking, at home and at work, among Brazilians (15+ years participants of the "Special Research on Smoking", a sub-sample of the PNAD 2008. Non-smokers who reported exposure to indoor household smoking were classified as daily or occasional passive smokers, based on the frequency of exposure. Associations with socio-demographic factors were verified by logistic regression analysis. Among 25,005 participants, prevalence of daily and occasional household exposure were 12.5% and 21%, respectively. Compared to those not exposed, daily exposure decreased with increasing age, schooling and income

  20. Financiamento da saúde pública no Brasil: a experiência do Siops Public health financing in Brazil: the Siops experience

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    Hugo Vocurca Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta características do Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos de Saúde (Siops, tece breves comentários sobre a estratégia de coleta e os dados coletados, e exemplifica algumas de suas potencialidades como instrumento de apoio à gestão. O Siops reúne informações sobre o financiamento e o gasto com saúde pública dos municípios, dos estados e da União, constituindo-se em banco de dados único no âmbito das políticas sociais no Brasil. Produzindo informações com regularidade e com qualidade crescente, o sistema conforma-se como uma importante fonte de dados para a realização de estudos pelas instituições de pesquisa, para o exercício do acompanhamento e fiscalização pelos órgãos de controle e para a gestão e avaliação das ações no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde. Tais informações podem viabilizar o aprimoramento da gestão, a disseminação de experiências bem-sucedidas entre os entes federados, e a adequada distribuição dos gastos entre investimento e custeio e entre as esferas governamentais, tendo em vista o dimensionamento das redes de atenção, dentre outras questões.This article presents information about public budgets for a health system, called SIOPS, and it's basic features. It briefly comments a SIOPS's strategy of collect data, and it exemplifies some of it's potential as an instrument for helping health management. SIOPS focuses on information about the financing and expenses of public health in municipalities, states and in the Union, being therefore a unique data bank in the social policy field in Brazil. The data bank is growing on a steady basis and is as well improving in terms of information reliability. It produces information increasing in regularity and quality. The SIOPS is presented as an important data source for researches of health policies, as an instrument for control agencies to exert the attendance and fiscal inspection, and as an instrument for

  1. Heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil External control of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar mensalmente e oficializar um programa de heterocontrole dos níveis de flúor na água de abastecimento público de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O município foi dividido geograficamente em dez pontos e a coleta realizada de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005, em duplicata. Após a coleta, as amostras eram enviadas para o Laboratório de Vigilância Sanitária de Flúor da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, que realizou as análises utilizando o método eletrométrico (Orion 920A/Eletrodo Orion 9609. Após doze meses, 45,8% das amostras de água coletadas apresentaram teores inadequados de flúor. Verificou-se uma elevada e contínua variabilidade nos resultados. Entre os pontos que apresentaram teores inadequados de flúor, houve predomínio daqueles com excesso de fluoretos (35,8%. Também houve um significativo número de unidades amostrais com uma concentração adequada de flúor (54,2%. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o heterocontrole em Lages é fundamental para a manutenção de um correto programa de fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público.The purpose of this study is a monthly assessment of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This town was divided into ten regions, where water samples were collected from October 2004 to September 2005. Two samples were drawn from each region and sent to the Fluoride Health Surveillance Laboratory at Vale do Itajaí University for analysis through an electrometric method (Orion 920A/Orion Electrode 9609. After twelve months, 120 samples had been collected, demonstrating gaps in the fluoride levels and some points with excessive fluoride levels (35,8%. Several points with ideal fluoride concentrations (54.2% also appeared. These findings lead to the conclusion that external controls are required for monitoring fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages.

  2. Implementation of a computational system at the Center for Nuclear Technology Development, for systematization the application of the FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, for identification of dangerous and developed risks evaluation; Implementacao de um sistema computacional no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear para sistemarizar a aplicacao da tecnica FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - na identificacao de perigos e avaliacao de riscos desenvolvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Danyel Pontelo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de, E-mail: dpc@cdtn.b, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The regulatory bodies request risks evaluations for nuclear and radioactive licensing purposes. In Brazil those evaluations are contained by the safety analysis reports requested by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and risk analysis studies requested by the environment organisms. A risk evaluation includes the identification of the risks and the accident sequence which can occur, and the estimation of the frequency and his undesirable effects on the industrial installations, the public, and the environment. The identification and the risk analysis are particularly important for the implementation of a health, environment and safety integrated management according to the regulation instruments ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001. The utilization of the risk identification techniques and the risk analysis is performed at the non nuclear industry, in a non standard form by the various sectors of an enterprise, diminishing the effectiveness of the recommended actions based on risk indexes. However, for the nuclear licensing, the CNEN request through their regulatory instruments and standard formats, that the risks, the failure mechanisms and detection be identified, which can allow the preventive and mitigate actions. This paper proposes the utilization of the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) technique in the licensing process. It was implemented a software through the Excel program, using the Visual Basic for Applications program which allows the automation and the standardization of FMEA studies as well

  3. Conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da Baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil: peixes da família Serranidae e alterações no ambiente marinho = Local ecological knowledge of fishermen from Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil: fishes from the Serranidae family and marine environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos aspectos gerais do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL depescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática sobre sete espécies de peixes marinhos da família Serranidae (habitat de ocorrência, tamanho máximo e denominação popular e as principais alterações percebidas no ambiente marinho na Baía Babitonga, Estado de Santa Catarina,Brasil. Em termos gerais, o CEL sobre os peixes corrobora a literatura em ictiologia, trazendo informações originais em escala local. Pescadores de comunidades vizinhas e/ou praticantes de diferentes artes de pesca podem desenvolver denominações e um corpo deCEL diferenciado sobre os recursos pesqueiros de uma mesma área. Verificamos que a legislação que institui a moratória da pesca de Epinephelus itajara desconsidera as denominações locais da espécie, impossibilitando a sua interpretação pelos pescadores locais e gerando conflitos na aplicação da lei. As principais alterações ambientais registradas foram: diminuição da abundância dos recursos pesqueiros em geral (especialmente do Parambijú Rachycentron canadum, e os efeitos da interrupção antrópica do “Canal do Linguado” na hidrologia e sedimentologia da Baía Babitonga (assoreamento e aumento da turbidez da água.General aspects of the Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK of long-line and spear fishermen on seven fish species of the Serranidae family (habitat use, maximum size and popular names and on the main marine environmental changes were investigated in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In general, LEK on fishes corroborates theichthyology literature, bringing original information in a local scale. Neighbor fishermen communities can develop different local species nomenclature and different LEK for fishery resources at the same area. We have verified that the fishing ban legislation on Epinephelus itajara in Brazil does not consider local species denominations, turning impossible its interpretation by local

  4. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae) at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins; Mara C. Kiefer; Carla C. Siqueira; Monique Van Sluys; Vanderlaine A Menezes; Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae) includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mount...

  5. A teoria da agência no setor da saúde: o caso do relacionamento da Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar com as operadoras de planos de assistência supletiva no Brasil Agency theory in the healthcare sector: the relationship between the National Supplementary Healthcare Agency and the supplementary health-care operators in Brazil

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    Fábio Ricardo Loureiro Sato

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento entre os atores do sistema supletivo de assistência à saúde no Brasil é caracterizado por uma complexa trama de conflitos de interesse e de poder, que podem ser analisados à luz da teoria da agência. Ela emprega elementos da ciência econômica, principalmente das teorias do consumidor e do funcionamento de mercado, conjuntamente com idéias derivadas dos estudos organizacionais e comportamentais, faz uma divisão entre os agentes econômicos em principais e agentes. Analisando o mercado de assistência supletiva, pode-se constatar que ele possui inúmeros atores, que exercem ao mesmo tempo papéis de agentes e principais. É justamente dessa dualidade de papéis que surgem grande parte dos conflitos, e, através de diversos mecanismos de regulação, tenta-se reduzir os custos de agência derivados dos conflitos de interesse que são a causa principal dos problemas de agência dentro desse setor.The relationship between the actors of the supplementary healthcare system in Brazil is characterized by complex conflicts of interests and power struggles, which can be analyzed by the agency theory. This theory - combining elements of economic sciences, mainly consumer and market theories, with ideas derived from organizational and behavioral studies - divides the economic agents in principals and agents. The analysis of the supplementary healthcare market reveals its many actors play simultaneously the roles of agent and principal. This duality of roles is the root of most conflicts, originating several regulation mechanisms which try to reduce agency costs derived from conflicts of interests that are the main cause of this sector's agency issues.

  6. Análise da utilização pela clientela de uma unidade ambulatorial da Secretaria da Saúde do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Analysis of the use of a public health clinics of the Department of Health of the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Yoshimi Tanaka

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se proposta para integração das ações de assistência médica individual de caráter curativo com as ações de assistência médico-sanitária. Foram estudados dois serviços de assistência à saúde do Município de São Paulo (Brasil. Partindo-se do pressuposto de que qualquer ação no campo da saúde depende da participação da comunidade, buscou-se conhecer a forma pela qual a população recebe e utiliza os serviços localmente integrados. Assim, foram coletadas junto à clientela de ambos os serviços, informações tais como: motivo de procura, resolutividade, satisfação e outras, obtidas por meio de formulários. A análise das características das queixas, da resolutividade e da satisfação referida pela clientela, do objetivo e do processo de trabalho desses serviços, leva à conclusão de que eles são utilizados de forma seletiva pela clientela, visando, principalmente, ao atendimento de suas necessidades diretamente relacionadas à resolução das manifestações de doença.A working proposal for the integration of the activities of public health assistance is presented. Two health clinics in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, were studied. Taking as a starting-point that all activity in the health sector depends on community participation, this study sought to discover how the population has received and used the geographically integrated health services. For this purpose, information was collected from the users of both of these services, by means of a questionnaire, as to the motive for the use of the service, the service's ability to meet the need, the degree of user-satisfaction, etc. The analysis of the above information as well as of the objective and the working method of these services, leads to the conclusion that they are used by the public in a selective way for the purpose of meeting immediate needs related to present illnesses.

  7. Brasil: nova classe média ou novas formas de superexploração da classe trabalhadora? Brazil: new middle class or new ways of overexploiting the working class?

