WorldWideScience

Sample records for brayton totalmente irreversibles

  1. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Tiwari; Subhash Chandra Kaushik; Sudhir Kumar Tyagi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the exter...

  2. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible regeneration magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, GuoXing

    2012-02-01

    A model of the irreversible regenerative Brayton refrigeration cycle working with paramagnetic materials is established, in which the regeneration problem in two constant-magnetic field processes and the irreversibility in two adiabatic processes are considered synthetically. Expressions for the COP, cooling rate, power input, the minimum ratio of the two magnetic fields, etc., are derived. It is found that the influence of the irreversibility and the regeneration on the main performance parameters of the magnetic Brayton refrigerator is remarkable. It is important that we have obtained several optimal criteria, which may provide some theoretical basis for the optimal design and operation of the Brayton refrigerator. The results obtained in the paper can provide some new theoretical information for the optimal design and performance improvement of real Brayton refrigerators.

  3. Influence of irreversible losses on the performance of a two-stage magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general performance characteristics of a two-stage magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle consisting of three constant magnetic fields and three irreversible adiabatic processes are investigated. Based on the thermodynamic properties of a magnetic material and the irreversible cycle model of a two-stage Brayton refrigerator, expressions for the cooling load and coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system are derived. The influence of the finite-rate heat transfer in the heat exchange processes, irreversibilities in the three adiabatic processes, ratios of two magnetic fields in the three constant magnetic field processes, and heat leak losses between two heat reservoirs on the performance of the two-stage magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle are analyzed in detail. Some important performance curves, which can reveal the general characteristics of the refrigeration system, are presented and the maximum values of cooling load and coefficient of performance are numerically calculated. The optimal choices and matches of other parameters at the maximum cooling load or the maximum coefficient of performance are discussed and the optimally operating regions of some important parameters in the refrigeration system are determined. The results obtained here are compared with those derived from other models of the magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycles, and consequently, the advantage of an inter-cooled process is expounded.

  4. Optimum criteria of an irreversible quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle with an ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible cycle model of the quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle is established, in which finite-time processes and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of an ideal Bose gas, by using the optimal control-theory, the mathematical expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, power input and cooling load, are derived and some important performance parameters, e.g., the temperatures of the working substance at several important state-points, are optimized. By means of numerical predictions, the optimal performance characteristic curves of a Bose-Brayton refrigeration cycle are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, some optimal operating regions including those for the cooling load, coefficient of performance and the temperatures of the cyclic working substance at the two important state-points are determined and evaluated. Finally, several special cases are discussed in detail

  5. Performance analysis and parametric optimal criteria of an irreversible magnetic Brayton-refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigeration-cycle model is established, in which the thermal resistance and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. Based on the model, the performance characteristics of the magnetic Brayton refrigeration-cycle are investigated and the effects of the irreversibilities and the ratio of the magnetic fields in the two iso-field processes on the performance of the refrigeration cycle are revealed. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a paramagnetic material, by using the optimal control-theory, the mathematical expressions for the cooling load and the coefficient of performance are derived and some important performance parameters, e.g., the temperatures of the working substance at several important state-points, are optimized. By means of numerical predictions, the optimal performance characteristic curves of the magnetic Brayton refrigeration-cycle are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, some optimal operating-regions including those for the cooling load, coefficient of performance and the temperatures of the cyclic working substance at the two important state-points are determined and evaluated. Finally, several special cases are discussed in detail

  6. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump working on reversed Brayton cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuehong Bi; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun

    2010-03-01

    This paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for irreversible heat pumps working on reversed Brayton cycle with constant-temperature heat reservoirs by taking exergetic efficiency as the optimization objective combining exergy concept with finite-time thermodynamics (FTT). Exergetic efficiency is defined as the ratio of rate of exergy output to rate of exergy input of the system. The irreversibilities considered in the system include heat resistance losses in the hot- and cold-side heat exchangers and non-isentropic losses in the compression and expansion processes. The analytical formulas of the heating load, coefficient of performance (COP) and exergetic efficiency for the heat pumps are derived. The results are compared with those obtained for the traditional heating load and coefficient of performance objectives. The influences of the pressure ratio of the compressor, the allocation of heat exchanger inventory, the temperature ratio of two reservoirs, the effectiveness of the hot- and cold-side heat exchangers and regenerator, the efficiencies of the compressor and expander, the ratio of hot-side heat reservoir temperature to ambient temperature, the total heat exchanger inventory, and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid on the exergetic efficiency of the heat pumps are analysed by numerical calculations. The results show that the exergetic efficiency optimization is an important and effective criterion for the evaluation of an irreversible heat pump working on reversed Brayton cycle.

  7. Optimal analysis on the performance of an irreversible harmonic quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2003-11-01

    An irreversible model of a quantum refrigeration cycle working with many noninteracting harmonic oscillators is established. The refrigeration cycle consists of two adiabatic and two constant-frequency processes. The general performance characteristics of the cycle are investigated, based on the quantum master equation and the semigroup approach. The expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate, power input, and rate of entropy production are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the refrigeration cycle subject to finite cycle duration is optimized. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal region of the coefficient of performance and the optimal ranges of temperatures of the working substance and times spent on the two constant-frequency processes are determined. Moreover, the optimal performance of the cycle in the high-temperature limit is compared with that of a classical Brayton refrigerator working with an ideal gas. The results obtained here show that in the high-temperature limit a harmonic quantum Brayton cycle may be equivalent to a classical Brayton cycle. PMID:14682856

  8. Optimum performance analysis of a two-stage irreversible magnetization Brayton refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage magnetization Brayton refrigeration cycle model using a paramagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which the regeneration and the irreversibility in the adiabatic processes are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a paramagnetic material, the expressions of some important parameters such as the coefficient of performance, refrigeration load and work input are derived and used to analyse the performance characteristics of the refrigeration cycle. The influence of the inter-magnetization process, irreversibility in the adiabatic processes and regeneration on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The advantage of adding the inter-magnetization process is expounded and the magnetic field ratio related to the inter-magnetization process is optimized. Moreover, the optimal values of the temperatures of the working substance at different state points and the optimally operating region of the cycle are determined. The results obtained here are compared with those derived from some relevant magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycles, and consequently, some significant conclusions are obtained

  9. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions

  10. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Açıkkalp, Emin, E-mail: eacikkalp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik S.E. University, Bilecik (Turkey); Caner, Necmettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.

  11. Performance characteristics of an irreversible regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle using Gd0.74Tb0.26 as the working substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diguet, Gildas; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2012-10-01

    The cycle model of an irreversible regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigerator using Gd0.74Tb0.26 as the working substance is established. Based on the experimental characteristics of iso-field heat capacities of the material Gd0.74Tb0.26 at 0 T and 2 T, the corresponding iso-field entropies are calculated and the thermodynamic performance of an irreversible regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle is investigated. The effects of the irreversibilities in the two adiabatic processes and non-perfect regenerative process of the magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle on the cooling quantity, the heat quantity released to the hot reservoir, the net cooling quantity and the coefficient of performance are discussed in detail. Some significant results are obtained.

  12. Optimization performance and thermodynamic analysis of an irreversible nano scale Brayton cycle operating with Maxwell–Boltzmann gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performance analysis of irreversible nano scale Brayton cycle operating with Maxwell–Boltzmann gas is studied. • Multi-objective optimization approach is carried out for performance optimization. • 3 decision-making methods are employed to select final answers. - Abstract: In last decades, nano technology developed. Since, nano scale thermal cycles will be possibly employed in the near future. In this research, a nano scale irreversible Brayton cycle is investigated thermodynamically for optimizing the performance of the aforementioned cycle. Ideal Maxwell–Boltzmann gas is employed as a working fluid in the system. In this paper, two scenarios are employed in the multi-objective optimization process; however, the outcomes of each of the scenarios are evaluated independently. In the first scenario, in order to maximize the dimensionless Maximum available work and energy efficiency of the system, multi-objective optimization algorithms is employed. Furthermore, in the second scenario, two objective functions comprising the dimensionless Maximum available work and the dimensionless Ecological function are maximized concurrently via employing multi objective optimization algorithms. The multi objective evolutionary approaches on the basis of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm method are employed in this paper. Decision making is done via three methods including linear programming techniques for multidimensional analysis of preference and Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution and Bellman–Zadeh. Finally, error analysis is implemented on the results obtained from each scenario

  13. The effects of intercooling and regeneration on the thermo-ecological performance analysis of an irreversible-closed Brayton heat engine with variable-temperature thermal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermo-ecological performance analysis of an irreversible intercooled and regenerated closed Brayton heat engine exchanging heat with variable-temperature thermal reservoirs is presented. The effects of intercooling and regeneration are given special emphasis and investigated in detail. A comparative performance analysis considering the objective functions of an ecological coefficient of performance, an ecological function proposed by Angulo-Brown and power output is also carried out. The results indicate that the optimal total isentropic temperature ratio and intercooling isentropic temperature ratio at the maximum ecological coefficient of performance conditions (ECOPmax) are always less than those of at the maximum ecological function ( E-dotmax ) and the maximum power output conditions ( W-dotmax ) leading to a design that requires less investment cost. It is also concluded that a design at ECOPmax conditions has the advantage of higher thermal efficiency and a lesser entropy generation rate, but at the cost of a slight power loss

  14. Performance comparison of an irreversible closed variable-temperature heat reservoir Brayton cycle under maximum power density and maximum power conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Zheng, J.; Sun, F. [Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan (China); Wu, C. [US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    The power density is taken as an objective for performance analysis of an irreversible closed Brayton cycle coupled to variable-temperature heat reservoirs. The analytical formulas about the relationship between power density and working fluid temperature ratio (pressure ratio) are derived with the heat resistance losses in the hot- and cold-side heat exchangers, the irreversible compression and expansion losses in the compressor and turbine, and the effect of the finite thermal capacity rate of the heat reservoirs. The obtained results are compared with those results obtained by using the maximum power criterion. The influences of some design parameters, including the temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs, the effectivenesses of the heat exchangers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs, and the efficiencies of the compressor and the turbine, on the maximum power density are provided by numerical examples, and the advantages and disadvantages of maximum power density design are analysed. The power plant design with maximum power density leads to a higher efficiency and smaller size. When the heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs are carried out ideally and the thermal capacity rates of the heat reservoirs are infinite, the results of this article become similar to those obtained in the recent literature. (author)

  15. Exergy performance analysis for irreversible closed Brayton cycle combined cooling, heating and power generation plant driven by residual energy and heat of blast furnace%高炉余能余热驱动的不可逆闭式布雷顿热电冷联产装置(炯)性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉君; 陈林根; 孙丰瑞

    2013-01-01

    A combined cooling,heating and power (CCHP) generation plant model composing by one irreversible closed Brayton cycle driven by residual energy and heat of blast furnace and one endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption refrigeration cycle was established by using finite time thermodynamics.The expressions of the exergy output rate and exergy efficiency were derived.The effects of the cycle parameters on the characteristics of exergy output rate and exergy efficiency versus pressure ratio were analyzed by using numerical calculations.The performances of the maximum exergy output rate was compared with that of the maximum exergy efficiency and some suggestions on the designs and operations of actual CCHP plants were proposed.%用有限时间热力学理论建立了由一个高炉余能余热驱动的不可逆闭式布雷顿循环和一个内可逆四热源吸收式制冷循环组成的热电冷联产循环模型,导出了其(娴)输出率和(炯)效率的表达式.利用数值计算方法,分析了循环各参数对(炯)输出率和(炯)效率与压比关系的影响,比较了最大(炯)输出率和最大(炯)效率性能,给出了实际热电冷联产装置设计和运行的建议.

  16. Microscopic irreversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Gustafson

    2004-01-01

    First, I will recount the substance of several important conversations I had with Ilya Prigogine over the years. There is no doubt in my mind that Professor Prigogine firmly believed in the underlying stochasticity of the universe. Second, I will summarize my curiosity about the principle of detailed balance. In my opinion, so far it has always been put in by hand. Third, I will advance my own theory of microscopic irreversibility, that is, irreversibility at the quantum ...

  17. Microscopic irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gustafson

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available First, I will recount the substance of several important conversations I had with Ilya Prigogine over the years. There is no doubt in my mind that Professor Prigogine firmly believed in the underlying stochasticity of the universe. Second, I will summarize my curiosity about the principle of detailed balance. In my opinion, so far it has always been put in by hand. Third, I will advance my own theory of microscopic irreversibility, that is, irreversibility at the quantum level. This involves new concepts of probability preference and probability violation. A manifestation of this irreversibility may be seen during emission of bound-free photons during field-matter interactions. Entropy increase is tied to radiation increase, and the notion of heat bath becomes light bath.

  18. Tres lecciones en combinatoria algebraica. I. Matrices totalmente no negativas y funciones sim\\'etricas

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila, Federico; Leon, Emerson; Rosas, Mercedes; Skandera, Mark

    2013-01-01

    En esta serie de tres articulos, damos una exposicion de varios resultados y problemas abiertos en tres areas de la combinatoria algebraica y geometrica: las matrices totalmente no negativas, las representaciones del grupo simetrico, y los arreglos de hiperplanos. Esta primera parte presenta una introduccion a las matrices totalmente no negativas, y su relacion con las funciones simetricas. In this series of three articles, we give an exposition of various results and open problems in three a...

  19. Irreversible Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-12-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a predominantly nonthermal ablative technology that uses high-voltage, low-energy DC current pulses to induce cell death. Thermal ablative technologies such as radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, and cryoablation have several applications in oncology but have limitations that have been established. IRE has shown promise to overcome some of these limitations. This article reviews the basics of the technology, patient selection, clinical applications, practical pointers, and the published data. PMID:26622097

  20. Exergy Analysis and Second Law Efficiency of a Regenerative Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser M. Jubeh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effect of two heat additions, rather than one, in a gas turbine engine is analyzed from the second law of thermodynamics point of view. A regenerative Brayton cycle model is used for this study, and compared with other models of Brayton cycle. All fluid friction losses in the compressor and turbine are quantified by an isentropic efficiency term. The effect of pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, altitude, and altitude with variable ambient temperature on irreversibility "exergy destroyed" and second law efficiency was investigated and compared for all models. The results are given graphically with the appropriate discussion and conclusion.

  1. Irreversible cycle in linear irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reversible Carnot cycle in reversible thermodynamics is composed of two reversible heat exchange processes and two reversible adiabatic processes. We construct an irreversible cycle in linear irreversible thermodynamics by analogy with the reversible Carnot cycle. The irreversible cycle is composed of two linear irreversible heat exchange processes and two linear irreversible adiabatic processes. It is found that the Curzon-Alhborn efficiency can be attained if the power for each of the four linear irreversible processes reaches its maximum. The maximum efficiency is the Carnot efficiency. The strong coupling condition is prerequisite for the respective attainment of the Curzon-Alhborn efficiency and the Carnot efficiency.

  2. Examination of the performance of an unconventional combination of Rankine, Brayton, and Inverse Brayton cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabdoadaim, M.; Agnew, B.; Potts, I. [University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Mechanics and Systems Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The study presented in this article examined the thermodynamic performance of a proposed system constructed from Brayton, inverse Brayton, and steam Rankine cycles. The theoretical examination was performed by varying the Brayton cycle pressure ratio for different values of inlet pressure and expansion pressures of the inverse Brayton cycle and for different ratios of the inverse Brayton power turbine mass flow to the gas generator mass flow. The results indicated that for the three values of mass flow ratio examined, better performance could be achieved when the proposed system is operated at high Brayton cycle pressure ratio (high maximum system temperature and the highest value of inverse Brayton cycle expansion pressure). It was revealed that in the case of the mass flow equal to 0.25, the proposed system achieved the highest value of Brayton cycle pressure ratio and attained a maximum thermal efficiency of 57.7 per cent. (author)

  3. A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies ηme and ηmax. ηmax is the maximum irreversible efficiency; ηme is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to the finite-rate heat transfer between the heat engine and its reservoirs. Also, we applied this method to a Carnot cycle including the irreversibilities of a finite-rate heat transfer between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs, and internal dissipations of the working fluid. The results obtained for the Brayton cycle are more general and useful than those in the relevant literature

  4. A hybrid Brayton engine concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Elkins, R.

    1980-01-01

    A first generation open cycle Brayton engine concept for use in full scale solar module testing was defined. The concept extended to include solar/fossil hybrid capability. The combustion system defined for hybrid operation consists of a wide range combustor liner, a single airblast atomizer, an ignitor and a high-voltage ignition unit. Wide range combustor operation would be achieved through combining pilot and primary zones. The hybrid control mode and the solar only control mode are both based on the concept of maintaining constant turbine inlet temperature and varying the engine speed for part-power operation. In addition, the hybrid control concept will allow the operator to set a minimum thermal power input to the engine by setting a corresponding minimum engine speed. When the solar thermal power input falls below this minimum, fossil fuel would be utilized to augment the solar thermal power input.

  5. Back Work Ratio of Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaver de la Fuente M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analizes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational soft ware helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine in let temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle.

  6. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  7. Irreversibility and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum mechanisms has a dual structure: while Schroedinger equation corresponds to a deterministic and time-reversible description, measurement introduces irreversibility and stochasticity. This contrasts with the Bohr-Sommerfeld-Einsten theory, in which transitions between quantum states are associated with spontaneous and induced transitions, defined in terms of a stochastic process. A new form of quantum theory is summarized here, which contains an intrinsic form of irreversibility, independent of observation

  8. Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    1990-01-01

    Most investment expenditures have two important characteristics: First, they are largely irreversible; the firm cannot disinvest, so the expenditures are sunk costs. Second, they can be delayed, allowing the firm to wait for new information about prices, costs, and other market conditions before committing resources. An emerging literature has shown that this has important implications for investment decisions, and for the determinants of investment spending. Irreversible investment is especi...

  9. On Brayton and Moser's missing stability theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Brayton and Moser proved three theorems concerning the stability of nonlinear electrical circuits. The applicability of each theorem depends on three different conditions on the type of admissible nonlinearities in circuit. Roughly speaking, this means that the theorems apply to

  10. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) facility specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-31

    General requirements for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)/Ground Demonstration System (GDS) assembly and test facility are defined. The facility will include provisions for a complete test laboratory for GDS checkout, performance, and endurance testing, and a contamination-controlled area for assembly, fabrication, storage, and storage preparation of GDS components. Specifications, schedules, and drawings are included.

  11. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) facility specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General requirements for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)/Ground Demonstration System (GDS) assembly and test facility are defined. The facility will include provisions for a complete test laboratory for GDS checkout, performance, and endurance testing, and a contamination-controlled area for assembly, fabrication, storage, and storage preparation of GDS components. Specifications, schedules, and drawings are included

  12. The universal power and efficiency characteristics for irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles with heat transfer loss and friction-like term loss is analysed using finite-time thermodynamics. The universal relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, and the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycles are derived. Moreover, analysis and optimization of the model were carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle processes on the performance of the cycle using numerical examples. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of irreversible reciprocating Diesel, Otto, Atkinson and Brayton cycles

  13. A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Musharrafie-Martinez, M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies eta sub m sub e and eta sub m sub a sub x. eta sub m sub a sub x is the maximum irreversible efficiency; eta sub m sub e is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to th...

  14. Binary Brayton cycle with two isothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper presents binary Brayton cycle with two isothermal processes. • Different parameters affecting the cycle performance have been studied. • The present cycle is a promising cycle for future power generation. - Abstract: The literature introduced isothermal concept and binary Brayton cycle as two promising methods used to enhance the performance of the gas turbine. Consequently, this work presents a cycle based on the blending of the two methods. This cycle is composed of gas turbine topping cycle with isothermal combustion and air turbine bottoming cycle with isothermal heating. Different parameters affecting the cycle performance have been studied. Simulations demonstrate that the present cycle achieves drastic enhancement in performance. The cycle merits justify its potential utilization for future power generation

  15. Brayton heat exchange unit development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, C. J.; Richard, C. E.; Duncan, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    A Brayton Heat Exchanger Unit (BHXU), consisting of a recuperator, a heat sink heat exchanger and a gas ducting system, was designed, fabricated, and tested. The design was formulated to provide a high performance unit suitable for use in a long-life Brayton-cycle powerplant. A parametric analysis and design study was performed to establish the optimum component configurations to achieve low weight and size and high reliability, while meeting the requirements of high effectiveness and low pressure drop. Layout studies and detailed mechanical and structural design were performed to obtain a flight-type packaging arrangement. Evaluation testing was conducted from which it is estimated that near-design performance can be expected with the use of He-Xe as the working fluid.

  16. Teresa Brayton: In an Irish Twilight

    OpenAIRE

    Morrin, Ms. Olive

    2002-01-01

    Teresa Brayton, poet, literary nationalist, author of "The Old Bog Road" was born in Kilbrook, Kilcock in 1868. She emigrated to America in 1895 and became well known in Irish-American circles. She published extensively in many American newspapers and magazines and was closely associated with the 1916 Rising. In 1913 she published her first book of poetry called "Songs of the Dawn, The Flame of Ireland" appeared in 1926 and "Christmas Verses" in 1934. Her main themes were the exile's nost...

  17. Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Tomé, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...

  18. Back work ratio of Brayton cycle; La relacion de trabajo de retroceso de un ciclo Brayton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaver de la Fuente, M. [Universidad Maritima del Caribe (Venezuela)]. E-mail: mmf_umc@hotmail.com

    2010-07-15

    This paper analyzes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational software helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle. [Spanish] En este articulo se estudia la relacion que existe entre las temperaturas, la relacion de trabajo de retroceso y el trabajo neto en el ciclo Brayton, que es el ciclo ideal que describe el comportamiento de los motores de turbina de gas. La aplicacion de programas computarizados ayuda a mostrar la influencia de la relacion de trabajo de retroceso o relacion de acoplamiento, la temperatura de entrada al compresor y la temperatura de entrada a la turbina en este ciclo termodinamico ideal. Los resultados obtenidos permiten deducir que el valor maximo que alcanza la relacion de trabajo de retroceso dependera de los limites de temperatura maxima y minima impuestos en el ciclo Brayton.

  19. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: braz@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  20. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  1. Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by Fx) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by Fy). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by Fx), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by Fy). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system is usually larger than the sum of the work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by Fy, the subsystem can be a refrigerator, while the total system is a heat engine. The result in this paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance.

  2. Power, efficiency, entropy-generation rate and ecological optimization for a class of generalized irreversible universal heat-engine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal performance for a class of generalized irreversible universal steady-flow heat-engine cycle models, consisting of two heating branches, two cooling branches and two adiabatic branches, and with losses due to heat-resistance, heat leaks and internal irreversibility was analyzed using finite-time thermodynamics. The analytical formulae for power, efficiency, entropy-generation rate and an ecological criterion of the irreversible heat-engine cycle are derived. Moreover, analysis and optimization of the model were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the cycle process on the performance of the cycles. The results obtained include the performance characteristics of Diesel, Otto, Brayton, Atkinson, Dual and Miller cycles with the losses of heat-resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility

  3. Multi-objective optimization of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles using advanced optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Rao, R.; Patel, Vivek

    2012-08-01

    This study explores the use of teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms for determining the optimum operating conditions of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. Maximization of thermal efficiency and specific work of the system are considered as the objective functions and are treated simultaneously for multi-objective optimization. Upper cycle pressure ratio and bottom cycle expansion pressure of the system are considered as design variables for the multi-objective optimization. An application example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithms. The results of optimization using the proposed algorithms are validated by comparing with those obtained by using the genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) on the same example. Improvement in the results is obtained by the proposed algorithms. The results of effect of variation of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and fitness values of the objective functions are reported.

  4. Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-01-29

    A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

  5. Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results

  6. Performance comparison of different supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles integrated with a solar power tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a thermodynamic comparison of five supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles integrated with a solar power tower was conducted. The Brayton cycles analyzed were simple Brayton cycle, regenerative Brayton cycle, recompression Brayton cycle, pre-compression Brayton cycle, and split expansion Brayton cycle. A complete mathematical code was developed to carry out the analysis. A heliostat field layout was generated and then optimized on an annual basis using the differential evolution method, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field was optimized for optical performance and then integrated with the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles. Using the results of the optimization, a comparison of net power outputs and thermal efficiencies for these cycles was performed. The findings demonstrated that the highest thermal efficiency was achieved using the recompression Brayton cycle, at June noontime. The maximum integrated system thermal efficiency using this cycle was 40% while the maximum thermal efficiency of this cycle alone was 52%. The regenerative Brayton cycle, although simpler in configuration, shows comparable performance to the recompression Brayton cycle. This analysis was carried out for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: • The heliostat field of the solar power tower optimized and its optical efficiency identified. • Performance of the solar power tower integrated with five sCO2 Brayton Cycles was assessed. • Recompression supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle has the best performance. • The regenerative supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle has the second best performance

  7. Thermodynamic Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle has been studied for nuclear applications, mainly for one of the alternative power conversion systems of the sodium cooled fast reactor, since 1960's. Although the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle has not been expected to show higher efficiency at lower turbine inlet temperature over the conventional steam Rankine cycle, the higher density of supercritical CO2 like a liquid in the supercritical region could reduce turbo-machinery sizes, and the potential problem of sodium-water reaction with the sodium cooled fast reactor might be solved with the use of CO2 instead of water. The supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle was proposed for the better thermodynamic efficiency than for the simple supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle. Thus this paper presents the efficiencies of the supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle along with several decision variables for the thermodynamic optimization of the supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle. The analytic results in this study show that the system efficiency reaches its maximum value at a compressor outlet pressure of 200 bars and a recycle fraction of 30 %, and the lower minimum temperature approach at the two heat exchangers shows higher system efficiency as expected

  8. Thermodynamic Optimization of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhim, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Hyun; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has been studied for nuclear applications, mainly for one of the alternative power conversion systems of the sodium cooled fast reactor, since 1960's. Although the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has not been expected to show higher efficiency at lower turbine inlet temperature over the conventional steam Rankine cycle, the higher density of supercritical CO{sub 2} like a liquid in the supercritical region could reduce turbo-machinery sizes, and the potential problem of sodium-water reaction with the sodium cooled fast reactor might be solved with the use of CO{sub 2} instead of water. The supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle was proposed for the better thermodynamic efficiency than for the simple supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Thus this paper presents the efficiencies of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle along with several decision variables for the thermodynamic optimization of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle. The analytic results in this study show that the system efficiency reaches its maximum value at a compressor outlet pressure of 200 bars and a recycle fraction of 30 %, and the lower minimum temperature approach at the two heat exchangers shows higher system efficiency as expected.

  9. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    -through labyrinth seals was proposed. A stepped labyrinth seal, which mimics the behavior of the labyrinth seal used in the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) S-CO2 Brayton cycle, was also tested in the experiment along with simulations performed. The rest of this study demonstrates the difference of valves' behavior under supercritical fluid and normal fluid conditions. A small-scale valve was tested in the experiment facility using S-CO2. Different percentages of opening valves were tested, and the measured mass flow rate agreed with simulation predictions. Two transients from a real S-CO2 Brayton cycle design provided the data for valve selection. The selected valve was studied using numerical simulation, as experimental data is not available.

  10. Operating conditions of an open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with optimised cavity receiver and recuperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small-scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with recuperator has several advantages, including low cost, low operation and maintenance costs and it is highly recommended. The main disadvantages of this cycle are the pressure losses in the recuperator and receiver, turbomachine efficiencies and recuperator effectiveness, which limit the net power output of such a system. The irreversibilities of the solar thermal Brayton cycle are mainly due to heat transfer across a finite temperature difference and fluid friction. In this paper, thermodynamic optimisation is applied to concentrate on these disadvantages in order to optimise the receiver and recuperator and to maximise the net power output of the system at various steady-state conditions, limited to various constraints. The effects of wind, receiver inclination, rim angle, atmospheric temperature and pressure, recuperator height, solar irradiance and concentration ratio on the optimum geometries and performance were investigated. The dynamic trajectory optimisation method was applied. Operating points of a standard micro-turbine operating at its highest compressor efficiency and a parabolic dish concentrator diameter of 16 m were considered. The optimum geometries, minimum irreversibility rates and maximum receiver surface temperatures of the optimised systems are shown. For an environment with specific conditions and constraints, there exists an optimum receiver and recuperator geometry so that the system produces maximum net power output. -- Highlights: → Optimum geometries exist such that the system produces maximum net power output. → Optimum operating conditions are shown. → Minimum irreversibility rates and minimum entropy generation rates are shown. → Net power output was described in terms of total entropy generation rate. → Effects such as wind, recuperator height and irradiance were investigated.

  11. Networks, Irreversibility and Knowledge Creation.

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Llerena; Muge Ozman

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the effect of irreversibility in partner choice in strategic alliances. In an environment where firms are binded by contractual constraints regarding the duration of partnerships, how does the complexity of products influence the overall knowledge in the industry? Through an agent based simulation model, we compare the knowledge generation in irreversible and reversible systems in two regimes as tacit and codified. The emerging network structures are also...

  12. Tumor Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sakere, Bassim; André, Franck,; Bernat, Claire; Connault, Elisabeth; Opolon, Paule; Davalos, Rafael V.; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop dur...

  13. Optimization of Brayton cycles for low-to-moderate grade thermal energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future electricity generation will involve low or moderate temperature technologies. In such a scenario, optimisation of thermodynamic cycles will be a key task. This work presents a systematic analysis to find the operating regime where Brayton cycles reach the highest efficiency, using real substances and given heat source and sink temperatures. Several configurations using fluids close to its critical point at the compressor inlet are considered. Irreversibility sources are carefully analysed, as well as the type of working fluid. The analysis is performed by means of a theoretical approach to obtain some trends, which are afterwards validated with real gases. Results show that the efficiency and the specific work improve if the compressor inlet is close to the critical point. Furthermore, these cycles are less sensitive to pressure drops and politropic efficiencies than those working with ideal gases. The above features are more evident when the ratio of heat source and heat sink temperatures is low. The selection of the gas becomes a fundamental issue in this quest. Critical temperature should be close to ambient temperature, low critical pressure is advisable and the R/cp factor measured at the ideal gas condition should be low to further enhance the efficiency. - Highlights: • Performance analysis of Brayton cycles with the compressor inlet close to the critical point. • Cycles are not very sensitive to pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies of the compressor. • Gas selection becomes important, regarding the critical pressure and temperature as well as the kind of fluid. • R/cp factor measured at the ideal gas condition should be as low as possible

  14. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  15. Power enhancement of the Brayton cycle by steam utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionek, Krzysztof; Chrzczonowski, Andrzej; Ziółkowski, Paweł; Badur, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents thermodynamic analysis of the gas-steam unit of the 65 MWe combined heat and power station. Numerical analyses of the station was performed for the nominal operation conditions determining the Brayton and combined cycle. Furthermore, steam utilization for the gas turbine propulsion in the Cheng cycle was analysed. In the considered modernization, steam generated in the heat recovery steam generator unit is directed into the gas turbine combustion chamber, resulting in the Brayton cycle power increase. Computational flow mechanics codes were used in the analysis of the thermodynamic and operational parameters of the unit.

  16. Detailed analysis of the effect of the turbine and compressor isentropic efficiency on the thermal and exergy efficiency of a Brayton cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and exergy analysis of a Brayton cycle with an ideal gas is given. The irreversibility of the adiabatic processes in turbine and compressor is taken into account through their isentropic efficiencies. The net work per cycle, the thermal efficiency and the two exergy efficiencies are expressed as functions of the four dimensionless variables: the isentropic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, the pressure ratio, and the temperature ratio. It is shown that the maximal values of the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiency are achieved when the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio are as high as possible, while the different values of pressure ratio that maximize the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiencies exist. These pressure ratios increase with the increase of the temperature ratio and the isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine. The increase of the turbine isentropic efficiency has a greater impact on the increase of the net work per cycle and the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle than the same increase of compressor isentropic efficiency. Finally, two goal functions are proposed for thermodynamic optimization of a Brayton cycle for given values of the temperature ratio and the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies. The first maximizes the sum of the net work per cycle and thermal efficiency while the second the net work per cycle and exergy efficiency. In both cases the optimal pressure ratio is closer to the pressure ratio that maximizes the net work per cycle.

  17. Optimum performance of the small-scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle at various environmental conditions and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brayton cycle's heat source can be obtained from solar energy instead of the combustion of fuel. The irreversibilities of the open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with recuperator are mainly due to heat transfer across a finite temperature difference and fluid friction, which limit the net power output of such a system. In this work, the method of total entropy generation minimisation is applied to optimise the geometries of the receiver and recuperator at various steady-state weather conditions. For each steady-state weather condition, the optimum turbine operating point is also found. The authors specifically investigate the effect of wind and solar irradiance on the maximum net power output of the system. The effects of other conditions and constraints, on the maximum net power output, are also investigated. These include concentrator error, concentrator reflectivity and maximum allowable surface temperature of the receiver. Results show how changed solar beam irradiance and wind speed affect the system net power output and optimum operating point of the micro-turbine. A dish concentrator with fixed focal length, an off-the-shelf micro-turbine and a modified cavity receiver is considered. -- Highlights: ► An off-the-shelf micro-turbine and a modified cavity receiver are considered. ► We investigate the optimum operating point of micro-turbine in various situations. ► Optimum mass flow rate and exhaust temperature increase with beam irradiance. ► Optimum exhaust temperature increases as wind speed increases.

  18. Combined-Brayton cycle, space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it is a widely recognized dynamic space conversion system, the Brayton cycle has been studied in France since several years, especially within the framework of a limited space program. A recuperated cycle of 20 to 30 kWe has been considered so far. However, possible applications could evolve and the need for an extended, diversified utilization of the Brayton cycle could appear. So, for Lunar or Mars bases which would accept large radiators and can benefit from a certain gravity level, combined cycle systems could be proposed. Following a reference to past works on space combined cycles, a possible association of a Brayton cycle with a thermoionic reactor is presented. The power level of a 'Topaz-2' type space nuclear system can be boosted from 8 kWe to around 36 to 53 kWe, at the expense of a large radiator of course. Furthermore, combined Brayton-Rankine, organic (toluene) or steam, cycles can pave the way to a simpler gas-cooled, particle bed reactor concept. A particular arrangement of HeXe heater and boiler or steam generator in series is proposed. It makes it possible to lower the reactor inlet temperature, which is quite adequate for the use of light water as moderator. Oustanding net efficiencies of 25.8 to 27.6 per cent, given the reactor temperature profile, are obtained. Consequences on the reactor design are mentioned

  19. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility

  20. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle space power conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the past history, present status and future prospects for closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems to be used in space when requirements have been established. Since there is a classic lack of coordination between advanced technology and its perceived need that can be strongly affected by associated factors, recommendations will be made to assist in the current situation. 4 refs

  1. Tumor ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassim Al-Sakere

    Full Text Available We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 micros at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%, in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation.

  2. Ideally Efficient Irreversible Molecular Gears

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, I. M.

    2000-01-01

    Typical man-made locomotive devices use reversible gears, as cranks, for transforming reciprocating motion into directed one. Such gears are holonomic and have the transduction efficiency of unity. On the other hand, a typical gear of molecular motors is a ratchet rectifier, which is irreversible. We discuss what properties of rectifier mostly influence the transduction efficiency and show that an apliance which locks under backwards force can achieve the energetic efficiency of unity, withou...

  3. Irreversible Does Not Mean Unavoidable

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, H.D.; Solomon, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how decreases in CO[subscript 2] emissions would affect global temperatures has been hampered in recent years by confusion regarding issues of committed warming and irreversibility. The notion that there will be additional future warming or “warming in the pipeline” if the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide were to remain fixed at current levels (1) has been misinterpreted to mean that the rate of increase in Earth's global temperature is inevitable, regardless of how ...

  4. Irreversible Electroporation of Hepatic Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Froud, Tatiana; Suthar, Rekhaben; Barbery, Katuska

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide problem of epidemic proportions, best treated in a multidisciplinary setting. Major advances have been made in all specialties that manage patients with HCC, with surgical options at one end of the spectrum and palliative chemotherapy on the other, and the vast majority of patients require the involvement and expertise of interventional oncology. Several ablative and transarterial technologies are currently available. Irreversible electroporation ...