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    Mathias Seibel Luce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base na categoria da superexploração da força de trabalho, formulada no âmbito da teoria marxista da dependência, apresentamos uma crítica à tese de que o Brasil estaria se tornando 'país de classe média' e sustentamos que um contingente substancial dentre o que vem sendo nomeado de 'nova classe média' consiste, na verdade, de trabalhadores - e suas famílias - vivendo em condições de superexploração. O texto encontra-se dividido em três seções. Na primeira, questionamos os pressupostos básicos da tese Brasil, país de classe média. Na segunda, expomos os fundamentos da categoria da superexploração e demonstramos seu incremento nas relações de produção do capitalismo brasileiro na década de 2000. Na terceira, demonstramos como o acesso da população trabalhadora ao consumo de bens duráveis no período recente, antes que a ascensão de uma suposta 'nova classe média', configura uma forma renovada de superexploração. Por fim, salientamos os nexos entre as condições de trabalho, saúde e direitos da classe trabalhadora no Brasil e as tendências do capitalismo mundial, questionando o falso dilema neoliberalismo e neodesenvolvimentismo no debate atual e colocando a real disjuntiva do ponto de vista da emancipação da classe trabalhadora em relação ao poder despótico do capital.Based on the workforce overexploitation category, formulated in the context of the Marxist Theory of Dependence, we critique the thesis that Brazil is becoming 'a middle class nation' and state that a substantial contingent of what has been named the 'new middle class' is, in fact, one of workers - and their families - living in overexploitation conditions. The article is divided into three sections. In the first, we questioned the basic assumptions of the 'Brazil, a middle class nation' thesis. In the second, we explain the fundamentals of the overexploitation category and show how it increased in Brazilian capitalism production

  8. Acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde em um município do Estado da Bahia, Brasil, em gestão plena do sistema Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil

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    Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira Cunha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a implantação de ações voltadas para a acessibilidade à atenção básica em um município da Bahia, Brasil, foi realizado estudo de caso único a partir de dois níveis de análise: organização do sistema e dos serviços. Os dados foram obtidos por intermédio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, da observação das rotinas de atendimento e da análise documental. Das quatro unidades analisadas, três apresentaram nível intermediário de implantação de ações voltadas para a acessibilidade. As unidades de saúde da família tiveram melhor desempenho devido à presença de ações voltadas para o acolhimento e a referência a serviços especializados, porém apresentaram problemas para a marcação de consultas. Apesar do estabelecimento da atenção básica como porta de entrada ao sistema e da implantação da central de marcação de consultas especializadas, persistem barreiras organizacionais no município estudado. Recomenda-se a formulação de política específica para melhoria da acessibilidade voltada para a organização da oferta na perspectiva de mudança do modelo assistencial.In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are

  9. Os vários mundos do financiamento da Saúde no Brasil: uma tentativa de integração Healthcare financing options in Brazil: an attempt at integration

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    Sulamis Dain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o dilema subjacente ao financiamento da Saúde, entre a visão de longo prazo proposta pela Seguridade Social em 1988, e a visão de curto prazo, centrada nos sucessivos ajustes fiscais, que vem frustrando a expansão de recursos da Saúde no Brasil. No contexto da regulamentação da Emenda Constitucional 29, da renovação da CMPF e da DRU, e de uma próxima reforma tributária, são tratados aspectos do sistema tributário, das contribuições sociais, dos subsídios, incentivos e renúncia de arrecadação. Considera também aspectos político-institucionais das relações intergovernamentais e das relações entre o setor público e o setor privado, presentes ao financiamento da Saúde. O trabalho torna evidente a existência de espaço para ampliar o patamar de financiamento do SUS, de modo a superar os vazios sanitários, bem como as desigualdades de oferta de serviços no território. Sugere também a revisão das relações financeiras intergovernamentais e entre o setor público e o setor privado. Finalmente, apresenta aspectos virtuosos do gasto público e dos instrumentos de financiamento do setor para o desenvolvimento econômico e tecnológico do Brasil.This paper addresses the dilemma underlying Healthcare financing, caught between the long-term view proposed by the Social Security segment in 1988 and the short-term view imposed by a series of fiscal adjustments, hampering the expansion of healthcare resources in Brazil. Within the context of Constitutional Amendment Nº 29, the extension of the Provisional Financial Transactions Levy (CPMF, the Federal Funds Earmarking Removal Provision (DRU, and forthcoming tax reforms, aspects of the taxation system, social security dues, subsidies, incentives and tax revenue waivers are examined, also exploring political and institutional aspects of intergovernmental relationships and the links between the public and private sectors, in terms of Healthcare financing. This paper

  10. Leitura e alfabetização no Brasil: uma busca para além da polarização Reading and literacy in Brazil: a search beyond polarization

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    Claudemir Belintane

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre o ensino de leitura e a alfabetização no Brasil, tomando como ponto de partida os confrontos contemporâneos entre os chamados 'métodos' e 'metodologias' ou ainda 'linhas', 'filosofias', 'teorias' de alfabetização e de leitura. Situa sua argumentação a partir de alguns embates e algumas preocupações que vêm ocorrendo nesse campo do ensino nesta primeira década do milênio e, como exemplo, analisa um documento publicado pela Comissão de Educação e Cultura da Câmara dos Deputados, intitulado "Relatório final do grupo de trabalho; Alfabetização infantil: os novos caminhos", (Brasília, 2003. Toma essa análise como uma referência para discutir a relação entre a produção científica no campo do ensino da leitura e da alfabetização e seus efeitos no ensino público. No final do texto, o autor evidencia sua perspectiva de pesquisa e expõe algumas sugestões específicas para a abordagem da alfabetização e do ensino da leitura no Brasil, enfatizando as singularidades da escola brasileira em que a oralidade - desde que vista a partir de suas possibilidades autênticas de uso - pode desempenhar um papel fundamental no ensino e na aprendizagem da leitura. Conclui afirmando que a política, muitas vezes, assume este ou aquele método como forma de fugir da responsabilidade mais complexa, que é a de assumir a alfabetização como prioridade absoluta do Estado.This article presents reflections on the teaching of reading and literacy in Brazil, taking as its point of departure the current disputes among the so-called 'methods' and 'methodologies', or still, 'lines', 'philosophies', 'theories' of literacy and reading. The text weaves its arguments from some of the clashes and concerns taking place in this field of teaching in this first decade of the new millennium and, as an example, analyzes a document published by the Commission for Education and Culture of the Federal House of

  11. Magnitude da depressão pós-parto no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática The extent of post-partum depression in Brazil: a systematic review

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    Gustavo Lobato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar uma revisão sistemática dos estudos sobre a magnitude da depressão pós-parto (DPP no Brasil. MÉTODOS: a busca e seleção da literatura baseouse em artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, SciELO e Medline. RESULTADOS: foram selecionados 14 estudos, sendo que 13 deles reportavam a prevalência de DPP e apenas um estudo de seguimento com limitada casuística (n=21 trazia estimativa da incidência do agravo (42,8%. A grande heterogeneidade em relação à população de estudo, método diagnóstico utilizado e período pós-parto focalizado dificultou a obtenção de uma estimativa agregada da prevalência de DPP no Brasil. Contudo, estudos conduzidos em unidades básicas de saúde, no âmbito da Estratégia de Saúde da Família ou em populações carentes apontaram uma prevalência entre 30 e 40% de DPP, enquanto pesquisas que incluíram amostras de base populacional e populações de unidades hospitalares terciárias revelaram uma prevalência de cerca de 20%. CONCLUSÕES: embora novos estudos sejam necessários para melhor caracterizar as peculiaridades que envolvem a magnitude da DPP no Brasil, as evidências disponíveis justificam uma atenção prioritária para os agravos à saúde mental materna no âmbito da saúde pública no país.OBJECTIVES: to carry out a systematic review of studies of the extent of post-partum depression (PPD in Brazil. METHODS: articles were searched for and selected from national and international periodicals included in the Lilacs, SciELO and Medline electronic databases. RESULTS: fourteen studies were selected, thirteen of which reported the prevalence of PPD and one, which followed up a limited number of cases (n=21 estimated the incidence of the disorder at 42.8%. The wide range of different populations studied, diagnostic methods used, and post-partum period monitored made it difficult to obtain an aggregate estimate for

  12. Ecologia de mosquitos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina: II -- Freqüência mensal e fatores climáticos Ecology of mosquitoes in areas of the National Park of "Serra da Bocaina", Brazil: II ¾ Monthly frequency and climatic factors

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida pelos fatores climáticos na freqüência mensal da fauna de mosquitos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Vale do Paraíba, SP. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais por meio de isca humana, em três diferentes períodos do dia, durante 24 meses consecutivos (janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos pertencentes a 28 espécies. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia reversa e Ru. frontosa foram as espécies mais presentes em todos os meses do ano; An. cruzii ocorreu preferencialmente de outubro a fevereiro; Ru. reversa e Ru. frontosa, em setembro; An. lutzi, Chagasia fajardoi, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Aedes serratus, Trichoprosopon simile, Wyeomyia theobaldi, Ru. humboldti e Ru. theobaldi, pertencentes ao segundo grupo de espécies mais abundantes, ocorreram preferencialmente nos meses mais quentes, úmidos e chuvosos. A temperatura e as precipitações pluviométricas influenciaram positivamente na incidência da maioria das espécies. CONCLUSÕES: A cobertura vegetal de Mata Atlântica bem preservada, as precipitações pluviométricas e a temperatura foram determinantes para a incidência da fauna de mosquitos no parque. Os meses mais chuvosos, úmidos e quentes contribuíram para o aumento da diversidade e da densidade. O período de setembro a março foi o mais favorável. Cerca de 70% das espécies chegaram a desaparecer no período de abril a agosto, os meses mais frios e secos do ano.OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of climatic factors on the monthly frequency of mosquito fauna in areas of the National Park of Serra da Bocaina, Brazil. METHODS: Human bait collections were conducted once a month, in diurnal and nocturnal hours, throughout 24 months, from January 1991 to December 1992. RESULTS: A total of 11,808 adult mosquitoes belonging to 28 different species were collected. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia reversa, and Ru

  13. Hyphomycetes from soil of an area affected by copper mining activities in the State of Bahia, Brazil Hyphomycetes de solo de uma área de mineração de cobre no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Isabella P.M. Wanderley Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of observing the impact produced by copper-mining activities on soil fungi, samples were collected from an area at the Caraíba Mining, in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This area was divided in six sub-areas: one had native vegetation and was used as control, while the others varied according to degrees of impact. The samples, collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, were submitted to serial dilutions and placed on Petri dishes with Sabouraud medium plus antibiotic. Sixty five species and 16 genera of Hyphomycetes were identified: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphylotrichum, Stilbella and Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Crhysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum and Stilbella sebacea were isolated for the first time in Brazil.Com o objetivo de observar o impacto produzido pelas atividades da mineração de cobre em fungos do solo, amostras foram coletadas de uma área da Mineração Caraíba no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Esta área foi dividida em seis sub-áreas: uma com vegetação nativa, usada como controle enquanto as outras variavam de acordo com os graus de impacto. As amostras, coletadas durante os períodos de estiagem e chuvoso, foram submetidas a diluições sucessivas e colocadas em placas de Petri contendo meio Sabouraud acrescido de antibiótico. Sessenta e cinco espécies e 16 gêneros de Hyphomycetes foram identificados: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphilotricum, Stilbella e Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Chrysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum e

  14. Composição florística e estrutura comunitária da floresta de galeria do córrego da Paciência, Cuiabá, (MT Floristic composition and community structure of a gallery forest along the Córrego da Paciência, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available A floresta de galeria de um dos braços do córrego da Paciência, no sopé da chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso (15º 21'S. 55º 49' W, foi inventariada por meio de 67 parcelas de 30m² (0,201 ha, sendo amosdos os indivíduos com circunferência ao nível do solo > 9cm em três setores da floresta; Nascentes, Vereda e Cachoeira. Foram calculados os parâmetros fitossociológicos das espécies e das famílias botânicas para toda a área amostral e para cada um dos três setores da floresta. Foram obtidas medidas de dissimilaridade florística e estrutural entre os três setores amostrais e medidas de dissimilaridade florística entre a floresta do presente estudo e cinco outras florestas riparias do Distrito Federal e dos estados de São Paulo e Mato Grosso. As seis florestas apresentaram entre si índices muito altos de dissimilaridade florística, embora algumas delas apresentassem espécies em comum entre as mais abundantes. Os três setores amostrais mostraram igualmente uma considerável dessemelhança florística e estrutural entre si. O clima, os solos e a geomcrfologia das bacias hidrográficas são evocados como responsáveis pelas diferenças interregionais entre as florestas riparias. Já as dessemelhanças intrarregionais podem ser atribuídas à fertilidade dos solos e, sobretudo, ao regime de água nos solos e nos próprios rios, os quais, por sua vez, variam com a topografia local. Os padrões de distribuição espacial marcadamente diferentes que podem ser observados para várias espécies de árvores podem ser atribuídos à elevada heterogeneidade ambiental, peculiar às florestas de galeria.The gallery forest which occurs along one of the branches of the Córrego da Paciência, southern Mato Grosso, Brazil (15º 21'S, 55º 49'W, was surveyed by 67 plots of 30m² each (0.201 ha. Individuals > 9cm in circumference at ground level were recorded. Three sites of the forest were sampled: Nascentes, Vereda and Cachoeira

  15. Conservação in vitro de mangabeira da região nordeste do Brasil In vitro conservation of mangaba tree in Northeast Brazil

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    Aline de Jesus Sá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma espécie cujas regiões de ocorrência natural vêm sofrendo grande pressão antrópica, a qual está provocando erosão genética em muitas populações nativas, principalmente da região Nordeste. Em virtude da existência de poucas coleções de mangabeira conservadas ex situ, evidencia-se a importância do desenvolvimento de um método alternativo e complementar para a conservação de germoplasma dessa espécie. A utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos de plantas para a conservação de recursos genéticos apresenta diversas vantagens sobre a conservação de germoplasma no campo, destacando-se a economia de recursos financeiros para a manutenção das coleções, redução de riscos fitossanitários e intempéries climáticas. Por esse motivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de regulador osmótico (manitol e inibidor de crescimento (ácido abscísico na conservação in vitro de microestacas de mangabeira por crescimento lento. As culturas foram mantidas em meio MS com 3% de sacarose e 0,6% de agar. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em sala de crescimento com temperatura variando de 26±2°C, umidade relativa do ar média em torno de 70% e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz branca fria (52µmol m-2 s-1 de irradiância. Foram avaliadas cinco concentrações de manitol (0, 10, 15 e 20g L-1. Na presença de manitol, o comprimento da parte aérea apresentou valores numéricos inferiores à testemunha, mas, aos 90 dias de cultivo in vitro, foi observado efeito deletério do manitol nas microestacas. Em relação ao ácido abscísico, foram testadas cinco concentrações (0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4mg L-1 em interação com dois tipos de vedação de frascos (tampa plástica rosqueada e papel alumínio e dois tipos de explantes (microestacas apicais e basais. O ácido abscísico (0,5mg L 1 apresentou melhores resultados para a conserva

  16. Movimentos sociais e experiência geracional: a vivência da infância no Movimento dos Trabalhadores sem Terra Social movements and generation experience: childhood lived within the Movimento dos Sem Terra/Brazil

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    Luciana Oliveira Correia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta pesquisa etnográfica desenvolvida com crianças moradoras de um acampamento do Movimento dos Sem Terra, em Minas Gerais. Pela observação participante do cotidiano infantil e por meio de entrevistas com crianças, buscou-se apreender os significados da vivência da infância no interior de um movimento social organizado. No escopo deste artigo, no diálogo com os refereciais teórico-metodológicos da sociologia da infância, foram analisadas três das entrevistas realizadas, de forma a destacar a singularidade dos processos socializatórios vividos por tais sujeitos, definidos por duas categorias identitárias: geração e inserção em movimentos sociais. Verifica-se que as crianças, em sua ação coletiva voltada para a atividade do brincar, buscavam interpretar sua experiência coletiva, lançando mão de elementos da cultura infantil, de forma a elaborar o vivido. Ao mesmo tempo, buscavam estabelecer relações com outros universos sociais, tais como a escola, de maneira a construir novos espaços de sociabilidade.This papper describes an etnographical research realized with a group of childs from the Movimento dos Sem Terra of Minas Gerais/Brazil. Using metodologies strategies like participative observation and interviews, we focused the signification of childhood experience inside an organized social movement. According to that, in dialogue with the teorical references of Childhood Sociology, the research analises their identity construction process, considering two central categories: generation and insertion in social movements. The children, in coletive action centered on playing, uses it to interpret their social universe, elaborating their own experience. In other hand, they tried to construct new relations with another social universes, like school, in order to increase their sociabilities.

  17. Avaliação do desenpenho logístico da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes Evaluation of the logistic performance of Brazil's soft drink supply chain

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    Samuel Vieira Conceição

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho logístico de quatro elos da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes (fornecedores de embalagem para refrigerantes, indústria de refrigerantes, atacado e supermercado, adotando como metodologia o survey eletrônico. As repostas foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes estatísticos Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, além de uma análise descritiva dos dados e da realização dos testes de hipótese. As empresas avaliaram o desempenho logístico da cadeia, por meio de indicadores da logística interna e externa, e identificaram a percentagem de uso desses indicadores. A taxa média de respostas foi de 40%. A pesquisa mostrou que os elos da cadeia de refrigerantes utilizam mais os indicadores de desempenho, que avaliam a logística interna, do que os que avaliam a logística externa.An evaluation was made of the logistics performance of four links in Brazil's soft drink supply chain (soft drink packaging suppliers, soft drink industry, wholesalers and supermarkets, based on an electronic survey of 54 companies, from which a 40% response rate was obtained. The answers were analyzed based on the supply chain management theory, using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests and a descriptive analysis of the data. The surveyed companies evaluated the logistic performance of the chain based on indicators selected from a literature review, and identified the percentage of use of these indicators. It was found that the links in the soft drink chain preferentially use internal logistics performance indicators more than external logistics indicators.

  18. Sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento aplicados ao uso da terra em microbacias hidrográficas, Botucatu - SP Remote sensing and gis applied to study the land use in watersheds in Botucatu, Brazil

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    Sérgio Campos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar o uso da terra em dez microbacias ocorrentes na bacia do Rio Capivara, município de Botucatu - SP, a partir da estruturação de um banco de dados utilizando o Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG - IDRISI. Os resultados mostram que as classes de uso da terra, "uso agrícola" e "pastagem", foram as mais significativas, pois ocuparam mais da metade da área das microbacias. O alto índice de uso da terra por pastagens, capoeiras, reflorestamento e matas reflete a predominância de solos arenosos com baixa fertilidade. As imagens obtidas do satélite LANDSAT 5 permitiram o mapeamento do uso da terra de maneira rápida, além de fornecer um excelente banco de dados para futuro planejamento e gerenciamento das atividades agropecuárias regionais. O SIG-IDRISI permitiu identificar, por meio de seus diferentes módulos para georreferenciamento, classificação digital e modelo matemático, as classes de uso da terra com rapidez.This study aimed to identify and quantify the land use in ten watersheds in the Capivara river-basin, in the municipality of Botucatu - SP, Brazil. A database was made using the Geographical Information System - IDRISI. The results showed that the classes of agriculture and pasture were the most significant land use, as they occupied more than half of the area of the watersheds. The high index of land use by pasture, brushwood, reforestation and forests, reflected the predominance of sandy soils with low fertility. The images of the satellite LANDSAT-5 allowed the mapping of the land use in a fast and reliable way. In addition they supplied an excellent database for future planning and management of the regional agricultural activities. GIS - IDRISI allowed the identification, digital classification and mathematical modeling of several areas of land use.