  5. Thermodynamic optimization of irreversible refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dimensionless equation that links COP, entropy rate variation and heat exchange. • Maximum COP as function of parameter controlling thermal exchanges. • Application at irreversible vapor compression refrigerator based on literature data. • Results show the analysis is useful in diagnostic and designing of refrigerators. - Abstract: An irreversible inverse cycle, operating at steady state conditions with finite thermal capacity heat sources, is analyzed in order to obtain an expression for the coefficient of performance accounting for the Second Law. Some dimensionless parameters are proposed to link the entropy variation rate and the temperature differences at the heat exchangers to the cycle efficiency. A maximum for efficiency appears when a parameter depending only on the temperature of the inlet streams at each heat exchanger is used. The influence of dimensionless parameters and irreversibilities on the maximum cycle efficiency is analyzed. A graphical analysis, based on data from literature, is presented to show the use of this thermodynamic optimization criteria in design and verification process of refrigerators

  6. Irreversibility in asymptotic manipulations of entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, G.; Cirac, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the process of entanglement distillation is irreversible by showing that the entanglement cost of a bound entangled state is finite. Such irreversibility remains even if extra pure entanglement is loaned to assist the distillation process.

  7. Ecological optimization for generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal ecological performance of a Newton's law generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerator with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the exergy output rate and exergy loss rate (entropy production rate) of the refrigerator. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the optimal performance of generalized irreversible refrigerators

  8. Atuação da enfermagem na utilização do catéter venoso totalmente implantável (CVTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire A. Mendes Lopes

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available As autoras fizeram um levantamento de 41 casos de utilização do cateter venoso totalmente implantável usados para tratamento com drogas antineoplásicas. Descreveram os motivos que levaram o serviço a utilizar este sistema para infusão e analisaram sua utilização, seu controle e as intercorrências. Os resultados, embora tenham mostrado um índice de complicações de 29%, incluindo falhas na técnica de implantação e no manuseio, apresentaram um bom índice de aproveitamento, ou seja, 61%.

  9. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  10. Operation and analysis of a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Radel, Ross F.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for use with solar, nuclear or fossil heat sources. The focus of this work has been on the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle (S-CO2) which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources, and is also very compact, with the potential for lower capital costs. The first step in the development of these advanced cycles was the construction of a small scale Brayton cycle loop, funded by the Laboratory Directed Research & Development program, to study the key issue of compression near the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This document outlines the design of the small scale loop, describes the major components, presents models of system performance, including losses, leakage, windage, compressor performance, and flow map predictions, and finally describes the experimental results that have been generated.

  11. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  12. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  13. Cold startup and low temperature performance of the Brayton cycle electrical subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancik, J. E.; Bainbridge, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Cold performance tests and startup tests were conducted on the Brayton-cycle inverter, motor-driven pump, dc supply, speed control with parasitic load resistor and the Brayton control system. These tests were performed with the components in a vacuum and mounted on coldplates. A temperature range of ?25 to -50 C was used for the tests. No failures occurred, and component performance gave no indication that there would be any problem with the safe operation of the Brayton power generating system.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of a Desiccant Assisted Brayton Refrigeration Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nobrega, Carlos E.L.; Sphaier, Leandro Alcoforado

    2012-01-01

    The phase-out of CFCs has shed a new light over natural refrigerants, which have null global warming potentials. Air would be a natural choice, and although the Brayton cycle usually exhibits a lower coefficient of performance when compared to vapor-compression systems of same capacity, it has been considered in applications other than aircraft cooling. These include gas separation, food processing and preservation, refrigerated containers and train air-conditioning. Price perspectives in the...

  15. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the description of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO2 turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  16. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W

    2007-12-15

    This report contains the description of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO{sub 2} gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated.

  17. Applications of Brayton Cycle technology to space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Closed Brayton (CBC) power conversion cycle can be used with a wide range of heat sources for space power applications. These heat source include solar concentrator, radioisotope, and reactor. With a solar concentrator, a solar dynamic ground demonstration test using existing Brayton components is being assembled for testing at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This 2-kWe system has a turbine inlet temperature of 1,015 K and is a complete end-to-end simulation of the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic design. With a radioisotope heat source, a 1-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) is under development using an existing turbo alternator compressor (TAC) for testing at the same NASA-LeRC facility. This DIPS unit is being developed as a replacement to Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to conserve the Pu-238 supply for interplanetary exploration. With a reactor heat source, many studies have been performed coupling the SP-100 reactor with a Brayton power conversion cycle. Applications for this reactor/CBC system include global communications satellites and electric propulsion for interplanetary exploration

  18. Information symmetries in irreversible processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher J.; Mahoney, John R.; James, Ryan G.; Crutchfield, James P.; Reichardt, Jörg

    2011-09-01

    We study dynamical reversibility in stationary stochastic processes from an information-theoretic perspective. Extending earlier work on the reversibility of Markov chains, we focus on finitary processes with arbitrarily long conditional correlations. In particular, we examine stationary processes represented or generated by edge-emitting, finite-state hidden Markov models. Surprisingly, we find pervasive temporal asymmetries in the statistics of such stationary processes. As a consequence, the computational resources necessary to generate a process in the forward and reverse temporal directions are generally not the same. In fact, an exhaustive survey indicates that most stationary processes are irreversible. We study the ensuing relations between model topology in different representations, the process's statistical properties, and its reversibility in detail. A process's temporal asymmetry is efficiently captured using two canonical unifilar representations of the generating model, the forward-time and reverse-time ɛ-machines. We analyze example irreversible processes whose ɛ-machine representations change size under time reversal, including one which has a finite number of recurrent causal states in one direction, but an infinite number in the opposite. From the forward-time and reverse-time ɛ-machines, we are able to construct a symmetrized, but nonunifilar, generator of a process—the bidirectional machine. Using the bidirectional machine, we show how to directly calculate a process's fundamental information properties, many of which are otherwise only poorly approximated via process samples. The tools we introduce and the insights we offer provide a better understanding of the many facets of reversibility and irreversibility in stochastic processes.

  19. Niche Applications of Irreversible Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shivank S; Arya, Rahul; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) induces cell death by exposing it to high-voltage, low-energy DC current pulses. The mechanism of cell death and healing is a departure from the other existing technologies such as radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, and cryoablation. These thermal ablative technologies have several applications in oncology but have limitations that have also been established. IRE has shown promise to overcome some of these limitations and has enabled the use of an ablative technology in treating lesions close to the bile ducts and vasculature and in organs such as the pancreas. This review highlights some of the niche applications of IRE and the data so far. PMID:26365547

  20. Quantum mechanical irreversibility and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Grigolini, P

    1993-01-01

    This book is intended as a tutorial approach to some of the techniques used to deal with quantum dissipation and irreversibility, with special focus on their applications to the theory of measurements. The main purpose is to provide readers without a deep expertise in quantum statistical mechanics with the basic tools to develop a critical judgement on whether the major achievements in this field have to be considered a satisfactory solution of quantum paradox, or rather this ambitious achievement has to be postponed to when a new physics, more general than quantum and classical physics, will

  1. Lyapunov decay in quantum irreversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2016-06-13

    The Loschmidt echo-also known as fidelity-is a very useful tool to study irreversibility in quantum mechanics due to perturbations or imperfections. Many different regimes, as a function of time and strength of the perturbation, have been identified. For chaotic systems, there is a range of perturbation strengths where the decay of the Loschmidt echo is perturbation independent, and given by the classical Lyapunov exponent. But observation of the Lyapunov decay depends strongly on the type of initial state upon which an average is carried out. This dependence can be removed by averaging the fidelity over the Haar measure, and the Lyapunov regime is recovered, as has been shown for quantum maps. In this work, we introduce an analogous quantity for systems with infinite dimensional Hilbert space, in particular the quantum stadium billiard, and we show clearly the universality of the Lyapunov regime. PMID:27140966

  2. Irreversibility of electrical insulating material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Polansky; Vaclav Mentlik

    2007-01-01

    Property changes in electrical insulating materials that appear during repeated voltage stress (e. g. in an applied voltage test) are an often discussed problem. The voltage exposure leads to irreversible changes in a negative sense as this investigation clearly demonstrates. A slow deterioration appears even in the case of the above mentioned applied voltage test when the irreversible effects of particular measurements superimpose. These are the effects of irreversible behavior of the insula...

  3. Finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization for an irreversible universal steady flow variable-temperature heat reservoir heat pump cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible universal steady flow heat pump cycle model with variable-temperature heat reservoirs and the losses of heat-resistance and internal irreversibility is established by using the theory of finite time thermodynamics. The universal heat pump cycle model consists of two heat-absorbing branches, two heat-releasing branches and two adiabatic branches. Expressions of heating load, coefficient of performance (COP and profit rate of the universal heat pump cycle model are derived, respectively. By means of numerical calculations, heat conductance distributions between hot- and cold-side heat exchangers are optimized by taking the maximum profit rate as objective. There exist an optimal heat conductance distribution and an optimal thermal capacity rate matching between the working fluid and heat reservoirs which lead to a double maximum profit rate. The effects of internal irreversibility, total heat exchanger inventory, thermal capacity rate of the working fluid and heat capacity ratio of the heat reservoirs on the optimal finite time exergoeconomic performance of the cycle are discussed in detail. The results obtained herein include the optimal finite time exergoeconomic performances of endoreversible and irreversible, constant- and variable-temperature heat reservoir Brayton, Otto, Diesel, Atkinson, Dual, Miller and Carnot heat pump cycles.

  4. Simulation of CO2 Brayton Cycle for Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery under Various Operating Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒歌群; 张承宇; 田华; 高媛媛; 李团兵; 仇荣赓

    2015-01-01

    A bottoming cycle system based on CO2 Brayton cycle is proposed to recover the engine exhaust heat. Its performance is compared with the conventional air Brayton cycle under five typical engine conditions. The results show that CO2 Brayton cycle proves to be superior to the air Brayton cycle in terms of the system net output power, thermal efficiency and recovery efficiency. In most cases, the recovery efficiency of CO2 Brayton cycle can be higher than 9%and the system has a better performance at the engine’s high operating load. The thermal efficiency can be as large as 24.83%under 100%operating load, accordingly, the net output power of 14.86 kW is obtained.

  5. A Brayton cycle solar dynamic heat receiver for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Nordwall, H. L.; Kaufmann, K. J.; Johnson, S. D.

    1989-01-01

    The detailed design of a heat receiver developed to meet the requirements of the Space Station Freedom, which will be assembled and operated in low earth orbit beginning in the mid-1990's, is described. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to a nominal 25-kW closed-Brayton-cycle power conversion unit. The receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat of a eutectic-salt phase-change mixture to store energy for eclipse operation. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification.

  6. Time series irreversibility: a visibility graph approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Lucas; Roldán, Édgar; Parrondo, Juan M R; Luque, Bartolo

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to measure real-valued time series irreversibility which combines two differ- ent tools: the horizontal visibility algorithm and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. This method maps a time series to a directed network according to a geometric criterion. The degree of irreversibility of the series is then estimated by the Kullback-Leibler divergence (i.e. the distinguishability) between the in and out degree distributions of the associated graph. The method is computationally effi- cient, does not require any ad hoc symbolization process, and naturally takes into account multiple scales. We find that the method correctly distinguishes between reversible and irreversible station- ary time series, including analytical and numerical studies of its performance for: (i) reversible stochastic processes (uncorrelated and Gaussian linearly correlated), (ii) irreversible stochastic pro- cesses (a discrete flashing ratchet in an asymmetric potential), (iii) reversible (conservative) and irreversible (di...

  7. A class of internally irreversible refrigeration cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Ali, Mohand A.

    1996-03-01

    A Carnot-like irreversible refrigeration cycle is modelled with two isothermal and two non-adiabatic, irreversible processes. The generic source of internal irreversibility, measured by the Clausius inequality, is a general irreversibility term which could include any heat leaks into the Joule - Thompson expansion valve, the evaporator and compressor cold boxes. This cycle is optimized first for maximum refrigeration power and maximum refrigeration load, then for maximum coefficient of performance. Its performances are compared with those of the endoreversible refrigeration cycle, based on a propane stage of a classical cascade liquefaction cycle example. Both cycle models achieve optimum power and maximum refrigeration load at nearly the same refrigeration temperature, but only the coefficient of performance of the irreversible refrigeration cycle reaches a maximum. Moreover, its prediction of heat conductance allocation between evaporator and condenser appears to be not only more conservative, but also more realistic for actual design considerations of refrigeration cycles.

  8. Thermodynamic Modeling for Open Combined Regenerative Brayton and Inverse Brayton Cycles with Regeneration before the Inverse Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an open combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles with regeneration before the inverse cycle is established in this paper by using thermodynamic optimization theory. The flow processes of the working fluid with the pressure drops and the size constraint of the real power plant are modeled. There are 13 flow resistances encountered by the working fluid stream for the cycle model. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining nine flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, regenerator inlet and outlet, combustion chamber inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle, and control the air flow rate, the net power output and the thermal efficiency. The analytical formulae about the power output, efficiency and other coefficients are derived with 13 pressure drop losses. It is found that the combined cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency but smaller power output than those of the base combined cycle at small compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle.

  9. Key Factors Influencing the Decision on the Number of Brayton Units for the Prometheus Space Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, John; Belanger, Sean; Burdge, Wayne; Clementoni, Eric; Jensen, Krista; Proctor, N. Beth; Zemo-Fulkerson, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors (NR) Program and its DOE Laboratories, KAPL and Bettis, were assigned responsibility to develop space reactor systems for the Prometheus Program. After investigating all of the potential reactor and energy conversion options, KAPL and Bettis selected a direct gas Brayton system as the reference approach for the nuclear electric propulsion missions, including the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). In order to determine the optimal plant architecture for the direct gas system, KAPL and Bettis investigated systems with one or two active Brayton units and up to two spare units. No final decision was made on the optimal system configuration for the NEP gas-Brayton system prior to closeout of the project. The two most promising options appear to be a single system without spares and a three Brayton system with two operating units, each producing half of the required load, with a single spare unit. The studies show that a single Brayton system, without spares, offers the lowest mass system, with potential for lower operating temperature, and a minimum of system and operational complexity. The lower required mass and increased system efficiency inherent in the single Brayton system may be exploited to satisfy other design objectives such as reduced reactor and radiator operating temperatures. While Brayton system lifetimes applicable to a JIMO or other nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission have not been demonstrated, there is no fundamental limit on the lifetime of the Brayton hardware. Use of additional Brayton units with installed spares will allow for continued operation in the event of a failure of an individual Brayton unit. However, preliminary system reliability evaluations do not point to any substantial reliability benefit provided by carrying spare Brayton units. If a spare unit is used, operating two of the units at full power with an unpowered spare proved more efficient than operating all three units at a reduced power and temperature

  10. Application of Irreversible Thermodynamics to Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Kjelstrup

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare three different ways of modelling tray distillation to each other, and to experimental data: the most common way that assumes equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases at the outlets of each tray, and two more precise methods that use irreversible thermodynamics. Irreversible thermodynamics determines the driving forces and fluxes of a system in agreement with the second law. It is shown that the methods using irreversible thermodynamics (Maxwell-Stefan equations are superior to the method that assumes that equilibrium is reached on each tray. The Soret effect must be included to have a good description of the heat flux.

  11. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  12. Solar/gas Brayton/Rankine cycle heat pump assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.; Liu, A. Y.

    1982-05-01

    A 10-ton gas-fired heat pump is currently under development at AiResearch under joint DOE and GRI sponsorship. This heat pump features a highly efficient, recuperated, subatmospheric Brayton-cycle engine which drives the centrifugal compressor of a reversible vapor compression heat pump. The investigations under this program were concerned initially with the integration of this machine with a parabolic dish-type solar collector. Computer models were developed to accurately describe the performance of the heat pump packaged in this fashion. The study determined that (1) only a small portion (20 to 50 percent) of the available solar energy could be used because of a fundamental mismatch between the heating and cooling demand and the availability of solar energy, and (2) the simple pay back period, by comparison to the baseline non-solar gas-fired heat pump, was unacceptable (15 to 36 years).

  13. Evaluation of Silicon Nitride for Brayton Turbine Wheel Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Marc R.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is being evaluated as a risk-reduction alternative for a Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Brayton turbine wheel in the event that the Prometheus program design requirements exceed the creep strength of the baseline metallic superalloys. Five Si3N4 ceramics, each processed by a different method, were screened based on the Weibull distribution of bend strength at 1700 F (927 C). Three of the Si3N4 ceramics, Honeywell AS800, Kyocera SN282, and Saint-Gobain NT154, had bend strengths in excess of 87 ksi (600 MPa) at 1700 F (927 C). These were chosen for further assessment and consideration for future subcomponent and component fabrication and testing.

  14. Integrated solar thermal Brayton cycles with either one or two regenerative heat exchangers for maximum power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to optimise the open-air solar-thermal Brayton cycle by considering the implementation of the second law of thermodynamics and how it relates to the design of the heat exchanging components within it. These components included one or more regenerators (in the form of cross-flow heat exchangers) and the receiver of a parabolic dish concentrator where the system heat was absorbed. The generation of entropy was considered as it was associated with the destruction of exergy or available work. The dimensions of some components were used to optimise the cycles under investigation. EGM (Entropy Generation Minimisation) was employed to optimise the system parameters by considering their influence on the total generation of entropy (destruction of exergy). Various assumptions and constraints were considered and discussed. The total entropy generation rate and irreversibilities were determined by considering the individual components and ducts of the system, as well as their respective inlet and outlet conditions. The major system parameters were evaluated as functions of the mass flow rate to allow for a proper discussion of the system performance. The performances of both systems were investigated, and characteristics were listed for both. Finally, a comparison is made to shed light on the differences in performance. - Highlights: • Implementation of the second law of thermodynamics. • Design of heat exchanging and collecting equipment. • Utilisation of Entropy Generation Minimization. • Presentation of a multi-objective optimization. • Raise efficiency with more regeneration

  15. Brayton isotope power system. Volume II. System evaluation attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-15

    This volume of the Brayton Isotope Power System, Phase II Plan, contains the self-evaluation by AiResearch, GE, and TECO, addressing Section 3 of The Dynamic Systems Evaluation Criteria and Procedures established by the Department of Energy. These evaluation criteria addresses: Component Feasibility; Flight System Design Performance; GDS Test Results; Reliability and Practicality; Safety; Spacecraft Integration; and Cost and Risk. Included in each of these general categories are several attributes, each of which addresses a separate component, feature, or area of interest related to the power system, its development status, degree of preparedness for proceeding into a flight program, and/or the contractors' performance during Phase I. The key elements which indicate the readiness of a radioisotope power system to progress into a flight qualification program are: an advanced state of development of the power conversion system; demonstrated or exhibited potential for space systems standards of reliability; evident capability of meeting system safety requirements; favorable cost/benefit tradeoff considering projected missions and technology advancement potential; and proven feasibility of fabricating and qualifying a flight system and integrating it with a candidate spacecraft and launch vehicle. As a result of considerable government investment in Brayton system component development, the MHW isotope heat source and the BIPS Phase I Ground Demonstration System, the BIPS is a more advanced state of development than any previous radioisotope power system technology. Evidence of this is presented along with a complete review of the attributes, the contractor recommended ratings, and the rationale for the self-evaluation.

  16. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  17. Irreversible thermal denaturation of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreimer, D. I.; Shnyrov, V. L.; Villar, E.; Silman, I.; Weiner, L

    1995-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase, a disulfide-linked homodimer with 537 amino acids in each subunit, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It displays a single calorimetric peak that is completely irreversible, the shape and temperature maximum depending on the scan rate. Thus, thermal denaturation of acetylcholinesterase is an irreversible process, under kinetic control, which is described well by the two-state kinetic scheme N-->D, with activation...

  18. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B. M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hainiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the geometric structures associated with thermodynamic properties). These systems, both energy-preserving and irreversible, are then used to analyze the loss-lessness of these systems with respect to ...

  19. Fluctuation, Dissipation and Irreversibility in Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the appearance of time-asymmetric behavior in physical processes in cosmology and in the dynamics of the Universe itself. We begin with an analysis of the nature and origin of irreversibility in well-known physical processes such as dispersion, diffusion, dissipation and mixing, and make the distinction between processes whose irreversibility arises from the stipulation of special initial conditions, and those arising from the system's interaction with a coarse-grained environment....

  20. Development of a 77K Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler with Multiple Coldheads Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RTI will design and optimize an 80 W, 77K cryocooler based on the reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) with four identical coldheads for distributed cooling. Based on...

  1. Automatic Control Strategy Development for the Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle for LFR Autonomous Load Following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle is a promising advanced alternative to the Rankine saturated steam cycle and ideal gas Brayton cycle for the energy converters of specific reactor concepts belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. A new plant dynamics analysis computer code has been developed for simulation of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to an autonomous Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The plant dynamics code was used to develop an automatic control strategy for the whole plant in response to changes in the demand from the electrical grid. The specific features of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle that result in limitations on the control range and speed of specific control mechanisms are discussed. Calculations of whole-plant responses to plant operational transients involving step and continuous changes in grid demand are demonstrated. (authors)

  2. Phase I: controls preliminary design report for Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background analyses of three control systems capable of controlling the speed, output voltage, and start rate of Brayton Isotope Power Systems (BIPS) are presented. Conclusions of all functions considered are summarized

  3. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  4. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  5. Phase I: controls preliminary design report for Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    Background analyses of three control systems capable of controlling the speed, output voltage, and start rate of Brayton Isotope Power Systems (BIPS) are presented. Conclusions of all functions considered are summarized. (TFD)

  6. Exergy analyses of an endoreversible closed regenerative Brayton cycle CCHP plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Yang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    An endoreversible closed regenerative Brayton cycle CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) plant coupled to constant-temperature heat reservoirs is presented using finite time thermodynamics (FTT). The CCHP plant includes an endoreversible closed regenerative Brayton cycle, an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption refrigerator and a heat recovery device of thermal consumer. The heat-resistance losses in the hot-, cold-, thermal consumer-, generator-, condenser-, evaporator- and ab...

  7. Assessing the potential of hybrid fossil–solar thermal plants for energy policy making: Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a first study in-depth of solar–fossil hybridization from a general perspective. It develops a set of useful parameters for analyzing and comparing hybrid plants, it studies the case of hybridizing Brayton cycles with current solar technologies and shows a tentative extrapolation of the results to integrated combined cycle systems (ISCSS). In particular, three points have been analyzed: the technical requirements for solar technologies to be hybridized with Brayton cycles, the temperatures and pressures at which hybridization would produce maximum power per unit of fossil fuel, and their mapping to current solar technologies and Brayton cycles. Major conclusions are that a hybrid plant works in optimum conditions which are not equal to those of the solar or power blocks considered independently, and that hybridizing at the Brayton cycle of a combined cycle could be energetically advantageous. -- Highlights: •We model a generic solar–fossil hybrid Brayton cycle. •We calculate the operating conditions for maximum ratio power/fuel consumption. •Best hybrid plant conditions are not the same as solar or power blocks separately. •We study potential for hybridization with current solar technologies. •Hybridization at the Brayton in a combined cycle may achieve high power/fuel ratio

  8. Manejo do cateter venoso central totalmente implantado em pacientes oncológicos: revisão integrative Manejo del catéter venoso central totalmente implantado en pacientes oncológicos: revisión integrativa Management of totally implanted catheter in patients with cancer: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Inocêncio Vasques

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O cateter totalmente implantado é amplamente utilizado durante o tratamento de pacientes com câncer e é capaz de minimizar complicações decorrentes da terapia intravenosa periférica. Assim, buscou-se identificar os cuidados de enfermagem relacionados ao manuseio de cateter totalmente implantado nesses pacientes. Para tanto, realizou-se revisão integrativa da literatura que resultou na análise de 15 artigos. O conhecimento produzido está direcionado para o tempo de permanência do cateter, complicações inerentes ao uso, manuseio do dispositivo, percepção do paciente em relação ao cateter e informações ao paciente. Além de demonstrar a complexidade da assistência de enfermagem no manuseio desses dispositivos, os achados podem auxiliar, igualmente, os profissionais que não atuam em oncologia, na aplicação de conhecimentos na prática clínica.El catéter totalmente implantado es ampliamente utilizado durante el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer y es capaz de minimizar las complicaciones consecuentes de la terapia intravenosa periférica. Así, en este trabajo, se buscó identificar los cuidados de enfermería relacionados a la manipulación del catéter totalmente implantado en esos pacientes. Para tal efecto, se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura dando como resultado el análisis de 15 artículos. El conocimiento producido está orientado hacia el tiempo de permanencia del catetér, complicaciones inherentes al uso, manipulación del dispositivo, informaciones y percepción del paciente en relación al catéter. Aparte de demostrar la complejidad de la asistencia de enfermería en la manipulación de esos dispositivos, los hallazgos pueden auxiliar, igualmente, a los profesionales que no actúan en oncología, en la aplicación de conocimientos en la práctica clínica.Totally implanted catheter, which is effective in deceasing complications related to peripheral intravenous therapy, is widely used in

  9. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO2 Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO2 cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO2 cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO2 cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO2 compression (pumping) either by CO2 condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating between the turbine stages. Analyses carried

  10. Ostwald ripening of precipitates and irreversible phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, the manner according to which a phase transformation proceeds should be determinable by irreversible thermodynamics just as well as by appropriate kinetic equations embodying the transport of matter or energy. In practice, however, the former is seldom invoked and the latter approach provides the exclusive description of the transformation leaving one wondering what role the former plays. In this paper, the problem of Ostwald ripening of precipitates is studied to throw light on the underlying irreversible thermodynamics. From a path integral solution, it is shown that the size distribution evolves in such a manner that a Lagrangian is minimized. This Lagrangian is the sum of the dissipation potentials in the flux and force representations minus the rate of entropy production. The coarsening process proceeds in accordance with Onsager's principle of least dissipation. The implications of this study in relation to other irreversible phenomena are also discussed

  11. Fluctuation, Dissipation and Irreversibility in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, B L

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the appearance of time-asymmetric behavior in physical processes in cosmology and in the dynamics of the Universe itself. We begin with an analysis of the nature and origin of irreversibility in well-known physical processes such as dispersion, diffusion, dissipation and mixing, and make the distinction between processes whose irreversibility arises from the stipulation of special initial conditions, and those arising from the system's interaction with a coarse-grained environment. We then study the irreversibility associated with quantum fluctuations in cosmological processes like particle creation and the `birth of the Universe'. We suggest that the backreaction effect of such quantum processes can be understood as the manifestation of a fluctuation-dissipation relation relating fluctuations of quantum fields to dissipations in the dynamics of spacetime. For the same reason it is shown that dissipation is bound to appear in the dynamics of minisuperspace cosmologies. This provides a natural cours...

  12. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were: 1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components. Success criteria DOE targets Wilson system LCOE DOE’s gas price $6.75/MBtu 9 cents/kWh 7.7 cents/kWh LCOE Current gas price $4.71/MBtu NA 6.9 cents/kWh Capacity factor 75% (6500hr) 75-100% Solar fraction 85% (5585hr) >5585hr Receiver cost $170/kWe $50/kWe Thermal storage cost $20/kWhth $13/kWhth Heliostat cost $120/m2 $89.8/m2

  13. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  14. Thermo-economic performance of HTGR Brayton power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature reached in High and Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) results in thermal efficiencies substantially higher than those of actual nuclear power plants. A number of studies mainly driven by achieving optimum thermal performance have explored several layout. However, economic assessments of cycle power configurations for innovative systems, although necessarily uncertain at this time, may bring valuable information in relative terms concerning power cycle optimization. This paper investigates the thermal and economic performance direct Brayton cycles. Based on the available parameters and settings of different designs of HTGR power plants (GTHTR-300 and PBMR) and using the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the effects of compressor inter-cooling and of the compressor-turbine arrangement (i.e., single vs. multiple axes) on thermal efficiency have been estimated. The economic analysis has been based on the El-Sayed methodology and on the indirect derivation of the reactor capital investment. The results of the study suggest that a 1-axis inter-cooled power cycle has a similar thermal performance to the 3-axes one (around 50%) and, what's more, it is substantially less taxed. A sensitivity study allowed assessing the potential impact of optimizing several variables on cycle performance. Further than that, the cycle components costs have been estimated and compared. (authors)

  15. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH3, SO2, CO2 and H2O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Calidad de vida y características psicológicas de una población de pacientes hipoacúsicos implantados quirúrgicamente con la Prótesis Totalmente Implantable

    OpenAIRE

    Cortijo Torres, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Valorar la calidad de vida de una población de pacientes que han sido implantados quirúrgicamente con la prótesis totalmente implantable de oído medio, y detectar sintomatología psicopatológica que pudiera suponer un obstáculo para la consecución de resultados en el proceso de adaptación al implante auditivo.

  17. Brayton isotope power system. Phase I (Ground demonstration system) configuration control document (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-25

    The Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS) configuration is defined. The GDS is configured to be similar to a conceptual flight system design referred to herein as the BIPS Flight System (FS). The Brayton Isotope Power System is being developed by the ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W/sub e/, 7 year life 3.5 W/sub e/ per pound space power system. The system was a closed Brayton dynamic system to convert energy from an isotope heat source at a net efficiency exceeding 25%. This CCD is for the first phase of the ERDA program to have a qualified system ready for launch by June 30, 1981. Phase I is a 36 month effort to provide a conceptual design of the flight system and design, fabricate and test a ground demonstration system. The baseline system is predicated on using two of the multihundred-watt isotope heat sources being developed for the ERDA by GE. The Ground Demonstration System will simulate, as closely as possible, the Brayton Isotope Power Flight System and will utilize components and technology being developed by NASA for the Mini-Brayton rotating unit (AIRPHX), recuperator (AIRLA) and heat source assembly (GE). The Ground Demonstration System includes a performance test and a 1000-hour endurance test.

  18. Preliminary design of the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system is presented as a promising alternative to the present Rankine cycle. The principal advantage of the S-CO2 gas is a good efficiency at a modest temperature and a compact size of its components. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to a SFR also excludes the possibilities of a SWR (Sodium-Water Reaction) which is a major safety-related event, so that the safety of a SFR can be improved. KAERI is conducting a feasibility study for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system coupled to KALIMER(Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor). The purpose of this research is to develop S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion systems and evaluate their performance when they are coupled to advanced nuclear reactor concepts of the type under investigation in the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. This paper contains the research overview of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system

  19. The reverse control of irreversible biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Joo, Jae Il; Shin, Dongkwan; Kim, Dongsan; Park, Sang-Min

    2016-09-01

    Most biological processes have been considered to be irreversible for a long time, but some recent studies have shown the possibility of their reversion at a cellular level. How can we then understand the reversion of such biological processes? We introduce a unified conceptual framework based on the attractor landscape, a molecular phase portrait describing the dynamics of a molecular regulatory network, and the phenotype landscape, a map of phenotypes determined by the steady states of particular output molecules in the attractor landscape. In this framework, irreversible processes involve reshaping of the phenotype landscape, and the landscape reshaping causes the irreversibility of processes. We suggest reverse control by network rewiring which changes network dynamics with constant perturbation, resulting in the restoration of the original phenotype landscape. The proposed framework provides a conceptual basis for the reverse control of irreversible biological processes through network rewiring. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:366-377. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1346 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27327189

  20. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a gener

  1. Mathematical Models and Equilibrium in Irreversible Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin; Sergey A. Amelkin

    2010-01-01

    A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  2. GROUPOIDS AND IRREVERSIBLE DISCRETE DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Roxana Buneci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the topology of the orbit space of an irreversible discrete dynamical system (X,  seen as a principal groupoid associated to the groupoid G(X,,E introduced in [1] (where E is an equivalence relation on X.

  3. Rotational accuracy of all-ceramic restorations on ceraone components =Liberdade rotacional de restaurações totalmente cerâmicas sobre componentes ceraone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster, Jacqueline et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a desadaptação interna de sistemas cerâmicos em prótese sobre implantes em relação à liberdade rotacional das restaurações após várias cocções da porcelana. Materiais e métodos: Foram analisados três sistemas cerâmicos: Procera AllCeram, In-Ceram e CeraOne sobre análogo e intermediário CeraOne. A liberdade rotacional foi medida com um dispositivo acoplado a um relógio comparador em quatro tempos: fase de coifa, após aplicação do corpo da porcelana e glaze, e após duas queimas adicionais. Os dados foram analisados por testes de Friedman, de Kruskal-Wallis e de Wilcoxon, α = 0,01. Resultados: As médias de liberdade rotacional em graus foram: 0,08 para In-Ceram/Análogo; 1,64 para Procera/ Intermediário; 1,72 para CeraOne/Intermediário; 1,88 para CeraOne/Análogo e 1,97 para Procera/Análogo. O sistema In-Ceram sobre o análogo apresentou níveis de liberdade rotacional dez a vinte vezes menores que CeraOne e Procera. Não houve diferença entre as fases de confecção da restauração para In-Ceram. O comportamento de CeraOne e Procera foi similar, com aumento da liberdade rotacional sobre intermediário e análogo com a progressão da confecção da restauração. A liberdade rotacional sobre intermediário foi menor que sobre análogo. Conclusão: A liberdade rotacional variou em função da etapa do processo de fabricação dependendo do sistema totalmente cerâmico.

  4. Herniorrafia inguinal laparoscópica totalmente extraperitoneal: vinte e sete complicações graves após 4565 operações consecutivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Meyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar e avaliar as complicações do tratamento da hérnia inguinal com a colocação de tela totalmente extraperitoneal. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos, em uma série consecutiva de 4565 reparos de hérnia laparoscópica, pacientes que haviam sido submetidos ao procedimento TEP entre janeiro de 2001 e janeiro de 2011. Os critérios de inclusão foram: diagnóstico com hérnia inguinal sintomática, incluindo recorrência após correção de hérnia inguinal e cirurgia prévia em abdômen inferior e pelve. Todos os pacientes > 18 anos de idade. Pacientes com hérnia encarcerada na urgência foram excluídos do estudo. RESULTADOS: Um total de 4565 hérnias foram incluídas no estudo. Ocorreram 27 complicações graves (0,6%: 12 hemorragias (0,25%, duas lesões da bexiga (0,04%, cinco oclusões (0,11%, quatro perfurações intestinais (0,09%, uma lesão da veia ilíaca (0,02%, uma lesão do nervo femoral (0,02%, duas lesões dos vasos deferentes (0,04% e dois óbitos (0,02% (embolia pulmonar, peritonite. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de complicações com o procedimento TEP é baixa. Correção de hérnia laparoscópica é uma técnica reprodutível e confiável. Em nossa experiência, existem contraindicações para o procedimento de TEP. A técnica TEP deve ser minuciosa para evitar complicações intraoperatórias (diatermia bipolar. As complicações podem ocorrer mesmo após o cirurgião ter adquirido experiência substancial.

  5. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  6. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  7. Exergy analyses of an endoreversible closed regenerative Brayton cycle CCHP plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An endoreversible closed regenerative Brayton cycle CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power plant coupled to constant-temperature heat reservoirs is presented using finite time thermodynamics (FTT. The CCHP plant includes an endoreversible closed regenerative Brayton cycle, an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption refrigerator and a heat recovery device of thermal consumer. The heat-resistance losses in the hot-, cold-, thermal consumer-, generator-, condenser-, evaporator- and absorber-side heat exchangers and regenerator are considered. The performance of the CCHP plant is studied from the exergetic perspective, and the analytical formulae about exergy output rate and exergy efficiency are derived. Through numerical calculations, the pressure ratio of regenerative Brayton cycle is optimized, the effects of heat conductance of regenerator and ratio of heat demanded by the thermal consumer to power output on dimensionless exergy output rate and exergy efficiency are analyzed.

  8. Thermodynamic design of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, C. W.; Yang, H. S.; Sohn, Song Ho; Lim, Ji Hyun; Oh, S. R.; Hwang, Si Dole

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic design of Brayton cryocooler is presented as part of an ongoing governmental project in Korea, aiming at 1 km HTS power cable in the transmission grid. The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling liquid nitrogen from 72 K to 65 K. An ideal Brayton cycle for this application is first investigated to examine the fundamental features. Then a practical cycle for a Brayton cryocooler is designed, taking into account the performance of compressor, expander, and heat exchangers. Commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) is used for simulating the refrigeration cycle with real fluid properties of refrigerant. Helium is selected as a refrigerant, as it is superior to neon in thermodynamic efficiency. The operating pressure and flow rate of refrigerant are decided with a constraint to avoid the freezing of liquid nitrogen

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of the double Brayton cycle with the use of oxy combustion and capture of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Paweł; Zakrzewski, Witold; Kaczmarczyk, Oktawia; Badur, Janusz

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, thermodynamic analysis of a proposed innovative double Brayton cycle with the use of oxy combustion and capture of CO2, is presented. For that purpose, the computation flow mechanics (CFM) approach has been developed. The double Brayton cycle (DBC) consists of primary Brayton and secondary inverse Brayton cycle. Inversion means that the role of the compressor and the gas turbine is changed and firstly we have expansion before compression. Additionally, the workingfluid in the DBC with the use of oxy combustion and CO2 capture contains a great amount of H2O and CO2, and the condensation process of steam (H2O) overlaps in negative pressure conditions. The analysis has been done for variants values of the compression ratio, which determines the lowest pressure in the double Brayton cycle.