  19. Tendência da sub-notificação de casos no decorrer da epidemia de meningite meningocócica ocorrida no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1971/75 Trends of under-reporting of cases during an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, from 1971 through 1975

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    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available A sub-notificação de casos de meningite no decorrer de uma epidemia de meningite meningocócica foi estudada em uma região do Estado de S. Paulo, Brasil. Os casos conhecidos através dos atestados de óbito (não notificados em vida foram usados como medida indireta da sub-notificação. Esta, que chegou a 37,6% em 1971, caiu para 2,1% em 1975. Foi possível quantificá-la e demonstrar que seguiu uma função exponencial negativa com o tempo. A aplicação da metodologia apresentada, em amostra casual e probabilística, proporcionará um melhor conhecimento da incidência da doença, mais adequado ao estudo da tendência da epidemia, o que permitirá estimar com maior segurança o impacto epidemiológico provocado pelas medidas adotadas para controle da mesma.A study of under-reporting of meningitis in five communities in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, during an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis was undertaken. The number of "cases" (not notified during life achieved through the examination of death records was used as an indirect measure of under-reporting. There was a variation in under-reporting during the epidemic period: it decreased from 37.6% in 1971 to 2.1% in 1975, following a negative exponential pathway, at a measurable rate. The application of the methodology presented in this paper would provide a more accurate knowledge of the incidence of the disease allowing a better interpretation of the trends of the epidemic in order to evaluate the effectiveness of policies adopted to control it.

  20. A reemergência da coqueluche em países desenvolvidos: um problema também para o Brasil? The resurgence of pertussis in developed countries: a problem for Brazil as well?

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    Paula Mendes Luz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a coqueluche representa um crescente problema de saúde pública em países desenvolvidos. Nesses países, a imunização em massa de crianças, iniciada na década de 50, foi seguida por uma brusca diminuição da incidência da doença. Assim, nos anos 70, a coqueluche não representava uma importante ameaça à saúde destas populações. Porém, nas décadas de 80 e 90, ocorreu um aumento do número de casos em todas as faixas etárias, incluindo adolescentes e adultos, indicando a reemergência da coqueluche. Nesta nota objetiva-se apresentar as possíveis causas para esta reemergência e discutir perspectivas para a dinâmica da doença no Brasil. No momento, ainda não existem evidências de reemergência da coqueluche no país. No entanto, como a vacinação em massa no Brasil foi iniciada apenas na década de 80, não se pode descartar a hipótese de uma futura reemergência da doença. Assim, é importante que serviços de vigilância e controle de doenças monitorem a situação epidemiológica da coqueluche para que, se necessário, estejam preparados para reformular as estratégias de imunização.Pertussis is currently considered an important public health problem in developed countries. In most of these countries, mass immunization for pertussis was initiated in the 1950s and was followed by a marked decrease in disease incidence. In the 1970s, pertussis was apparently under control in countries were vaccine coverage was maintained high. However, in the last two decades of the 20th century, the number of reported cases increased in all age groups, including adolescents and adults, indicating resurgence of the disease. This brief note aims to present the possible reasons for resurgence of this disease and to discuss the prospects of its future dynamics in Brazil. There has been no evidence to date for the resurgence of pertussis in Brazil. However, since mass immunization in Brazil began only in the 1980s, one cannot

  1. Condições de trabalho e saúde dos professores da rede particular de ensino de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brasil Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil

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    Núria Serre Delcor

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A literatura científica sobre a saúde dos professores é escassa e recente, enfocando especialmente o desgaste e estresse. Este trabalho objetivou descrever as condições de trabalho e saúde dos professores da rede particular de ensino da cidade de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brasil. Num questionário auto-aplicado foram coletadas informações de 250 professores de dez escolas. Entre as características do trabalho docente, avaliadas pelo Job Content Questionnaire, destacaram-se ritmo acelerado de trabalho, ser criativo e ter boas relações com as pessoas no trabalho. As queixas de saúde mais freqüentes estavam relacionadas à postura corporal, à saúde mental e a queixas relacionadas à voz. A prevalência de distúrbios psíquicos menores (DPM, medida pelo Self Reporting Questionnaire-20, foi de 41,5% e estava fortemente associada a longos períodos de intensa concentração em uma mesma tarefa e volume excessivo de trabalho. Os resultados sugerem relação entre a prevalência de DPM e algumas características do trabalho docente, evidenciando desgaste psicológico do educador.The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of

  2. Caracterização e desempenho logístico das indústrias laticinistas da Zona da Mata e Campo das Vertentes em Minas Gerais, Brasil Characterization and logistics performance of dairy industries located at Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Alexandre Navarro da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a atividade logística nas empresas do setor laticinista atuantes nas regiões Zona da Mata e Campo das Vertentes no estado de Minas Gerais, foram promovidas pesquisas com 40 indústrias que representam o setor avaliado. Os questionários respondidos pela gerência das empresas continha variáveis que possibilitaram caracterizar as empresas quanto à sua produção, logística de captação e distribuição, gestão interna, além de mercado e comercialização. O uso da análise estatística multivariada fatorial foi de grande relevância ao possibilitar a construção de um índice que representou o desempenho logístico de cada uma das empresas, sendo também utilizada para realizar o agrupamento dessas indústrias em 4 grupos que continham características similares. O índice logístico (IL mostrou que as empresas estudadas da região precisam melhorar as atividades que constituíram sua medida, a fim de tornar os aspectos logísticos um meio de vantagem competitiva. Além disso, os grupos formados também possibilitaram avaliar que não é suficiente atuar na melhoria de apenas uma parte das atividades logísticas, mas sim no conjunto de variáveis que pode influenciar positivamente no resultado final no quesito competitividade e liderança logística.In order to evaluate the logistics activity in the dairy companies operating in Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes in Minas Gerais, Brazil a research has been promoted on 40 industries that represent the sector assessed. The questionnaire answered by company employees, contained variables that allowed obtaining information about company identification, gathering and distribution logistics, internal management, marketing and commercialization. Factorial statistical analysis was very important to enable the construction of an index representing the logistics performance of each company and was also used to perform the grouping of these industries into 4 groups containing

  3. PROBABILITY OF PRECIPITATION FOR THE MICROREGION OF TANGARÁ DA SERRA, MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL PROBABILIDADE DE PRECIPITAÇÃO PARA A MICROREGIÃO DE TANGARÁ DA SERRA, ESTADO DO MATO GROSSO

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    Admar Júnior Coletti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Due to the irregular occurrence of rainfall in Brazilian Savannas, associated with a vast range of models that aim to evaluate it, this study was carried out to estimate the monthly amount of rainfall, at different probability levels, in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, by using the Gamma function. Pluviometric data from 1970 to 2007 (38 years, provided by the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA, collected in a pluviometric station located at 14°37’55”S, 57°28’05”W, and 488 m of altitude, were used. The adjustment analysis between estimated and observed data was carried out in accordance with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov adherence test, at 5% of significance, resulting in no significant differences for monthly periods, including those with several values equal or close to zero, allowing the Gamma distribution use. The highest expected monthly precipitation levels took place from November to March (rainy season, while from June to August were noticed the lowest ones (dry period. The other months can be considered as intermediaries between the dry and rainy seasons.

    KEY-WORDS: Gamma distribution; expected precipitation; agricultural planning.

    Devido à irregularidade na ocorrência de chuvas na região dos

  4. Eating disorders among health science students at a university in southern Brazil Transtornos alimentares em universitárias da área da saúde de universidade do sul do Brasil

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    Luiza do Nascimento Ghizoni Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze eating disorders among female university students and to assess the frequency of bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and inappropriate weight loss strategies in this population. METHODS: The sample comprised 214 female university students attending different health science programs at a university in southern Brazil, aged over 18 years, assessed using self-administered questionnaires. The 26-item version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE, and a supplementary questionnaire covering data on weight status and inappropriate weight loss strategies were used to assess dietary abnormalities. RESULTS: Mean age (± standard deviation was 21±9.93 years, and mean body mass index (BMI was 21.1±2.59. Among the respondents, 72.9% said they would like to weigh less, 29% reported the use of different weight loss methods (diuretics were the most common, followed by laxatives, amphetamine-derived drugs, and self-induced vomiting. With regard to EAT-26 scores, 22.4% (95%CI 17.7-27.1 revealed abnormal feeding patterns; BITE indicated that 9.8% (95%CI 6.5-13.1 were at risk for developing bulimia and 36.9% (95%CI 31.5-42.3 required clinical evaluation. Mean BMI was lower among students with normal scores on both tests, but no association was found between BMI and satisfaction with own weight. CONCLUSION: There was a strong trend toward eating disorders in the health science students assessed, as demonstrated by EAT-26 and BITE scores; inadequate weight loss strategies are frequently used as well.OBJETIVOS: Analisar a presença de transtornos alimentares em universitárias e avaliar a frequência dos quadros de bulimia, anorexia nervosa e estratégias inadequadas para emagrecimento na amostra estudada. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 214 universitárias matriculadas em diferentes cursos da área da saúde em uma universidade do sul do Brasil, com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos; a avaliação se

  5. Avaliação da educação superior no Brasil: os antecedentes históricos do SINAES Evaluation of higher education in Brazil: the historical precedents of SINAES

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    Carla Busato Zandavalli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explicita, por meio da análise documental e da literatura da área da educação, os antecedentes da avaliação da educação superior no Brasil, abrangendo o período de 1960 a 1990, que subsidiam o entendimento do atual Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Superior. Os documentos analisados demonstram que as políticas públicas que vêm sendo desenvolvidas para a educação superior, nas últimas décadas, foram traçadas inicialmente nos anos de 1960, sob a influência do Banco Mundial, em nome da "modernização" das universidades e o alinhamento entre as bases políticas e econômicas do Estado brasileiro e as necessidades do sistema capitalista. Destacam-se, no Plano Atcon, desenvolvido em 1968: o autofinanciamento das instituições públicas de ensino superior por meio de sua transformação em uma empresa rentável, com gestão centralizada e ausência da participação da comunidade acadêmica em sua organização; a necessidade de organização e manutenção de estatísticas educacionais dignas de confiança para subsidiar a gestão; a flexibilização dos modelos de ensino. Os demais documentos analisados expressam o embate de forças entre parcela da comunidade acadêmica das instituições de educação superior, que buscam a oferta do ensino, da pesquisa e extensão com qualidade para todos, e a ação desmobilizadora e centralizadora do Estado, que, a partir dos anos de 1990, acentua o desenvolvimento de políticas neoliberais e toma a avaliação como processo essencialmente mercadológico e regulatório, esvaziando a dimensão formativa e emancipatória da autoavaliação.This essay explains, by means of documental analysis as well as the analysis of the literature in the educational field, the precedents of the evaluation of higher education in Brazil, covering the period from 1960 to 1990 which subsidize the comprehension of the current Higher Education Evaluation System. The analyzed documents show that the