  10. Comparison of Direct and Indirect Gas Reactor Brayton Systems for Nuclear Electric Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas reactor systems are being considered as candidates for use in generating power for the Prometheus-1 spacecraft, along with other NASA missions as part of the Prometheus program. Gas reactors offer a benign coolant, which increases core and structural materials options. However, the gas coolant has inferior thermal transport properties, relative to other coolant candidates such as liquid metals. This leads to concerns for providing effective heat transfer and for minimizing pressure drop within the reactor core. In direct gas Brayton systems, i.e. those with one or more Brayton turbines in the reactor cooling loop, the ability to provide effective core cooling and low pressure drop is further constrained by the need for a low pressure, high molecular weight gas, typically a mixture of helium and xenon. Use of separate primary and secondary gas loops, one for the reactor and one or more for the Brayton system(s) separated by heat exchanger(s), allows for independent optimization of the pressure and gas composition of each loop. The reactor loop can use higher pressure pure helium, which provides improved heat transfer and heat transport properties, while the Brayton loop can utilize lower pressure He-Xe. However, this approach requires a separate primary gas circulator and also requires gas to gas heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the trade-offs between the direct gas reactor Brayton system and the indirect gas Brayton system. It discusses heat exchanger arrangement and materials options and projects heat exchanger mass based on heat transfer area and structural design needs. Analysis indicates that these heat exchangers add considerable mass, but result in reactor cooling and system resiliency improvements

  11. Operational Curves for HTGR's Coupled to Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) that drive Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems are being evaluated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Program for high-efficiency electricity generation. This paper describes the operational performance of measured and predicted closed Brayton cycles. The measured results were obtained from an electrically driven closed Brayton cycle test loop that Sandia fabricated and has operating within the laboratories. The predicted behavior is based on integrated dynamic system models that are capable of predicting both the transient and steady state behavior of reactor driven Brayton cycle systems. Sandia contracted Barber Nichols Corporation to modify a Capstone C30 open-cycle Brayton engine so that it could be operated in a closed loop. We are currently operating the test loop to validate the models and to study control issues. Operation of the test-loop and developing the system models has allowed Sandia to develop and validate a set of tools and models that are being used to determine how nuclear reactors operate with gas turbine power conversion systems. Both measured and modeled operational performance curves will be presented to show how the electrical load (or power generated) varies as a function of shaft speed for various turbine inlet temperatures and for a fixed fill gas inventory. The measured and modeled behavior of the test loop both reveal the non-linear nature of the reactor and Brayton cycle loop because for a fixed electrical load there are two shaft speeds that can produce this steady-state power. Closer examination of the system of equations shows that only one of these steady-state solutions is dynamically stable. An active electronic control system will be required to operate at the more efficient but dynamically unstable point, and some means of controlling the flow via inventory control or bypass flow valves will also be required. (authors)

  12. Volatile organic compound recovery by Brayton cycle Heat Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic solvent emissions from industrial processes are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs contribute to the formation of photochemical ozone, a major component of smog. Over 90 percent of the organic solvents used in industry are emitted. Not only does this represent a significant source of air pollution, but it also represents a waste of energy resources. A pound of solvent requires an average of 23,000 Btu of energy to produce, in the form of the feedstock and processing energy expenditures. In 1988, the total amount of solvents emitted in the United States was over 4 billion pounds and represent 100 trillion Btu in energy loss. In the mid-1970's, the 3M Company began developing the Brayton Cycle Heat Pump for solvent recovery (BCSRHP). In 1979, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a project to fabricate and install a BCSRHP in a 3M plant in Hutchinson, Minnesota. DOE has continued sponsoring the development of a large BCSRHP system with 3M, and NUCON International (NUCON). In 1989 DOE and NUCON, with cosponsorship from the Electric Power Research Institute and Southern California Edison Company began development of a small-scale system for use by small emitters. To obtain data for design of the small-scale system, a small, mobile pilot plant was built by NUCON. Between 1990 and 1991, the pilot plant was demonstrated at four industrial sites in Southern California. The operation of the pilot plant was continuously monitored during the demonstrations, and its ability to remove VOCS, utility consumption and other operating characteristics were recorded and its performance quantified

  13. Concept definition study of small Brayton cycle engines for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Ashe, T. L.; Dobler, F. X.; Elkins, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Three first-generation Brayton cycle engine types were studied for solar application: a near-term open cycle (configuration A), a near-term closed cycle (configuration B), and a longer-term open cycle (configuration C). A parametric performance analysis was carried out to select engine designs for the three configurations. The interface requirements for the Brayton cycle engine/generator and solar receivers were determined. A technology assessment was then carried out to define production costs, durability, and growth potential for the selected engine types.

  14. NASA 30,000 hour test demonstration of closed Brayton cycle reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, J. E.; Dunn, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Four Brayton rotating units (BRU) developed by an American company were tested in connection with studies concerning the feasibility to use closed Brayton power conversion systems for space applications. The rotating assembly operates at a speed of 36,000 rpm and consists of a radial outflow compressor, a four-pole Rice alternator/motor, and a radial inflow turbine. The cycle working fluid consists of a mixture of helium and xenon. After 20,000 hours of operation, there was no apparent wear on failure mode to prevent attainment of the 5-year BRU design life objective.

  15. Metrics and Energy Landscapes in Irreversible Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Andresen

    2015-01-01

    We describe how several metrics are possible in thermodynamic state space but that only one, Weinhold’s, has achieved widespread use. Lengths calculated based on this metric have been used to bound dissipation in finite-time (irreversible) processes be they continuous or discrete, and described in the energy picture or the entropy picture. Examples are provided from thermodynamics of heat conversion processes as well as chemical reactions. Even losses in economics can be bounded using a therm...

  16. Corporate Tax Asymmetries under Investment Irreversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Panteghini, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    This article studies the effects of corporate tax asymmetries on irreversible investment. We discuss an asymmetric tax scheme where the tax base is given by the firm's return, net of an imputation rate. When the firm's return is less than this rate, however, no tax refunds are allowed. Contrary to common winsdom, this asymmetric scheme may be neutral even when assuming a long-lasting income uncertainty. Neutrality holds even if we add both capital and political uncertainty.

  17. Simulations of kinetically irreversible protein aggregate structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S Y; Przybycien, T M

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated the structure of kinetically irreversible protein aggregates in two-dimensional space using a lattice-based Monte-Carlo routine. Our model specifically accounts for the intermolecular interactions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein surfaces and a polar solvent. The simulations provide information about the aggregate density, the types of inter-monomer contacts and solvent content within the aggregates, the type and extent of solvent exposed perimeter, and the short-...

  18. Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  19. Water Management in France: Delegation and Irreversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim Clark; Gérard Mondello

    2000-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper stems from the trend to delegation in the water management field. It refers to the municipality’s negotiating disadvantage in the face of cartelized water management firms that makes delegation, once undertaken, virtually irreversible. We show why the characteristics of the delegation auction render is useless as a tool for collective welfare maximization. We also show that the remaining tool for achieving collective welfare maximization, i.e. the mun...

  20. Extended irreversible thermodynamics revisited (1988-98)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, D.; Casas-Vázquez, J.; Lebon, G.

    1999-07-01

    We review the progress made in extended irreversible thermodynamics during the ten years that have elapsed since the publication of our first review on the same subject (Rep. Prog. Phys. 1988 51 1105 - 72). During this decade much effort has been devoted to achieving a better understanding of the fundamentals and a broadening of the domain of applications. The macroscopic formulation of extended irreversible thermodynamics is reviewed and compared with other non-equilibrium thermodynamic theories. The foundations of EIT are discussed on the bases of information theory, kinetic theory, stochastic phenomena and computer simulations. Several significant applications are presented, some of them of considerable practical interest (non-classical heat transport, polymer solutions, non-Fickian diffusion, microelectronic devices, dielectric relaxation), and some others of special theoretical appeal (superfluids, nuclear collisions, cosmology). We also outline some basic problems which are not yet completely solved, such as the definitions of entropy and temperature out of equilibrium, the selection of the relevant variables, and the status to be reserved to the H-theorem and its relation to the second law. In writing this review, we had four objectives in mind: to show (i) that extended irreversible thermodynamics stands at the frontiers of modern thermodynamics; (ii) that it opens the way to new and useful applications; (iii) that much progress has been achieved during the last decade, and (iv) that the subject is far from being exhausted.

  1. Linear irreversible thermodynamic performance analyses for a generalized irreversible thermal Brownian refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin Ding, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a generalized model of irreversible thermal Brownian refrigerator, the Onsager coefficients and the analytical expressions for maximum coefficient of performance (COP and the COP at maximum cooling load are derived by using the theory of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT. The influences of heat leakage and the heat flow via the kinetic energy change of the particles on the LIT performance of the refrigerator are analyzed. It is shown that when the two kinds of irreversible heat flows are ignored, the Brownian refrigerator is built with the condition of tight coupling between fluxes and forces and it will operate in a reversible regime with zero entropy generation. Moreover, the results obtained by using the LIT theory are compared with those obtained by using the theory of finite time thermodynamics (FTT. It is found that connection between the LIT and FTT performances of the refrigerator can be interpreted by the coupling strength, and the theory of LIT and FTT can be used in a complementary way to analyze in detail the performance of the irreversible thermal Brownian refrigerators. Due to the consideration of several irreversibilities in the model, the results obtained about the Brownian refrigerator are of general significance and can be used to analyze the performance of several different kinds of Brownian refrigerators.

  2. Computational analysis of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Computational analysis of S-CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. ► Validation of numerical model with literature data. ► Recompression S-CO2 Brayton cycle thermal efficiency of 42.44%. ► Reheating concept to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. ► Higher efficiency achieved by the proposed concept. - Abstract: The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Analysis (OSCA) code is being developed to analyze the design of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) driven Brayton cycle for a fusion reactor as part of the Modular Optimal Balance Integral System (MOBIS). This system is based on a recompression Brayton cycle. S-CO2 is adopted as the working fluid for MOBIS because of its easy availability, high density and low chemical reactivity. The reheating concept is introduced to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. The helium-cooled lithium lead model AB of DEMO fusion reactor is used as reference in this paper.

  3. Experimental and Analytical Performance of a Dual Brayton Power Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Thomas A.; Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell; Owen, A. Karl

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between two closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion units (PCU) which share a common gas inventory and heat source have been studied experimentally using the Dual Brayton Power Conversion System (DBPCS) and analytically using the Closed- Cycle System Simulation (CCSS) computer code. Selected operating modes include steady-state operation at equal and unequal shaft speeds and various start-up scenarios. Equal shaft speed steady-state tests were conducted for heater exit temperatures of 840 to 950 K and speeds of 50 to 90 krpm, providing a system performance map. Unequal shaft speed steady-state testing over the same operating conditions shows that the power produced by each Brayton is sensitive to the operating conditions of the other due to redistribution of gas inventory. Startup scenarios show that starting the engines one at a time can dramatically reduce the required motoring energy. Although the DBPCS is not considered a flight-like system, these insights, as well as the operational experience gained from operating and modeling this system provide valuable information for the future development of Brayton systems.

  4. Specification requirements summary for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, E.E.

    1976-02-10

    This document provides a summary of the required program specifications and procedures for the ERDA Phase I Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Program. Also included are document definitions, descriptions, and formats, and a listing of commonly used abbreviations. This document is intended to be used as a guide in document preparation and control.

  5. Overview of CNES-CEA joint program on space nuclear Brayton systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper French studies on 20-kWe space nuclear power systems are presented. The gas-cooled reactor nuclear systems, some investigations on advanced thermal neutron spectrum systems, a support work on materials, parameters optimization and operating transient analysis, and Brayton cycle-thermoelectric and nuclear-non nuclear systems comparisons

  6. Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

  7. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification program. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A proposal for the demonstration, development and production of the Isotope Brayton Flight System for space vehicles is presented with details on the technical requirements for designing and testing a ground demonstration system and on the program organization and personnel. (LCL)

  8. An action principle of classical irreversible thermodynamics - Irreversible thermodynamic cycles and embodied bits of information

    CERN Document Server

    Hanel, Rudolf A

    2016-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, it seems to my best of knowledge that the possibly simplest approach towards deriving equations governing irreversible thermodynamics from gas-kinetic considerations within the framework of classical mechanics has never been pursued. In this paper we address this omission and derive the equations describing the irreversible thermodynamics of a gas in a piston and associated thermodynamic cycles performed in finite time. What we find is a thermodynamic action principle: The irreversible work we require for performing a thermodynamic cycle in finite time times the time we require to run through the cycle, a isothermal compression/decompression cycle for instance, will always be larger or equal to a lower bound given by a system specific constant with the dimension of an action. This process specific action constants can take values of the order of Plank's constant for microscopic processes, such as displacing a Hydrogen atom by one atom diameter. For macroscopic processes (e.g. a bicycle...

  9. Thermodynamics of irreversible plant cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Pietruszka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-irreversible cell enlargement of plant cells at a constant temperature results from two independent physical processes, e.g. water absorption and cell wall yielding. In such a model cell growth starts with reduction in wall stress because of irreversible extension of the wall. The water absorption and physical expansion are spontaneous consequences of this initial modification of the cell wall (the juvenile cell vacuolate, takes up water and expands. In this model the irreversible aspect of growth arises from the extension of the cell wall. Such theory expressed quantitatively by time-dependent growth equation was elaborated by Lockhart in the 60's.The growth equation omit however a very important factor, namely the environmental temperature at which the plant cells grow. In this paper we put forward a simple phenomenological model which introduces into the growth equation the notion of temperature. Moreover, we introduce into the modified growth equation the possible influence of external growth stimulator or inhibitor (phytohormones or abiotic factors. In the presence of such external perturbations two possible theoretical solutions have been found: the linear reaction to the application of growth hormones/abiotic factors and the non-linear one. Both solutions reflect and predict two different experimental conditions, respectively (growth at constant or increasing concentration of stimulator/inhibitor. The non-linear solution reflects a common situation interesting from an environmental pollution point of view e.g. the influence of increasing (with time concentration of toxins on plant growth. Having obtained temperature modified growth equations we can draw further qualitative and, especially, quantitative conclusions about the mechanical properties of the cell wall itself. This also concerns a new and interesting result obtained in our model: We have calculated the magnitude of the cell wall yielding coefficient (T [m3 J-1•s-1] in

  10. Sensitivity study on nitrogen Brayton cycle coupled with a small ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of UCFR are constant neutron flux and power density. They move their positions every moment at constant speed along with axial position of fuel rod for 60 years. Simultaneously with the development of the reactors, a new power conversion system has been considered. To solve existing issues of vigorous sodium-water reaction in SFR with steam power cycle, many researchers suggested a closed Brayton cycle as an alternative technique for SFR power conversion system. Many inactive gases are selected as a working fluid in Brayton power cycle, mainly supercritical CO2 (S-CO2). However, S-CO2 still has potential for reaction with sodium. CO2-sodium reaction produces solid product, which has possibility to have an auto ignition reaction around 600 .deg. C. Thus, instead of S-CO2, CEA in France has developed nitrogen power cycle for ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration). In addition to inactive characteristic of nitrogen with sodium, its thermal and physical similarity with air enables to easily adopt to existing air Brayton cycle technology. In this study, for an optimized power conversion system for UCFR, a nitrogen Brayton cycle was analyzed in thermodynamic aspect. Based on subchannel analysis data of UCFR-100, a parametric study for thermal performance of nitrogen Brayton cycle was achieved. The system maximum pressure significantly affects to the overall efficiency of cycle, while other parameters show little effects. Little differences of the overall efficiencies for all cases between three stages (BOC, MOC, EOC) indicate that the power cycle of UCFR-100 maintains its performance during the operation

  11. Magnetic Irreversibility in VO2/Ni Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Venta, Jose; Lauzier, Josh; Sutton, Logan

    The temperature dependence of the coercivity and magnetization of VO2/Ni bilayers was studied. VO2 exhibits a well-known Structural Phase Transition (SPT) at 330-340 K, from a low temperature monoclinic (M) to a high temperature rutile (R) structure. The SPT of VO2 induces an inverse magnetoelastic effect that strongly modifies the coercivity and magnetization of the Ni films. In addition, the growth conditions allow tuning of the magnetic properties. Ni films deposited on top of VO2 (M) show an irreversible change in the coercivity after the first cycle through the high temperature phase, with a corresponding change in the surface morphology of VO2. On the other hand, the Ni films grown on top of VO2 (R) do not show this irreversibility. These results indicate that properties of magnetic films are strongly affected by the strain induced by materials that undergo SPT and that it is possible to control the magnetic properties by tuning the growth conditions.

  12. Irreversible electroporation: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagstaff PGK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter GK Wagstaff,1 Mara Buijs,1 Willemien van den Bos,1 Daniel M de Bruin,2 Patricia J Zondervan,1 Jean JMCH de la Rosette,1 M Pilar Laguna Pes1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: The field of focal ablative therapy for the treatment of cancer is characterized by abundance of thermal ablative techniques that provide a minimally invasive treatment option in selected tumors. However, the unselective destruction inflicted by thermal ablation modalities can result in damage to vital structures in the vicinity of the tumor. Furthermore, the efficacy of thermal ablation intensity can be impaired due to thermal sink caused by large blood vessels in the proximity of the tumor. Irreversible electroporation (IRE is a novel ablation modality based on the principle of electroporation or electropermeabilization, in which electric pulses are used to create nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. In theory, IRE has the potential of overcoming the aforementioned limitations of thermal ablation techniques. This review provides a description of the principle of IRE, combined with an overview of in vivo research performed to date in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. Keywords: irreversible electroporation, IRE, tumor, ablation, focal therapy, cancer

  13. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  14. Parametric Investigation and Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Combined Cycle for Recovering the Waste Heat from Nuclear Closed Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihuang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined cycle that combines AWM cycle with a nuclear closed Brayton cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat rejected from the precooler of a nuclear closed Brayton cycle in this paper. The detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out for the combined cycle. The effects of several important parameters, such as the absorber pressure, the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine inlet temperature, the ammonia mass fraction, and the ambient temperature, are investigated. The combined cycle performance is also optimized based on a multiobjective function. Compared with the closed Brayton cycle, the optimized power output and overall efficiency of the combined cycle are higher by 2.41% and 2.43%, respectively. The optimized LEC of the combined cycle is 0.73% lower than that of the closed Brayton cycle.

  15. The role of real gas Brayton cycles for the use of liquid natural gas physical exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using the cooling capacity of LNG several thermodynamic schemes are proposable employing conventional and non conventional conversion cycles. All conventional systems make use of organic working fluids such as methane or propane in series of Rankine cycles used in a cascading mode. A simpler system is available, using a single cycle and a single fluid in a Brayton cycle. However ordinary Brayton cycles exhibit a modest efficiency. Resorting to Brayton cycles with strong real gas effects (which is possible selecting the base parameters of pressure and temperature in the vicinity of the critical point) improves considerable cycle performance. Since the level of cold in a LNG flow is thermodynamically predetermined, working fluids must be selected with a critical point which fit the LNG thermal capacity, i.e. some 5-15 C higher than the usual LNG temperature which is around -160 oC. Nitrogen was found as the best fluid to exploit real gas effects with efficiencies above 63% while perfect gas cycles give efficiencies around 56%. However, in real gas cycles the cooling capacity of LNG is only partially exploited: a better exploitation is obtained from perfect gas cycles or for more complex cascading Rankine cycle. Selecting working fluids with a higher critical temperature than nitrogen, as for example argon, the efficiency decreases to 58% respect to 63% for nitrogen, but the utilization of the cold of LNG improves from 0.30 MW/(kg/s) to 0.75 MW/(kg/s). Obviously as heat rejection temperature increases a larger fraction of cold in the LNG flow can be utilized. Combined cycles making use of a gas turbine offer also a good performance. The merits of real gas effect Brayton cycles also in this case remains evident. Finally, it is theoretically possible to use real gas effect Brayton cycles at low temperatures, which are typical of waste heat (say 100-150 oC: in this case cycle efficiency remain good, but power obtainable from a unit flow of LNG is modest. - Research

  16. Entropy, Extropy and the Physical Driver of Irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We point out that the fundamental irreversibility of Nature requires the introduction of a suitable measure for the distance from equilibrium. We show that entropy, which is widely held to be such a measure, suffers from the problem that it does not have a physical meaning, since it is introduced on the basis of mathematical arguments. As a consequence, the basic physics beyond irreversibility has remained obscure. We present here a simple but transparent physical approach for solving the problem of irreversibility. This approach shows that extropy, the fundamental thermodynamic variable introduced by Katalin Martinás, is the suitable measure for the distance from equilibrium, since it corresponds to the actual driver of irreversible processes. Since extropy explicitly contains in its definition all the general thermodynamic forces that drive irreversible processes, extropy is the suitable physical measure of irreversibility.

  17. Comparison of Analytical Predictions and Experimental Results for a Dual Brayton Power System (Discussion on Test Hardware and Computer Model for a Dual Brayton System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) contracted Barber-Nichols, Arvada, CO to construct a dual Brayton power conversion system for use as a hardware proof of concept and to validate results from a computational code known as the Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS). Initial checkout tests were performed at Barber- Nichols to ready the system for delivery to GRC. This presentation describes the system hardware components and lists the types of checkout tests performed along with a couple issues encountered while conducting the tests. A description of the CCSS model is also presented. The checkout tests did not focus on generating data, therefore, no test data or model analyses are presented.

  18. Time evolution of an irreversible recombination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution of the irreversible catalytic recombination process, A + B → inert is studied both analytically as well as by computer simulation. A rate equation describing this process is derived. For situations where one of the species poisons the catalyst, the minority species, under certain conditions, is found to decay exponentially. Computer simulation results also indicate exponential decay for intermediate times. Near the poisoning transition, xA ≅ xB, the average relaxation time is found to diverge as τ ∼ (1)/(0.5-xA)γ with γ ≅ 1.3. Here xA and xB are the compositions of A and B in the gas. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  19. Steady reactive state in an irreversible reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple two component irreversible surface reaction model introduced by Ziff, Gulari and Bershad to study the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen has been investigated in detail by monte carlo simulation technique. The Model predicts a first order phase transition at a carbon monoxide feed concentration (Y=0.399) and a second order phase transition at (Y=0.5255). It is found that both the coverage of carbon monoxide and oxygen as well as the production of carbon dioxide with in the window described by the two critical points follows either a linear or an exponential behavior as a function of the concentration. The behavior of these quantities near the critical points is however more complicated. (author)

  20. Work Criteria Function of Irreversible Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The irreversible heat engine is reconsidered with a general heat transfer law. Three criteria known in the literature—power, power density, and efficient power—are redefined in terms of the work criteria function (WCF, a concept introduced in this study. The formulation enabled the suggestion and analysis of a unique criterion—the efficient power density (which accounts for the efficiency and power density. Practically speaking, the efficient power and the efficient power density could be defined on any order based on the WCF. The applicability of the WCF is illustrated for the Newtonian heat transfer law (n=1 and for the radiative law (n=4. The importance of WCF is twofold: it gives an explicit design and educational tool to analyze and to display graphically the different criteria side by side and thus helps in design process. Finally, the criteria were compared and some conclusions were drawn.

  1. Diffusion of irreversible energy technologies under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacallo, J.D.; Sutherland, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents a model of technology diffusion is consistent with characteristics of participants in most energy markets. Whereas the models used most widely for empirical research are based on the assumption that the extended delays in adoption of cost-saving innovations are the result of either lack of knowledge about the new processes or heterogeneity across potential adopters, the model presented in this paper is based on the strategic behavior by firms. The strategic interdependence of the firms` decisions is rooted in spillover effects associated with an inability to exclude others from the learning-by-doing acquired when a firm implements a new technology. The model makes extensive use of recent developments in investment theory as it relates irreversible investments under uncertainty.

  2. Exergetic sustainability evaluation of irreversible Carnot refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkkalp, Emin

    2015-10-01

    Purpose of this paper is to assess irreversible refrigeration cycle by using exergetic sustainability index. In literature, there is no application of exergetic sustainability index for the refrigerators and, indeed, this index has not been derived for refrigerators. In this study, exergetic sustainability indicator is presented for the refrigeration cycle and its relationships with other thermodynamics parameters including COP, exergy efficiency, cooling load, exergy destruction, ecological function and work input are investigated. Calculations are conducted for endoreversible and reversible cycles and then results obtained from the ecological function are compared. It is found that exergy efficiency, exergetic sustainable index reduce 47.595% and 59.689% and rising at the COP is 99.888% is obtained for endoreversible cycle. Similarly, exergy efficiency and exergetic sustainability index reduce 90.163% and 93.711% and rising of the COP is equal to 99.362%.

  3. Synergetcs - a field beyond irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture introduces the reader to synergetics, a very young field of interdisciplinary research, which is devoted to the question of self-organization and, quite generally, to the birth of new qualities. After comparing the role of thermodynamics, irreversible thermodynamics and synergetics in the description of phenomena we give a few examples for self-oragnizing systems. Next we outline the mathematical approach and consider the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equations for non equilibrium phase transitions. We continue by applying these equations to the problem of morphogenesis in biology. We close our lecture by extending the formalism to spatially inhomogeneous or oscillating systems and arrive at order-parameter equations which are capable of describing new large classes of higher bifurcation schemes. (HJ)

  4. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  5. Irreversible electroporation: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Peter Gk; Buijs, Mara; van den Bos, Willemien; de Bruin, Daniel M; Zondervan, Patricia J; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch; Laguna Pes, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The field of focal ablative therapy for the treatment of cancer is characterized by abundance of thermal ablative techniques that provide a minimally invasive treatment option in selected tumors. However, the unselective destruction inflicted by thermal ablation modalities can result in damage to vital structures in the vicinity of the tumor. Furthermore, the efficacy of thermal ablation intensity can be impaired due to thermal sink caused by large blood vessels in the proximity of the tumor. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation modality based on the principle of electroporation or electropermeabilization, in which electric pulses are used to create nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. In theory, IRE has the potential of overcoming the aforementioned limitations of thermal ablation techniques. This review provides a description of the principle of IRE, combined with an overview of in vivo research performed to date in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. PMID:27217767

  6. Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) in Renal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Doshi, Mehul H

    2016-02-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) have been traditionally managed with surgical resection. Minimally invasive nephron-sparing treatment methods are preferred to avoid harmful consequences of renal insufficiency, with partial nephrectomy (PN) considered the gold standard. With increase in the incidence of the SRMs and evolution of ablative technologies, percutaneous ablation is now considered a viable treatment alternative to surgical resection with comparable oncologic outcomes and better nephron-sparing property. Traditional thermal ablative techniques suffer from unique set of challenges in treating tumors near vessels or critical structures. Irreversible electroporation (IRE), with its non-thermal nature and connective tissue-sparing properties, has shown utility where traditional ablative techniques face challenges. This review presents the role of IRE in renal tumors based on the most relevant published literature on the IRE technology, animal studies, and human experience. PMID:26769468

  7. Investment Irreversibility and Precautionary Savings in General Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, João

    Partial equilibrium models suggest that when uncertainty increases, agents increase savings and at the same time reduce investment in irreversible goods. This paper characterizes this problem in general equilibrium with technology shocks, additive output shocks and shocks to the marginal efficiency...... of investment. Uncertainty is associated with the variance of these random variables, and irreversibility is introduced by a non negativity constraint on investment. I find that irreversibility and changes in uncertainty can be responsible for sizeable movements in aggregate consumption and...

  8. Performance of an irreversible quantum Carnot engine with spin 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Shuang; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Chih

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum properties of the working medium on the performance of an irreversible Carnot cycle with spin 12. The optimal relationship between the dimensionless power output P* versus the efficiency eta for the irreversible quantum Carnot engine with heat leakage and other irreversible losses is derived. Especially, the performances of the engine at low temperature limit and at high temperature limit are discussed. PMID:16774426

  9. Irreversible magnetic processes under biaxial and uniaxial magnetic anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S.; Akioya, O.; Alqhtany, N. H.; Dickens, C.; Morgan, W.; Wuttig, M.; Lisfi, A.

    2016-05-01

    Irreversible magnetic processes have been investigated in magnetic systems with two different anisotropy symmetries (uniaxial and biaxial) through angular measurement of the switching field, the irreversible susceptibility and the magnetic viscosity. These two systems consist of two-dimensional cobalt ferrite hetero-structures epitaxially grown on (100) and (110) MgO substrate. It is found that for uniaxial anisotropy the irreversible characteristics of the magnetization are large and display a strong angular dependence, which exhibits its maximum at the easy axis and drops quickly to vanish at the hard axis. However, for biaxial anisotropy the magnetization irreversible characteristics are considerably reduced and are less sensitive to the field angle.

  10. Comparison of various Brayton cycles for a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy is considered as one of the most realistic energy sources for both reducing the carbon dioxide emission and attaining sufficient and stable electricity supply for economy development. As a part of the nuclear energy development, many countries around the world are focusing on the next generation reactor development. One of the next generation reactors that is seriously being considered is the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). However, current SFR design faces the difficulty in public acceptance due to the potential threat from sodium-water reaction (SWR) when the current conventional steam Rankine cycle is utilized as a power conversion system for SFR. To substitute the violent sodium-water reaction with milder or no reaction, several Brayton cycle concepts including the S-CO2 cycle, helium cycle and nitrogen cycle are considered by many research organizations. This paper discusses these Brayton cycles'performance for SFR application compared to the current steam Rankine cycle

  11. Phase 2 Brayton/Rankine 10-ton gas-fired space-conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    The technical accomplishments to date in the design, development, and demonstration program leading to commercialization of a 10 ton heat actuated space conditioning system for light commercialization of a 10 ton heat actuated space conditioning system for light commercial building applications are summarized. The system consists of a natural gas powered Brayton cycle engine and a Rankine cycle heat pump, combined in a single roof top package. The heat actuated space conditioning system provides more efficient use of natural gas and is intended as an all gas alternative to the electric heat pump. The system employs a subatmospheric natural gas fired heat pump. A centrifugal R-12 refrigerant compressor is driven directly from the Brayton engine rotating group through a hermetically sealed coupling. Unique features that offer high life cycle performance include a permanent magnet coupling, foil bearings, an atmospheric in-line combustor, and a high temperature recuperator.

  12. Super-critical carbon dioxide based brayton cycle for Indian High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective way to improve economic competitiveness of NPPs is to enhance its efficiency which has remained static at around 33% since the first commercial LWR came into operation. New generation reactor designs including the six Gen-IV reactor concepts aim to increase the NPPs efficiency to almost 50%. This is proposed to be achieved by high temperature designs using Brayton cycle based power conversion systems. World over, Super-critical Carbon dioxide Brayton Cycle (SCBC) for power generation is an important R and D area. High efficiency SCBC power conversion system is proposed as power conversion system for Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (IMSBR) and Innovative High Temperature Reactor (IHTR). This section provides the details regarding design and development of SCBC for these reactors. (author)

  13. Design Development Analyses in Support of a Heatpipe-Brayton Cycle Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Brian E.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the power systems under consideration for nuclear electric propulsion or as a planetary surface power source is a heatpipe-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the heatpipes to the Brayton gas via a heat exchanger attached to the heatpipes. This paper discusses the fluid, thermal and structural analyses that were performed in support of the design of the heat exchanger to be tested in the SAFE-100 experimental program at the Marshall Space Flight Center: An important consideration throughout the design development of the heat exchanger w its capability to be utilized for higher power and temperature applications. This paper also discusses this aspect of the design and presents designs for specific applications that are under consideration.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power conversion cycle for battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. The SCO2 Brayton cycle efficiency as high as 45% furnishes small sized nuclear reactors with economical benefits on the plant construction and maintenance. A 23 MWth lead-cooled Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is being developed as an ultra-long-life, versatile-purpose, fast-spectrum reactor. BORIS is coupled to the SCO2 Brayton cycle needing less room relative to the Rankine steam cycle because of its smaller components. The SCO2 Brayton cycle of BORIS consists of a 16 MW turbine, a 32 MW high temperature recuperator, a 14 MW low temperature recuperator, an 11 MW precooler and 2 and 2.8 MW compressors. Entering six heat exchangers between primary and secondary system at 19.9 MPa and 663 K, the SCO2 leaves the heat exchangers at 19.9 MPa and 823 K. The promising secondary system efficiency of 45% was calculated by a theoretical method in which the main parameters include pressure, temperature, heater power, the turbine's, recuperators' and compressors' efficiencies, and the flow split ratio of SCO2 going out from the low temperature recuperator. Development of Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) is being devised as the SCO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion cycle for BORIS. MOBIS consists of Loop Operating Brayton Optimization Study (LOBOS) for experimental Brayton cycle loop and Gas Advanced Turbine Operation Study (GATOS) for the SCO2 turbine. Liquid-metal Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS) serves to couple BORIS and MOBIS. LEXIS comprises Physical Aspect Thermal Operation System (PATOS) for SCO2 thermal hydraulic characteristics, Shell-and-tube Overall Layout Optimization Study (SOLOS) for shell-and-tube heat exchanger, Printed-circuit Overall

  15. Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System Coupled with SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the description of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For a system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of normal operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Computer codes were developed to analysis for the S-CO2 turbomachinery. Based on the design codes, the design parameters were prepared to configure the KALIMER-600 S-CO2 turbomachinery models. A one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the previous PCHE heat exchangers and a design data for the typical type PCHE was produced. In parallel with the PCHE-type heat exchanger design, an airfoil shape fin PCHE heat exchanger was newly designed. The new design concept was evaluated by three-dimensional CFD analyses. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. The MMS-LMR code was also developed to analyze the transient phenomena in a SFR with a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to develop the control logic. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na-CO2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na-CO2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  16. Techno-economic studies of environmentally friendly Brayton cycles in the petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nkoi, Barinyima

    2014-01-01

    Brayton cycles are open gas turbine cycles extensively used in aviation and industrial applications because of their advantageous volume and weight characteristics. With the bulk of waste exhaust heat and engine emissions associated, there is need to be mindful of environmentally-friendliness of these engine cycles, not compromising good technical performance, and economic viability. This research considers assessment of power plants in helicopters, and aeroderivative ind...

  17. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  18. A parametric study of motor starting for a 2- to 10-kilowatt Brayton power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the motor starting of a Brayton cycle power system was conducted to provide estimates of system sensitivity to several controllable parameters. These sensitivity estimates were used as a basis for selection of an optimum motor-start scheme to be implemented on the 2- to 10-kilowatt Brayton power system designed and presently under test. The studies were conducted with an analog simulation of the Brayton power system and covered a range of frequencies from 400 Hz (33 percent design) to 1200 Hz (design), voltage-to-frequency ratios of 0.050 (50 percent design) to 0.100 (design), turbine-inlet temperatures of 800 K (1440 R, 70 percent design) to 1140 K (2060 deg R, design), and prestart pressure levels of 14.5 psia to 29.0 psia. These studies have shown the effect of selected system variables on motor starting. The final selection of motor-start variables can therefore be made on the basis of motor-start inverter complexity, battery size and weight, desired steady-state pressure level after startup, and other operational limitations. In general, the study showed the time required for motor starting to be inversely proportional to motor frequency, voltage, turbine-inlet temperature, and pressure level. An increase in any of these parameters decreases startup time.