  6. Antimicrobial activity of fractions of red propolis from Alagoas, Brazil Atividade antimicrobiana de frações da própolis vermelha de Alagoas, Brasil

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    Denise Wanderlei Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The red propolis is a new type of propolis founded in Brazil with large biological action. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of hexane, chloroform and acetanolica of propolis from the apiary of the state of Alagoas. The microbial strains used were: Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract showed activity against Gram-positive strains (100%, Gram-negative (62.5% and fungi (100% with efficiency against 76.9% of all the analyzed strains. The hexanic fraction showed efficiency against 76.9% as observed with the ethanolic extract, though the chloroform fraction showed activity against 92.3% of the strains analyzed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the only resistant species. The ethyl acetate was the fraction that showed the best antimicrobial activity with efficiency against 100% of all strains analized. Excellent results were observed to Candida albicans mainly with ethyl acetate fraction with the value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC similar to those observed to Gram-positives bacteria. We concluded that the partitions of red propolis showed excellent antimicrobial activity mainly against Gram-positive microorganisms and Candida albicans. Furthermore, we observed the ethyl acetate fraction stood out as a promissory biotechnological product. A própolis vermelha, como é conhecida popularmente, é uma própolis recentemente encontrada no Brasil e tem potente ação biológica. O presente trabalho avaliou a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico e das frações hexânica, clorofórmica e acetanólica da própolis proveniente de apiário do estado de Alagoas. As linhagens microbianas utilizadas foram: Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus

  7. Orchidaceae da Reserva Ecológica do Guará, DF, Brasil Orchidaceae of the Reserva Ecológica do Guará, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    João Aguiar Nogueira Batista

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada uma relação de Orchidaceae para a Reserva Ecológica do Guará, pequena unidade de conservação com 194 ha, localizada no Distrito Federal, na região central do Brasil. São registrados 44 gêneros, 100 espécies e cinco táxons subespecíficos. Os grupos mais bem representados são o gênero Habenaria (32 táxons, a subtribo Spiranthinae (seis gêneros e 14 táxons e o gênero Cyrtopodium (sete espécies. Do total de táxons da Reserva, 80 (76% são terrestres e 22 (21% são epifíticos. Nas fitofisionomias florestais ocorrem 42 táxons, distribuídos segundo um gradiente vertical de umidade e luminosidade. Nas fitofisionomias campestres ocorrem 63 táxons, distribuídos segundo um gradiente horizontal de umidade que vai do campo limpo inundável ao campo sujo seco e cerrado. O campo limpo inundável e o campo limpo estacionalmente úmido, com 42 táxons, são as fitofisionomias com o maior número de táxons. Para todo o bioma cerrado, a Reserva Ecológica do Guará, embora com área pequena, representa a localidade conhecida com maior número de táxons de Orchidaceae. Considerando o conhecimento atual, a Reserva Ecológica do Guará rivaliza ou mesmo sobrepuja, em número de táxons, outras áreas consideradas ricas em diversidade para a família e pertencentes a outros biomas.A floristic survey of the Orchidaceae of the Reserva Ecológica do Guará, a small conservation unit with 194 ha located in the Distrito Federal, central Brazil, is presented. Forty four genera, 100 species, and five subspecific taxa are recorded for the Reserve. The most representative groups are the genus Habenaria (32 taxa, subtribe Spiranthinae (six genera and 14 taxa and the genus Cyrtopodium (seven species. Of these, 80 (76% are terrestrials, while 22 (21% are epiphytic. Forty two taxa occur in forest physiognomies, where they are distributed according to vertical gradient of light and humidity. In grassland physiognomies occur 63 taxa

  8. Perspectives of coal power generation at Brazil in the horizon 2010-2030; Perspectivas da geracao termeletrica a carvao no Brasil no horizonte 2010-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Edmar Antunes de

    2009-06-15

    Coal is the fossil fuel with the largest world reserves spread over 70 countries. It is also the main source of power generation in the world accounting for 40% of electric power generation. In Brazil, however, this fuel has an inexpressive share in power generation. In spite of that, national energy security issues, relative low fuel prices and price stability can make this option economically attractive. On the other hand, present environment issues require a search for social and environment responsible solutions, following the sustainable development. Thus, this dissertation's main objective is to present the perspectives of coal power generation in Brazil showing the technologies that seek a reduction of its impacts over the environment as well as an economic evaluation of these options. As it will be shown, coal does not have yet an important paper at the power generation in Brazil in the analyzed horizon due to its characteristics, which can change in a later time. (author)

  9. DIAGNOSIS OF THE WATER QUALITY OF JAGUARI-MIRIM RIVER, AT COUNTY OF SÃO JOÃO DA BOA VISTA, STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    Gerson de Araujo Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources degradation in urban areas is one of the causes of the water scarcity in several brazilian watersheds. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the quality of the water of Jaguari-Mirim river in the region of the county of São João da Boa Vista, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The points of sample were located to upstream and to downstream of the urban area of São João da Boa Vista. The quality of the water was evaluated monthly, during the period of April to August of 2007, when determined itself the following chemical, physical and microbiological parameters: oxygen dissolved, biochemical demand of oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, turbidez, total phosphorus, amoniacal nitrogen, nitrate, total and thermotolerant coliforms and Escherishia coli. The results showed that the water quality of the Jaguari Mirim river got worse after urban area of the São João da Boa Vista. However, only the phosphorus concentration has exceeded the limit established by the Resolution CONAMA 357/05 for rivers of class two. The results accused the presence of total coliforms and Escherishia coli in all of the samples collected, indicating microbiological pollution.

  10. O envolvimento da comunidade rural de Cássia dos Coqueiros (São Paulo, Brasil em programas de saúde The engagement of the rural community of Cassia dos Coqueiros County (S. Paulo State, Brazil in health programs

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    Nagib Haddad

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se trabalho realizado no município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, (São Paulo, Brasil, para envolvimento da comunidade em programas de saúde, através da criação de uma entidade associativa, congregando lideres naturais, a ela atribuindo-se responsabilidades na execução de algumas tarefas comunitárias desses programas. Comentam-se os resultados alcançados no desenvolvimento de programas de educação sanitária, de uma campanha para construção de fossas secas, na qual a entidade associativa responsabilizou-se pela sua execução; e na melhoria de relacionamento e freqüência da população ao atendimento do posto médico local.The engagement of the rural community of Cassia dos Coqueiros (S. Paulo State, Brazil in health programs with the creation of an association entity congregating people with leadership is presented. Responsibilities for execution of some community tasks of these programs were given to the partnership. The results achieved in the development of health education programs are commented. A program of construction of pit privies was developed on the sponsorship of the association entity with good results. Improvement of the frequency of health examination and of the relationship of the people with the local health center is also commented.

  11. Políticas e gestão da educação básica no Brasil: limites e perspectivas Policies for and management of basic education in Brazil: limits and perspectives

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    Luiz Fernandes Dourado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o cenário político e pedagógico em que se realizam as políticas direcionadas à gestão da educação básica, buscando explicitar concepções, ações e programas governamentais, bem como suas interfaces com a suposta qualidade preconizada para esse nível de ensino no Brasil. Nesta perspectiva, ao analisar tais políticas e programas no contexto de reforma do Estado, indica os limites e perspectivas desse processo, sob a ótica da construção de novos parâmetros para a qualidade e gestão democrática da escola pública.This paper approaches the political and pedagogical scenario in which the policies directed to manage basic education take place. It seeks to explicit the government's conceptions, actions and programs and their interfaces with the supposed quality advocated for this teaching level in Brazil. When analyzing these policies and programs in the context of the reform of the State, it thus points out the limits and perspectives of this process in order to allow building new parameters for the quality and democratic management of public school.

  12. Grupos tróficos de peixes demersais da plataforma continental interna de Ubatuba, Brasil: I. Chondrichthyes Throphic groups of demersal fish community from the continental shelf: Ubatuba, Brazil. I. Chrondrichthyes

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    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de detectar grupos tróficos, foram analisadas amostras de conteúdos estomacais de sete espécies de peixes cartilaginosos. Os exemplares foram coletados no período de Outubro/85 a Julho/87 na plataforma interna de Ubatuba, SP, Brasil (da costa, até a isóbata de 50 m. A importância dos itens alimentares foi analisada através da freqüência numérica (FN e da freqüência de ocorrência (FO. As espécies foram agrupadas em três grupos distintos: Piscívoros: Squalus cubensis; comedores de peixes e crustáceos bentônicos: Raja castelnaui, Raja cyclophora, Raja agassizi; comedores de invertebrados bentônicos: Psammobatis glansdissimilis, Rhinobatos horkelii, Zapteryx brevirostris.Stomach contents of seven cartilaginous fish species were analysed with the aim to detect trophic groups. Sampling was effectuated between October/85 and July/87 off the coast of Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brazil in waters up 50 m depth. The relative importance of different components of the diet was expressed as a percentage frequency of occurrence and percentage number. The seven species were grouped in: fish feeders - Squalus cubensis; benthonic crustacean and fish feeders - Raja castelnaui, Raja cyclophora, Raja agassizi; benthonic invertebrate feeders - Rhinobatos horkelii, Zapteryx brevirostris, Psammobatis glansdissimilis.

  13. Comunitarismo, sociedade civil e a reforma da educação na era FHC (1995-2002/Communitarianism, civil society and the education reforms in Brazil during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso government (1995-2002

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    Sidney Reinaldo da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a relação entre as reformas da educação e a concepção de sociedde civil na era FHC, a partir de uma crítica ao comunitarismo. Apontamos que a concepção de formação humana pressuposta nas reformas do período em questão, voltada para a aprendizagem do trade off econômico e moral (ajudar os pobres como forma de compensar os benefícios recebidos pela sociedade, como o emprego, bolsas de estudos coaduna-se com o neoliberalismo e com o reforço da histórica cisão “moral” da sociedade brasileira. This paper argues the relationship between education reforms and the civil society conception in Brazil during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso government (1995-2002. We analizes the communitarian people moral formation conception of such reforms showing how it harmonises with the neoliberal values like the exigence of the apprenticeship of the economic and moral trade-off: the market rationality. But such a trend does not help the brazilian people eliminate his historical moral cision grounded on deep economic inequalities conected with an “imoral” social subornination even for liberal values.

  14. A mundialização da educação: neoliberalismo e social-democracia no Brasil e na Venezuela The globalization of education: neoliberalism and social democracy in Brazil and Venezuela

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    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como objetivo apresentar características do processo de mundialização da educação, considerado um dos elementos de uma nova fase de internacionalização e acumulação capitalistas conduzida hegemonicamente pelos sujeitos políticos coletivos que assumem o projeto neoliberal de sociabilidade - especialmente o Fundo Monetário Internacional (FMI e o Banco Mundial (BM, condutores das reformas estruturais para a América Latina e o Caribe - definindo as conseqüências da consolidação deste projeto para a redefinição das políticas educacionais na região, especificamente no Brasil e na Venezuela, a partir da década de 1980.This article intends to introduce a few characteristics of the process of globalization of education, considered one of the elements of the new phase of capitalist internationalization and accumulation which has been put through hegemonically by collective political actors that adopted the neoliberal project of sociability (especially the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank, the conductors of structural reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article also describes the consequences of this project's implementation on educational policies of the region, specifically Brazil and Venezuela, from the 80's until now.

  15. REESTRUTURAÇÃO PRODUTIVA NO BRASIL: UM BALANÇO CRÍTICO INTRODUTÓRIO DA PRODUÇÃO BIBLIOGRÁFICA PRODUCTIVE RESTRUCTURING IN BRAZIL: AN INTRODUCTORY CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC PRODUCTION

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    Paulo Sergio Tumolo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfica acerca da reestruturação produtiva no Brasil, abrangendo as mais diversas áreas do conhecimento correlatas -- sociologia do trabalho, economia do trabalho, economia política, administração de empresas, educação e trabalho, engenharia. Com esta base, procura apreender, apesar de todos os limites, como vem se conformando tal fenômeno neste país e aponta que, no contexto do novo padrão de acumulação de capital, sua principal característica é a intensificação da exploração sobre a força de trabalho. Ao mesmo tempo, empreende uma análise crítica da referida bibliografia, buscando indicar seus limites explicativos.Encompassing various fields of knowledge - sociology of labor, economy of labor, political economy, company administration, education and work and engineering -, this text presents the findings of a bibliographic research on the productive restructuring in Brazil. It then seeks to apprehend, despite all the limits, how such a phenomenon took place in the country and points out that, in the context of the new order of capital accumulation, its main characteristic is the intensification of the labor force exploitation. At the same time, it proposes a critical review of the concerned bibliography, pointing out the limits of its accounts.

  16. Avaliação da assistência à saúde da mulher e da criança em localidade urbana da região Sudeste do Brasil Evaluating mother-and-child health care in Brazil

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    Sílvia R Santos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar os cuidados primários prestados à população materno-infantil e contribuir para a avaliação da assistência integral a esse grupo. MÉTODOS: Inquérito populacional realizado por entrevistas, no principal posto de vacinação do Município de Teresópolis, RJ, no Dia Nacional de Vacinação, que abrangeu questões sobre utilização de serviços de saúde e prestação de cuidados primários preventivos. RESULTADOS: Foram colhidas informações de 329 crianças e suas respectivas mães. Mais de 90% das crianças haviam comparecido à consulta pediátrica nos três meses anteriores e quase todas possuíam o cartão da criança, embora em 30% desses cartões não havia qualquer peso registrado no período. Observou-se associação positiva entre consulta de puericultura e registro de peso no cartão da criança (RP = 1,34; IC: 1,13-1,58; p = 0,0002. Cerca de 59% das mães compareceram à consulta de revisão de parto, mas 25% referiram nunca ter feito exame colpocitológico-oncótico e 36% nunca haviam realizado exame de mama. Observou-se associação positiva entre a idade materna acima de 20 anos e a realização de algum exame colpocitológico-oncótico durante a vida reprodutiva (RP = 1,56; IC: 1,08-2,26; p = 0,03. Quase 70% das mães relataram uso de algum método anticoncepcional, principalmente pílula, condom e laqueadura tubária. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de algumas limitações, os resultados sugerem a viabilidade da metodologia utilizada, permitindo a identificação de deficiências importantes na prestação de cuidados primários de saúde para crianças e principalmente para mães.OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze primary health care provided to mother-and-child population in Teresópolis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: A population survey was performed at the main vaccination station on the local Vaccine National Day, to collect information about the use of health care services and

  17. Contribuição à biologia de serpentes da Bahia, Brasil: I. vivíparas Contribution to reproductive biology of snakes in Bahia, Brazil: I. viviparous

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    Rejane Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Great part of lhe avaiable data about snakes reprodution refers to species coming from subtropical and temperate regions. In Brazil, the data is rather rare and can be found in various works where information is restricted. Results from studies developed with five viviparous snakes - Crotalus durissus cascavella (Wagler, 1824. Bothrops erythromelas(Amaral, 1923, B. leucurus (Wagler, 1824, Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1873 and Thamnodynastes strigilis (Thiinberg, 1787 - which come from the Northeast of Brazil (Bahia are described. Data about pregnancy and birth, number, sex ratio, length and weight of neonates is given and discussed.

  18. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton; Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.). In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W) and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the gr...

  19. Financiamento e gasto público da educação básica no Brasil e comparações com alguns países da OCDE e América Latina Public funding and expenditures on basic education in Brazil and comparisons with some OECD and Latin American countries

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    Jorge Abrahão

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o financiamento e gasto público voltados à educação básica no Brasil e de alguns países da Organização de Cooperação para o Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE e América Latina, de forma a se ter um quadro comparativo. Para isso, mostram-se a atual estrutura de financiamento da educação brasileira e seus principais problemas e os dados do gasto público na área de educação no período de 1995 a 2002. Além disso, apresentam-se dados e indicadores de financiamento e gasto público na área de educação para o Brasil em comparação com alguns países que participam da OCDE e da América Latina.This paper looks into public funding and expenditures directed to Basic Education in Brazil and some countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation Development (OCDE and Latin America, so as to build a comparative situation of expenditures. It thus presents the current funding structure of the Brazilian educational system and its main problems as well as data of public expenditures on education between 1995- 002. Moreover, these data and indicators of public funding and expenditures on education in Brazil are contrasted with those of some OCDE and Latin American countries.

  20. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae of Serra da Cantareira, Greater São Paulo Metropolitan region, state of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos ecológicos da fauna flebotomínea (Diptera, Psychodidae da Serra da Cantareira, Região metropolitana da Grande São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    José Carlos Moschin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/white Shannon traps in the peridomicile. A total of 12 species and 5,436 sandflies were captured: with automatic light traps (141, Shannon traps (5,219 and attempting to bite the researchers while they were conducting the collection in Shannon traps (76. Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei were the most abundant species. Pi. fischeri predominated in all three kinds of captures (49%, 88.8% and 65.8%, respectively. Mg. migonei was the second most prevalent in Shannon traps (10.0% and attempting to bite the researchers (22.4%. Pi. fischeri females were significantly more attracted to black and those of Mg. migonei to white Shannon traps. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the numbers of Pi. fischeri and the mean of minimum relative humidity values on the fifteen days prior to capture, while there was a negative and significant correlation between the relative humidity on the capture day and the two most abundant species. The anthropophilia and high frequencies of Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei suggest that both species may be transmitting ACL agents in this region.Casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA têm sido registrados na Serra da Cantareira, região da Grande São Paulo, onde se situam o Parque Estadual da Cantareira e o Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. O estudo teve como objetivo

  1. Ecologia da paisagem: mapeamento da vegetação da Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brasil Landscape ecology: vegetation map of the Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brazil

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    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o mapeamento da vegetação da Reserva Biológica (REBIO Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, por meio de fotointerpretação analógica, em escala 1:30.000. O mapa foi digitalizado e transferido para computador pelo sistema de informação geográfica (Idrisi e posteriormente para o programa Corel Draw. Foram identificadas, mapeadas e descritas oito unidades de paisagem (UP sendo três antrópicas (solo exposto, campo antrópico e reflorestamento homogêneo e cinco naturais (floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - microfanerófitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - mesofanerófitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel emergente; floresta estacional semidecidual aluvial dossel emergente e refúgio montano arbustivo. As unidades naturais somaram 98,46% do total dos 2.071,20 ha da área, indicando que a Reserva vem cumprindo seu papel na preservação do ecossistema em questão. No entanto, como algumas unidades não tem expressiva representatividade na área, e como existe grande extensão de floresta no entorno da Reserva, sugere-se a ampliação e a transformação da mesma em uma unidade que contemple inclusive a visitação pública como forma de auxiliar no processo de conservação. Sugere-se que a área seja transformada em parque estadual, cujo nome poderia ser Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.It was realized the vegetation map of the Reserva Biológica Municipal da Serra do Japi, at Jundiaí, São Paulo State, by analogical photointerpretation, on the scale 1:30.000. The map was digitized and changed to computer by the geographical information system - Idrisi, and then to the Corel Draw program. Eight landscape units, three anthropic - bare earth, anthropic prairie, homogeneous reforestation, and five natural units - mountainseasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and microphanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and

  2. Diretrizes curriculares para o curso de pedagogia no Brasil: a gestão da educação como gérmen da formação Curriculum guidelines for pedagogy course in Brazil: the administration of the education as source of training

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    Naura Syria Carapeto Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as Diretrizes Curriculares para o Curso de Pedagogia exaradas pelo Conselho Nacional de Educação. Discute algumas questões de princípio e de concepção sobre as políticas de formação de profissionais da educação nas diretrizes e a gestão da educação que se constitui o gérmen de sua formação. Toma-se como referência a tese de que a relevante e inquestionável importância da formação do profissional da educação se situa na responsabilidade e no compromisso da formação para a cidadania, como reza a Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil e a Carta Magna da Educação Brasileira. É este o compromisso da gestão da educação exercida pelo professor se fazendo em ação na sala de aula, por conter "em gérmen" o espírito e o conteúdo do projeto político e pedagógico que expressa os compromissos e o norte da escola por meio da gestão do ensino, da gestão da classe, da gestão das relações, da gestão do processo de aquisição do conhecimento, enfim, da gestão da formação para a cidadania. Tal concepção perpassa, de forma implícita e explícita, todo o texto das diretrizes.This article analyzes the Curriculum Guidelines for the Pedagogy Course, which were developed by the National Council of Education. It discusses some conception and principle issues on the strategies of the training of education professionals according to these Guidelines and the administration of education that is the source of such training. Its reference is the theory according to which the relevant and unquestionable importance of the training of education professionals is placed under the responsibility and commitment of citizenship training, as stated in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and in the Charter of Brazilian Education. This is the commitment of the education administration exercised by the teacher acting in classrooms. It contains the spirit and the contents of the pedagogic