  19. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  20. Brayton cycle conversion and additional French investigations on space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French studies on space nuclear power systems were relatively active the past six years. It was anticipated that 20-kWe should have to be supplied to a spacecraft as soon as in 2005 and a reference near term liquid metal-cooled reactor using available terrestrial technologies as much as possible was mainly investigated. A Brayton cycle heat conversion has been adopted from the beginning and it remains considered. Because first applications are delayed, more attractive concepts can be contemplated. The basic idea is to take advantage of the Brayton cycle specific properties and for instance to use them for the temperature conditioning of the moderator of a thermal spectrum reactor. At first, the utilization of ZrH was thought mandatory, but recent proposals have prompted to use the conventional, effective light water material for that purpose. A gas cycle high pressure (HP) derivation technique makes it possible to maintain water within an adequate temperature range. A Brayton cycle adaptation and an example of a gas-cooled, particle bed fuel elements, H2O moderated reactor are briefly described. Key comparison data are given. Such concepts should be attractive from fuel inventory, mass, radition shielding and control points of view

  1. Brayton cycle conversion system and temperature conditioning of small space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A companion paper (Carre et al. 1989) presented at this symposium gives an overview of the French preliminary studies on space nuclear power systems in progress within the framework of a three-year (1986-1989) program. Other papers (Proust et al. 1988, Tilliette et al. 1988, Tilliette IECEC 1988) supplement the information on this activity. Low power levels of about 20-KWe and both liquid metal- and gas-cooled reactors are concerned. The Brayton cycle is currently selected as the conversion subsystem. Critical issues like safety, reliability, radiation shielding and reactor concept and technology have to be addressed more and more carefully and relevant temperature conditions are crucial. It is shown in this paper that the Brayton cycle can offer a valuable flexibility which allows the desired thermal environment. For instance, it is possible to significantly decrease the reactor inlet temperature and consequently, also given an adequate design, to favourably put forward convenient solutions for the lateral and axial bottom reflector, the shadow shield, the control drums drives and safety rods actuators and penetrations as well as for the possibility of using efficient moderator materials like metal hydrides (ZrH or 7LiH), which is worth being investigated as far as low power levels are concerned. Examples of Brayton cycle conversion subsystems and possible reactor arrangements are presented for both gas-cooled and liquid metal (NaK or Na)-cooled reactor heat sources. The study follows up the research described by Thilliette (1988, IECEC)

  2. Compressor and Turbine Models of Brayton Units for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycles with centrifugal flow, single-shaft turbo-machines are being considered, with gas cooled nuclear reactors, to provide 10's to 100's of electrical power to support future space exploration missions and Lunar and Mars outposts. Such power system analysis is typically based on the cycle thermodynamics, for given operating pressures and temperatures and assumed polytropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine of the Brayton energy conversion units. Thus the analysis results not suitable for modeling operation transients such as startup and changes in the electric load. To simulate these transients, accurate models of the turbine and compressor in the Brayton rotating unit, which calculate the changes in the compressor and turbine efficiencies with system operation are needed. This paper presents flow models that account for the design and dimensions of the compressor impeller and diffuser, and the turbine stator and rotor blades. These models calculate the various enthalpy losses and the polytropic efficiencies along with the pressure ratios of the turbine and compressor. The predictions of these models compare well with reported performance data of actual hardware. In addition, the results of a parametric analysis to map the operations of the compressor and turbine, as functions of the rotating shaft speed and inlet Mach number of the gas working fluid, are presented and discussed. The analysis used a binary mixture of He-Xe with a molecular weight of 40 g/mole as the working fluid.

  3. The Brayton Cycle heat pump for solvent recovery and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brayton Cycle heat pump technology for the recovery of solvent and prevention of emissions is relatively new. Like most new technologies, it is a combination of older concepts, ideas and types of processes put together in a unique way. As a result, proven equipment enables achievement of extremely low condensing temperatures at relatively low cost. The Brayton Cycle is a thermodynamic principle. It was used first for a turbine engine, but more recently it has been used for a variety of other kinds of processes including refrigeration. A great variety of methods are used for emission control including adsorption, direct condensation, absorption in a fluid, and incineration or destruction. The Brayton Cycle technology actually fits into two of these categories, adsorption and direct condensation. Since it is a refrigeration process, it can be used to condense solvents from a solvent-laden air stream. The advantage of this particular process over other refrigeration methods is that lower temperatures can be achieved more easily. In fact, temperatures as low as -150 degrees F have been used to recover solvents in this manner. That happens to be the freezing point of methylene chloride which is a very volatile compound. High recovery efficiencies can be obtained for a whole variety of organic materials. 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kWe and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  5. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  6. Combustion irreversibilities: Numerical simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter; Rouboa, Abel

    2012-08-01

    An exergy analysis was performed considering the combustion of methane and agro-industrial residues produced in Portugal (forest residues and vines pruning). Regarding that the irreversibilities of a thermodynamic process are path dependent, the combustion process was considering as resulting from different hypothetical paths each one characterized by four main sub-processes: reactant mixing, fuel oxidation, internal thermal energy exchange (heat transfer), and product mixing. The exergetic efficiency was computed using a zero dimensional model developed by using a Visual Basic home code. It was concluded that the exergy losses were mainly due to the internal thermal energy exchange sub-process. The exergy losses from this sub-process are higher when the reactants are preheated up to the ignition temperature without previous fuel oxidation. On the other hand, the global exergy destruction can be minored increasing the pressure, the reactants temperature and the oxygen content on the oxidant stream. This methodology allows the identification of the phenomena and processes that have larger exergy losses, the understanding of why these losses occur and how the exergy changes with the parameters associated to each system which is crucial to implement the syngas combustion from biomass products as a competitive technology.

  7. Irreversible Electroporation for Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Hester J; Melenhorst, Marleen C A M; Echenique, Ana M; Nielsen, Karin; van Tilborg, Aukje A J M; van den Bos, Willemien; Vroomen, Laurien G P H; van den Tol, Petrousjka M P; Meijerink, Martijn R

    2015-09-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation techniques have significantly broadened the treatment possibilities for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. A new ablation technique, irreversible electroporation (IRE), was recently added to the treatment armamentarium. As opposed to thermal ablation, cell death with IRE is primarily induced using electrical energy: electrical pulses disrupt the cellular membrane integrity, resulting in cell death while sparing the extracellular matrix of sensitive structures such as the bile ducts, blood vessels, and bowel wall. The preservation of these structures makes IRE attractive for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) that are unsuitable for resection and thermal ablation owing to their anatomical location. This review discusses different technical and practical issues of IRE for CRLM: the indications, patient preparations, procedural steps, and different "tricks of the trade" used to improve safety and efficacy of IRE. Imaging characteristics and early efficacy results are presented. Much is still unknown about the exact mechanism of cell death and about factors playing a crucial role in the extent of cell death. At this time, IRE for CRLM should only be reserved for small tumors that are truly unsuitable for resection or thermal ablation because of abutment of the portal triad or the venous pedicles. PMID:26365546

  8. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Vostner, A

    2001-01-01

    dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J sub c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J sub c 's are not as pronounced as observed in the magnetic measurements. The optimum defect cascade density is determined by sequential irradiation. Especially at higher fluences, the damage caused by the irradiation dominates over the additional pinning force and results in a reduction of the transport J sub c 's. This effect is even more pronounced for fields perpendicular to the c-axis (H//ab). A comparison of irradiation studies between samples deposited by LPE and by PLD shows that LPE films have a...

  9. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  10. Irreversible work in a thermal medium with colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irreversible work and its fluctuations in a classical system governed by non-Markovian stochastic dynamics are investigated. The production of irreversible work depends not only on the protocol of an operation but also on the details of the non-Markovian memory. We consider a generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and derive an expression for the irreversible work in the case of slow operations by carrying out an expansion of this memory kernel in the parameter representing the length of the memory. We apply our formulation to a harmonically trapped system and demonstrate the efficiency of a cycle by evaluating the irreversible work. It is found that a decrease in the irreversible work due to the memory effect can occur for an operation through which the trap is squeezed. The results for this harmonic system are verified exactly in the case that the memory kernel has exponential decay

  11. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  12. Irreversible Sorption of Contaminants During Ferrihydrite Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Arthur, S.E.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Westrich, H.R.

    1999-05-19

    A better understanding of the fraction of contaminants irreversibly sorbed by minerals is necessary to effectively quantify bioavailability. Ferrihydrite, a poorly crystalline iron oxide, is a natural sink for sorbed contaminants. Contaminants may be sorbed/occluded as ferrihydrite precipitates in natural waters or as it ages and transforms to more crystalline iron oxides such as goethite or hematite. Laboratory studies indicate that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Np, Pb, Sr, U, and Zn are irreversibly sorbed to some extent during the aging and transformation of synthetic ferrihydrite. Barium, Ra and Sr are known to sorb on ferrihydrite in the pH range of 6 to 10 and sorb more strongly at pH values above its zero point of charge (pH> 8). We will review recent literature on metal retardation, including our laboratory and modeling investigation of Ba (as an analogue for Ra) and Sr adsorption/resorption, during ferrihydrite transformation to more crystalline iron oxides. Four ferrihydrite suspensions were aged at pH 12 and 50 °C with or without Ba in 0.01 M KN03 for 68 h or in 0.17 M KN03 for 3424 h. Two ferrihydrite suspensions were aged with and without Sr at pH 8 in 0.1 M KN03 at 70°C. Barium or Sr sorption, or resorption, was measured by periodically centrifuging suspension subsamples, filtering, and analyzing the filtrate for Ba or Sr. Solid subsamples were extracted with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate (pH 3 in the dark) and with 6 M HCl to determine the Fe and Ba or Sr attributed to ferrihydrite (or adsorbed on the goethite/hematite stiace) and the total Fe and Ba or Sr content, respectively. Barium or Sr occluded in goethite/hematite was determined by the difference between the total Ba or Sr and the oxalate extractable Ba or Sr. The percent transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite/hematite was estimated from the ratio of oxalate and HC1 extractable Fe. All Ba was retained in the precipitates for at least 20 h. Resorption of Ba reached a maximum of 7 to 8% of the Ba2+ added

  13. Preliminary Design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Kim, Min Gil; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper suggests a complete modular reactor with an innovative concept of reactor cooling by using a supercritical carbon dioxide directly. Authors propose the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle (S-CO{sub 2} cycle) as a power conversion system to achieve small volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and to contain the core and PCU in one vessel for the full modularization. This study suggests a conceptual design of small modular reactor including PCU which is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). As a part of ongoing research of conceptual design of KAIST MMR, preliminary design of power generation cycle was performed in this study. Since the targets of MMR are full modularization of a reactor system with S-CO{sub 2} coolant, authors selected a simple recuperated S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as a power conversion system for KAIST MMR. The size of components of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is much smaller than existing helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle, and whole power conversion system can be contained with core and safety system in one containment vessel. From the investigation of the power conversion cycle, recompressing recuperated cycle showed higher efficiency than the simple recuperated cycle. However the volume of heat exchanger for recompressing cycle is too large so more space will be occupied by heat exchanger in the recompressing cycle than the simple recuperated cycle. Thus, authors consider that the simple recuperated cycle is more suitable for MMR. More research for the KAIST MMR will be followed in the future and detailed information of reactor core and safety system will be developed down the road. More refined cycle layout and design of turbomachinery and heat exchanger will be performed in the future study.

  14. Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn [Barber-Nichols, Inc., Arvada, CO

    2013-11-01

    Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

  15. Motor starting a Brayton cycle power conversion system using a static inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, J. S.; Edkin, R. A.; Kruchowy, R.

    1973-01-01

    The power conversion module of a 2- to 15-kWe Brayton engine was motor started using a three-phase, 400-hertz static inverter as the power source. Motor-static tests were conducted for initial gas loop pressures of 10, 14, and 17 N/sq cm (15, 20, and 25 psia) over a range of initial turbine inlet temperatures from 366 to 550 K (200 to 530 F). The data are presented to show the effects of temperature and pressure on the motor-start characteristics of the rotating unit. Electrical characteristics during motoring are also discussed.

  16. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Nuclear Space Power Systems: A Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon recuperators in closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) nuclear space power conversion systems (PCS) was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on projected thermodynamic cycle state values for a planetary mission. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for a plate-fin carbon-carbon recuperator were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for a conventional offset-strip-fin metallic design. Material compatibility issues regarding carbon-carbon surfaces exposed to the working fluid in the CBC PCS were also discussed.

  17. Comparison of Analytical Predictions and Experimental Results for a Dual Brayton Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) contracted Barber- Nichols, Arvada, CO to construct a dual Brayton power conversion system for use as a hardware proof of concept and to validate results from a computational code known as the Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS). Initial checkout tests were performed at Barber- Nichols to ready the system for delivery to GRC. This presentation describes the system hardware components and lists the types of checkout tests performed along with a couple issues encountered while conducting the tests. A description of the CCSS model is also presented. The checkout tests did not focus on generating data, therefore, no test data or model analyses are presented.

  18. Restrictions on linear heat capacities from Joule-Brayton maximum-work cycle efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Brown, F; Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Arias-Hernandez, L A

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using the Joule-Brayton cycle to determine the accessible value range for the coefficients a and b of the heat capacity at constant pressure C(p), expressed as C(p) = a + bT (with T the absolute temperature) by using the Carnot theorem. This is made for several gases which operate as the working fluids. Moreover, the landmark role of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency for this type of cycle is established. PMID:25353449

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Power Conversion Cycle Design for Optimized Battery-Type Integral Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. Therefore, the high SCO2 Brayton cycle efficiency as high as 45 % furnishes small sized nuclear reactors with economical benefits on the plant construction and maintenance. A 23 MWth BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System) is being developed as a multipurpose reactor. BORIS, an integral-type optimized fast reactor with an ultra long life core, is coupled to the SCO2 Brayton cycle needing less room relative to the Rankine steam cycle because of its smaller components. The SCO2 Brayton cycle of BORIS consists of a 16 MW turbine, a 32 MW high temperature recuperator, a 14 MW low temperature recuperator, an 11 MW pre-cooler and 2 and 2.8 MW compressors. Entering six heat exchangers between primary and secondary system at 19.9 MPa and 663 K, the SCO2 leaves the heat exchangers at 19.9 MPa and 823 K. The promising secondary system efficiency of 45 % was calculated by a theoretical method in which the main parameters include pressure, temperature, heater power, the turbine's, recuperators' and compressors' efficiencies, and the flow split ratio of SCO2 going out from the low temperature recuperator. Test loop SOLOS (Shell-and-tube Overall Layout Optimization Study) is utilized to develop advanced techniques needed to adopt the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger in the secondary loop of BORIS by studying the SCO2 behavior from both thermal and hydrodynamic points of view. Concurrently, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code analysis is being conducted to develop an optimal analytical method of the SCO2 turbine efficiency having the parameters of flow characteristics of SCO2 passing through buckets of the turbine. These simultaneous experimental and analytical methods for designing

  20. Quantum-mechanical Brayton engine working with a particle in a one-dimensional harmonic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Based on the quantum version of thermodynamic processes, a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model has been established. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the engine are derived. Some fundamental optimal relations and general performance characteristic curves of the cycle are obtained. Furthermore, we note that it is possible to resist the reduction in efficiency, caused by compression of the adiabatic process, by decreasing the amount of energy levels of the quantum system. The results obtained here will provide theoretical guidance for the design of some new quantum-mechanical engines.

  1. Progress in investigating Brayton cycle conversion systems for future French Ariane 5 space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present consideration of performance capabilities and system design requirements for a Brayton cycle conversion system usable by future Ariane 5 launch vehicle applications gives attention to such a power system's matching to available radiator concepts and dimensions, the use of direct or indirect waste heat transfer to the radiator and of simple or intercooled cycles, as well the consequences of gas cycle selection on reactor technology. The results presented are expected to be useful in the optimization of a 20-30 kW(e) system employing a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor in conjunction with a gas turbine energy conversion system. 10 references

  2. Preliminary market analysis for Brayton cycle heat recovery system characterization program. Subtask 5. 2 of phase I program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-31

    The purpose of the task is to determine the market potential of the Brayton-cycle Subatmospheric System (SAS), especially as applied to the glass processing industry. Areas which impact the sales of the Brayton-cycle systems examined are: market size; opportunities for waste heat system installation (furnace rebuild and repair); pollution control on glass furnaces; equipment costs; equipment performance; and market growth potential. Supporting data were compiled for the glass industry inventory and are presented in Appendix A. Emission control techniques in the glass industry are discussed in Appendix B. (MCW)

  3. Kinetic theory of nonequilibrium ensembles, irreversible thermodynamics, and generalized hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...

  4. Ecolosical optimization of an irreversible harmonic oscillators Carnot heat engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiaoWei; CHEN LinGen; WU Feng; SUN FengRui

    2009-01-01

    A model of an irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine with heat resistance, internal irreversibility and heat leakage and many non-interacting harmonic oscillators is established in this paper. Based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach, equations of some important performance parameters, such as power output, efficiency, exergy loss rate and ecological function for the irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine are derived. The optimal ecological performance of the heat engine in the classical limit is analyzed with numerical examples. Effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on the ecological performance are discussed. A performance comparison of the quantum heat engine under maximum ecological function and maximum power conditions is also performed.

  5. Irreversibility of financial time series: A graph-theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Ryan; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The relation between time series irreversibility and entropy production has been recently investigated in thermodynamic systems operating away from equilibrium. In this work we explore this concept in the context of financial time series. We make use of visibility algorithms to quantify, in graph-theoretical terms, time irreversibility of 35 financial indices evolving over the period 1998-2012. We show that this metric is complementary to standard measures based on volatility and exploit it to both classify periods of financial stress and to rank companies accordingly. We then validate this approach by finding that a projection in principal components space of financial years, based on time irreversibility features, clusters together periods of financial stress from stable periods. Relations between irreversibility, efficiency and predictability are briefly discussed.

  6. Variable Quotas, Irreversible Investment and Optimal Capacity in the Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjur D. Flåm

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the adaptation of a fishing fleet to a situation involving variable quotas of catch and irreversible investment. The theoretical results obtained here are applied to Norwegian industrial fisheries.

  7. Irreversible magnetic processes under biaxial and uniaxial magnetic anisotropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pokharel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irreversible magnetic processes have been investigated in magnetic systems with two different anisotropy symmetries (uniaxial and biaxial through angular measurement of the switching field, the irreversible susceptibility and the magnetic viscosity. These two systems consist of two-dimensional cobalt ferrite hetero-structures epitaxially grown on (100 and (110 MgO substrate. It is found that for uniaxial anisotropy the irreversible characteristics of the magnetization are large and display a strong angular dependence, which exhibits its maximum at the easy axis and drops quickly to vanish at the hard axis. However, for biaxial anisotropy the magnetization irreversible characteristics are considerably reduced and are less sensitive to the field angle.

  8. Microscopic reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility: A lattice gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cárdenas, Fernando C.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.

    2016-09-01

    We present coarse-grained descriptions and computations of the time evolution of a lattice gas system of indistinguishable particles, whose microscopic laws of motion are exactly reversible, in order to investigate how or what kind of macroscopically irreversible behavior may eventually arise. With increasing coarse-graining and number of particles, relative fluctuations of entropy rapidly decrease and apparently irreversible behavior unfolds. Although that behavior becomes typical in those limits and within a certain range, it is never absolutely irreversible for any individual system with specific initial conditions. Irreversible behavior may arise in various ways. We illustrate one possibility by replacing detailed integer occupation numbers at lattice sites with particle probability densities that evolve diffusively.

  9. Irreversibility and entanglement spectrum statistics in quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in a quantum system evolving unitarily under a stochastic quantum circuit the notions of irreversibility, universality of computation, and entanglement are closely related. As the state evolves from an initial product state, it gets asymptotically maximally entangled. We define irreversibility as the failure of searching for a disentangling circuit using a Metropolis-like algorithm. We show that irreversibility corresponds to Wigner–Dyson statistics in the level spacing of the entanglement eigenvalues, and that this is obtained from a quantum circuit made from a set of universal gates for quantum computation. If, on the other hand, the system is evolved with a non-universal set of gates, the statistics of the entanglement level spacing deviates from Wigner–Dyson and the disentangling algorithm succeeds. These results open a new way to characterize irreversibility in quantum systems

  10. Towards irreversibility with a finite bath of oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the routes by which a bath composed of a finite number of oscillators at zero temperature approaches the induction of dissipation when it nears the usual limit of dense spectrum spread in an infinite interval. It is shown that, when this limit is taken, different distributions of environment frequencies can lead to the same irreversible evolution. However, when we move away from it, the dynamics departs from irreversibility in qualitatively different manners.

  11. Hydrodynamic Irreversibility in Particle Suspensions with Non-Uniform Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Ross, Andrew S.; Gollub, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamical phase transition from reversible to irreversible behavior occurs when particle suspensions are subjected to uniform oscillatory shear, even in the Stokes flow limit. We consider a more general situation with non-uniform strain (e.g. oscillatory channel flow), which is observed to exhibit markedly different dynamics. Self-organization and shear-induced migration only partially explain the delayed, simultaneous onset of irreversibility across the channel. The onset of irreversibilit...

  12. Mandatory Unbundling and Irreversible Investment in Telecom Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact on investment incentives of the network sharing arrangements mandated by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, with a focus on the implications of irreversible investment. Although the goal is to promote competition, the sharing rules now in place reduce incentives to build new networks or upgrade existing ones. Such investments are irreversible -- they involve sunk costs. The basic framework adopted by regulators allows entrants to utilize such facilities at pri...

  13. Irreversible electroporation of lung neoplasm: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Mumal; Moore, William; Talati, Ronak; Watkins, Kevin; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) of lung tumors is a new minimally invasive technique which has recently been used in the treatment of soft tissue tumors. Case Reports The case histories are presented of two patients with unresectable malignancies in the lung, who underwent irreversible electroporation as a treatment attempt. The procedure was performed under CT guidance and was uneventful. Conclusions At follow up 6 months later, the tumors both appeared to ...

  14. Heat exchanger design for hot air ericsson-brayton piston engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďurčanský P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the solutions without negative consequences for the increasing energy consumption in the world may be use of alternative energy sources in micro-cogeneration. Currently it is looking for different solutions and there are many possible ways. Cogeneration is known for long time and is widely used. But the installations are often large and the installed output is more suitable for cities or industry companies. When we will speak about decentralization, the small machines have to be used. The article deals with the principle of hot-air engines, their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element. In the article is hot air engine presented as a heat engine that allows the conversion of heat into mechanical energy while heat supply can be external. In the contribution are compared cycles of hot-air engine. Then are compared suitable heat exchangers for use with hot air Ericsson-Brayton engine. In the final part is proposal of heat exchanger for use in closed Ericsson-Brayton cycle.

  15. Creep Property Characterization of Potential Brayton Cycle Impeller and Duct Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Garg, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Cast superalloys have potential applications in space as impellers within closed-loop Brayton cycle nuclear power generation systems. Likewise wrought superalloys are good candidates for ducts and heat exchangers transporting the inert working gas in a Brayton-based power plant. Two cast superalloys, Mar-M247LC and IN792, and a NASA GRC powder metallurgy superalloy, LSHR, have been screened to compare their respective capabilities for impeller applications. Mar-M247LC has been selected for additional long term evaluations. Initial tests in helium indicate this inert environment may debit long term creep resistance of this alloy. Several wrought superalloys including Hastelloy® X, Inconel® 617, Inconel® 740, Nimonic® 263, Incoloy® MA956, and Haynes 230 are also being screened to compare their capabilities for duct applications. Haynes 230 has been selected for additional long term evaluations. Initial tests in helium are just underway for this alloy. These proposed applications would require sufficient strength and creep resistance for long term service at temperatures up to 1200 K, with service times to 100,000 h or more. Therefore, long term microstructural stability is also being screened.

  16. Creep Property Characterization of Potential Brayton Cycle Impeller and Duct Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, john; Garg, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Cast superalloys have potential applications in space as impellers within closed-loop Brayton cycle nuclear power generation systems. Likewise wrought superalloys are good candidates for ducts and heat exchangers transporting the inert working gas in a Brayton-based power plant. Two cast superalloys, Mar-M247LC and IN792, and a NASA GRC powder metallurgy superalloy, LSHR, have been screened to compare their respective capabilities for impeller applications. Mar-M247LC has been selected for additional long term evaluations. Initial tests in helium indicate this inert environment may debit long term creep resistance of this alloy. Several wrought superalloys including Hastelloy(Registered TradeMark) X, Inconel(Registered TradeMark) 617, Inconel(Registered TradeMark) 740, Nimonic(Registered TradeMark) 263, Incoloy(Registered TradeMark) MA956, and Haynes 230 are also being screened to compare their capabilities for duct applications. Haynes 230 has been selected for additional long term evaluations. Initial tests in helium are just underway for this alloy. These proposed applications would require sufficient strength and creep resistance for long term service at temperatures up to 1200 K, with service times to 100,000 h or more. Therefore, long term microstructural stability is also being screened.

  17. Tensile and Creep Property Characterization of Potential Brayton Cycle Impeller and Duct Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper represents a status report documenting the work on creep of superalloys performed under Project Prometheus. Cast superalloys have potential applications in space as impellers within closed-loop Brayton cycle nuclear power generation systems. Likewise wrought superalloys are good candidates for ducts and heat exchangers transporting the inert working gas in a Brayton-based power plant. Two cast superalloys, Mar-M247LC and IN792, and a NASA GRC powder metallurgy superalloy, LSHR, are being screened to compare their respective capabilities for impeller applications. Several wrought superalloys including Hastelloy X, (Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN), Inconel 617, Inconel 740, Nimonic 263, and Incoloy MA956 (Special Metals Corporation, Huntington, WV) are also being screened to compare their capabilities for duct applications. These proposed applications would require sufficient strength and creep resistance for long term service at temperatures up to 1200 K, with service times to 100,000 h or more. Conventional tensile and creep tests were performed at temperatures up to 1200 K on specimens extracted from the materials. Initial microstructure evaluations were also undertaken.

  18. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion — Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-01

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature ˜ 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  19. A four-year investigation of Brayton cycle systems for future French space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of a joint program initiated in 1983 by the two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), in order to study space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 applications, extensive investigations have dealt with the Brayton cycle, which has been selected as the energy conversion system. Several aspects can be mentioned in this field: matching of the power system to the available radiator dimensions up to 200 kWe, direct or indirect waste heat transfer to the radiator, the use of a recuperator, recent work on moderate (25 kWe) power levels, simulation studies related to various operating conditions, and general system optimization. A limited experimental program is starting on some crucial technology areas including a first contract to the Industry concerning the turbogenerator. Particular attention is being paid to the significance of the adoption of a Brayton cycle for space applications involving a nuclear heat source, which can be either a liquid-metal-cooled or a gas-cooled reactor. For a gas-cooled reactor, direct-cycle system, the relevance to the reactor technology and the concept for moderator thermal conditioning is particularly addressed

  20. Improvement of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle using binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is inevitably subjected to a sodium-water reaction. To prevent hazardous situation caused by sodium-water reaction, the SFR with Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO2 cycle) as a working fluid can be an alternative approach. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work significantly decreases at slightly above the critical point due to high density near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO2 critical point. The critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle increases the efficiency and thus, changing the critical point of CO2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. Modifying the critical point of the working fluid can be done by adding other gases to CO2. The direction and range of the CO2 critical point variation depends on the mixed component and its amount. In particular, chemical reactivity of the gas mixture itself and the gas mixture with sodium at high temperatures are of interest. To modify the critical point of the working fluid, several gases were chosen as candidates by which chemical stability with sodium within the interested range of cycle operating condition was assured: CO2 was mixed with N2, O2, He, Ar and Xe. To evaluate the effect of shifting the critical point and changes in the properties of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle, a supercritical Brayton cycle analysis code connected with the REFPROP program from the NIST was developed. The developed code is for evaluating simple

  1. Study on the matching performance of a low temperature reverse Brayton air refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A relation between operation parameters of expander and brake pressure was obtained. • A matching model was got based on the theoretical analysis and simulation. • Brake pressure feedback control was proposed and applied in the experiment. • The minimum free-load refrigerating temperature of 99.6 K was reached. - Abstract: A small reverse Brayton cycle air refrigerator was designed and fabricated. Bump-type air journal foil bearing, pressurized thrust gas bearing and centrifugal blower as brake were employed in the turboexpander. Usually, constant brake inlet pressure is set in a reverse Brayton refrigerator. However, the unchanged brake inlet pressure cannot adapt to the changing temperature and expansion ratio during the cooling down process, which could go against the system performance. In this article, the relationship between the turboexpander operation parameters and brake pressure was disclosed through theoretical analysis. The performance curve was analyzed through numerical simulation using CFX. A matching model was established based on the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Brake pressure feedback control was then proposed and applied in the experimental study. Thermal performance of the refrigerator was tested under varied operating conditions (different expansion ratios, temperatures and brake pressures). The results indicated that the appropriate brake pressure facilitated system good thermal performance under both design and off-design conditions, and the theoretical results agreed well with the experimental data

  2. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1∼3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  3. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  4. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1˜3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  5. Attribution of irreversible loss to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Bresch, David; Hansen, Gerrit; James, Rachel; Mechler, Reinhard; Stone, Dáithí; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    The Paris Agreement (2015) under the UNFCCC has anchored loss and damage in a separate article which specifies that understanding and support should be enhanced in areas addressing loss and damage such as early warning, preparedness, insurance and resilience. Irreversible loss is a special category under loss and damage but there is still missing clarity over what irreversible loss actually includes. Many negative impacts of climate change may be handled or mitigated by existing risk management, reduction and absorption approaches. Irreversible loss, however, is thought to be insufficiently addressed by risk management. Therefore, countries potentially or actually affected by irreversible loss are calling for other measures such as compensation, which however is highly contested in international climate policy. In Paris (2015) a decision was adopted that loss and damage as defined in the respective article of the agreement does not involve compensation and liability. Nevertheless, it is likely that some sort of mechanism will eventually need to come into play for irreversible loss due to anthropogenic climate change, which might involve compensation, other forms of non-monetary reparation, or transformation. Furthermore, climate litigation has increasingly been attempted to address negative effects of climate change. In this context, attribution is important to understand the drivers of change, what counts as irreversible loss due to climate change, and, possibly, who or what is responsible. Here we approach this issue by applying a detection and attribution perspective on irreversible loss. We first analyze detected climate change impacts as assessed in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. We distinguish between irreversible loss in physical, biological and human systems, and accordingly identify the following candidates of irreversible loss in these systems: loss of glaciers and ice sheets, loss of subsurface ice (permafrost) and related loss of lake systems; loss

  6. TOTALMENTE DIVERSO”: SAN TOMMASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF TAMAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to synthesize the exploration of above presented ideas, wesuggest the following conclusions: Pope John Paul II cherished Saint Thomas as representing „that eternal novelty of thinking” which brought us close to the ontic space of knowledge, the dynamic principle of which is Being. The climax of this condition would be the moment of embracing the truth, which would trigger that vital necessity for metaphysics. According to the stated objective ofthe necessary and indispensable ratio between reason and faith, we see that Tomas suggested the vision of the objective, transcendent and universal truth. This fact determined Pope John Paul II to appreciate that “passion” for truth. The man of our time must walk again towards the light of this truth. In this sense, Saint Thomas’ philosophy represents the guide above all. Its philosophic importance, meaning that “it is truly the philosophy of Being, and not the philosophy of a simple epiphany”, confirms its aim to provide a constant answerto many of the problems that concerns the human mind: the problems ofknowledge and Being, the problems of speaking and doing, the problems of the world, and the problems related with Man and God.

  7. Thermal hydraulic feasibility of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle power conversion for the KALIMER-150 sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possible approach to achieving a significant reduction in the overnight and operating costs of a sodium-cooled fast reactor is to replace the traditional Rankine steam cycle with an advanced power converter that consists of a gas turbine Brayton cycle that utilizes supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) as the working fluid. A joint project between Argonne National Laboratory and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been initiated to investigate the thermal-hydraulic feasibility of coupling the S-CO2 Brayton cycle to the KALIMAR-150 sodium-cooled fast reactor conceptual design. As an initial step in investigating the system aspects of coupling the reactor to the S-CO2 Brayton cycle, the case is investigated in which the intermediate heat transfer loop is eliminated in order to achieve additional cost reductions. The main objectives are to determine the potential gain in plant efficiency and to estimate the size of the key Brayton cycle components. A S-CO2 Brayton cycle efficiency of 43.2% is calculated. Accounting for primary pump power and other in-house loads, a net plant efficiency of 40.8% is obtained, compared to 38.2% for the current (Rankine cycle) plant. If higher Na temperatures could be accommodated, then a 1% gain in plant efficiency could be obtained for each 20degC incremental increase in sodium core outlet temperature. Further investigation of the thermal sizing of the Na/S-Co2 heat exchanger is also carried out; parametric sensitivity studies are performed for the case in which the intermediate heat transport system is retained as well as the case in which it is eliminated. (author)

  8. Irreversibility of the two-dimensional enstrophy cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Piretto,; Boffetta, G

    2016-01-01

    We study the time irreversibility of the direct cascade in two-dimensional turbulence by looking at the time derivative of the square vorticity along Lagrangian trajectories, a quantity which we call metenstrophy. By means of extensive numerical simulations we measure the time irreversibility from the asymmetry of the PDF of the metenstrophy and we find that it increases with the Reynolds number of the cascade, similarly to what found in three-dimensional turbulence. A detailed analysis of the different contributions to the enstrophy budget reveals a remarkable difference with respect to what observed for the direct cascade, in particular the role of the statistics of the forcing to determine the degree of irreversibility.

  9. Irreversible magnetovolume effect in Nd7Rh3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetovolume effect in Nd7Rh3 single crystal has been studied by measuring the magnetostriction as a function of external magnetic field at 4.2 K. An irreversible magnetovolume effect having a negative remanent volume magnetostriction was observed when the external magnetic field was applied along the b-axis. The irreversible magnetostrictive effect takes place in the longitudinal magnetostriction along the b-axis. The remanent magnetostriction along the b-axis relaxes after removing external magnetic field for several hours and equilibrium state is stabilized. - Highlights: → Magnetostriction measurements of Nd7Rh3 single crystal at 4.2 K were made. → An irreversible magnetovolume effect having a negative remanent volume magnetostriction was observed. → Magnetic after effect on the remanent magnetostriction was also observed.

  10. Reversible and Irreversible Binding of Nanoparticles to Polymeric Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H. Binder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.

  11. Equilibrium, fluctuation relations and transport for irreversible deterministic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Colangeli, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper [M. Colangeli \\textit{et al.}, J.\\ Stat.\\ Mech.\\ P04021, (2011)] it was argued that the Fluctuation Relation for the phase space contraction rate $\\Lambda$ could suitably be extended to non-reversible dissipative systems. We strengthen here those arguments, providing analytical and numerical evidence based on the properties of a simple irreversible nonequilibrium baker model. We also consider the problem of response, showing that the transport coefficients are not affected by the irreversibility of the microscopic dynamics. In addition, we prove that a form of \\textit{detailed balance}, hence of equilibrium, holds in the space of relevant variables, despite the irreversibility of the phase space dynamics. This corroborates the idea that the same stochastic description, which arises from a projection onto a subspace of relevant coordinates, is compatible with quite different underlying deterministic dynamics. In other words, the details of the microscopic dynamics are largely irrelevant, for ...

  12. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran

    2015-05-06

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  13. The thermomechanics of nonlinear irreversible behaviors an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    1999-01-01

    In this invaluable book, macroscopic irreversible thermodynamics is presented in its realm and its splendor by appealing to the notion of internal variables of state. This applies to both fluids and solids with or without microstructures of mechanical or electromagnetic origin. This unmatched richness of essentially nonlinear behaviors is the result of the use of modern mathematical techniques such as convex analysis in a clear-cut framework which allows one to put under the umbrella of "irreversible thermodynamics" behaviors which until now have been commonly considered either not easily cove

  14. Dynamic response simulation for high temperature gas-cooled reactor with indirect closed Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient simulation program is developed in order to study dynamic characteristics of high temperature gas-cooled reactor with indirect closed Brayton cycle. After the brief introduction to such a plant, detailed mathematical models for important installations are described in the paper. By inducing step positive reactivity into the reactor, it looks like that the powers of turbo machine installations have a different growth rate accompanied with small increase of reactor power. Furthermore, this paper shows the temperature changes of reactor and heat exchangers. For the heat exchangers of the whole secondary loop, the pressure changes behave quite differently for those three sections divided by turbine, low pressure compressor and high pressure compressor. For all these equipments, the simulation program gives reasonable results and is in accordance with dynamic characteristics of their own. (authors)

  15. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.; Naples, Andrew G.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon (C-C) recuperators in conceptual closed-Brayton-cycle space power conversion systems was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on notional thermodynamic cycle state values for potential planetary missions. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for plate-fin C-C recuperators were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for conventional offset-strip-fin metallic designs. Mass savings of 30 to 60 percent were projected for C-C recuperators with effectiveness greater than 0.9 and thermal loads from 25 to 1400 kWt. The smaller thermal loads corresponded with lower mass savings; however, 60 percent savings were forecast for all loads above 300 kWt. System-related material challenges and compatibility issues were also discussed.

  16. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Materials for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed

  17. Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. (Ground demonstration system) Configuration Control Document (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration control document (CCD) defines the BIPS-GDS configuration. The GDS configuration is similar to a conceptual flight system design, referred to as the BIPS-FS, which is discussed in App. I. The BIPS is being developed by ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W(e), 7-y life, space power system utilizing a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine engine to convert thermal energy (from an isotope heat source) to electrical energy at a net efficiency exceeding 25 percent. The CCD relates to Phase I of an ERDA Program to qualify a dynamic system for launch in the early 1980's. Phase I is a 35-month effort to provide an FS conceptual design and GDS design, fabrication, and test. The baseline is a 7-year life, 450-pound, 4800 W(t), 1300 W(e) system which will use two multihundred watt (MHW) isotope heat sources being developed

  18. Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. (Ground demonstration system) Configuration Control Document (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-15

    The configuration control document (CCD) defines the BIPS-GDS configuration. The GDS configuration is similar to a conceptual flight system design, referred to as the BIPS-FS, which is discussed in App. I. The BIPS is being developed by ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W(e), 7-y life, space power system utilizing a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine engine to convert thermal energy (from an isotope heat source) to electrical energy at a net efficiency exceeding 25 percent. The CCD relates to Phase I of an ERDA Program to qualify a dynamic system for launch in the early 1980's. Phase I is a 35-month effort to provide an FS conceptual design and GDS design, fabrication, and test. The baseline is a 7-year life, 450-pound, 4800 W(t), 1300 W(e) system which will use two multihundred watt (MHW) isotope heat sources being developed.

  19. Brayton cycle conversion and additional French investigations on space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French activities in the field of space nuclear power systems have proceeded in anticipation that spacecraft would require such systems for the provision of 20 kW(e) by the year 2005. A liquid metal-cooled reactor patterned on well tested terrestrial technologies has been investigated which employs a Brayton-cycle heat-conversion system in such a way as to allow temperature conditioning of the moderator for a thermal-spectrum reactor. A high pressure gas cycle derivation technique makes it possible to maintain water within the requisite temperature range. The concept thus evolved is attractive in light of fuel inventory, mass, radiation shielding, and control points considerations. 7 refs

  20. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Material for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf

    2006-07-19

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed.

  1. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A program is proposed for the ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a radioisotope nuclear heated dynamic power system for use on space missions beginning in the 1980's. This type of electrical power system is based upon and combines two aerospace technologies currently under intense development; namely, the MHW isotope heat source and the closed Brayton cycle gas turbine. This power system represents the next generation of reliable, efficient economic electrical power equipment for space, and will be capable of providing 0.5 to 2.0 kW of electric power to a wide variety of spacecraft for earth orbital and interplanetary missions. The immediate design will be based upon the requirements for the Air Force SURVSATCOM mission. The proposal is presented in three volumes plus an Executive Summary. This volume describes the tasks in the technical program.

  2. Conceptual Design of S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Radial Turbomachinery for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAIST proposed a new SMR design, which utilizes S-CO2 as the working fluid. It was named as KAIST MMR. Compared with existing SMR concepts, KAIST MMR has advantages of achieving smaller volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and containing the core and PCU in one vessel for the complete modularization. Authors noticed that the compressor and turbine assumed performances of KAIST MMR were conservatively selected previously. Thus, this paper tries to address the best estimate values of each turbomachinery in 10MWe class KAIST MMR. The turbomachinery size of the S-CO2 cycle is smaller than helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle. The suggested SMR concept adopts passive cooling system by using air. This method can cool reactor without external electricity supply. Small size and more flexible installation in the inland area will be necessary characteristics for the future nuclear application in the water limited region. KAIST MMR meets all these requirements by utilizing S-CO2 as a working fluid. This paper presents the work for further increasing the system performance by estimating the component efficiency more realistically. The cycle layout adopted for the application is S-CO2 recuperated Brayton cycle. The best efficiency of compressor and turbine was evaluated to be 84.94% and 90.94%, respectively. By using KAIST in-house code, thermal efficiency and net output were increased to 35.81% and 12.45MWe, respectively, for the same core thermal power. More refined cycle layout and suitable turbomachinery design will be performed in the near future

  3. Irreversible Encephalopathy After Treatment With High-Dose Intravenous Metronidazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, Miriam V. R.; Hofmeijer, Jannette; Sikma, Maaike A.; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole is rare and, in most cases, reversible following discontinuation. Objective: We describe a case of fatal encephalopathy after treatment with high-dose intravenous metronidazole and the potential causes of the irreversibility. Case summary: A 3

  4. When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…

  5. Intrinsic Decoherence and Irreversibility in the Quasiperiodic Kicked Rotor

    CERN Document Server

    Shifino, A C S; Siri, R; Romanelli, A; Donangelo, R J

    2003-01-01

    We show that some classically chaotic quantum systems uncoupled from noisy environments may generate intrinsic decoherence with all its associated effects. In particular, we have observed time irreversibility and high sensitivity to small perturbations in the initial conditions in a quasiperiodic version of the kicked rotor. The existence of simple quantum systems with intrinsic decoherence clarifies the quantum--classical correspondence in chaotic systems.

  6. Percutaneous Approach to Irreversible Electroporation of the Pancreas: Miami Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Shree; Hosein, Peter J; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer, outcomes remain poor. Irreversible electroporation is a nonthermal ablative modality whose role in the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer is being studied. This review highlights patient selection, preparation, and follow-up as well as discusses the techniques to achieve safe and effective tumor ablation in this challenging location. PMID:26365545

  7. Performance analysis of a large-scale helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator with static gas bearing turboexpander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 2 kW at 20.0 K helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator is built in China. • A series of tests have been systematically conducted to investigate the performance of the cryo-refrigerator. • Maximum heat conductance proportion (90.7%) appears in the heat exchangers of cold box rather than those of heat reservoirs. • A model of helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator/cycle is presented according to finite-time thermodynamics. - Abstract: Large-scale helium cryo-refrigerator is widely used in superconducting systems, nuclear fusion engineering, and scientific researches, etc., however, its energy efficiency is quite low. First, a 2 kW at 20.0 K helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator is built, and a series of tests have been systematically conducted to investigate the performance of the cryo-refrigerator. It is found that maximum heat conductance proportion (90.7%) appears in the heat exchangers of cold box rather than those of heat reservoirs, which is the main characteristic of the helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator/cycle different from the air Brayton refrigerator/cycle. Other three characteristics also lie in the configuration of refrigerant helium bypass, internal purifier and non-linearity of specific heat of helium. Second, a model of helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator/cycle is presented according to finite-time thermodynamics. The assumption named internal purification temperature depth (PTD) is introduced, and the heat capacity rate of whole cycle is divided into three different regions in accordance with the PTD: room temperature region, upper internal purification temperature region and lower one. Analytical expressions of cooling capacity and COP are obtained, and we found that the expressions are piecewise functions. Further, comparison between the model and the experimental results for cooling capacity of the helium cryo-refrigerator shows that error is less than 7.6%. The PTD not only helps to achieve the analytical formulae and indicates the working

  8. Preparation of irreversible hydrocolloids to improve retention of complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksov Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Precise reproduction of anatomical-morphological details of dentures support on working models presupposes adequate application of modern impression materials and casting procedure, as well as minimal dimensional change of these materials. The aim of the study: experimental and clinical research is connected to irreversible hydrocolloids and the objective was to examine the most suitable consistency of the alginate as the impression mass for the purpose of improving retention of complete dentures. Material and methods This research included 35 completely toothless patients, most of who had already had complete dentures, 40-80 years of age and of both sexes. Static adhesion was measured with aery late plates made of adequate corresponding and various models depending on consistency of the irreversible hydrocolloids. Each model was cut into three parts, the cuts obtained were mutually compared, and computerized graphic charts of each section were made. Results The results of the research show that there is a greater retention force in the acrylate plates obtained on models castled on an anatomical impression base taken with irreversible hydrocolloides of solid consistency. Analysis of the results shows such quality of impressed tissues that they are practically slightly displaced by the impressions regardless of the consistency of the material impressed. Conclusion In conclusion it is pointed out that the preparation of irreversible hydrocolloides must be carried out by strictly obeying the powder-water weight ratios. The sections of the models obtained by irreversible hydrocolloides of various consistencies, that is by applying different pressures, point to minimal displacement of tissues and great differences in the retention force in favor of the compressive impression.

  9. BNNT-mediated irreversible electroporatio: its potential on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Raffa, Cristina Riggio, Michael W. Smith, Kevin C. Jordan, Wei Cao, Alfred Cuschieri

    2012-10-01

    Tissue ablation, i.e., the destruction of undesirable tissues, has become an important minimally invasive technique alternative to resection surgery for the treatment of tumours. Several methods for tissue ablation are based on thermal techniques using cold, e.g. cryosurgery [1] or heat, e.g. radiofrequency [2] or high-intensity focused ultrasound [3] or nanoparticle-mediated irradiation [4]. Alternatively, irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been proposed as non thermal technique for minimally invasive tissue ablation based on the use of electrical pulses. When the electric field is applied to a cell, a change in transmembrane potential is induced, which can cause biochemical and physiological changes of the cell. When the threshold value of the transmembrane potential is exceeded, the cell membrane becomes permeable, thus allowing entrance of molecules that otherwise cannot cross the membrane [5]. A further increase in the electric field intensity may cause irreversible membrane permeabilization and cell death. These pulses create irreversible defects (pores) in the cell membrane lipid bilayer, causing cell death through loss of cell homeostasis [6]. This is desirable in tumour ablation in order to produce large cell death, without the use of cytostatic drugs. A study of Davalos, Mir and Rubinsky showed that IRE can ablate substantial volumes of tissue without inducing a thermal effect and therefore serve as an independent and new tissue ablation modality; this opened the way to the use of IRE in surgery [7]. Their finding was subsequently confirmed in studies on cells [8], small animal models [9] and in large animal models in the liver [10] and the heart [11]. The most important finding in these papers is that irreversible electroporation produces precisely delineated ablation zones with cell scale resolution between ablated and non-ablated areas, without zones in which the extent of damage changes gradually as during thermal ablation. Furthermore, it is

  10. Enhanced arrangement for recuperators in supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycle for energy conversion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We propose an enhanced power conversion system layout for a Model C fusion reactor. •Proposed layout is based on a modified recompression supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle. •New arrangement in recuperators regards to classical cycle is used. •High efficiency is achieved, comparable with the best obtained in complex solutions. -- Abstract: A domestic research program called TECNOFUS was launched in Spain in 2009 to support technological developments related to a dual coolant breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors. This concept of blanket uses Helium (300 °C/400 °C) to cool part of it and a liquid metal (480 °C/700 °C) to cool the rest; it also includes high temperature (700 °C/800 °C) and medium temperature (566 °C/700 °C) Helium cooling circuits for divertor. This paper proposes a new layout of the classical recompression supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle which replaces one of the recuperators (the one with the highest temperature) by another which by-passes the low temperature blanket source. This arrangement allows reaching high turbine inlet temperatures (around 600 °C) with medium pressures (around 225 bar) and achieving high cycle efficiencies (close to 46.5%). So, the proposed cycle reveals as a promising design because it integrates all the available thermal sources in a compact layout achieving high efficiencies with the usual parameters prescribed in classical recompression supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles

  11. Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

    2009-05-01

    The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  12. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents for the management of benign biliary conditions Utilización de prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles totalmente recubiertas en procesos biliares benignos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Cano

    2010-09-01

    pequeños y proporcionar, al abrirse completamente, diámetros grandes para el drenaje biliar. Su utilización en procesos benignos ha estado muy limitada, fundamentalmente por la dificultad en su extracción. Presentamos nuestra experiencia inicial con una PMAB totalmente recubierta (Wallflex para tratar patología benigna de la vía biliar. Pacientes y métodos: en un estudio descriptivo prospectivo se insertaron por CPRE prótesis de 8 mm de diámetro y 4, 6 u 8 cm de longitud, cuando se consideró que para el drenaje biliar eran precisos diámetros superiores a 10 french (3,3 mm. Las prótesis se retiraron también por endoscopia varios meses después según se consideró oportuno clínicamente. Resultados: se insertaron 20 PMAB. Los motivos fueron: gran fístula biliar intrahepática tras cirugía de quiste hidatídico (1, perforación del área papilar por esfinterotomía endoscópica (2, recanalización de prótesis no recubiertas insertadas en procesos benignos (3, estenosis benignas (7, coledocolitiasis múltiples y de gran tamaño con afilamiento-estenosis del colédoco distal que no pudieron extraerse (7. En todos los casos se logró un drenaje biliar satisfactorio y no se produjeron complicaciones por la inserción. Las prótesis se extrajeron con facilidad a los 132 días de media (36-270. La resolución completa de los procesos se obtuvo en 14 pacientes (70%. Conclusiones: en nuestra experiencia inicial, la prótesis Wallflex biliar totalmente recubierta pudo extraerse sin complicaciones tras permanecer en el colédoco hasta una media de más cuatro meses, por lo que podría utilizarse en el tratamiento de procesos biliares benignos.

  13. Uncertainty, Irreversibility and the Timing Problems of Environmental Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haisheng; Jia Jia; Zhou Yongzhang

    2006-01-01

    Most environmental issues and policy designing are uncertain and irreversible; therefore, the timing of environmental policy implementation becomes especially important. This paper establishes a random dynamic programming model and analyzes the optimal timing problems in environmental policy under uncertain variables. This model results indicate that two variables have a significant impact on the timing of environmental policy implementation and they work in opposite direcfons: on one hand, the more uncertain the economy is, the higher the cost of policies implementation will be, and consequently the incentive to immediately adopt the policy will be stronger. On the other hand, the higher the uncertainty of the environment is, the stronger the irreversibility of ecological harm caused by pollutants per unit will be. Therefore, the government should implement new environmental policies as early as possible in order to gain more ecological benefits.

  14. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitutive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermodynamics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.

  15. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  16. Dynamics of polydisperse irreversible adsorption: a pharmacological example

    CERN Document Server

    Erban, R; Fisher, K D; Kevrekidis, Yu G; Seymour, L W; Chapman, Jonathan; Erban, Radek; Fisher, Kerry D.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Seymour, Leonard W.

    1999-01-01

    Many drug delivery systems suffer from undesirable interactions with the host immune system. It has been experimentally established that covalent attachment (irreversible adsorption) of suitable macromolecules to the surface of the drug carrier can reduce such undesirable interactions. A fundamental understanding of the adsorption process is still lacking. In this paper, the classical random irreversible adsorption model is generalized to capture certain essential processes involved in pharmacological applications, allowing for macromolecules of different sizes, partial overlapping of the tails of macromolecules, and the influence of reactions with the solvent on the adsorption process. Working in one dimension, an integro-differential evolution equation for the adsorption process is derived and the asymptotic behaviour of the surface area covered and the number of molecules attached to the surface is studied. Finally, equation-free dynamic renormalization tools are applied to study the asymptotically self-si...

  17. Ecological optimization for an irreversible magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hao; Wu Guo-Xing

    2013-01-01

    An irreversible Ericsson refrigeration cycle model is established,in which multi-irreversibilities such as finite-rate heat transfer,regenerative loss,heat leakage,and the efficiency of the regenerator are taken into account.Expressions for several important performance parameters,such as the cooling rate,coefficient of performance (COP),power input,exergy output rate,entropy generation rate,and ecological function are derived.The influences of the heat leakage and the time of the regenerative processes on the ecological performance of the refrigerator are analyzed.The optimal regions of the ecological function,cooling rate,and COP are determined and evaluated.Furthermore,some important parameter relations of the refrigerator are revealed and discussed in detail.The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful in gaining a deep understanding of the magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Irreversibilities in Solar Absorption Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Berrich Betouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic analysis of the irreversibility on solar absorption refrigerators is presented. Under the hierarchical decomposition and the hypothesis of an endoreversible model, many functional and practical domains are defined. The effect of external heat source temperature on the entropy rate and on the inverse specific cooling load (ISCL multiplied by the total area of the refrigerator A/Qe are studied. This may help a constructor to well dimension the solar machine under an optimal technico-economical criterion A/Qe and with reasonable irreversibility on the refrigerator. The solar concentrator temperature effect on the total exchanged area, on the technico-economical ratio A/Qe, and on the internal entropy rate are illustrated and discussed. The originality of these results is that they allow a conceptual study of a solar absorption refrigeration cycle.

  19. Comparison of reversible and irreversible dipolar assemblies in a ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klokkenburg, M. [Van' t Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.klokkenburg@chem.uu.nl; Erne, B.H. [Van' t Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    Zero-field aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid can either be irreversible or result from a dynamic equilibrium; the two cases can be distinguished by measurements of the complex magnetic susceptibility and by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We demonstrate this by comparing two colloidal systems that show dipolar structure formation in zero field. A dispersion of magnetic iron nanoparticles is gradually oxidized to decrease the magnetic moments, and despite the vanishing dipolar attractions, thermal motion does not break up the dipolar structures into single particles. Instead, the dipolar structures become chemically fixed during the oxidation process, an example of irreversible aggregation. In contrast, the zero-field dipolar structures in a chemically stable magnetite dispersion are found to disintegrate upon dilution, indicating that the structures are reversible and result from a dynamic equilibrium.

  20. Thermodynamic irreversibility and performance characteristics of thermoelectric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic irreversibility and performance characteristics of a thermoelectric power generator are investigated. The influence of the external load parameter, the thermal conductivity ratio, the figure of Merit, and the conductance ratio on the efficiency, the output power, and the entropy generation rate is predicted for various device operating parameters. It is found that the device efficiency increases to reach its maximum at the critical value of the output power and operating the device beyond the critical output power lowers the thermal efficiency and enhances the entropy generation rate significantly in the device. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic irreversibility in thermoelectric generator is studied. • Thermodynamic characteristics of thermoelectric device are investigated. • Influence of various parameters on performance is presented. • The device efficiency reaches its maximum at a critical output power. • The entropy generation increases beyond the critical output power

  1. Ecological optimization for an irreversible magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible Ericsson refrigeration cycle model is established, in which multi-irreversibilities such as finite-rate heat transfer, regenerative loss, heat leakage, and the efficiency of the regenerator are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the cooling rate, coefficient of performance (COP), power input, exergy output rate, entropy generation rate, and ecological function are derived. The influences of the heat leakage and the time of the regenerative processes on the ecological performance of the refrigerator are analyzed. The optimal regions of the ecological function, cooling rate, and COP are determined and evaluated. Furthermore, some important parameter relations of the refrigerator are revealed and discussed in detail. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful in gaining a deep understanding of the magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Irreversible Electroporation of Human Primary Uveal Melanoma in Enucleated Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Yossi; Laufer, Shlomi; Belkin, Michael; Rubinsky, Boris; Pe'er, Jacob; Frenkel, Shahar

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults and is characterized by high rates of metastatic disease. Although brachytherapy is the most common globe-sparing treatment option for small- and medium-sized tumors, the treatment is associated with severe adverse reactions and does not lead to increased survival rates as compared to enucleation. The use of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for tumor ablation has potential advantages in the treatment of tumors in com...

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Irreversibilities in Solar Absorption Refrigerators

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Berrich Betouche; Ali Fellah; Ammar Ben Brahim; Fethi Aloui; Michel Feidt

    2016-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the irreversibility on solar absorption refrigerators is presented. Under the hierarchical decomposition and the hypothesis of an endoreversible model, many functional and practical domains are defined. The effect of external heat source temperature on the entropy rate and on the inverse specific cooling load (ISCL) multiplied by the total area of the refrigerator A/Qe are studied. This may help a constructor to well dimension the solar machine under an optimal tec...

  4. Study of irreversible thermochromic ink application on textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Canal Barnils, Cristina; Villeger, Sandrine; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Ricard, André

    2009-01-01

    In the development of new products or new applications of known products, investigations have to be carried out concerning the choice of the kind of thermochromic matter, support, application form, concerning the evolution of colour change and stability versus imposed external parameters. The present paper studies the application of an irreversible thermochromic ink for the development of new high added value textiles, which may be prone to applications such as plasma treatments at low ...

  5. Irreversible Investment, Capacity Choice, and the Value of the Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    1986-01-01

    A model of capacity choice and utilization is developed consistent with value maximization when investment is irreversible and future demand is uncertain. Investment requires the full value of a marginal unit of capacity to be at least as large as its full cost. The former includes the value of the firms option not to utilize the unit, and the latter includes the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option. We show that for moderate amounts of uncertainty, the firm's optimal capacity...

  6. Cell Death Characterization In Tumor Constructs Using Irreversible Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Prokop, Katherine Jane

    2013-01-01

    Cell Death Characterization in Tumor Constructs Using Irreversible Electroporation Katherine Jane Prokop ABSTRACT Pancreatic and prostate cancer are both prevalent cancers in the United States with pancreatic being one of the most aggressive of all cancers and prostate cancer being one of the most common, ranking as the number one cancer in men. Treatment of both cancers can be quite challenging as the anatomy of the pancreas and prostate, as well as the development and diagnos...

  7. Advancements in Irreversible Electroporation for the Treatment of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Christopher Brian

    2013-01-01

        Irreversible electroporation has recently emerged as an effective focal ablation technique. When performed clinically, the procedure involves placing electrodes into, or around, a target tissue and applying a series of short, but intense, pulsed electric fields. Oftentimes, patient specific treatment plans are employed to guide procedures by merging medical imaging with algorithms for determining the electric field distribution in the tissue. The electric field dictates treatment outcomes...

  8. Irreversible Electroporation: A Novel Image-Guided Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward W.; Thai, Susan; Kee, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel tumor ablation technique using a non-thermal energy to create innumerable permanent nanopores in the cell membrane to disrupt cellular homeostasis. This disruption of cellular homeostasis initiates apoptosis which leads to permanent cell death. In our translational research, we have demonstrated that IRE can be a safe, fast and powerful method of tumor treatment. In this review, we present an overview of IRE ablation including a brief history of I...

  9. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  10. Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle Power Conversion Design, Physical Performance Estimation and Economic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreades, Charalampos

    The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The

  11. A closed Brayton power conversion unit concept for nuclear electric propulsion for deep space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt and Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level

  12. Irreversibility and complex network behavior of stream flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Kilsby, Chris G.

    2016-05-01

    Exploiting the duality between time series and networks, directed horizontal visibility graphs (DHVGs) are used to perform an unprecedented analysis of the dynamics of stream flow fluctuations with focus on time irreversibility and long range dependence. The analysis relies on a large quality-controlled data set consisting of 699 daily time series recorded in the continental United States (CONUS) that are not affected by human activity and primarily reflects meteorological conditions. DHVGs allow a clear visualization and quantification of time irreversibility of flow dynamics, which can be interpreted as a signature of nonlinearity, and long range dependence resulting from the interaction of atmospheric, surface and underground processes acting at multiple spatio-temporal scales. Irreversibility is explored by mapping the time series into ingoing, outgoing, and undirected graphs and comparing the corresponding degree distributions. Using surrogate data preserving up to the second order linear temporal dependence properties of the observed series, DHVGs highlight the additional complexity introduced by nonlinearity into flow fluctuation dynamics. We show that the degree distributions do not decay exponentially as expected, but tend to follow a subexponential behavior, even though sampling uncertainty does not allow a clear distinction between apparent or true power law decay. These results confirm that the complexity of stream flow dynamics goes beyond a linear representation involving for instance the combination of linear processes with short and long range dependence, and requires modeling strategies accounting for temporal asymmetry and nonlinearity.

  13. Irreversibility in energy processes: Non-dimensional quantification and balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Michel

    2004-06-01

    The concept of thermodynamic efficiency (ratio of real cycle efficiency by Carnot efficiency) is well-known. The concept of numbers of entropy-production and of exergy-loss proposed by A. Bejan are also known, but rarely used. The present study firstly evidences that these two last numbers are actually identical, thus being a common number of irreversibility, independent of the method used for obtaining it. The study also evidences a non-dimensional irreversibility balance that applies to any energy conversion process. This balance correlates the thermodynamic efficiency of a whole process (which in most cases equals the exergetic efficiency) and the numbers of irreversibility of the different components or sub-processes involved in this process. Moreover, the basic additivity of entropy-productions and exergy-losses is maintained in this balance. This balance applies to the basic cycles (heat-engines, refrigerators, heat-pumps and heat-transformers), either work- or heat-powered. It also applies to more complex cycles (heat-powered cycles consuming electricity, four-temperature heat-powered cycles, cogeneration processes), thus giving a robust framework for analyzing these cycles.

  14. Irreversible Electroporation for Focal Ablation at the Porta Hepatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver metastases who are not candidates for surgery may be treated with focal ablation techniques with established survival benefits. Irreversible electroporation is the newest of these and has the putative advantages of a nonthermal action, preventing damage to adjacent biliary structures and bowel. This report describes the use of irreversible electroporation in a 61-year-old man with a solitary chemoresistant liver metastasis unsuitable for radiofrequency ablation as a result of its proximity to the porta hepatis. At 3 months, tumor size was decreased on computed tomography from 28 × 19 to 20 × 17 mm, representing stable disease according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. This corresponded to a decrease in tumor volume size from 5.25 to 3.16 cm3. There were no early or late complications. Chemoresistant liver metastases in the proximity of the porta hepatis that are considered to be too high a risk for conventional surgery or thermal ablation may be considered for treatment by the novel ablation technique of irreversible electroporation.

  15. Irreversible Electroporation for Focal Ablation at the Porta Hepatis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasivisvanathan, Veeru, E-mail: vk103@ic.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Thapar, Ankur, E-mail: a.thapar09@imperial.ac.uk; Oskrochi, Youssof, E-mail: Youssof.Oskrochi09@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom); Picard, John, E-mail: John.picard@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Anaesthesia (United Kingdom); Leen, Edward L. S., E-mail: Edward.leen@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver metastases who are not candidates for surgery may be treated with focal ablation techniques with established survival benefits. Irreversible electroporation is the newest of these and has the putative advantages of a nonthermal action, preventing damage to adjacent biliary structures and bowel. This report describes the use of irreversible electroporation in a 61-year-old man with a solitary chemoresistant liver metastasis unsuitable for radiofrequency ablation as a result of its proximity to the porta hepatis. At 3 months, tumor size was decreased on computed tomography from 28 Multiplication-Sign 19 to 20 Multiplication-Sign 17 mm, representing stable disease according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. This corresponded to a decrease in tumor volume size from 5.25 to 3.16 cm{sup 3}. There were no early or late complications. Chemoresistant liver metastases in the proximity of the porta hepatis that are considered to be too high a risk for conventional surgery or thermal ablation may be considered for treatment by the novel ablation technique of irreversible electroporation.

  16. IRREVERSIBLE ASSETS ARE IN THE SYSTEM TO CIRCULATION OF CAPITAL OF ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Shvets; Borisiyk, O.

    2010-01-01

    Essence of irreversible assets is considered. Circulation of irreversible assets is exposed. Certainly factor which influences on the size of capital of enterprise. The cost of the fixed assets of Ukraine is represented in 2000-2008 years.

  17. Irreversible dynamics, Onsager-Casimir symmetry, and an application to turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2014-10-01

    Irreversible contributions to the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems can be formulated in terms of dissipative, or irreversible, brackets. We discuss the structure of such irreversible brackets in view of a degeneracy implied by energy conservation, where we consider different types of symmetries of the bracket corresponding to the Onsager and Casimir symmetries of linear irreversible thermodynamics. Slip and turbulence provide important examples of antisymmetric irreversible brackets and offer guidance for the more general modeling of irreversible dynamics without entropy production. Conversely, turbulence modeling could benefit from elucidating thermodynamic structure. The examples suggest constructing antisymmetric irreversible brackets in terms of completely antisymmetric functions of three indices. Irreversible brackets without well-defined symmetry properties can arise for rare events, causing big configurational changes. PMID:25375452

  18. Fully covered self-expanding metal stents in the management of difficult common bile duct stones Prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles totalmente recubiertas en el tratamiento de coledocolitiasis difíciles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Cano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: plastic biliary stents are often used after an ERCP session without complete common bile duct stones (CBDS extraction. Sometimes, the volume of biliary drainage with these stents may be insufficient. We present our experience with the use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS in the setting of incomplete CBDS extraction. Patients and methods: after an ERCP session with difficult CBDS not completely removed, biliary FCSEMS (Wallflex were inserted in some patients when it was deemed that biliary sphincterotomy and a single plastic stent would not provide an adequate drainage. Results: a retrospective study was performed. Biliary FCSEMS were inserted in 29 patients, mean age 81 years. CBDS could not be extracted through a biliary sphincterotomy due to its large size (n = 18 or because of the presence of inflammatory distal strictures (n = 11. The greatest biliary drainage with shortest ERCP time was considered mandatory due to clinical instability of patients and/or poor tolerance to conscious sedation administered by the endoscopist. Successful biliary drainage was obtained in all cases. FCSEMS were removed after a median of 199.5 days in 16 patients with a complete CBDS extraction in 15 (93.7%. FCSEMS were not removed in the remaining 13 patients due to their clinical condition, and a wait-and-see strategy was undertaken. Conclusions: in selected cases, utilization of removable FCSEMS can be a good option for a quick and adequate biliary drainage in the setting of difficult CBDS. Because of the higher cost of these stents its use needs to be individualized.Introducción y objetivos: las prótesis biliares plásticas suelen emplearse tras una sesión de CPRE sin extracción completa de coledocolitiasis. En ocasiones, el calibre de drenaje con estas prótesis puede ser insuficiente. Presentamos nuestra experiencia en la utilización de prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles totalmente recubiertas (PMATR en

  19. Status of the CNES-CEA joint program on space nuclear Brayton systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooperative program between the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) was initiated in 1983, to investigate the possible development of 20 to 200 kWe space nuclear power systems to be launched by the next version of the European launcher, Ariane V. After completion in 1986 of preliminary conceptual studies of a reference 200 kWe turbo-electric power system, an additional 3 year study phase was decided, with the double objective of assessing the potential advantage of nuclear power systems versus solar photovoltaic or dynamic systems in the 20 kWe power range, and comparing various reactor candidate technologies and system options for 20 kWe space nuclear power systems, likely to meet the projected energy needs of future European space missions. A comprehensive program including conceptual design studies, operating transient analyses and technology base assessment, is currently applied to a few reference concepts of 20 kWe nuclear Brayton and thermoelectric systems, in order to establish sound technical and economical bases for selecting the design options and the development strategy of a first space nuclear power system in Europe

  20. Design and optimization of a single stage centrifugal compressor for a solar dish-Brayton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Kai; Tong, Zhiting; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Engeda, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    According to the requirements of a solar dish-Brayton system, a centrifugal compressor stage with a minimum total pressure ratio of 5, an adiabatic efficiency above 75% and a surge margin more than 12% needs to be designed. A single stage, which consists of impeller, radial vaned diffuser, 90° crossover and two rows of axial stators, was chosen to satisfy this system. To achieve the stage performance, an impeller with a 6:1 total pressure ratio and an adiabatic efficiency of 90% was designed and its preliminary geometry came from an in-house one-dimensional program. Radial vaned diffuser was applied downstream of the impeller. Two rows of axial stators after 90° crossover were added to guide the flow into axial direction. Since jet-wake flow, shockwave and boundary layer separation coexisted in the impeller-diffuser region, optimization on the radius ratio of radial diffuser vane inlet to impeller exit, diffuser vane inlet blade angle and number of diffuser vanes was carried out at design point. Finally, an optimized centrifugal compressor stage fulfilled the high expectations and presented proper performance. Numerical simulation showed that at design point the stage adiabatic efficiency was 79.93% and the total pressure ratio was 5.6. The surge margin was 15%. The performance map including 80%, 90% and 100% design speed was also presented.

  1. A Mass Computation Model for Lightweight Brayton Cycle Regenerator Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a theoretical analysis of convective heat transfer across large internal surface areas, this paper discusses the design implications for generating lightweight gas-gas heat exchanger designs by packaging such areas into compact three-dimensional shapes. Allowances are made for hot and cold inlet and outlet headers for assembly of completed regenerator (or recuperator) heat exchanger units into closed cycle gas turbine flow ducting. Surface area and resulting volume and mass requirements are computed for a range of heat exchanger effectiveness values and internal heat transfer coefficients. Benefit cost curves show the effect of increasing heat exchanger effectiveness on Brayton cycle thermodynamic efficiency on the plus side, while also illustrating the cost in heat exchanger required surface area, volume, and mass requirements as effectiveness is increased. The equations derived for counterflow and crossflow configurations show that as effectiveness values approach unity, or 100 percent, the required surface area, and hence heat exchanger volume and mass tend toward infinity, since the implication is that heat is transferred at a zero temperature difference. To verify the dimensional accuracy of the regenerator mass computational procedure, calculation of a regenerator specific mass, that is, heat exchanger weight per unit working fluid mass flow, is performed in both English and SI units. Identical numerical values for the specific mass parameter, whether expressed in lb/(lb/sec) or kg/ (kg/sec), show the dimensional consistency of overall results.

  2. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data.

  3. Acacia: A small scale power plant with pebble bed cartridge reactor and indirect Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For markets other than large-scale electricity production a 60 MWth, 23 MWe (max.) nuclear plant design with an indirect Brayton cycle is proposed for application on the short to medium term. The reactor will be cooled by helium, whereas for the secondary cycle nitrogen is proposed as a heat carrier. In this way, a conventional air based gas turbine can be applied, while at the same time excluding the scenario of air ingress in the reactor core through a heat exchanger leak. Two variations of cycle design will be discussed: co-generation and maximized electricity production. The cogeneration mode will be elaborated for the application of seawater desalination. The reactor core geometry is annular with a central graphite reflector region, creating an optimal location for burnable poison. Optimization calculations on burnable poison distribution show that burnup of fuel and poison are balancing each other into a fairly constant reactivity behaviour during the entire core lifetime. Also, the two most important safety transient scenarios for pebble bed reactors, Pressurised and Depressurised Loss Of Forced Cooling, will be discussed. It will be shown that the maximum fuel temperatures will stay below the level where fuel damage starts for any point in time. (author)

  4. Finite-thermal reservoir effects on ecologically optimized closed regenerative Joule-Brayton power cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaliq, A. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A finite-time thermodynamic analysis based on a new kind of optimization criterion has been carried out for an endoreversible and regenerative Joule-Brayton power cycle coupled with variable temperature thermal reservoirs. The optimal performance and design parameters that maximize the ecological function are investigated. In this context, the optimal temperatures of the working fluid, the optimum power output, the optimum thermal efficiency, and the optimum second-law efficiency are determined in terms of technical parameters. Results are reported for the effect of regeneration, hot-cold temperature ratio, and the number of heat transfer units in hot and cold exchangers on the optimal performance parameters. The power and efficiency at maximum ecological function are found to be less than the maximum power and Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Power output increases significantly with increasing hot-cold side temperature ratio. However, it slightly increased as the number of heat transfer units in the regenerator increases. The optimization of ecological function leads to the improvement in exergetic efficiency and thermal efficiency, especially for low hot-cold side temperature ratios. Moreover, the thermal efficiency at maximum ecological function is less than the average of the finite time or maximum power efficiency and reversible Carnot efficiency. (author)

  5. Optimization of a Brayton cryocooler for ZBO liquid hydrogen storage in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserranno, D.; Zagarola, M.; Li, X.; Mustafi, S.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is evaluating and developing technology for long-term storage of cryogenic propellant in space. A key technology is a cryogenic refrigerator which intercepts heat loads to the storage tank, resulting in a reduced- or zero-boil-off condition. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are particularly well suited for cryogen storage applications because the technology scales well to high capacities and low temperatures. In addition, the continuous-flow nature of the cycle allows direct cooling of the cryogen storage tank without mass and power penalties associated with a cryogenic heat transport system. To quantify the benefits and mature the cryocooler technology, Creare Inc. performed a design study and technology demonstration effort for NASA on a 20 W, 20 K cryocooler for liquid hydrogen storage. During the design study, we optimized these key components: three centrifugal compressors, a modular high-capacity plate-fin recuperator, and a single-stage turboalternator. The optimization of the compressors and turboalternator were supported by component testing. The optimized cryocooler has an overall flight mass of 88 kg and a specific power of 61 W/W. The coefficient of performance of the cryocooler is 23% of the Carnot cycle. This is significantly better performance than any 20 K space cryocooler existing or under development.