  3. Avaliação da gestão descentralizada da assistência farmacêutica básica em municípios baianos, Brasil Evaluation of decentralized management of basic pharmaceutical care in Bahia State, Brazil

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    Joslene Lacerda Barreto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo avalia a gestão descentralizada da assistência farmacêutica no âmbito municipal do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Parte-se do pressuposto de que seus fatores condicionantes decorrem principalmente de uma visão tecnicista e procedimental que ainda prevalece sobre a assistência farmacêutica. Utilizaram-se duas estratégias de pesquisa: uma extensiva, realizada a partir da aplicação do Protocolo de Indicadores construído pelo Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Assistência Farmacêutica (NEPAF da Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal da Bahia em dois municípios baianos. A coleta de dados foi feita com questionários, formulário (check list e análise de documentos. Na fase intensiva utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas com informantes-chave. Os resultados confirmam os pressupostos revelando práticas de gestão reduzidas à sua dimensão operacional, com ênfase em aspectos do ciclo logístico da assistência farmacêutica. Identificaram-se avanços, ainda tímidos, na dimensão organizacional e da sustentabilidade voltadas para fomentar maior participação e autonomia da gestão da assistência farmacêutica municipal.This article analyzes the decentralized management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal (local level in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The working hypothesis is that conditioning factors for such management results mainly from an essentially technical and procedures-based approach that still prevails in pharmaceutical care. Two research strategies were used: an extensive strategy, based on the Protocol of Indicators developed by the Nucleus for Studies and Research in Pharmaceutical Care (NEPAF at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University in Bahia, in two Bahian municipalities. Data were collected with questionnaires, a checklist, and document analysis. The intensive phase used semi-structured interviews with key informants. The findings confirm the initial premises, detecting management practices

  4. Magnitude da desnutrição infantil no Estado do Amazonas/AM - Brasil Magnitude of infantile malnutrition in Amazonas State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Helio Alencar; Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama; Eliana Figueiredo Rodrigues; Arinete Veras Fontes Esteves; Margareth Maria de Barros Mendonça; Wládia de Albuquerque Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nesta revisão foi quantificada a ocorrência da desnutrição infantil em pré-escolares dos diferentes ecossistemas do Amazonas na última década. Foram incluídos os trabalhos que adotaram como parâmetro diagnóstico os critérios da OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde) (1986) e o padrão do NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics) (1977). O universo estudado ficou representado por 4.030 pré-escolares, sendo 1.751 oriundos da área metropolitana de Manaus-AM, e 2.279 da área rural. Evidenciou-se co...

  5. Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza

    2007-06-15

    This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)

  6. A influência da instituição na internacionalização das vinícolas no Brasil Institution’s influence in the internationalization of the wineries in Brazil

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    Cyntia Vilasboas Calixto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da competição internacional no mercado de vinhos do Brasil levou as vinícolas brasileiras a questionar sua estratégia e a buscar o mercado externo como alternativa para manter sua competitividade. Este artigo visou a compreender a influência das instituições no processo de internacionalização das vinícolas da Serra Gaúcha. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de caso com aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas junto aos representantes do Projeto Wines of Brasil e quatro vinícolas associadas ao projeto, além de pesquisa documental. O Projeto Setorial Integrado Wines of Brasil surgiu de uma iniciativa do Instituto Brasileiro do Vinho (IBRAVIN e da Agência de Promoção à Exportação (APEX na busca da promoção do vinho brasileiro no exterior. Toda a estrutura institucional desenvolvida propiciou o fomento da internacionalização das vinícolas da região, implicando um maior reconhecimento dos vinhos nacionais, não só no exterior, mas também no Brasil, por meio do aumento do volume de exportações e do número de exportadores envolvidos no negócio. Ao analisar as teorias de internacionalização baseadas nas abordagens comportamental e econômica-racional, percebeu-se que nenhuma era capaz de explicar completamente a ação desenvolvida pelas vinícolas com vistas ao mercado externo, necessitando ampliar o escopo de análise. Todavia, constatou-se a relevância do ambiente institucional em nível nacional para alavancar o processo de internacionalização das vinícolas que aderiram ao projeto, mesmo que estejam presentes limitações nos domínios normativo e regulatório em que os agentes estão inseridos.The rise on international competition in the wine market in Brazil led Brazilian wineries to analyze their strategies and reach foreign markets as an alternative to reinforce their competitiveness. This case study aimed to comprehend the influence of institutions in the internationalization process of the

  7. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos das neoplasias cerebrais na faixa etária pediátrica no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Clinical epidemiological aspects of cerebral neoplams in childhood in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    NAYARA ARGOLLO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo descrever aspectos relevantes da clínica e da epidemiologia das neoplasias cerebrais em crianças entre 1 e 15 anos, no Estado da Bahia, primeiro semestre de 1995. Utilizou-se desenho de corte transversal para o levantamento de todos os casos novos e preexistentes de neoplasia cerebral diagnosticados através da neuroimagem entre todas as crianças que realizaram estes exames. Em 2 128 exames foram diagnosticados 48 casos de neoplasia cerebral, sendo 19 deles incidentes. A prevalência no estudo clínico-epidemiológico foi de 2,3% e a incidência de 0,9%. Predominou o sexo masculino (1,4:1, a faixa etária de 10-15 anos (65%, para os casos prevalentes. A faixa etária de 1 a 4 anos foi a predominante nos casos incidentes. O astrocitoma foi o mais frequente (41% e a localização supratentorial predominou com 52%. O grupo sintomatológico ataxia e/ou paralisia dos nervos cranianos e o de distúrbios endócrinos e/ou visuais foram os mais prevalentes (82% e 43%, respectivamente. Discutimos a predominância da localização supratentorial e da faixa etária de adolescentes nas neoplasias cerebrais da infância.The aim of this study is to describe the relevant aspects of the medical treatment and epidemiology of brain tumors in children between 1 and 15 years old in the State of Bahia, Brazil, first semester of 1995. A cross-sectional design was used for the survey of all new cases and preexisting cases of brain tumors diagnosed through neuroimage among all the children who completed these examinations. Forty eight out of 2 128 were diagnosed as brain tumors, 19 of which being incident cases. In the clinical epidemiological study, the prevalence was 2.3 percent, and the incidence was 0.9 percent. In the prevalent cases, males predominated (1.4:1, and the average age of 10-15 years old (65 %. Among the 1-4 years old group predominated incident cases. The astrocytoma was the most frequent brain tumor (41%, and the

  8. Saúde da família: mudando práticas? Estudo de caso no município de Natal (RN Family health: changing practices? A case study in the city of Natal (RN, Brazil

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    Marize Barros de Souza Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, representa um estudo de caso qualitativo, cuja unidade de análise é a equipe de Saúde do Programa Saúde da Família do município de Natal (RN. Tem como objetivos analisar as concepções dos profissionais sobre a prática do trabalho em equipe e reconhecer nessas práticas elementos que contribuam para a efetiva mudança do modelo de saúde hegemônico. Partiu-se da definição e tipologia de equipe de saúde elaborada por Peduzzi (1998, como principal fundamentação teórica. O estudo foi realizado em seis unidades de saúde da família, nos distritos sanitários Norte e Oeste. Esses serviços foram selecionados de acordo com critérios preestabelecidos. Foi utilizada como método para coleta dos dados empíricos a entrevista semi-estruturada com as equipes de saúde da família. Para análise do material empírico, utilizou-se o discurso do sujeito coletivo proposto por Lefèvre e Lefèvre (2003. Os resultados apontam para um predomínio da equipe do tipo integração. O trabalho em equipe surge como elemento essencial para o desenvolvimento da Estratégia de Saúde da Família.This article presents a qualitative case study where the unit of analysis was the Family Health Program team of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. The objectives were to analyze the conceptualizations of the professionals regarding teamwork as well as to identify in these practices the elements that contribute to an effective change in the hegemonic health model. The study was based on the Peduzzi (1998 typology and definition of health team and was conducted in six family health units in the North and East health districts selected by a pre-established criteria. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview applied in family health teams, which were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse proposed by Lefèvre and Lefèvre (2003. The results indicate a predominance of an integrated team type, and also that teamwork is an

  9. Prevalência da imunodeficiência severa combinada em cavalos da raça Árabe em plantéis de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Prevalence of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo-Brazil

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    C.S. Teixeira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram genotipados 205 cavalos da raça Árabe, criados nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo, via DNA por meio de PCR, para determinação da presença do gene mutante SCID. Os resultados mostraram 98,5% de animais normais (202/205 e 1,5% de portadores (3/205. Pela análise da genealogia dos portadores identificados pode-se, ainda, confirmar a participação de um garanhão anteriormente identificado como provável disseminador da doença.In the present study, 205 Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, were genotyped using the PCR technique. The results showed 98.5% of normals (202/205 and 1.5% of SCID carriers (3/205. Checking the pedigrees of the three carriers was possible to confirm the participation of one stallion first identified as the possible disease disseminator.

  10. An overview of electric power microgeneration in Brazil and abroad; Uma visao geral da microgeracao de energia eletrica no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippo Filho, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The production of electricity in the small consumer installations, particularly made with environmentally friendly primary sources, increasingly gaining space. Several countries, including Brazil, has been reforming its regulations to increase the participation of microgeneration in the energy matrix. The article analyzes the laws and the evolution of the theme in the country and abroad, mainly in the UK.