  6. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  7. Use of RELAP5-3D for Dynamic Analysis of a Closed-Loop Brayton Cycle Coupled To a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes results of a dynamic system model for a pair of closed Brayton-cycle (CBC) loops running in parallel that are connected to a nuclear gas reactor. The model assumes direct coupling between the reactor and the Brayton-cycle loops. The RELAP5-3D (version 2.4.1) computer program was used to perform the analysis. Few reactors have ever been coupled to closed Brayton-cycle systems. As such their behavior under dynamically varying loads, startup and shut down conditions, and requirements for safe and autonomous operation are largely unknown. The model described in this paper represents the reactor, turbine, compressor, recuperator, heat rejection system and alternator. The initial results of the model indicate stable operation of the reactor-driven Brayton-cycle system. However, for analysts with mostly pressurized water reactor experience, the Brayton cycle loops coupled to a gas-cooled reactor also indicate some counter-intuitive behavior for the complete coupled system. This model has provided crucial information in evaluating the reactor design and would have been further developed for use in developing procedures for safe start up, shut down, safe-standby, and other autonomous operating modes had the plant development cycle been completed

  8. Thermal analysis on N2 and S-CO2 Brayton cycle for the energy conversion system of small scale ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultra-long cycle fast reactor (UCFR) is one of the SFR designs operating in a long cycle without refueling. The operational mechanism of long cycle fast reactor is once-through fuel cycle through breed and burn system. The benefits of long cycle fast reactor include capital/operation cost reductions, low proliferation risk, and the interim storage of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. For the power conversion system of next generation nuclear reactor, Brayton cycle has been mainly considered. Brayton cycle not only increases overall thermal efficiency in corresponding temperature range of GenIV reactors, but also solves sodium-water reaction issues. As a working fluid in Brayton cycle, many inactive gases are selected. For the power conversion system of next generation nuclear reactor, Brayton cycle has been mainly considered. Among the candidates for working fluid in Brayton power cycle, S-CO2 and N2 are analyzed in thermal aspect. For the major parameters including maximum system pressure, isentropic efficiencies of compressor and turbine, and pinch point, S-CO2 cycle shows the highest thermal performance. However, N2 cycle without intermediate loop gives comparable thermal performance, if high pressure around 70 bar and high isentropic efficiency of each component are maintained

  9. Dimensional Stability of Color-Changing Irreversible Hydrocolloids after Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi AAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Disinfection of dental impressions is a weak point in the dental hygiene chain. In addition, dental office personnel and dental technicians are endangered by cross-contamination. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dimensional stability of two color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid materials (IH after disinfection with glutaraldehyde. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, impressions were made of a master maxillary arch containing three reference inserts on the occlucal surface of the left and right maxillary second molars and in the incisal surface of the maxillary central incisors. Two types of color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid (tetrachrom, cavex were used. Glutaraldehyde 2% was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the impressions. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type IV gypsum. The linear dimensional change of the stone casts was measured with a profile projector. For statistical analysis, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests were used (α=0.05. Results: By immersion method, the casts fabricated from tetrachrom were 0.36% larger in the anteroposterior (AP and 0.05% smaller in cross arch (CA dimensions; however, the casts prepared after spraying of tetrachrom were 0.44% larger in the AP and 0.10% smaller in CA dimensions. The casts made from Cavex were 0.05% smaller in the AP and 0.02% smaller in CA dimensions after spraying and 0.01% smaller in the AP and 0.003% smaller in CA dimensions after immersion. Generally there were not significant differences in AP and CA dimensions of the experimental groups compared to the control (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Disinfection of the tested color-changing irreversible hydrocolloids by glutaraldahyde 2% did not compromise the accuracy of the obtained casts.

  10. Advertising and irreversible opinion spreading in complex social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Candia, Julián

    2009-01-01

    Irreversible opinion spreading phenomena are studied on small-world and scale-free networks by means of the magnetic Eden model, a nonequilibrium kinetic model for the growth of binary mixtures in contact with a thermal bath. In this model, the opinion of an individual is affected by those of their acquaintances, but opinion changes (analogous to spin flips in an Ising-like model) are not allowed. We focus on the influence of advertising, which is represented by external magnetic fields. The ...

  11. Irreversible inhibition of epithelial sodium channels by ultraviolet irradiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuthbert, A W; Fanestil, D. D.; Herrera, F. C.; Pryn, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of u.v. irradiation at 254 nm and 350 nm on sodium transport across frog skin epithelium have been investigated. 2 Irradiation at 254 nm but not at 350 nm produces a dose-dependent, functionally selective blockade of sodium transport. The effect is apparently due to the irreversible closure of apical sodium channels. 3 The amiloride-sensitive conductance was directly related to sodium transport as measured by short circuit current (SCC) both in normal and irradiated tissues, alt...

  12. Irreversible Electroporation in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Riccardo; Crocetti, Laura; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new nonthermal ablation modality that can be used to treat primary and metastatic lesions in the liver. This article describes the way IRE works, reviews safety and efficacy data, and presents strategies and recommendations for its use in everyday practice. In a series of liver lesions of various histologies, initial success was 100%; local recurrence rates were greater in larger lesions. In another series of hepatocellular carcinoma only, there was a 79% complete response rate overall and 93% in lesions less than 3 cm. Safety is comparable with those of other ablation modalities. IRE has advantages over other ablation modalities with comparable success rates. PMID:26365542

  13. Intrinsic irreversibility limits the efficiency of multidimensional molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, M. W.; Tumlin, C.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the efficiency limits of Brownian motors able to extract work from the temperature difference between reservoirs or from external thermodynamic forces. These systems can operate in a variety of modes, including as isothermal engines, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps. We derive analytical results showing that certain classes of multidimensional Brownian motor, including the Smoluchowski-Feynman ratchet, are unable to attain perfect efficiency (Carnot efficiency for heat engines). This demonstrates the presence of intrinsic irreversibilities in their operating mechanism. We present numerical simulations showing that in some cases the loss process that limits efficiency is associated with vortices in the probability current.

  14. Preliminary design of a Brayton cycle as a standalone Decay Heat Removal system for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a preliminary design study of a Brayton cycle which would be a dedicated, standalone Decay Heat Removal (DHR) loop of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). In comparison to the DHR reference strategy developed during the GFR pre-conceptual design phase (which was completed by the CEA at the end of 2007), the salient feature of this alternative device would be to combine the energetic autonomy of the natural convection process - which is foreseen for operation at high and medium pressures - to the efficiency of the forced convection process which is foreseen for operation down to very low pressures. An analytical model, the so-called 'Brayton scoping' model, is described in the paper. This is based on simplified thermodynamical and aerodynamical equations and was developed to highlight design choices. First simulations of the proposed device's performance during loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) transients have been performed using the CATHARE code, and these are also reported. Analysis of the simulation results are consistent with the first insights obtained from usage of the 'Brayton scoping' model, e.g. the turbomachine accelerates during the depressurization process to tend towards a steady rotational speed value which is inversely proportional to the pressure. For small break LOCA events, the device operates successfully as regards its safety function and delivers to the core a relatively unperturbed cooling mass flowrate as a function of pressure change. However, further studies are required for medium to large break sizes, since certain stability concerns have been met in such cases. For example, an unexpected turbomachine stoppage was induced during the transients, resulting in loss of the necessary core cooling mass flow. (author)

  15. Modeling the small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Willem G.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    The small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle (STBC) makes use of a sun-tracking dish reflector, solar receiver, recuperator and micro-turbine to generate power in the range of 1-20 kW. The modeling of such a system, using a turbocharger as micro-turbine, is required so that optimisation and further development of an experimental setup can be done. As a validation, an analytical model of the small-scale STBC in Matlab, where the net power output is determined from an exergy analysis, is compared with Flownex, an integrated systems CFD code. A 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish with open-cavity tubular receiver and plate-type counterflow recuperator is considered, based on previous work. A dish optical error of 10 mrad, a tracking error of 1° and a receiver aperture area of 0.25 m × 0.25 m are considered. Since the recuperator operates at a very high average temperature, the recuperator is modeled using an updated ɛ-NTU method which takes heat loss to the environment into consideration. Compressor and turbine maps from standard off-the-shelf Garrett turbochargers are used. The results show that for the calculation of the steady-state temperatures and pressures, there is good comparison between the Matlab and Flownex results (within 8%) except for the recuperator outlet temperature, which is due to the use of different ɛ-NTU methods. With the use of Matlab and Flownex, it is shown that the small-scale open STBC with an existing off-the-shelf turbocharger could generate a positive net power output with solar-to-mechanical efficiency of up to 12%, with much room for improvement.

  16. Transient analysis of an FHR coupled to a helium Brayton power cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghui [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Kim, In Hun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Christensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Utgikar, Vivek [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) features a passive decay heat removal system and a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity generation. It typically employs an intermediate loop, consisting of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX), to couple the primary system with the power conversion unit (PCU). In this study, a preliminary dynamic system model is developed to simulate transient characteristics of a prototypic 20-MWth Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Test Reactor (FHTR). The model consists of a series of differential conservation equations that are numerically solved using the MATLAB platform. For the reactor, a point neutron kinetics model is adopted. For the IHX and SHX, a fluted tube heat exchanger and an offset strip-fin heat exchanger are selected, respectively. Detailed geometric parameters of each component in the FHTR are determined based on the FHTR nominal steady-state operating conditions. Three initiating events are simulated in this study, including a positive reactivity insertion, a step increase in the mass flow rate of the PCU helium flow, and a step increase in the PCU helium inlet temperature to the SHX. The simulation results show that the reactor has inherent safety features for those three simulated scenarios. It is observed that the increase in the temperatures of the fuel pebbles and primary coolant is mitigated by the decrease in the reactor power due to negative temperature feedbacks. The results also indicate that the intermediate loop with the two heat exchangers plays a significant role in the transient progression of the integral reactor system.

  17. Innovative biomass to power conversion systems based on cascaded supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the small to medium power range the main technologies for the conversion of biomass sources into electricity are based either on reciprocating internal combustion or organic Rankine cycle engines. Relatively low energy conversion efficiencies are obtained in both systems due to the thermodynamic losses in the conversion of biomass into syngas in the former, and to the high temperature difference in the heat transfer between combustion gases and working fluid in the latter. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that higher efficiencies in the conversion of biomass sources into electricity can be obtained using systems based on the supercritical closed CO2 Brayton cycles (s-CO2). The s-CO2 system analysed here includes two cascaded supercritical CO2 cycles which enable to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the single cycle in the effective utilization of the whole heat available from flue gases. Both part-flow and simple supercritical CO2 cycle configurations are considered and four boiler arrangements are investigated to explore the thermodynamic performance of such systems. These power plant configurations, which were never explored in the literature for biomass conversion into electricity, are demonstrated here to be viable options to increase the energy conversion efficiency of small-to-medium biomass fired power plants. Results of the optimization procedure show that a maximum biomass to electricity conversion efficiency of 36% can be achieved using the cascaded configuration including a part flow topping cycle, which is approximately 10%-points higher than that of the existing biomass power plants in the small to medium power range. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO2 cycles are proposed for biomass to electricity conversion. • Four boiler design options are considered. • High total system efficiency is due to the part-flow cascaded configuration. • The efficiency is higher than that of other small/medium size alternative systems

  18. From Maximum Entropy Models to Non-Stationarity and Irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofre, Rodrigo; Cessac, Bruno; Maldonado, Cesar

    The maximum entropy distribution can be obtained from a variational principle. This is important as a matter of principle and for the purpose of finding approximate solutions. One can exploit this fact to obtain relevant information about the underlying stochastic process. We report here in recent progress in three aspects to this approach.1- Biological systems are expected to show some degree of irreversibility in time. Based on the transfer matrix technique to find the spatio-temporal maximum entropy distribution, we build a framework to quantify the degree of irreversibility of any maximum entropy distribution.2- The maximum entropy solution is characterized by a functional called Gibbs free energy (solution of the variational principle). The Legendre transformation of this functional is the rate function, which controls the speed of convergence of empirical averages to their ergodic mean. We show how the correct description of this functional is determinant for a more rigorous characterization of first and higher order phase transitions.3- We assess the impact of a weak time-dependent external stimulus on the collective statistics of spiking neuronal networks. We show how to evaluate this impact on any higher order spatio-temporal correlation. RC supported by ERC advanced Grant ``Bridges'', BC: KEOPS ANR-CONICYT, Renvision and CM: CONICYT-FONDECYT No. 3140572.

  19. Introduction to Irreversible Electroporation--Principles and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kenneth R; Kavnoudias, Helen; Neal, Robert E

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel nonthermal focal ablation technique that uses a series of brief but intense electric pulses delivered by paired electrodes into a targeted region of tissue, killing the cells by irreversibly disrupting cellular membrane integrity. Unlike other ablation methods, IRE has relatively little effect on connective tissues and nerves and has a low patient effect. The ability of IRE to achieve cell death immediately adjacent to large vessels without effect on the vessels themselves has raised the possibility of better treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Because of the low effect on the patient, IRE is well suited for use in conjunction with chemotherapeutic agents. The IRE effect is not uniform and is dependent on the intrinsic conductivity of the tissue, the number of pulses delivered, the current flow achieved, and the total time for the treatment. It is currently under investigation for a wide range of solid tumors and prostate cancer in humans and in animals in the breast, brain, and spinal cord. In clinical practice, IRE can be administered either percutaneously under imaging guidance or at open operation under direct vision. In animals there is some evidence of an immune response presumably due to exposure of the intracellular target material, resulting in a greater therapeutic effect. Unlike many other cancer treatments, IRE has been introduced for human clinical use at a very early stage of development of the technique and much of the basic understanding of how and when to use IRE is still under investigation. PMID:26365541

  20. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadras, Angel; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos

    2015-10-01

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4-8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance.

  1. Ecological optimisation of an irreversible Stirling heat engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.; Chen, J. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Physics; Wu, C. [US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-10-01

    A general cycle model of an irreversible Stirling heat engine using an ideal or Van der Waals gas as the working substance is established. It includes three main sources of the irreversibility such as the heat transfer across finite-temperature differences in the isothermal processes, the regenerative loss resulting from the non-perfect regeneration in the regenerator, and the heat leak loss between the external heat reservoirs. The ecological function is taken as an objective function for optimisation. The performance characteristics of the Stirling heat engine at maximum ecological function are revealed. They are compared with other performance characteristics of the Stirling heat engine at maximum power output and efficiency in order to expound the significance of the ecological objective function. The results obtained here are of importance in the optimal design and operation of real Stirling heat engines. Finally, it is pointed out that the results obtained in this paper are very general, from which the optimal performance of the Ericsson heat engine using an ideal gas as the working substance and the Carnot heat engine can be derived directly. (author)

  2. Carnot's cycle for small systems: irreversibility and cost of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto; Takagi; Hondou

    2000-12-01

    In the thermodynamic limit, the existence of a maximal efficiency of energy conversion attainable by a Carnot cycle consisting of quasistatic isothermal and adiabatic processes precludes the existence of a perpetual machine of the second kind, whose cycles yield positive work in an isothermal environment. We employ the recently developed framework of the energetics of stochastic processes (called "stochastic energetics") to reanalyze the Carnot cycle in detail, taking account of fluctuations, without taking the thermodynamic limit. We find that in this nonmacroscopic situation both processes of connection to and disconnection from heat baths and adiabatic processes that cause distortion of the energy distribution are sources of inevitable irreversibility within the cycle. Also, the so-called null-recurrence property of the cumulative efficiency of energy conversion over many cycles and the irreversible property of isolated, purely mechanical processes under external "macroscopic" operations are discussed in relation to the impossibility of a perpetual machine, or Maxwell's demon. This analysis may serve as the basis for the design and analysis of mesoscopic energy converters in the near future. PMID:11138050

  3. When an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression becomes reversible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a reversible process and entropy. For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure Pi to a final pressure Pf, by being placed in contact with a set of N work reservoirs with pressures decreasing (increasing) in a geometric or arithmetic progression. The gas entropy change ΔS is evaluated and it is clearly shown that ΔS > 0 for any finite N, but as the number of work reservoirs goes to infinity the entropy change goes to zero, i.e. the process becomes reversible. Additionally, this work draws attention to the work reservoir concept, which is virtually ignored in the literature, and to its analogy with the commonly used heat reservoir concept. Finally, it complements and reinforces an earlier study dealing with irreversible cooling or heating so that the synergy created by the two studies is important from both theoretical and educational standpoints

  4. Magnetic irreversibility and zero resistance in granular Y358 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on magnetization and magnetoresistance measurements of polycrystalline Y3Ba5Cu8O18 superconductor (Y358), prepared by solid state reaction in order to study the correlation between the magnetic irreversibility line and the zero electric resistance as a function of applied field. The magnetization measurements were performed using a MPMS-XL SQUID magnetometer and the magnetoresistance measurements were made using a PPMS, both from Quantum Design, up to 1 T. The granular microstructure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In this case the grain junctions are weaker than in the Y123 system and the effect of the applied field on the grain couplings is much stronger. Consequently, in our sample the zero resistance line shifts away from the irreversibility line and is lower by more than 15 K at 1 T. We explain our results in terms of the superconducting glass model and in comparison with results obtained in other materials from the YBaCuO family

  5. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadras, Angel, E-mail: angel.cuadras@upc.edu; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos [Instrumentation, Sensor and Interfaces Group, Electronic Engineering Department, Escola d' Enginyeria de Telecomunicació i Aeronàutica de Castelldefels EETAC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Tech (UPC), Castelldefels-Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4–8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance.

  6. Development of 0.5-5 W, 10K Reverse Brayton Cycle Cryocoolers - Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, F. D.; Boman, A.; Arnold, S.; Spitzmesser, J. B.; Jones, D.; McCree, D.; Hacker, L. J.

    2001-10-15

    Miniature cryocoolers for the 8-30 K range are needed to provide 0.5-5 w of cooling to high sensitivity detectors (for long-wave-length IR, magnetism, mm-wave, X-ray, dark matter, and possibly y-ray detection) while maintaining low mass, ultra-low vibration, and good efficiency. This project presents a new approach to eliminating the problems normally encountered in efforts to build low-vibration, fieldable, miniature cryocoolers. Using the reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC), the approach applies and expands on existing spinner technology previously used only in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes.

  7. A review of test results on solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Stirling and Brayton cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development tests of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies that used dish-mounted Brayton or Stirling cycle engines for production of electric power. These tests indicate that early modules achieve net efficiencies up to 29 percent in converting sunlight to electricity, as delivered to the grid. Various equipment deficiencies were observed and a number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other test experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  8. The efficiency of an open-cavity tubular solar receiver for a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Results show efficiencies of a low-cost stainless steel tubular cavity receiver. • Optimum ratio of 0.0035 is found for receiver aperture area to concentrator area. • Smaller receiver tube and higher mass flow rate increase receiver efficiency. • Larger tube and smaller mass flow rate increase second law efficiency. • Large-tube receiver performs better in the small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle. - Abstract: The first law and second law efficiencies are determined for a stainless steel closed-tube open rectangular cavity solar receiver. It is to be used in a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle using a micro-turbine with low compressor pressure ratios. There are many different variables at play to model the air temperature increase of the air running through such a receiver. These variables include concentrator shape, concentrator diameter, concentrator rim angle, concentrator reflectivity, concentrator optical error, solar tracking error, receiver aperture area, receiver material, effect of wind, receiver tube diameter, inlet temperature and mass flow rate through the receiver. All these variables are considered in this paper. The Brayton cycle requires very high receiver surface temperatures in order to be successful. These high temperatures, however, have many disadvantages in terms of heat loss from the receiver, especially radiation heat loss. With the help of ray-tracing software, SolTrace, and receiver modelling techniques, an optimum receiver-to-concentrator-area ratio of A′ ≈ 0.0035 was found for a concentrator with 45° rim angle, 10 mrad optical error and 1° tracking error. A method to determine the temperature profile and net heat transfer rate along the length of the receiver tube is presented. Receiver efficiencies are shown in terms of mass flow rate, receiver tube diameter, pressure drop, maximum receiver surface temperature and inlet temperature of the working fluid. For a 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish, the

  9. Effects of backlash and dead band on temperature control of the primary loop of a conceptual nuclear Brayton space powerplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the stability of a closed-loop liquid-lithium temperature control of the primary loop of a conceptual nuclear Brayton space powerplant. The operating point was varied from 20 to 120 percent of design. A describing-function technique was used to evaluate the effects of temperature dead band and control coupling backlash. From the system investigation, it was predicted that a limit cycle will not exist with a temperature dead band, but a limit cycle will not exist when backlash is present. The results compare favorably with a digital computer simulation.

  10. An isotope heat source integrated with a 7 kW/e/ to 25 kW/e/ Brayton cycle space power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. L.; Graham, J. W.; Coombs, M. G.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    The power system described is intended for applications in a manned space mission. The Isotope Reentry Vehicle (IRV) developed is considered together with the Heat Source (HS), the Heat Source Heat Exchanger and the Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Module. Other subjects discussed include the IRV/Brayton cycle spacecraft integration concept, abort and deorbit mechanization, emergency cooling methods, and crew shielding requirements. Mounting and integration for the IRV is to a large degree controlled by nuclear safety requirements. Another major factor in the installation concept is the type of emergency cooling or passive heat dump mode used in rejection of HS energy.

  11. Development and validation of models for simulation of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles and application to self-propelling heat removal systems in boiling water reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Venker, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to develop a model that is able to describe the transient behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles, to be applied to self-propelling residual heat removal systems in boiling water reactors. The developed model has been implemented into the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. By means of this improved ATHLET version, novel residual heat removal systems, which are based on closed sCO2 Brayton cycles, can be assessed as a retrofit measu...

  12. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  13. Application of exergy method to an irreversible inter-cooled refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C-K. [National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Su, Y-F. [Far East College, Tainan (Taiwan). Department of Automation and Control Engineering

    2005-12-15

    The exergy method, based on the maximum exergetic efficiency criterion, has been applied to an irreversible inter-cooled refrigeration cycle. The exergetic efficiency defined as the ratio of the rate of exergy output to the rate of exergy input is taken as the objective function to be maximized. Multi-irreversibilities include finite-rate heat transfer, internal dissipation of the working fluid, and heat leaks between heat reservoirs. The maximum exergetic efficiency can be determined analytically by introducing the internal irreversibility parameter, which represents the degree of internal irreversibility. The corresponding performances of the irreversible refrigeration system are obtained simultaneously. The results show that the exergy method can be used as an effective criterion in designing an irreversible inter-cooled refrigeration system. (author)

  14. Irreversible Kidney Damage due to Multicentric Castleman’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Segelmark

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman’s Disease (CD is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder accompanied by marked systemic inflammatory response. Morphological diagnosis of CD requires biopsy of the whole of the involved lymph node tissue. Three histologic variants have already been described in CD morphology (hyaline vascular, plasma-cell, and mixed. In this study, we report a case of a multicentric Castleman’s disease of the plasma cell variant type with negative Herpes Virus 8. The clinical presentation of this patient was of systemic amyloidosis as a result of both a delayed diagnosis and medical management. Previously described cases of CD with secondary amyloidosis have been of the localized type. Regardless, long-standing clinical remission of CD by cytotoxic drugs and anti-CD20 antibody therapy was achieved, but the nephrotic syndrome remained irreversible.

  15. Advertising and Irreversible Opinion Spreading in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián

    Irreversible opinion spreading phenomena are studied on small-world and scale-free networks by means of the magnetic Eden model, a nonequilibrium kinetic model for the growth of binary mixtures in contact with a thermal bath. In this model, the opinion of an individual is affected by those of their acquaintances, but opinion changes (analogous to spin flips in an Ising-like model) are not allowed. We focus on the influence of advertising, which is represented by external magnetic fields. The interplay and competition between temperature and fields lead to order-disorder transitions, which are found to also depend on the link density and the topology of the complex network substrate. The effects of advertising campaigns with variable duration, as well as the best cost-effective strategies to achieve consensus within different scenarios, are also discussed.

  16. Posterior encephalopathy subsequent to cyclosporin A presenting as irreversible abulia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Makoto; Kurahashi, Kozo; Ogawa, Masaya; Yoshida, Yasuji; Midorikawa, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    A case of cyclosporin A (Cys A)-induced posterior encephalopathy developed into persistent abulia despite rapid and marked improvement of abnormal T2- and FLAIR MRI hyperintense regions. Diffusion-weighted MRI signal intensity was also high at the onset. This change is atypical in Cys A-induced encephalopathy and was thought to predict poor recovery from the encephalopathy. Persistent abulia was probably due to marked hypoperfusion in the whole cortex including bilateral frontal lobes and basal ganglia as detected by SPECT. Apart from the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, direct toxicity of Cys A to the brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic, irreversible encephalopathy. PMID:12924507

  17. Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using Irreversible Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U; Emberton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a novel strategy that attempts to enhance the therapeutic ratio of standard radical treatment in prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has some inherent characteristics that may be ideal for focal therapy. Precise confined ablation in the treatment area obtained via nonthermal damage with potential for minimal toxicity to surrounding structures may lead to optimal treatment with improved preservation of continence and erectile function. Initial data of focal IRE of the prostate are encouraging although further assessment is awaited to confirm these findings using robust methodology. In this article, we provide a comprehensive step-by-step description of our technique to deliver focal IRE in selected men with localized prostate cancer located in a discrete area of the prostate. PMID:26365544

  18. Irreversible degradation of quantum coherence under relativistic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum coherence under Unruh thermal noise and seek under which condition the coherence can be frozen in a relativistic setting. We find that the frozen condition is either (i) the initial state is prepared as an incoherence state or (ii) the detectors have no interaction with the external field. That is to say, the decoherence of the detectors' quantum state is irreversible under the influence of thermal noise induced by Unruh radiation. It is shown that quantum coherence approaches zero only in the limit of an infinite acceleration, while quantum entanglement could reduce to zero for a finite acceleration. It is also demonstrated that the robustness of quantum coherence is better than entanglement under the influence of the atom-field interaction for an extremely large acceleration. Therefore, quantum coherence is more robust than entanglement in an accelerating system and the coherence-type quantum resources are more accessible for relativistic quantum information processing tasks.

  19. Irreversible Collective Migration of Cyanobacteria in Eutrophic Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dervaux, Julien; Brunet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In response to natural or anthropocentric pollutions coupled to global climate changes, microorganisms from aquatic environments can suddenly accumulate on water surface. These dense suspensions, known as blooms, are harmful to ecosystems and significantly degrade the quality of water resources. In order to determine the physico-chemical parameters involved in their formation and quantitatively predict their appearance, we successfully reproduced irreversible cyanobacterial blooms in vitro. By combining chemical, biochemical and hydrodynamic evidences, we identify a mechanism, unrelated to the presence of internal gas vesicles, allowing the sudden collective upward migration in test tubes of several cyanobacterial strains (Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7005, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803). The final state consists in a foamy layer of biomass at the air-liquid interface, in which micro-organisms remain alive for weeks, the medium lying below being almost completely depleted of cya...

  20. Structural transition models for a class or irreversible aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A progress report on two recent theoretical approaches proposed to understand the physics of irreversible fractal aggregates showing up a structural transition from a rather dense to a more multibranched growth is presented. In the first approach the transition is understood by solving the Poisson equation on a squared lattice. The second approach is based on the discretization of the Biharmonic equation. Within these models the transition appears when the growth velocity at the fractal surface presents a minimum. The effects of the surrounding medium and geometrical constraints for the seed particles are considered. By using the optical diffraction method, the structural transition is further characterized by a decrease in the fractal dimension for this peculiar class of aggregates. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  1. Irreversible Work and Inner Friction in Quantum Thermodynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastina, F.; Alecce, A.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Falcone, G.; Francica, G.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Zambrini, R.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of closed quantum systems driven out of equilibrium by a change in a control parameter and undergoing a unitary process. We compare the work actually done on the system with the one that would be performed along ideal adiabatic and isothermal transformations. The comparison with the latter leads to the introduction of irreversible work, while that with the former leads to the introduction of inner friction. We show that these two quantities can be treated on an equal footing, as both can be linked with the heat exchanged in thermalization processes and both can be expressed as relative entropies. Furthermore, we show that a specific fluctuation relation for the entropy production associated with the inner friction exists, which allows the inner friction to be written in terms of its cumulants.

  2. Rat liver regeneration following ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Bruinsma, Bote G; Jaramillo, Maria; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Basak E

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation has emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of multiple diseases including hepatic cancer. However, the mechanisms behind the tissue regeneration following IRE ablation have not been investigated. Our results indicate that IRE treatment immediately kills the cells at the treatment site preserving the extracellular architecture, in effect causing in vivo decellularization. Over the course of 4 weeks, progenitor cell differentiation, through YAP and notch pathways, together with hepatocyte expansion led to almost complete regeneration of the ablated liver leading to the formation of hepatocyte like cells at the ablated zone. We did not observe significant scarring or tumor formation at the regenerated areas 6 months post IRE. Our study suggests a new model to study the regeneration of liver when the naïve extracellular matrix is decellularized in vivo with completely preserved extracellular architecture. PMID:26819842

  3. Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.; Gammaitoni, L.

    2016-06-01

    In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.

  4. Constructal theory through thermodynamics of irreversible processes framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Neveu, P., E-mail: neveu@univ-perp.fr [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Point to area flow problem is solved through Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. {yields} A new optimisation criterion is defined: the exergy or entropy impedance. {yields} Optimisation is performed following two different routes, constructal or global. {yields} Global optimisation is more efficient than constructal optimisation. {yields} Global optimisation enhances the domain of construct benefits. - Abstract: Point to volume flow problem is revisited on a thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP) basis. The first step consists in evaluating the local entropy production of the system, and deducing from this expression the phenomenological laws. Then, the total entropy production can be simply evaluated. It is demonstrated that total entropy production can be written in a remarkable form: the product of the so-called entropy impedance with the square of the heat flux. As the heat flux is given, optimisation consists in minimising the entropy impedance. It is also shown that minimising entropy impedance minimises the maximum temperature difference. Applied to the elemental volume, this optimisation process leads to a shape factor close to the one already published. For the first construction, the equivalent system is defined as stated by Prigogine: when subjected to the same constraints, two systems are thermodynamically equivalent if their entropy production is equal. Two optimisation routes are then investigated: a global optimisation where all scales are taken into account and the constructal optimisation where the system is optimised scale by scale. In this second case, results are close to Ghodossi's work. When global optimisation is performed, it is demonstrated that conductive paths have to be spread uniformly in the active material (i.e. the number of elemental volumes must go to infinite). Comparing the two routes, global optimisation leads to better performance than constructal optimisation. Moreover, global

  5. Constructal theory through thermodynamics of irreversible processes framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Point to area flow problem is solved through Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. → A new optimisation criterion is defined: the exergy or entropy impedance. → Optimisation is performed following two different routes, constructal or global. → Global optimisation is more efficient than constructal optimisation. → Global optimisation enhances the domain of construct benefits. - Abstract: Point to volume flow problem is revisited on a thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP) basis. The first step consists in evaluating the local entropy production of the system, and deducing from this expression the phenomenological laws. Then, the total entropy production can be simply evaluated. It is demonstrated that total entropy production can be written in a remarkable form: the product of the so-called entropy impedance with the square of the heat flux. As the heat flux is given, optimisation consists in minimising the entropy impedance. It is also shown that minimising entropy impedance minimises the maximum temperature difference. Applied to the elemental volume, this optimisation process leads to a shape factor close to the one already published. For the first construction, the equivalent system is defined as stated by Prigogine: when subjected to the same constraints, two systems are thermodynamically equivalent if their entropy production is equal. Two optimisation routes are then investigated: a global optimisation where all scales are taken into account and the constructal optimisation where the system is optimised scale by scale. In this second case, results are close to Ghodossi's work. When global optimisation is performed, it is demonstrated that conductive paths have to be spread uniformly in the active material (i.e. the number of elemental volumes must go to infinite). Comparing the two routes, global optimisation leads to better performance than constructal optimisation. Moreover, global optimisation enlarges the domain of

  6. Multiple linear analysis methods for the quantification of irreversibly binding radiotracers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Frost, James; Wand, Gary; McCaul, Mary E.; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Gjedde–Patlak graphical analysis (GPGA) has commonly been used to quantify the net accumulations (Kin) of radioligands that bind or are taken up irreversibly. We suggest an alternative approach (MLAIR: multiple linear analysis for irreversible radiotracers) for the quantification of these types of tracers. Two multiple linear regression model equations were derived from differential equations of the two-tissue compartment model with irreversible binding. Multiple linear analysis for irreversi...

  7. Irreversible injury of isolated adult rat myocytes. Osmotic fragility during metabolic inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganote, C. E.; Vander Heide, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Isolated myocytes can be established as a valid model for studying changes in cytoskeletal proteins during the development of irreversible injury only if isolated cells develop lesions similar to those that occur during irreversible injury to intact hearts, specifically osmotic fragility and subsarcolemmal blebs. In the first experiment, isolated cells were irreversibly injured by metabolic inhibition with 5 mM Iodoacetic acid (IAA) and 6 mM amobarbital (Amy). Osmotic fragility of control and...

  8. Efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Tu, Z. C.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines is investigated based on the assumption that the rate of irreversible entropy production of working substance in each "isothermal" process is a quadratic form of heat exchange rate between the working substance and the reservoir. It is found that the maximum power output corresponds to minimizing the irreversible entropy production in two "isothermal" processes of the Carnot-like cycle, and that the efficie...

  9. Cooling load and COP optimization of an irreversible Carnot refrigerator with spin-1/2 systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Liu, Lingen Chen, Feng Wu, Fengrui Sun

    2011-01-01

    A model of an irreversible quantum refrigerator with working medium consisting of many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems is established in this paper. The quantum refrigeration cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes and is referred to as a spin quantum Carnot refrigeration cycle. Expressions of some important performance parameters, such as cycle period, cooling load and coefficient of performance (COP) for the irreversible spin quantum Carnot re...

  10. Optimal fundamental characteristic of a quantum harmonic oscillator Carnot refrigerator with multi-irreversibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Liu, Lingen Chen, Feng Wu, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    The optimal performance of an irreversible quantum Carnot refrigerator with working medium consisting of many non-interacting harmonic oscillators is investigated in this paper. The quantum refrigerator cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes, and the irreversibilities of heat resistance, internal friction and bypass heat leakage are considered. By using the quantum master equation, semi-group approach and finite time thermodynamics (FTT), this p...

  11. Palliative treatment of presacral recurrence of endometrial cancer using irreversible electroporation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, Christoph; Jung, Ernst-Michael; Schreyer, Andreas G; Wohlgemuth, Walter A; Trabold, Benedikt; Hahn, Joachim; Rechenmacher, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new minimally invasive tumor ablation technique which induces irreversible disruption of cell membrane integrity by changing the transmembrane potential resulting in cell death. Irreversible electroporation is currently undergoing clinical investigation as local tumor therapy for malignant liver and lung lesions. This is the first case report to describe the successful palliative ablation of a presacral recurrence of an endometrial canc...

  12. An Experimental Programme to Evaluate the Feasibility of Jet Compressors for Closed Brayton Cycle MPD Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of jet compressors to closed Brayton cycle MPD systems has been suggested previously. In the present paper the feasibility of jet compression for MPD systems is investigated and some preliminary test results from a single-stage jet compressor loop are given. Thepurposeoftheexperimentalprogrammeis, (1) to simulate the operation of a jet compressor under conditions comparable to those of an actual MPD plant, and (2) to study the physics of momentum transfer of two high velocity gas (or vapour) streams of very different molecular weights. A jet compressor in which both gases mix at equal forward velocity has the same theoretical compression ratio as a reversible engine. The upper limit for the compression ratio achievable for a given set of input parameters (stagnation properties of both gases) can be calculated from purely thermodynamic principles. The expressions for the performance of an ideal jet compressor were applied to two typical high temperature MPD cycles. The overall cycle efficiency is somewhat lower than obtainable with rotating machinery, but acceptable for special applications. In the experimental programme a single-stage test facility was designed and operated. The driving gas was caesium vapour, the driven gas helium. In the design of the system the objective was to simulate the temperatures, pressures and working media of an MPD plant on a small scale. The facility is capable of handling up to 12 g/sec of the primary stream (caesium) and up to 2.5 g of the secondary stream (helium). The caesium is fed by a diaphragm pump into a refractory metal boiler at a pressure of up to 8.0 atmospheres and then superheated to approximately 1700°K. The superheated vapour expands in a supersonic nozzle and transfers part of its momentum to the low temperature helium stream. The helium is circulated in a closed loop which is equipped with a throttle valve to simulate the pressure drop which would occur in an MPD generator. During some preliminary

  13. An irreversible Markov-chain Monte Carlo method with skew detailed balance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method based on a skew detailed balance condition is discussed. Some recent theoretical works concerned with the irreversible MCMC method are reviewed and the irreversible Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for the method is described. We apply the method to ferromagnetic Ising models in two and three dimensions. Relaxation dynamics of the order parameter and the dynamical exponent are studied in comparison to those with the conventional reversible MCMC method with the detailed balance condition. We also examine how the efficiency of exchange Monte Carlo method is affected by the combined use of the irreversible MCMC method

  14. Proposal for an advanced heat source assembly for the Isotope Brayton Power System. Volume 1. Technical program and statement of work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    The technical program plan for evaluating the performance and safety of a radioisotope-fueled Brayton power system for space vehicles is presented with schedules for evaluating heat source design and safety, for specifying power system requirements, and for the development and operation of a ground demonstration system. (LCL)

  15. Inertial effects during irreversible meniscus reconfiguration in angular pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Lunati, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    In porous media, the dynamics of the invading front between two immiscible fluids is often characterized by abrupt reconfigurations caused by local instabilities of the interface. As a prototype of these phenomena we consider the dynamics of a meniscus in a corner as it can be encountered in angular pores. We investigate this process in detail by means of direct numerical simulations that solve the Navier-Stokes equations in the pore space and employ the Volume of Fluid method (VOF) to track the evolution of the interface. We show that for a quasi-static displacement, the numerically calculated surface energy agrees well with the analytical solutions that we have derived for pores with circular and square cross sections. However, the spontaneous reconfigurations are irreversible and cannot be controlled by the injection rate: they are characterized by the amount of surface energy that is spontaneously released and transformed into kinetic energy. The resulting local velocities can be orders of magnitude larger than the injection velocity and they induce damped oscillations of the interface that possess their own time scales and depend only on fluid properties and pore geometry. In complex media (we consider a network of cubic pores) reconfigurations are so frequent and oscillations last long enough that increasing inertial effects leads to a different fluid distribution by influencing the selection of the next pore to be invaded. This calls into question simple pore-filling rules based only on capillary forces. Also, we demonstrate that inertial effects during irreversible reconfigurations can influence the work done by the external forces that is related to the pressure drop in Darcy's law. This suggests that these phenomena have to be considered when upscaling multiphase flow because local oscillations of the menisci affect macroscopic quantities and modify the constitutive relationships to be used in macro-scale models. These results can be extrapolated to other

  16. ESTIMATION OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGEABILITY AT FATIGUE OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Damageability estimation of carbon steel in the conditions of cyclic loading. Methodology. The steel fragments of railway wheel rim and rail head served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65 % С, 0.67 % Mn, 0.3 % Si, 0.027 % P, 0.028 % S и 0.7 % C, 0.82 % Mn, 0.56 % Si, 0.025 % P, 0.029 % S accordingly. The microstructure of tested steels corresponded to the state of metal after a hot plastic deformation. The fatigue research was conducted in the conditions of symmetric bend using the proof-of-concept machine of type «Saturn-10». Full Wohler diagrams and the lines corresponding to forming of sub-and micro cracks were constructed. The distribution analysis of internal stresses in the metal under cyclic loading was carried out using the microhardness tester of PMT-3 type.Findings. On the basis of fatigue curves for high-carbon steels analysis the positions of borders dividing the areas of convertible and irreversible damages were determined. The article shows that with the growth of carbon concentration in the steel at invariability of the structural state an increase of fatigue limit is observed. At the same time the acceleration of processes, which determine transition terms from the stage of forming of submicrocracks to the microcracks occurs. The research of microhardness distribution in the metal after destruction confirmed the nature of carbon amount influence on the carbon steel characteristics. Originality. Regardless on the stages of breakdown site forming the carbon steels behavior at a fatigue is determined by the ration between the processes of strengthening and softening. At a cyclic loading the heterogeneity of internal stresses distribution decreases with the increase of distance from the destruction surface. Analysis of metal internal restructuring processes at fatigue loading made it possible to determine that at the stages prior to incubation period in the metal microvolumes the cells are already

  17. Lipoxygenase is irreversibly inactivated by the hydroperoxides formed from the enynoic analogues of linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Kerk-van Hoof, A. van der; Lenthe, J.H. van; Schaik, R.C. van; Versluis, K.; Veldink, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Triple bond analogues of natural fatty acids irreversibly inactivate lipoxygenase during their enzymatic conversion [Nieuwenhuizen, W. F., et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 10538-10545]. To gain insight into the mechanism of the irreversible inactivation of soybean lipoxygenase-1, we studied the enzyma

  18. A minimal dissipation type-based classification in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kazakov, V.; Kolinko, N. A.

    2003-10-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  19. A Minimal Dissipation Type-Based Classification in Irreversible Thermodynamics and Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Tsirlin; Valdimir Kazakov; N. A. Kolinko

    2003-01-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  20. Reversibility and irreversibility from an initial value formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriel, A., E-mail: amadormuriel@fas.harvard.edu

    2013-07-15

    From a time evolution equation for the single particle distribution function derived from the N-particle distribution function (A. Muriel, M. Dresden, Physica D 101 (1997) 297), an exact solution for the 3D Navier–Stokes equation – an old problem – has been found (A. Muriel, Results Phys. 1 (2011) 2). In this Letter, a second exact conclusion from the above-mentioned work is presented. We analyze the time symmetry properties of a formal, exact solution for the single-particle distribution function contracted from the many-body Liouville equation. This analysis must be done because group theoretic results on time reversal symmetry of the full Liouville equation (E.C.G. Sudarshan, N. Mukunda, Classical Mechanics: A Modern Perspective, Wiley, 1974). no longer applies automatically to the single particle distribution function contracted from the formal solution of the N-body Liouville equation. We find the following result: if the initial momentum distribution is even in the momentum, the single particle distribution is reversible. If there is any asymmetry in the initial momentum distribution, no matter how small, the system is irreversible.

  1. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  2. Use of irreversible electroporation in unresectable pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert C G

    2015-06-01

    Irreversible electroporation is a non-thermal injury ablative modality that has been in clinical use since 2008 in the treatment of locally advanced soft tissue tumors. It has been reported to be utilized intraoperatively, laparoscopically or percutaneously. The method of action of IRE relies on a high voltage (maximum 3,000 volts) small microsecond pulse lengths (70 to 90 microseconds) to induce cell membrane porosity which leads to slow/protracted cell death over time. One of the largest unmet needs in oncology that IRE has been utilized is in locally advanced (stage III) pancreatic cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated the safety and palliation with encouraging improvement in overall survival. Its inherent limitation still remains tissue heterogeneity and the unique settings based on tumor histology and prior induction therapy. There remains a high technical demand of the end-user and the more extensive knowledge transfer which makes the learning curve longer in order to achieve appropriate and safe utilization. PMID:26151062

  3. Alkylating derivatives of oxotremorine have irreversible actions on muscarinic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe some irreversible muscarinic receptor binding characteristics of BM 123 and MB 130, as well as the persistent inhibitory effect of BM 123 on acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus of the ginea pig ileum. Binding assays were run on homogenates of the cerebral cortex and heart from male Sprague Dawley rate and the longitudinal muscle of the ileum from male guinea pigs. The minced hear and ileum were homogenized and the final pellets were frozen and thawed for measurement of specific tritium-30quinuclidinyl benzilate. The pellets from cerebral cortex, ileum, and heart were re-suspended to a concentration representing 10, 20, and 100 mg original wet tissue weight per ml 0.05 M phosphate buffer, respectively. The results of tritium-QNB binding measurements made at a single tritium-ligand concentration of 0.4 nM in homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex and heart and the longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum that had been exposed to the indicated concentrations of BM 123 and BM 130 for 20 min

  4. Parametric optimum design of an irreversible spin quantum refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Bi-Hong; Chen Jin-Can

    2005-01-01

    The general performance characteristics of an irreversible quantum refrigeration cycle using many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems as the working substance and consisting of two adiabatic and two isomagnetic field processes are investigated, based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach. Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the refrigeration cycle subject to the finite cycle duration is optimized. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal region of the coefficient of performance and the optimal ranges of the temperatures of the working substance and the times spent on the two isomagnetic field processes are determined. Moreover, the optimal performance of the cycle in the high-temperature limit is also analysed in detail. The results obtained here are further generalized, so that they may be directly used to describe the performance of the quantum refrigeration cycle using spin-J systems as the working substance.

  5. Eutectic solidification as explained by the thermodynamics of irreversible processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wołczyński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain size diameter is the main parameter characterizing a given metallic alloy. In the case of Al-Si or Fe-C eutectic alloy theaverage inter-lamellar spacing is a good parameter which seems to be adequate to describe this irregular structure. To define the averageinter-lamellar spacing the regular areas within generally irregular structure has been distinguished.It has been postulated that the formation of regular structure could be related to the minimum entropy production criterion. From theother side the maximum destabilization of the non-faceted phase interface could be referred to marginal stability.The criterion of minimum entropy production allows to formulate the growth law for regular lamellar structure solidifying understationary state. It defines the regular eutectic spacing versus growth rate. The marginal stability concept allows to define the maximum wavelength which can be developed at the solid / liquid interface of non-faceted (Al phase. It defines the maximum spacing within irregular structure taking into account the wavelength of instability (marginal stability created at the non-faceted phase interface.An average inter-lamellar spacing results from the relationship formulated on the basis of both spacings. It should beemphasized that both conditions (criteria are deduced from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.The simplified scheme of irregular structure incorporates, additionally the intermediate lamella of faceted phase that is also taken into account in the definition of average inter-lamellar spacing,

  6. Irreversible electroporation of human primary uveal melanoma in enucleated eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Mandel

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults and is characterized by high rates of metastatic disease. Although brachytherapy is the most common globe-sparing treatment option for small- and medium-sized tumors, the treatment is associated with severe adverse reactions and does not lead to increased survival rates as compared to enucleation. The use of irreversible electroporation (IRE for tumor ablation has potential advantages in the treatment of tumors in complex organs such as the eye. Following previous theoretical work, herein we evaluate the use of IRE for uveal tumor ablation in human ex vivo eye model. Enucleated eyes of patients with uveal melanoma were treated with short electric pulses (50-100 µs, 1000-2000 V/cm using a customized electrode design. Tumor bioimpedance was measured before and after treatment and was followed by histopathological evaluation. We found that IRE caused tumor ablation characterized by cell membrane disruption while sparing the non-cellular sclera. Membrane disruption and loss of cellular capacitance were also associated with significant reduction in total tumor impedance and loss of impedance frequency dependence. The effect was more pronounced near the pulsing electrodes and was dependent on time from treatment to fixation. Future studies should further evaluate the potential of IRE as an alternative method of uveal melanoma treatment.

  7. The effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE on nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: If a critical nerve is circumferentially involved with tumor, radical surgery intended to cure the cancer must sacrifice the nerve. Loss of critical nerves may lead to serious consequences. In spite of the impressive technical advancements in nerve reconstruction, complete recovery and normalization of nerve function is difficult to achieve. Though irreversible electroporation (IRE might be a promising choice to treat tumors near or involved critical nerve, the pathophysiology of the nerve after IRE treatment has not be clearly defined. METHODS: We applied IRE directly to a rat sciatic nerve to study the long term effects of IRE on the nerve. A sequence of 10 square pulses of 3800 V/cm, each 100 µs long was applied directly to rat sciatic nerves. In each animal of group I (IRE the procedure was applied to produce a treated length of about 10 mm. In each animal of group II (Control the electrodes were only applied directly on the sciatic nerve for the same time. Electrophysiological, histological, and functional studies were performed on immediately after and 3 days, 1 week, 3, 5, 7 and 10 weeks following surgery. FINDINGS: Electrophysiological, histological, and functional results show the nerve treated with IRE can attain full recovery after 7 weeks. CONCLUSION: This finding is indicative of the preservation of nerve involving malignant tumors with respect to the application of IRE pulses to ablate tumors completely. In summary, IRE may be a promising treatment tool for any tumor involving nerves.

  8. Advanced thermal-energy-storage concept-definition study for solar Brayton power plants. Final technical report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The detailed results are presented of a technical and economic assessment of phase change and thermochemical energy storage systems in a solar power plant employing a high temperature Brayton cycle thermal engine with helium as the heat transport fluid. The assessment included an examination of the storage system operation, efficiency, power plant interaction, design, materials, safety, maintenance, environmental impact, system life, and economics. These considerations are implemented in the conceptual design of three baseline storage systems and their components for use in a solar power plant module of 50 megawatt electrical power output. Rationale is provided to support the configuration, operation and material choices. A preliminary assessment of the technology development and experimental test program requirements are also included. The report is contained in four separate volumes. This volume is the technical report.

  9. Conceptual Design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle Radial Turbomachinery for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkuk; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAIST proposed a new SMR design, which utilizes S-CO{sub 2} as the working fluid. It was named as KAIST MMR. Compared with existing SMR concepts, KAIST MMR has advantages of achieving smaller volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and containing the core and PCU in one vessel for the complete modularization. Authors noticed that the compressor and turbine assumed performances of KAIST MMR were conservatively selected previously. Thus, this paper tries to address the best estimate values of each turbomachinery in 10MWe class KAIST MMR. The turbomachinery size of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is smaller than helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle. The suggested SMR concept adopts passive cooling system by using air. This method can cool reactor without external electricity supply. Small size and more flexible installation in the inland area will be necessary characteristics for the future nuclear application in the water limited region. KAIST MMR meets all these requirements by utilizing S-CO{sub 2} as a working fluid. This paper presents the work for further increasing the system performance by estimating the component efficiency more realistically. The cycle layout adopted for the application is S-CO{sub 2} recuperated Brayton cycle. The best efficiency of compressor and turbine was evaluated to be 84.94% and 90.94%, respectively. By using KAIST in-house code, thermal efficiency and net output were increased to 35.81% and 12.45MWe, respectively, for the same core thermal power. More refined cycle layout and suitable turbomachinery design will be performed in the near future.

  10. Supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles for DEMO fusion reactor based on Helium Cooled Lithium Lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion energy is one of the most promising solutions to the world energy supply. This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the suitability of supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles (S-CO2) for low-temperature divertor fusion reactors cooled by helium (as defined by EFDA). Integration of three thermal sources (i.e., blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel) has been studied through proposing and analyzing a number of alternative layouts, achieving an improvement on power production higher than 5% over the baseline case, which entails to a gross efficiency (before self-consumptions) higher than 42%. In spite of this achievement, the assessment of power consumption for the circulating heat transfer fluids results in a penalty of 20% in the electricity production. Once the most suitable layout has been selected an optimization process has been conducted to adjust the key parameters to balance performance and size, achieving an electrical efficiency (electricity without taking into account auxiliary consumptions due to operation of the fusion reactor) higher than 33% and a reduction in overall size of heat exchangers of 1/3. Some relevant conclusions can be drawn from the present work: the potential of S-CO2 cycles as suitable converters of thermal energy to power in fusion reactors; the significance of a suitable integration of thermal sources to maximize power output; the high penalty of pumping power; and the convenience of identifying the key components of the layout as a way to optimize the whole cycle performance. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles have been proposed for BoP of HCLL fusion reactor. • Low temperature sources have been successfully integrated with high temperature ones. • Optimization of thermal sources integration improves 5% the electricity production. • Assessment of pumping power with sources and sink loops results on 20% of gross power. • Matching of key parameters has conducted to 1/3 of reduction in heat exchangers

  11. Irreversible collective migration of cyanobacteria in eutrophic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Dervaux

    Full Text Available In response to natural or anthropocentric pollutions coupled to global climate changes, microorganisms from aquatic environments can suddenly accumulate on water surface. These dense suspensions, known as blooms, are harmful to ecosystems and significantly degrade the quality of water resources. In order to determine the physico-chemical parameters involved in their formation and quantitatively predict their appearance, we successfully reproduced irreversible cyanobacterial blooms in vitro. By combining chemical, biochemical and hydrodynamic evidences, we identify a mechanism, unrelated to the presence of internal gas vesicles, allowing the sudden collective upward migration in test tubes of several cyanobacterial strains (Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7005, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The final state consists in a foamy layer of biomass at the air-liquid interface, in which micro-organisms remain alive for weeks, the medium lying below being almost completely depleted of cyanobacteria. These "laboratory blooms" start with the aggregation of cells at high ionic force in cyanobacterial strains that produce anionic extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. Under appropriate conditions of nutrients and light intensity, the high photosynthetic activity within cell clusters leads the dissolved oxygen (DO to supersaturate and to nucleate into bubbles. Trapped within the EPS, these bubbles grow until their buoyancy pulls the biomass towards the free surface. By investigating a wide range of spatially homogeneous environmental conditions (illumination, salinity, cell and nutrient concentration we identify species-dependent thresholds and timescales for bloom formation. We conclude on the relevance of such results for cyanobacterial bloom formation in the environment and we propose an efficient method for biomass harvesting in bioreactors.

  12. Immunologic response to tumor ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE is a promising technique for the focal treatment of pathologic tissues, which involves placing minimally invasive electrodes within the targeted region. However, the knowledge about the therapeutic efficacy and immune reactions in response to IRE remains in its infancy. METHODS: In this work, to detect whether tumor ablation with IRE could trigger the immunologic response, we developed an osteosarcoma rat model and applied IRE directly to ablate the tumor. In the experiment, 118 SD rats were randomized into 4 groups: the control, sham operation, surgical resection, and IRE groups. Another 28 rats without tumor cell implantation served as the normal non-tumor-bearing group. We analyzed the changes in T lymphocyte subsets, sIL-2R and IL-10 levels in the peripheral blood one day before operation, as well as at 1, 3, 7,14 and 21 days after the operation. Moreover, splenocytes were assayed for IFN-γ and IL-4 production using intracellular cytokine staining one day before the operation, as well as at 7 and 21 days after operation. RESULTS: We found that direct IRE completely ablated the tumor cells. A significant increase in peripheral lymphocytes, especially CD3(+ and CD4(+ cells, as well as an increased ratio of CD4(+/CD8(+ were detectable 7 days after operation in both the IRE and surgical resection groups. Compared with the surgical resection group, the IRE group exhibited a stronger cellular immune response. The sIL-2R level of the peripheral blood in the IRE group decreased with time and was significantly different from that in the surgical resection group. Moreover, ablation with IRE significantly increased the percentage of IFN-γ-positive splenocytes. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that IRE could not only locally destroy the tumor but also change the status of cellular immunity in osteosarcoma-bearing rats. This provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of IRE in

  13. Fundamental optimal relation of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump with complex heat transfer law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun Li; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun

    2010-02-01

    The fundamental optimal relation between heating load and coefficient of performance (COP) of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump is derived based on a new generalized heat transfer law, which includes the generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law, $q \\varpropto ( T^{n})^{m}$. The generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump model incorporates several internal and external irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, bypass heat leakage, friction, turbulence and other undesirable irreversibility factors. The added irreversibilities besides heat resistance are characterized by a constant parameter and a constant coefficient. The effects of heat transfer laws and various loss terms are analysed. The heating load vs. COP characteristic of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump is a parabolic-like curve, which is consistent with the experimental result of thermoelectric heat pump. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures and indicated that the analysis results of the generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump were more suitable for engineering practice than those of the endoreversible Carnot heat pump.

  14. Multiscale time irreversibility of heart rate and blood pressure variability during orthostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time irreversibility is a characteristic feature of non-equilibrium, complex systems such as the cardiovascular control mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Time irreversibility analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) represents a new approach to assess cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the changes in HRV and BPV irreversibility during the active orthostatic test (a balance of ANS shifted towards sympathetic predominance) in 28 healthy young subjects. We used three different time irreversibility indices—Porta’s, Guzik's and Ehler's indices (P%, G% and E, respectively) derived from data segments containing 1000 beat-to-beat intervals on four timescales. We observed an increase in the HRV and a decrease in the BPV irreversibility during standing compared to the supine position. The postural change in irreversibility was confirmed by surrogate data analysis. The differences were more evident in G% and E than P% and for higher scale factors. Statistical analysis showed a close relationship between G% and E. Contrary to this, the association between P% and G% and P% and E was not proven. We conclude that time irreversibility of beat-to-beat HRV and BPV is significantly altered during orthostasis, implicating involvement of the autonomous nervous system in its generation. (paper)

  15. Cooling load optimization of an irreversible refrigerator with combined heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haj Assad, M. [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Energy Technology, P. O. Box 14100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a mathematical model to study the performance of an irreversible refrigerator has been presented with the consideration of heat exchange by combined convection and radiation. The external irreversibility effects due to finite rate heat transfer as well as the effects of internal dissipations have been considered in the analysis. The relation between the cooling load and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator has been derived. Furthermore an expression for the maximum cooling rate has been derived. The parameters that affect the cooling load have been investigated. The cooling load has been discussed and the effect of internal irreversibility has been investigated.

  16. A Fingerprint Encryption Scheme Based on Irreversible Function and Secure Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    A fingerprint encryption scheme based on irreversible function has been designed in this paper. Since the fingerprint template includes almost the entire information of users' fingerprints, the personal authentication can be determined only by the fingerprint features. This paper proposes an irreversible transforming function (using the improved SHA1 algorithm) to transform the original minutiae which are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image. Then, Chinese remainder theorem is used to obtain the biokey from the integration of the transformed minutiae and the private key. The result shows that the scheme has better performance on security and efficiency comparing with other irreversible function schemes. PMID:25873989

  17. A Fingerprint Encryption Scheme Based on Irreversible Function and Secure Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fingerprint encryption scheme based on irreversible function has been designed in this paper. Since the fingerprint template includes almost the entire information of users’ fingerprints, the personal authentication can be determined only by the fingerprint features. This paper proposes an irreversible transforming function (using the improved SHA1 algorithm to transform the original minutiae which are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image. Then, Chinese remainder theorem is used to obtain the biokey from the integration of the transformed minutiae and the private key. The result shows that the scheme has better performance on security and efficiency comparing with other irreversible function schemes.

  18. Cooling load optimization of an irreversible refrigerator with combined heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Haj Assad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a mathematical model to study the performance of an irreversible refrigerator has been presented with the consideration of heat exchange by combined convection and radiation. The external irreversibility effects due to finite rate heat transfer as well as the effects of internal dissipations have been considered in the analysis. The relation between the cooling load and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator has been derived. Furthermore an expression for the maximum cooling rate has been derived. The parameters that affect the cooling load have been investigated. The cooling load has been discussed and the effect of internal irreversibility has been investigated.

  19. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems Part II: a linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle–based power conversion unit

    OpenAIRE

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space represen...

  20. Investigation on the performance of the supercritical Brayton cycle with CO2-based binary mixture as working fluid for an energy transportation system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the performance of a SBC (supercritical gas Brayton cycle) using CO2-based binary mixtures as the working fluids have been studied. Based on the thermodynamic analyses, an in-house code has been developed to determine the cycle efficiency and the amounts of heat transfer in the HTR (high temperature recuperator) and the LTR (low temperature recuperator) with different CO2/additive gas ratios. Several gases are selected as potential additives, including O2, He, Ar, Kr, butane and cyclohexane. Compared with the Brayton cycle with pure S–CO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) as the working fluid, it is found that both CO2–He and CO2–Kr mixtures can improve the thermodynamic performances of the SBC by increasing the cycle efficiency and decreasing the amounts of heat transfer in the HTR and LTR. For the cycles with the pure S–CO2 mixture, CO2–butane mixture and CO2–cyclohexane mixture as the working fluids, the cycle efficiencies decrease with increasing main compressor inlet temperature. However, when the main compressor inlet temperature is above the critical temperature of pure CO2, the cycle efficiencies of the cycles with CO2–butane mixture and CO2–cyclohexane mixture are higher than that of the cycle with pure CO2 as the working fluid. For the cycles with CO2-based binary mixtures and pure S–CO2 as the working fluids, the higher reactor outlet temperature always results into higher cycle efficiencies and larger amount of heat transfer in the HTR and smaller amount of heat transfer in the LTR. - Highlights: • The Brayton cycle performance with different mixtures as working fluids is studied. • Thermodynamic analysis is carried out to evaluate cycle efficiency and heat transfer in HTR and LTR. • The optimum working parameters of the Brayton cycle is proposed to improve working performance

  1. Development of cooling system for 66/6.9kV-20MVA REBCO superconducting transformers with Ne turbo-Brayton refrigerator and subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, M.; Adachi, K.; Yun, K.; Yoshida, K.; Sato, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Umeno, T.; Konno, M.; Hayashi, H.; Eguchi, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a turbo-Brayton refrigerator with Ne gas as a working fluid for a 3 ϕ- 66/6.9kV-2MVA superconducting transformer with coated conductors which was bath-cooled with subcooled LN2. The two-stage compressor and expansion turbine had non-contact magnetic bearings for a long maintenance interval. In the future, we intend to directly install a heat exchanger into the Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics cryostat of a transformer and make a heat exchange between the working fluid gas and subcooled LN2. In this paper we investigate the behaviour of subcooled LN2 in a test cryostat, in which heater coils were arranged side by side with a flat plate finned-tube heat exchanger. Here a He turbo-Brayton refrigerator was used as a substitute for a Ne turbo-Brayton one. The pressure at the surface of LN2 in the cryostat was one atmosphere. Just under the LN2 surface, a stationary layer of LN2 was created over the depth of 20 cm and temperature dropped from 77 K to 65 K with depth while, in the lower level than that, a natural convection flow of LN2 was formed and temperature was almost uniform over 1 m depth. The boundary plane between the stationary layer and the natural convection region was visible.

  2. Transient Accident Analysis of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Converter Coupled to an Autonomous Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton Cycle is a promising advanced alternative to the Rankine saturated steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle for the energy converters of specific reactor concepts belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. A new plant dynamics analysis computer code has been developed for simulation of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to an autonomous, natural circulation Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The plant dynamics code was used to simulate the whole-plant response to accident conditions. The specific design features of the reactor concept influencing passive safety are discussed and accident scenarios are identified for analysis. Results of calculations of the whole-plant response to loss-of-heat sink, loss-of-load, and pipe break accidents are demonstrated. The passive safety performance of the reactor concept is confirmed by the results of the plant dynamics code calculations for the selected accident scenarios. (authors)

  3. Treatise on irreversible and statistical thermodynamics an introduction to nonclassical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yourgrau, Wolfgang; Raw, Gough

    2002-01-01

    Extensively revised edition of a much-respected work examines thermodynamics of irreversible processes, general principles of statistical thermodynamics, assemblies of noninteracting structureless particles, and statistical theory. 1966 edition.

  4. Cooling Load and COP optimization of an irreversible carnot refrigerator with spin-1/2 systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaowie; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China); Wu, Feng [School of Science, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2011-07-01

    A model of an irreversible quantum refrigerator with working medium consisting of many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems is established in this paper. The quantum refrigeration cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes and is referred to as a spin quantum Carnot refrigeration cycle. Expressions of some important performance parameters, such as cycle period, cooling load and coefficient of performance (COP) for the irreversible spin quantum Carnot refrigerator are derived, and detailed numerical examples are provided. The optimal performance of the quantum refrigerator at high temperature limit is analyzed with numerical examples. Effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on the performance are discussed in detail. The endoreversible case, frictionless case and the case without heat leakage are discussed in brief.

  5. Ecological optimization of an irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine with spin-1/2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of a quantum heat engine with heat resistance, internal irreversibility and heat leakage and many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems is established in this paper. The quantum heat engine cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes and is referred to as a spin quantum Carnot heat engine. Based on the quantum master equation and the semi-group approach, equations of some important performance parameters, such as power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological function (a criterion representing the optimal compromise between exergy output rate and exergy loss rate), for the irreversible spin quantum Carnot heat engine are derived. The optimal ecological performance of the heat engine in the classical limit is analyzed with numerical examples. The effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on ecological performance are discussed in detail.

  6. Cooling load and COP optimization of an irreversible Carnot refrigerator with spin-1/2 systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Liu, Lingen Chen, Feng Wu, Fengrui Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A model of an irreversible quantum refrigerator with working medium consisting of many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems is established in this paper. The quantum refrigeration cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes and is referred to as a spin quantum Carnot refrigeration cycle. Expressions of some important performance parameters, such as cycle period, cooling load and coefficient of performance (COP for the irreversible spin quantum Carnot refrigerator are derived, and detailed numerical examples are provided. The optimal performance of the quantum refrigerator at high temperature limit is analyzed with numerical examples. Effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on the performance are discussed in detail. The endoreversible case, frictionless case and the case without heat leakage are discussed in brief.

  7. The Effects of Internal and External Irreversibility of a Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Jen; Chiou, Jeng-Shing

    The concept of finite-time thermodynamics is employed to investigate the optimal refrigeration rate for an irreversible refrigeration cycle. The heat transfer between the system (internal) fluid and cooling (external) fluid takes place at the actual heat exchanger, which has the finite-size heat transfer area and the realistic heat transfer effectiveness. The internal irreversibility results from the compression process and the expansion process are also considered. The optimal refrigeration rate is calculated and expressed in terms of the irreversibility parameter (Ir), coefficient of performance (COP), the time ratio(γ) of heat transfer processes and the effectiveness of heat exchanger. The derived COP which consider both the external and internal irreversibility can thus be considered as the benchmark value for a practical refrigeration cycle, and the parametric study can provide the basis for both determination of optimal operating conditions and design of a practical refrigeration cycle.

  8. The maximum coefficient of performance of internally irreversible refrigerators and heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Ali, Mohand A.

    1996-04-01

    A class of irreversible refrigeration cycles is investigated to determine the maximum coefficient of performance in the heat pump mode and the refrigerator mode. For the purpose of generality and simplicity of the results, finite-time heat transfer in the condenser and evaporator is expressed in terms of arithmetic mean temperature differences. The generic source of internal irreversibility is measured by a single irreversibility factor which transforms the Clausius inequality into an equality to simplify the cycle model. These optimum cycle performances are obtained as closed form analytical expressions in which the irreversibility factor has been shown to be simply related to the ratio of the actual and endoreversible cycle coefficients of performance.

  9. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures

  10. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Christoph; Jung, Ernst Michael; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Trabold, Benedikt [Department of Anaesthesia, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Haimerl, Michael; Schreyer, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures.

  11. Maximum power, ecological function and efficiency of an irreversible Carnot cycle. A cost and effectiveness optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G.; Canales-Palma, A.; Leon-Galicia, A.; Morales-Gomez, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the ...

  12. Nature of the irreversibility line in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local vortex dynamics in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals was studied using novel microscopic GaAs/AlGaAs Hall-sensor arrays. The irreversibility line (IL) is found to exist in the absence of bulk pinning. At high temperatures the IL is due to geometrical barriers whereas at intermediate temperatures the irreversible behavior is determined by surface barriers. Bulk pinning governs the IL only at T < 22 K. (orig.)

  13. A review on thermodynamic optimization of irreversible refrigerator and verification with transcritical CO2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Jahar

    2014-01-01

    The transcritical vapor compression refrigeration cycle consists of isothermal heat addition process and isobaric non-isothermal heat rejection process with highly variable heat capacity unlike to the subcritical cycle. Hence, it is quite interesting whether the analysis and optimization results of irreversible Carnot-like refrigerator are applicable for this case. The present study consists of two parts: the detailed review on theoretical analysis and analytical optimizations of irreversible...

  14. Irreversibility analysis for gravity driven non-Newtonian liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic efficiency of the cardiac cycle and irreversibility in the interbeat interval time series

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Muñoz-Diosdado; Gonzalo Gálvez-Coyt; Alejandro Alonso Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac cycle can be analyzed as a thermodynamic cycle, however, the inherent variability of this cycle implies that, although in the short term the cycle is quasi-reversible, in the long term is irreversible. This work discusses two important aspects of the cardiac cycle related with thermodynamic concepts: the calculation of the cycles efficiency and the quantification of the irreversibility of interbeat interval time series. The results show that there is a variability of cardiac eff...

  16. Thermostability of Irreversible Unfolding alpha-Amylases Analyzed by Unfolded Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Duy, C.; Fitter, J.

    2005-01-01

    For most multidomain proteins the thermal unfolding transitions are accompanied by an irreversible step, often related to aggregation at elevated temperatures. As a consequence the analysis of thermostabilities in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics is not applicable, at least not if the irreversible process is fast with respect the structural unfolding transition. In a comparative study we investigated aggregation effects and unfolding kinetics for five homologous alpha-amylases, all from me...

  17. A statistical model for multidimensional irreversible electroporation cell death in tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinsky Boris; Golberg Alex

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a minimally invasive tissue ablation technique which utilizes electric pulses delivered by electrodes to a targeted area of tissue to produce high amplitude electric fields, thus inducing irreversible damage to the cell membrane lipid bilayer. An important application of this technique is for cancer tissue ablation. Mathematical modelling is considered important in IRE treatment planning. In the past, IRE mathematical modelling used a ...