  11. Behavior of the hypsometric relationship of Araucaria angustifolia in the forest copse of the faculty of forest – Federal University of Paraná, Brazil Comportamento da relação hipsométrica de Araucaria angustifolia no capão da Engenharia Florestal da UFPR

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to test and select mathematics models for estimating total heigh (ht and bole high (hb, as a function of DBH, as well as, to establish the dendrometric relationship  between ht/hb. The data came from measurements of diameters (DBH, total height and bole height of all Araucaria angustifolia trees from an Ombrophylous Mix Forest fragment of 15,24 ha situated in the Botanical Garden Campus of the UFPR, Curitiba-PR, Brazil. Thirteen  models were tested, including arithmetic, logarithmic and nonlinear  models, such as Chapman-Richards and Mitschertich or monomolecular adapted; the nonlinear models were fitted by the Levenberg-Marquart algorithm. The statistic criteria for selecting the best models were the graphic analysis of residuals, Standard error of estimate in percentage (Syx% and adjusted determination coefficient (R2 aj. The R2 aj were very low for all fitted models, characterizing an advanced and asymptotic stage of the species under study. The best equation for estimating ht was that one proposed by Stoffels & Van Soest, and for hf the Curtis equation in its logarithmic form, chosen due to its statistics values and easy utilization. The adjusted linear equation to estimate total height as a function of bole height presented R2 aj = 0.88 and Syx% = 5 %, characterizing a strong relationship between these two variables.Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos testar e selecionar os melhores modelos matemáticos para estimar
    a altura total (ht e a altura de fuste (hf, em função do diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, bem como estabelecer a
    relação dendrométrica entre ht/hf. Os dados provieram da medição de diâmetros, altura total e altura de fuste de
    todas as araucárias existentes no fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de 15,2 hectares, situado no Campus
    Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, Curitiba, PR. Foram testados 13 modelos, incluindo
    modelos aritm

  12. Use of thin layer chromatography for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Utilizacao da cromatografia em camada delgada para determinacao da pureza radioquimica de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear da Paraiba e Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

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    Andrade, W.G.; Santos, P.A.L.; Lima, F.R.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia Energetica; Lima, F.F., E-mail: wellington.gandrade@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The paper chromatography and the thin layer chromatography are separation techniques in which the radioactive components migrate because of their affinity with the eluent (mobile phase) or stationary phase, respectively. In radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, besides its own radiopharmaceutical, {sup 99m}TcO{sup 4-} free and TcO{sub 2} can be identified and quantified. The evaluation of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images free of artifacts as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Once they are managed in humans it is important and necessary that they undergo to strict quality control. Because of this, ANVISA in its 'Resolucao da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 38 of June 4th, 2008 states the obligation of performing a minimum of tests in nuclear medicine services routine prior to human administration. This work evaluated, by the method of thin layer chromatography (TLC), radiochemical purity, determined the pH of the radiopharmaceutical DEXTRAN- 500, DMSA, DTPA, PHYTATE, MDP, MIBI and Sn-Col used in nuclear medicine services in the states of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil. The results show that the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC) as a standard method in routine of nuclear medicine services is possible, because it provides important data for the evaluation of radiochemical purity, allowing the exclusion of a radiopharmaceutical poorly marked. (author)

  13. Description of the last instar larva of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae from Brazil Descrição da larva de último estágio de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae do Brasil

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    Sandor C. Buys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius, 1804 is described and illustrated, based on one specimen collected in southeastern Brazil. This larva can be distinguished from other described larvae of the subgenus Trypargilum Richards, 1934 for the following combination of features: integument of the body with spines; labrum and epipharynx with sensillae; medio-apical and latero-basal portions of the epipharynx devoid of spines.A larva de último estádio de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius, 1804 é descrita e ilustrada, com base em um exemplar coletado do sudeste do Brasil. Esta larva pode ser distinta de outras larvas do subgênero Trypargilum Richards, 1934 descritas pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: tegumento do corpo com espinhos; labro e epifaringe com sensilas; porções medio-apical e latero-basal da epifarge sem espinhos.

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with orchid roots in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and Zona da Mata regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ricardo Eustáquio Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal associations can be considered required for orchids, which depend on the fungi for germination and establishment in natural conditions. Knowledge of the mycorrhizal fungi is important for programs aimed at the reintroduction, conservation and management of orchid species. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from orchids in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero ("Iron Quadrangle" and Zona da Mata ("Forest Zone" regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The affinities of these fungi were studied by comparing the rRNA internal transcribed spacer region with that of other isolates and sequences in GenBank. Three isolates had an affinity for Epulorhiza repens, and one was the holotypeof E. epiphytica.

  15. Estudo da difteria na cidade do Recife. I. Nota sôbre levantamento de portadores de Corynebacterium diphtheriae no bairro dos Coelhos Survey on diphtheriae carriers in "Bairro dos Coelhos" Recife, Brazil

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available De uma amostra probabilística do bairro dos Coelhos da cidade do Recife, 410 indivíduos foram examinados para verificação de portadores de difteria. Sòmente duas amostras de C. diphtheriae foram isoladas de duas crianças de 8 a 9 anos, as quais não apresentaram sintomatologia compatível com o quadro diftérico.From a limited population living around the University Hospital in Recife, Brazil a randomic sample was examined in order to identify diphtheria carriers. Swabs were made from 410 persons in a house-to-house survey. Two strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were isolated from healthy 8 and 9-year old children.

  16. Nota sobre o transporte de krill (euphausia superba Dana vivo da antártica para o Brasil Note on the transportation of a live krill (Euphausia superba Dana from Antartic to Brazil

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    Van Ngan Phan

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado nesta nota experimento sobre o transporte do krill vivo da Antartica para o Brasil, realizado durante a V Expedição Brasileira à Antártica, verão 1986-1987. O sistema de aquário utilizado e a mortalidade do krill em função do tempo e de outros eventos durante o experimento são descritos. A importância deste experimento para o desenvolvimento do estudo experimental do krill é discutida.In this note an experiment on transportation of alive krill from the Antarctica to Brazil during the V Brazilian Expedition to the Antarcticas austral summer 1986-198?3 was reported. The aquarium system and the krill mortality in function of time and other events dur-lng the experiment were described. The importance of this experiment for the development of experimental studies of krill was discussed.

  17. Esponjas (Porifera, Demospongiae da plataforma continental ao largo do Estado do Amapá, Brasil Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the continental shelf off the coast of Amapá State, Brazil

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    Beatriz Mothes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As amostras foram coletadas com draga retangular ao largo da costa (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W, pela Comissão Pesca Norte I, em 1968, através da Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil com o N./Oc. " Almirante Saldanha" em profundidades que variaram de 56 a 95 m. Oito espécies são aqui registradas, entre as quais Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 e Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 são identificadas pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. As demais espécies, Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 e Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 são conhecidas pela primeira vez para a área estudada. Todas as espécies identificadas são também registradas para o Caribe. Os espécimes encontram-se depositados na Coleção de Porifera do Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The collections were dredged off the coast (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W. They were collected between 56 to 95 depths, during an oceanographic expedition, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil, by R/V " Almirante Saldanha" in 1968. Eight species are here registered, among which Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 and Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 represent new registers for Brazil. The other species: Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 and Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 represent new records to the studied area. All registered species are also known from Caribbean. Specimens are deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  18. SENTIDO FILOSÓFICO NO BRASIL DOS PRIMEIROS DEBATES ACERCA DA RELAÇÃO ENTRE MENTE E CORPO PHILOSOPHICAL MEANING OF THE EARLIER DISCUSSIONS ON MIND AND BODY RELATIONSHIP IN BRAZIL

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    Leonardo Ferreira Almada

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Nosso objetivo é destacar o sentido filosófico no Brasil dos primeiros debates suscitados pela ideia de uma psicologia científica. Para tanto, trabalharemos com os textos de dois autores em especial, Gonçalves de Magalhães e Tobias Barreto. Nosso interesse é o de demonstrar em que sentido estes filósofos foram capazes de oferecer oposição a uma tendência positiva vigente na Psicologia e, ao mesmo tempo, superar o caráter contemplativo da consciência de si inerente à Psicologia sob a égide dos Jesuítas, e em vista da necessidade de modernização filosófica no Brasil. Ao mesmo tempo, pretendemos mostrar que, a despeito da crítica de Tobias a Magalhães, ambos souberam reconhecer a significação do naturalismo em Psicologia, especialmente no que diz respeito à tarefa de inserir o pensamento brasileiro nos rumos da filosofia ocidental.

    Our aim is to point out the philosophical meaning in Brazil of the earlier discussions about the nature of Scientific Psychology. Therefore, we will work in particular with texts of two authors, Gonçalves de Magalhães and Tobias Barreto. Our interest it to demonstrate in what sense these philosophers were able to offer opposition to a current positive trend in Psychology and the same time, overcome the contemplative character of self-consciousness inherent in Psychology under the aegis of the Jesuits, in view of need for philosophical modernization in Brazil. At the same time, we intend to show that, despite the criticism of Tobias to Magalhães, both know recognize the significance of the naturalism in Psychology, especially with regard to the task of entering the Brazilian thought in the course of Western Philosophy.

  19. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in goats in the State of Paraíba, Brazil Fatores de risco associados à soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 975 adult dairy goats from 110 flocks were examined by indirect immonufluorescent antibody test (IFAT, using cut-off point at 1:64 dilution. From the 110 flocks, 77 presented at least one seropositive animal, corresponding to a prevalence of 70% (95% CI: 60.5-78.4%. Out of the 975 animals, 177 (18.1%; 95% CI = 15.8-20.7% tested positive. The presence of toxic plants (OR = 5.11; P = 0.045 and the fact that goat breeding is not the main activity on the farm (OR = 3.34; P = 0.014 were identified as risk factors. The results of the present study showed evidence of the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy goats from a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil using planned sampling. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the identified risk factors in the epidemiology of the infection.Foi conduzido um estudo transversal baseado em amostragem planejada com o objetivo de determinar fatores de risco associados com a prevalência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii, em rebanhos de caprinos leiteiros, em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de soro de 975 caprinos leiteiros adultos, procedentes de 110 propriedades, foram examinadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se como ponto de corte a diluição 1:64. Das 110 propriedades, 77 apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 60,5-78,4%. Dos 975 animais, 177 (18,1%; IC 95% = 15,8-20,7% foram positivos. Apesar da presença de plantas tóxicas (OR = 5,11; P = 0,045 e da caprinocultura não ser a principal atividade na propriedade (OR = 3,34; P = 0,014, foram identificados como fatores de risco. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram uma evid

  20. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

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    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)