  18. Irreversible and reversible topoisomerase II DNA cleavage stimulated by clerocidin: sequence specificity and structural drug determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaschi, M; Zagotto, G; Palumbo, M; Zunino, F; Farinosi, R; Capranico, G

    1997-05-01

    In contrast to other topoisomerase II poisons, the microbial terpenoid clerocidin was shown to stimulate irreversible topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. To establish the structural determinants for drug activity, in this study we have investigated intensity patterns and sequence specificity of clerocidin-stimulated DNA cleavage using 5'-end 32P-labeled DNA fragments. At a majority of the sites, clerocidin-stimulated cleavage did not revert upon NaCl addition; nevertheless, at some sites, cleavage completely reverted. Statistical analyses showed that drug-preferred bases were different in the two cases: guanine and cytosine were highly preferred at position -1 at irreversible and reversible sites, respectively. These results demonstrated that cleavage irreversibility was site selective and required a guanine at the 3' end of the cut. Further experiments revealed that some irreversible sites showed an abnormal electrophoretic mobility in sequencing gels with respect to cleaved bands generated by 4-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide, suggesting a chemical alteration of the DNA strand. Interestingly, the ability to stimulate irreversible cleavage progressively decreased over time when clerocidin was stored in ethanol. Under these conditions, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements demonstrated that the drug underwent structural modifications that involved the C-12-C-15 side chain. Thus, the results indicate that a specific moiety of clerocidin may react with the DNA (guanine at -1) in the ternary complex, resulting in cleavage irreversibility and in altered DNA mobility in sequencing gels. PMID:9135013

  19. Investigation of alternative layouts for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle performance have largely settled on the recompression supercritical cycle (or Feher cycle) incorporating a flow split between the main compressor downstream of heat rejection, a recompressing compressor providing direct compression without heat rejection, and high and low temperature recuperators to raise the effectiveness of recuperation and the cycle efficiency. Alternative cycle layouts have been previously examined by Angelino (Politecnico, Milan), by MIT (Dostal, Hejzlar, and Driscoll), and possibly others but not for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) operating at relatively low core outlet temperature. Thus, the present authors could not be sure that the recompression cycle is an optimal arrangement for application to the SFR. To ensure that an advantageous alternative layout has not been overlooked, several alternative cycle layouts have been investigated for a S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) SFR preconceptual design having a 510 deg. C core outlet temperature and a 470 deg. C turbine inlet temperature to determine if they provide any benefit in cycle performance (e.g., enhanced cycle efficiency). No such benefits were identified, consistent with the previous examinations, such that attention was devoted to optimizing the recompression supercritical cycle. The effects of optimizing the cycle minimum temperature and pressure are investigated including minimum temperatures and/or pressures below the critical values. It is found that improvements in the cycle efficiency of 1% or greater relative to previous analyses which arbitrarily fixed the minimum temperature and pressure can be realized through an optimal choice of the combination of the minimum cycle temperature and pressure (e.g., for a fixed minimum temperature there is an optimal minimum pressure). However, this leads to a requirement for a larger cooler for heat rejection which may impact the

  20. Analysis of Superimposed Elementary Thermodynamic Cycles: from the Brayton-Joule to Advanced Mixed (Auto-Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Manente

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The need for efficiency improvement in energy conversion systems leads to a stricter functional integration among system components. This results in structures of increasing complexity, the high performance of which are often difficult to be understood easily. To make the comprehension of these structures easier, a new approach is followed in this paper, consisting in their representation as partial or total superimposition of elementary thermodynamic cycles. Although system performance cannot, in general, be evaluated as the sum of the performance of the separate thermodynamic cycles, this kind of representation and analysis can be of great help in understanding directions of development followed in the literature for the construction of advanced energy systems, and could suggest new potential directions of work. The evolution from the simple Brayton-Joule cycle to the so called “mixed” cycles, in which heat at the turbine discharge is exploited using internal heat sinks only without using a separate bottoming section, is used to demonstrate the potentiality of the approach. Mixed cycles are named here "auto-combined cycles” to highlight the combination of different (gas and steam cycles within the same system components.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  1. A preliminary assessment of reactor candidate technologies for a 20 kWe space nuclear Brayton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, a cooperative program between the French Centre National d'Etudes Spaciales (CNES) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) was initiated to investigate the possible development of 20 to 200 kWe Brayton nuclear space systems. After the completion of the preliminary design of a reference 200 kWe turboelectric power system known as ERATO in 1986 (Carre et al. 1987), a second 3-year study phase was initiated. The objective of this phase was to assess the various reactor candidate technologies and system design options for 20 kWe power level for meeting the projected electric needs of the first European space missions (Carre et al. 1988). This paper presents the results of the design studies of three reference design concepts of 20 kWe turboelectric power systems covering a wide range of reactor temperatures and relevant material and reactor design technologies. Additionally the critical technology issues of the candidate systems, and other criteria relevant to the space missions are identified. The participation of the French industry in the present design activity is so far restricted to predesign studies of crucial components such as the turbomachinery and the reactor control actuators, and integration studies of the power system into the Ariane V launcher

  2. Exergoeconomic performance optimization of an endoreversible intercooled regenerated Brayton cogeneration plant. Part 2: Heat conductance allocation and pressure ratio optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite time exergoeconomic performance of an endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton cogeneration plant is optimized based on the model which is established using finite time thermodynamic in Part 1 of this paper. It is found that the optimal heat conductance allocation of the regenerator is zero. When the total pressure ratio and the heat conductance allocation of the regenerator are fixed, it is shown that there exist an optimal intercooling pressure ratio, and a group of optimal heat conductance allocations among the hot-, cold- and consumer-side heat exchangers and the intercooler, which correspond to a maximum dimensionless profit rate. When the total pressure ratio is variable, there exists an optimal total pressure ratio which corresponds to a double-maximum dimensionless profit rate, and the corresponding exergetic efficiency is obtained. The effects of the total heat exchanger conductance, price ratios and the consumer-side temperature on the double-maximum dimensionless profit rate and the corresponding exergetic efficiency are discussed. It is found that there exists an optimal consumer-side temperature which corresponds to a thrice-maximum dimensionless profit rate.

  3. Exergoeconomic performance optimization of an endoreversible intercooled regenerated Brayton cogeneration plant. Part 1: Thermodynamic model and parameter analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen, Bo Yang, Fengrui Sun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton heat and power cogeneration plant coupled to constant-temperature heat reservoirs is established by using finite time thermodynamics in Part 1 of this paper. The heat resistance losses in the hot-, cold- and consumer-side heat exchangers, the intercooler and the regenerator are taken into account. The finite time exergoeconomic performance of the cogeneration plant is investigated. The analytical formulae about dimensionless profit rate and exergetic efficiency are derived. The numerical examples show that there exists an optimal value of intercooling pressure ratio which leads to an optimal value of dimensionless profit rate for the fixed total pressure ratio. There also exists an optimal total pressure ratio which leads to a maximum profit rate for the variable total pressure ratio. The effects of intercooling, regeneration and the ratio of the hot-side heat reservoir temperature to environment temperature on dimensionless profit rate and the corresponding exergetic efficiency are analyzed. At last, it is found that there exists an optimal consumer-side temperature which leads to a double-maximum dimensionless profit rate. The profit rate of the model cycle is optimized by optimal allocation of the heat conductance of the heat exchangers in Part 2 of this paper.

  4. Design of automatic startup and shutdown logic for a Brayton-cycle 2- to 15-kilowatt engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancik, J. E.; Bainbridge, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting a closed-Brayton-cycle power conversion system technology program in which a complete power system (engine) has been designed and demonstrated. This report discusses the design of automatic startup and shutdown logic circuits as a modification to the control system presently used in this demonstration engine. This modification was primarily intended to make starting the engine as simple and safe as possible and to allow the engine to be run unattended. In the modified configuration the engine is started by turning the control console power on and pushing the start button after preheating the gas loop. No other operator action is required to effect a complete startup. Shutdown, if one is required, is also effected by a simple stop button. The automatic startup and shutdown of the engine have been successfully and purposefully demonstrated more than 50 times at the Lewis Research Center during 10,000 hours of unattended operation. The net effect of this modification is an engine that can be safely started and stopped by relatively untrained personnel. The approach lends itself directly to remote unattended operation.

  5. Reactor dynamics and stability analysis of a burst-mode gas core reactor, Brayton cycle space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor dynamics and system stability studies are performed on a conceptual burst-mode gaseous core reactor space nuclear power system. This concept operates on a closed Brayton cycle in the burst mode (on the order of 100-MW output for a few thousand seconds) using a disk magnetohydrodynamic generator for energy conversion. The fuel is a gaseous mixture of UF4 or UF6 and helium. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed using circulating-fuel, point-reactor-kinetics equations along with thermodynamic, lumped-parameter heat transfer and one-dimensional isentropic flow equations. The gaseous nature of the fuel plus the fact that the fuel is circulating lead to dynamic behavior that is quite different from that of conventional solid-core systems. For the transients examined, Doppler fuel temperature and moderator temperature feedbacks are insignificant when compared with reactivity feedback associated with fuel gas density variations. The gaseous fuel density power coefficient of reactivity is capable of rapidly stabilizing the system, within a few seconds, even when large positive reactivity insertions are imposed; however, because of the strength of this feedback, standard external reactivity insertions alone are inadequate to bring about significant power level changes during normal reactor operation. Additional methods of reactivity control, such as changes in the gaseous of fuel mass flow rate or core inlet pressure, are required to achieve desired power level control. Finally, linear stability analysis gives results that are qualitatively in agreement with the nonlinear analysis

  6. System Mass Variation and Entropy Generation in 100-kWe Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Reid, Bryan M.

    2004-02-01

    State-of-the-art closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) space power systems were modeled to study performance trends in a trade space characteristic of interplanetary orbiters. For working-fluid molar masses of 48.6, 39.9 and 11.9 kg/kmol, peak system pressures of 1.38 and 3.0 MPa and compressor pressure ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.4, total system masses were estimated. System mass increased as peak operating pressure increased for all compressor pressure ratios and molar mass values examined. Minimum mass point comparison between 72% He at 1.38 MPa peak and 94% He at 3.0 MPa peak showed an increase in system mass of 14%. Converter flow loop entropy generation rates were calculated for 1.38 and 3.0 MPa peak pressure cases. Physical system behavior was approximated using a pedigreed NASA-Glenn modeling code, Closed Cycle Engine Program (CCEP), which included realistic performance prediction for heat exchangers, radiators and turbomachinery.

  7. The use of TiO2 nanoparticles to reduce refrigerator ir-reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► COP of hydrocarbons mixture VCRSs increases less when compared to R134a. ► Compressor ir-reversibility of VCRSs decreases by 33% (R134a), 14% (R436A and R436B). ► Total ir-reversibility of selected VCRSs decreases. ► Exergy efficiency of R134a is exceptionally low at lower reference temperature. ► Exergy efficiency of selected VCRSs increases. - Abstract: The ir-reversibility at the process of a vapour-compression refrigeration system (VCRS) with nanoparticles in the working fluid was investigated experimentally. Mineral oil (MO) with 0.1 g L−1 TiO2 nanoparticles mixture were used as the lubricant instead of Polyol-ester (POE) oil in the R134a, R436A (R290/R600a-56/44-wt.%) and R436B (R290/R600a-52/48-wt.%)VCRSs. The VCRS ir-reversibility at the process with the nanoparticles was investigated using second law of thermodynamics. The results indicate that R134a, R436A and R436B and MO with TiO2 nanoparticles work normally and safely in the VCRS. The VCRSs total ir-reversibility (529, 588 and 570 W) at different process was better than the R134a, R436A and R436B and POE oil system (777, 697 and 683 W). The same tests with Al2O3 nanoparticles showed that the different nanoparticles properties have little effect on the VCRS ir-reversibility. Thus, TiO2 nanoparticles can be used in VCRS with reciprocating compressor to considerably reduce ir-reversibility at the process.

  8. Entransy analyses of heat-work conversion systems with inner irreversible thermodynamic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Tao; Liang, Xin-Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we try to use the entransy theory to analyze the heat-work conversion systems with inner irreversible thermodynamic cycles. First, the inner irreversible thermodynamic cycles are analyzed. The influences of different inner irreversible factors on entransy loss are discussed. We find that the concept of entransy loss can be used to analyze the inner irreversible thermodynamic cycles. Then, we analyze the common heat-work conversion systems with inner irreversible thermodynamic cycles. As an example, the heat-work conversion system in which the working fluid of the thermodynamic cycles is heated and cooled by streams is analyzed. Our analyses show that larger entransy loss leads to larger output work when the total heat flow from the high temperature heat source and the corresponding equivalent temperature are fixed. Some numerical cases are presented, and the results verify the theoretical analyses. On the other hand, it is also found that larger entransy loss does not always lead to larger output work when the preconditions are not satisfied. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51376101 and 51356001).

  9. Inequalities for trace anomalies, length of the RG flow, distance between the fixed points and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2004-01-01

    I argue that in quantum field theory: i) the scheme-invariant area Delta(a') of the graph of the effective beta function between the fixed points defines the length of the RG flow; ii) the minimum of Delta(a') in the space of flows connecting the same UV and IR fixed points defines the (oriented) distance between the fixed points; iii) in even dimensions, the distance between the fixed points is equal to Delta(a)=a_UV-a_IR. These statements imply, in even dimensions, the inequalities 0 =< Delta(a) =< Delta(a'), the irreversibility of the RG flow and the inequality a =< c for free scalars and fermions (but not vectors). I elaborate the axiomatic set-up of irreversibility, based on the notion of oriented distance and the "oriented-triangle inequalities". I show that these axioms imply the irreversibility of the RG flow without a global "a" function. I argue that the RG flow is irreversible in odd dimensions (without a global "a" function) and, in support of this, I check the axioms of irreversibility i...

  10. Irreversible compressible work and available potential energy dissipation in turbulent stratified fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it plays a key role in the theory of stratified turbulence, the concept of available potential energy (APE) dissipation has remained until now a rather mysterious quantity, owing to the lack of rigorous result about its irreversible character or energy conversion type. Here, we show by using rigorous energetics considerations rooted in the analysis of the Navier–Stokes for a fully compressible fluid with a nonlinear equation of state that the APE dissipation is an irreversible energy conversion that dissipates kinetic energy into internal energy, exactly as viscous dissipation. These results are established by showing that APE dissipation contributes to the irreversible production of entropy, and by showing that it is a part of the work of expansion/contraction. Our results provide a new interpretation of the entropy budget, that leads to a new exact definition of turbulent effective diffusivity, which generalizes the Osborn–Cox model, as well as a rigorous decomposition of the work of expansion/contraction into reversible and irreversible components. In the context of turbulent mixing associated with parallel shear flow instability, our results suggests that there is no irreversible transfer of horizontal momentum into vertical momentum, as seems to be required when compressible effects are neglected, with potential consequences for the parameterizations of momentum dissipation in the coarse-grained Navier–Stokes equations. (paper)

  11. Partial purification of the mu opioid receptor irreversibly labeled with [3H]b-funaltrexamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mu opioid receptor in bovine striatal membranes was specifically and irreversibly labeled by incubation with 5 nM [3H]β-funaltrexamine (approx.-FNA) at 370C for 90 min in the presence of 100 mM NaCl. The specific and irreversible binding of [3H]β-FNA as defined by that blocked by 1 +M naloxone was about 60% of total irreversible binding. The specific irreversible binding was saturable, stereospecific, time-, temperature, and tissue-dependent. Mu opioid ligands were much more potent than delta or kappa ligands in inhibiting the specific irreversible labeling. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of solubilized membranes in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol yielded a major radiolabeled broad band of MW 68-97K daltons, characteristic of a glycoprotein band. This band was not observed in membranes labeled in the presence of excess unlabeled naloxone. The glycoprotein nature of the [3H]β-FNA-labeled opioid receptor was confirmed by its binding to a wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose column and its elution with N-acetylglucosamine

  12. Irreversible models with Boltzmann–Gibbs probability distribution and entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze irreversible interacting spin models evolving according to a master equation with spin flip transition rates that do not obey detailed balance but obey global balance with a Boltzmann–Gibbs probability distribution. Spin flip transition rates with up–down symmetry are obtained for a linear chain, a square lattice, and a cubic lattice with a stationary state corresponding to the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. We show that these irreversible dynamics describes the contact of the system with particle reservoirs that cause a flux of particles through the system. Using a microscopic definition, we determine the entropy production rate of these irreversible models and show that it can be written as a macroscopic bilinear form in the forces and fluxes. Exact expressions for this property are obtained for the linear chain and the square lattice. In this last case the entropy production rate displays a singularity at the phase transition point of the same type as the entropy itself

  13. Performance Optimization of Generalized Irreversible Refrigerator Based on a New Ecological Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the exergy analysis, a performance optimization is carried out for a generalized irreversible refrigerator model, which takes into account the heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility losses. A new ecological criterion, named coefficient of performance of exergy (COPE, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the exergy output rate to the exergy loss rate, is proposed as an objective function in this paper. The optimal performance factors which maximize the ecological objective function have been discussed. Numerical examples are given to explain the influences of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the generalized and optimal performances. This new ecological criterion may be beneficial for determining the reasonable design of refrigerators.

  14. Simplification of irreversible Markov chains by removal of states with fast leaving rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chen

    2016-07-01

    In the recent work of Ullah et al. (2012a), the authors developed an effective method to simplify reversible Markov chains by removal of states with low equilibrium occupancies. In this paper, we extend this result to irreversible Markov chains. We show that an irreversible chain can be simplified by removal of states with fast leaving rates. Moreover, we reveal that the irreversibility of the chain will always decrease after model simplification. This suggests that although model simplification can retain almost all the dynamic information of the chain, it will lose some thermodynamic information as a trade-off. Examples from biology are also given to illustrate the main results of this paper. PMID:27067245

  15. Mechanism for membrane electroporation irreversibility under high-intensity, ultrashort electrical pulse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2002-11-01

    An improved electroporation model is used to address membrane irreversibility under ultrashort electric pulse conditions. It is shown that membranes can survive a strong electric pulse and recover provided the pore distribution has a relatively large spread. If, however, the population consists predominantly of larger radii pores, then irreversibility can result. Physically, such a distribution could arise if pores at adjacent sites coalesce. The requirement of close proximity among the pore sites is more easily satisfied in smaller organelles than in outer cell membranes. Model predictions are in keeping with recent observations of cell damage to intracellular organelles (e.g., mitochondria), without irreversible shock at the outer membranes, by a nanosecond, high-intensity electric pulse. This mechanism also explains the greater damage from multiple electric shocks.

  16. EXERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED IRREVERSIBLE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOVIND MAHESHWARI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A reverse Carnot cycle forms the basis of all heat-pump cycles in providing heating and cooling loads. The optimal exergy-based Ecological analysis of an irreversible Heat-pump system with the losses of heat resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility has been carried out by taking into account Exergy based ecological function (E as an objective in the viewpoint of Finite-Time-Thermodynamics (FTT or Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM. Exergy is defined here as the power required minus the lost power. The effects of irreversibilities along with internal heat leakage on coefficient on the performance of the system are investigated. The exergy based Ecological function decreases steadily with irreversibilites and heat leakages in the system. COP in such a system increases with the cycle temperature ratio. If a heat pump cycle is optimized with above mentioned criterion, there is a trade-off between its coefficient of Performance and the heating load it provides.

  17. Thermo-economic modeling and optimization of an irreversible solar-driven heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An irreversible solar-driven heat engine is optimized. • Developed multi objective evolutionary approaches is used. • Power output, ecological function and thermal efficiency are optimized. - Abstract: The present paper illustrates a new thermo-economic performance analysis of an irreversible solar-driven heat engine. Moreover, aforementioned irreversible solar-driven heat engine is optimized by employing thermo-economic functions. With the help of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, an equivalent system is initially specified. To assess this goal, three objective functions that the normalized objective function associated to the power output (FP) and Normalized ecological function (FE) and thermal efficiency (ηth) are involved in optimization process simultaneously. Three objective functions are maximized at the same time. A multi objective evolutionary approaches (MOEAs) on the basis of NSGA-II method is employed in this work

  18. Maximum power, ecological function and efficiency of an irreversible Carnot cycle. A cost and effectiveness optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Morales-Gomez, J R

    2007-01-01

    In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the second and third optimizations, the optimum values for the time ratio and internal temperature ratio are substituted into the equation of power and, then, the optimizations with respect to the cost and effectiveness ratio of the heat exchangers are performed. Finally, a criterion of partial optimization for the class of irreversible Carnot engines is herein presented.

  19. Optimal fundamental characteristic of a quantum harmonic oscillator Carnot refrigerator with multi-irreversibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Liu, Lingen Chen, Feng Wu, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal performance of an irreversible quantum Carnot refrigerator with working medium consisting of many non-interacting harmonic oscillators is investigated in this paper. The quantum refrigerator cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two irreversible adiabatic processes, and the irreversibilities of heat resistance, internal friction and bypass heat leakage are considered. By using the quantum master equation, semi-group approach and finite time thermodynamics (FTT, this paper derives the cooling load and coefficient of performance (COP of the quantum refrigeration cycle and provides detailed numerical examples. At high temperature limit, the cooling load versus COP characteristic curves are plotted, and effects of internal friction and bypass heat leakage on the optimal performance of the quantum refrigerator are discussed. Three special cases, i.e., endoreversible, frictionless and without bypass heat leakage, are discussed in brief.

  20. Reconsideration of Criteria and Modeling in Order to Optimize the Efficiency of Irreversible Thermomechanical Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Feidt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to precise and complete one recently proposed in the literature and relative to a general criterion to maximize the first law efficiency of irreversible heat engines. It is shown that the previous proposal seems to be a particular case. A new proposal has been developed for a Carnot irreversible thermomechanical heat engine at steady state associated to two infinite heat reservoirs (hot source, and cold sink: this constitutes the studied system. The presence of heat leak is accounted for, with the most simple form, as is done generally in the literature. Irreversibility is modeled through , created internal entropy rate in the converter (engine, and , total created entropy rate in the system. Heat transfer laws are represented as general functions of temperatures. These concepts are particularized to the most common heat transfer law (linear one. Consequences of the proposal are examined; some new analytical results are proposed for efficiencies.

  1. Consequences of irreversibilities on optimal intertemporal CO2 emission policies under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how irreversibilities affect the optimal intertemporal accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere under uncertainty. More precisely, the evolution of the future temperature is assumed to follow an Ito-process with the drift provided by greenhouse gas emissions. This paper considers two different kinds of irreversibilities: of emissions (i.e., CO2 once dissolved into the air cannot be collected later) and of stopping. These issues are investigated first (in the tradition of the real option literature) as pure stopping problems and then allowing for a continuous choice of emissions. Implications for global warming are: an irreversible stopping of greenhouse gas emissions is never optimal in a continuous framework and yields in the real option framework a less conservationist stopping rule in which uncertainty increases the stopping threshold (i.e. works against conservation). (author)

  2. Reversible and irreversible sorption of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by sediments of an urban reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiting; Reinhard, Martin; Nguyen, Viet Tung; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2016-02-01

    Uncertainty about the extent to which contaminant sorption by suspended solids and bed sediments is irreversible is a major impediment for modeling and managing the water quality of surface water resources. This study examined reversible and irreversible sorption of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) to bed sediments from an urban reservoir. PFCs investigated include C4, C6, C8, C9 and C10 perfluoroalkanoate homologues (PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA, respectively) and perfluorooctane and hexane sulfonate (PFOS and PFHxS, respectively). Although sorption branches of the PFOS, PFNA and PFDA isotherms were nearly linear (implying a partitioning-like process), desorption experiments indicated that a fraction of the sorbed PFCs were entrapped and resistant to desorption. The hysteretic desorption branches were approximately linear. Irreversibility increased with chain length and was nearly complete for PFDA (thermodynamic irreversibility index (TII) 0.98). For the weakly sorbing PFOA and PFHxS, sorption was largely reversible. Data suggest that (1) for the strongly sorbing PFCs, e.g. PFNA, PFDA and PFOS, bed sediments acted predominantly as irreversible sinks, (2) aqueous concentrations of the moderately sorbing PFCs (PFOA and PFHxS) are buffered by reversibly sorbing suspended solids, and (3) the short-chain PFCs (PFBA and PFHxA) are not significantly sorbed and therefore not expected to be significantly influenced by sediment transport. Situations in which highly contaminated particles entering relatively clean water bodies, equilibrium is approached from the reverse (desorption) direction. For irreversibly sorbed contaminants field-based K(D) values will be higher than the K(D) values derived from laboratory sorption data obtained from forward sorption experiments. PMID:26521093

  3. Experimental studies on irreversibility of electrostatic adsorption of silica nanoparticles at solid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    Adsorption of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) at solid-liquid interface is a scientifically interesting and technologically important phenomenon due to its fundamental importance in many industrial, environmental, and biological processes, such as wastewater treatment, printing, coating of surfaces, chromatography, papermaking, or biocompatibility. The process is well understood theoretically by the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model, based on the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Irreversible adsorption is defined as a process in which, once adsorbed, a particle can neither desorb, nor to move laterally on the surface. However, published experimental data that verifies the irreversibility of particle adsorption are very limited. In this study, we demonstrate the irreversibility of electrostatically driven nanoparticle adsorption utilizing a carefully selected set of experiments. A simple method was employed by uniquely introducing Ag@SiO2 core/shell NPs to perform exchange adsorptions experiments. Stöber SiO2 NPs with a diameter of 50-80 nm were initially electrostatically adsorbed onto amino-functionalized silicon wafer substrates followed by the subsequent adsorption of Ag@SiO2 NPs. The Ag@SiO2 NPs have the same surface chemistry as the neat SiO2 NPs. For the second step the adsorption time was varied from 1 min to 1 week so as to get a thorough understanding of the process irreversibility. Surface coverage quantification has shown that the surface coverage of the initially adsorbed SiO2 NPs stays the same independent of the duration of the second step adsorption using the Ag@SiO2 core/shell NPs. This observation directly confirms the irreversibility of electrostatic adsorption of NPs. PMID:24559699

  4. Canonical formalism, fundamental equation, and generalized thermomechanics for irreversible fluids with heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Lagrangian with dissipative (e.g., Onsager's) potentials is constructed for the field description of irreversible heat-conducting fluids, off local equilibrium. Extremum conditions of action yield Clebsch representations of temperature, chemical potential, velocities, and generalized momenta, including a thermal momentum introduced recently [R. L. Selinger and F. R. S. Whitham, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 302, 1 (1968); S. Sieniutycz and R. S. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 40, 348 (1989)]. The basic question asked is ''To what extent may irreversibility, represented by a given form of the entropy source, influence the analytical form of the conservation laws for the energy and momentum?'' Noether's energy for a fluid with heat flow is obtained, which leads to a fundamental equation and extended Hamiltonian dynamics obeying the second law of thermodynamics. While in the case of the Onsager potentials this energy coincides numerically with the classical energy E, it contains an extra term (vanishing along the path) still contributing to an irreversible evolution. Components of the energy-momentum tensor preserve all terms regarded standardly as ''irreversible'' (heat, tangential stresses, etc.) generalized to the case when thermodynamics includes the state gradients and the so-called thermal phase, which we introduce here. This variable, the Lagrange multiplier of the entropy generation balance, is crucial for consistent treatment of irreversible processes via an action formalism. We conclude with the hypothesis that embedding the first and second laws in the context of the extremal behavior of action under irreversible conditions may imply accretion of an additional term to the classical energy

  5. Simulation of operational an accidental behaviour of modular high temperature reactors with Brayton cycle Power Conversion Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work analyses and investigates the behaviour of a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a Pebble Bed core connected to a Brayton cycle Power Conversion Unit (PCU) during operational and accident conditions. The modelling of a complete circuit including both the PCU and the Pebble Bed Reactor has been performed with the commercial thermal-fluid analysis simulation code Flownex. Flownex has been developed for High Temperature Pebble Bed Reactor applications, and has been exten-sively validated against other codes. As the reactor core model incorporated in Flownex is a simplified model based on 0D point kinetics, the extended 1D WKIND core model was implemented in the analysis calculations using a special coupling methodology. This study introduces a new sub-routine which enables the cou-pling of the WKIND reactor core model to the Flownex PCU model via an external interface. The interface facilitates the data exchange between the two codes, allowing for necessary manipulations and synchronisation of the coupled codes. By doing so, the 1D diffusion equation solution implemented in WKIND core model replaces the point kinetics model implemented in Flownex. This replacement allows for a detailed accurate solution even for very fast transients, through the treatment of the space-dependent heat conduction from the graphite matrix to helium. Flownex component models have been validated against the experimental results of the 50 MWel direct helium turbine facility Energieversorgung Oberhausen (EVO II). This provided the opportunity to validate Flownex calculations against experimental data derived from a large-scale helium Brayton cycle installation. Small differences observed in the results could be explained. Based upon steady state and transient analysis it is concluded that Flownex models simulate accurately the behaviour of the components integrated in the EVO II plant. Such models could be applied to analyse the transient behaviour of the total system of the

  6. Effect of heat transfer law on the finite-time exergoeconomic performance of a generalized irreversible carnot heat engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang, Lingeng Chen, Guozhong Chai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical expression for profit rate of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine cycle based on a generalized radiative heat transfer law is derived by applying the finite time exergoeconomic method, taking into account several additional irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, heat leakage and other undesirable irreversible factors. The compromise optimization between economics (profit rate and the efficiency was obtained by searching the efficiency at maximum profit rate, which is termed as the finite time exergoeconomic performance bound.

  7. Effect of heat transfer law on the finite-time exergoeconomic performance of a generalized irreversible carnot heat engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhang, Lingeng Chen, Guozhong Chai

    2014-01-01

    The analytical expression for profit rate of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine cycle based on a generalized radiative heat transfer law is derived by applying the finite time exergoeconomic method, taking into account several additional irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, heat leakage and other undesirable irreversible factors. The compromise optimization between economics (profit rate) and the efficiency was obtained by searching the efficiency at maximum profit rate, whi...

  8. Irreversibility and the Arrow of Time in a Quenched Quantum System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalhão, T B; Souza, A M; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Paternostro, M; Lutz, E; Serra, R M

    2015-11-01

    Irreversibility is one of the most intriguing concepts in physics. While microscopic physical laws are perfectly reversible, macroscopic average behavior has a preferred direction of time. According to the second law of thermodynamics, this arrow of time is associated with a positive mean entropy production. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance setup, we measure the nonequilibrium entropy produced in an isolated spin-1/2 system following fast quenches of an external magnetic field. We experimentally demonstrate that it is equal to the entropic distance, expressed by the Kullback-Leibler divergence, between a microscopic process and its time reversal. Our result addresses the concept of irreversibility from a microscopic quantum standpoint. PMID:26588367

  9. Ecological performance of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with complex heat transfer law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal ecological performance of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with the losses of heat-resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility, in which the transfer between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs obeys a complex heat transfer law, including generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the power and entropy production rate of the heat engine. The effects of heat transfer laws and various loss terms are analyzed. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures.

  10. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation for Recurrent Thyroid Cancer--A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Martijn R; Scheffer, Hester J; de Bree, Remco; Sedee, Robert-Jan

    2015-08-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with a small locoregional, histopathologically proven, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography-avid recurrence of follicular thyroid carcinoma in the left subglottic space after extensive surgical resection, adjuvant radioactive iodine therapy, and external beam radiation therapy. Because all established focal therapies were contraindicated, percutaneous irreversible electroporation was performed without complications. Follow-up imaging at 7 months showed a small ablation scar without signs for residual vital tumor tissue. Irreversible electroporation may be a viable treatment option for selected cases of recurring head and neck tumors that are unsuitable for other local treatments. PMID:26210244

  11. Eigenvalue analysis of an irreversible random walk with skew detailed balance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuji; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-04-01

    An irreversible Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm with skew detailed balance conditions originally proposed by Turitsyn et al. is extended to general discrete systems on the basis of the Metropolis-Hastings scheme. To evaluate the efficiency of our proposed method, the relaxation dynamics of the slowest mode and the asymptotic variance are studied analytically in a random walk on one dimension. It is found that the performance in irreversible MCMC methods violating the detailed balance condition is improved by appropriately choosing parameters in the algorithm.

  12. Comparative performance analysis of irreversible Dual and Diesel cycles under maximum power conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a comparative performance analysis and optimisation based on maximum power and maximum thermal efficiency criteria have been performed for irreversible Dual and Diesel cycles. Optimal performance and design parameters, such as pressure ratio, cut-off ratio and extreme temperature ratio, of the cycles has been derived analytically and compared with each other based on maximum power (MP) and the corresponding thermal efficiency criteria. The effects of the internal irreversibilities of the cycles on overall performance in terms of isentropic efficiencies for the compression and expansion processes are also investigated. The obtained results may provide a general theoretical tool for the optimal design and operation of real engines

  13. Irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl analogues of mifentidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, H M; Donetti, A; Kramer, K; Bietti, G; Cereda, E; Dubini, D; Mondini, M; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1990-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that bidentate hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the interaction of imidazolylphenylformamidines with the H2-receptor. The present study, in which the degree of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl substituted mifentidine analogues was determined on the spontaneously beating right atrium of the male guinea-pig, lends further support to this hypothesis. In solution the EE/EZ ratio is different for the four isomeric butylated mifentidine analogues. The rank order of the percentage of E,E conformation, which favors a bidentate interaction, of the formamidine moiety parallels the rank order of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism. PMID:1973582

  14. Lysine acetylation can generate highly charged enzymes with increased resistance toward irreversible inactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Bryan F; Schneider, Gregory F.; Bilgiçer, Başar; Kaufman, George K.; Neveu, John M.; Lane, William S.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that the acetylation of lysine ε-NH3 + groups of α-amylase—one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes used in industry—produces highly negatively charged variants that are enzymatically active, thermostable, and more resistant than the wild-type enzyme to irreversible inactivation on exposure to denaturing conditions (e.g., 1 h at 90°C in solutions containing 100-mM sodium dodecyl sulfate). Acetylation also protected the enzyme against irreversible inactivation by the ...

  15. The protein irreversible denaturation studied by means of the bending vibrational mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Vasi, Cirino; Vasi, Sebastiano; Dugo, Giacomo; Mallamace, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    We study by means of the infrared bending vibrational mode the microscopic mechanisms that are at the base of protein irreversible denaturation. In particular, we follow the thermal evolution of the Amide I and II vibrational modes of lysozyme residuals from ambient temperature toward the temperature of irreversible unfolding. Our results indicate that the thermal changes of the coupling, by means of the hydrogen bond, between hydration water molecules and the different chemical groups of the protein are the main microscopic mechanisms underlying the unfolding process.

  16. Irreversibility and the Arrow of Time in a Quenched Quantum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalhão, T. B.; Souza, A. M.; Sarthour, R. S.; Oliveira, I. S.; Paternostro, M.; Lutz, E.; Serra, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Irreversibility is one of the most intriguing concepts in physics. While microscopic physical laws are perfectly reversible, macroscopic average behavior has a preferred direction of time. According to the second law of thermodynamics, this arrow of time is associated with a positive mean entropy production. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance setup, we measure the nonequilibrium entropy produced in an isolated spin-1 /2 system following fast quenches of an external magnetic field. We experimentally demonstrate that it is equal to the entropic distance, expressed by the Kullback-Leibler divergence, between a microscopic process and its time reversal. Our result addresses the concept of irreversibility from a microscopic quantum standpoint.

  17. Off-design performance prediction of Radial Compressor of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAIST research team suggested a new concept of SMR, which utilizes S-CO2 as the operating fluid and coolant. It was named as KAIST MMR(Micro Modular Reactor). Compared with existing SMR concepts, this reactor has advantages of achieving smaller volume of power conversion unit (PCU) containing the core and PCU in one vessel for the complete modularization passive air-cooling system more flexible installation in the inland area. In previous study, performance of turbomachinery in PCU was considered only on-design. But, off-design performances of each component can affect not only PCU but also the core because this reactor adopts the direct S-CO2 loop in GFR. Nuclear system is applied by relatively conservative criteria of safety. Thus, off-design performances of each component should be considered in order to be more realistic reactor. The suggested turbomachinery size of the S-CO2 cycle is relatively smaller than those of helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle. Performance analysis of compressor is conducted by KAIST-TMD in case of on-design and off-design. Compressor efficiency in on-design conditions is obtained 84.51 %. But compressor performance in off-design conditions decreases certainly. This means that more heat than existing prediction is rejected by air-cooling system. KAIST-TMD will be verified with more experiment data for providing the results of more accurate analysis. Also, this code will be modified to couple with safety analysis codes and S-CO2 cycle analysis codes in the future. Furthermore, authors will consider aerodynamic performance analysis and various losses for more realization

  18. Design of a three-phase, 15-kilovolt-ampere static inverter for motor-starting a Brayton space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, R. J.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a three-phase, 400-Hz, 15-kVA static inverter for motor-starting the 2- to 15-kWe Brayton electrical space power system is described. The inverter operates from a nominal 56-V dc source to provide a 28-V, rms, quasi-square-wave output. The inverter is capable of supplying a 200-A peak current. Integrated circuitry is used to generate the three-phase, 400-Hz reference signals. Performance data for a drive stage that improves switching speed and provides efficient operation over a range of output current and drive supply voltage are presented. A transformerless, transistor output stage is used.

  19. Superpositions in Prigogine's approach to irreversibility for physical and financial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carfi', David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we apply the theory of superpositions for Radon measures on compact subsets of the real Euclidean n-space Rn to Prigogine's approach in the study of irreversible processes, which emerge in physics and in economics, showing that the superposition is a natural rigorous tool feasible to face the problem.

  20. Relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes I. Heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow and chemical reactions; formal part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, G.A.; Groot, S.R. de; Mazur, P.

    1953-01-01

    The relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes is developed for an isotropic mixture in which heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow, chemical reactions and their cross-phenomena may occur. The four-vectors, representing the relative flows of matter, are defined in such a way that, in t

  1. Pulpitis irreversible como forma de presentación de un odontoma

    OpenAIRE

    Berástegui, Esther; Buenechea Imaz, Ramón

    1997-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de odontoma compuesto que provocó pulpitis irreversible en el incisivo central superior derecho (1,1) en una joven de 20 años. El tratamiento fue la biopulpectomía total y extirpación quirúrgica del tumor.

  2. Revisiting the Glansdorff–Prigogine criterion for stability within irreversible thermodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 6 (2015), s. 1286-1299. ISSN 0022-4715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : irreversible processes * thermodynamic stability * excess entropy production * nonequilibrium free energy * Clausius heat theorem Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.202, year: 2014

  3. Irreversibility and multiplicity: two criteria for the disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two criteria are suggested for comparing waste management methods: technical irreversibility and site multiplicity. These criteria can be used to reduce future risk in the face of inherent uncertainty and to provide for safe disposal without requiring guaranteed future ability to recognize, detect or repair areas of failure

  4. Unifying principles of irreversibility minimization for efficiency maximization in steady-flow chemically-reactive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems research has led to the conception and development of various steady-flow, chemically-reactive, engine cycles for stationary power generation and propulsion. However, the question that remains unanswered is: What is the maximum-efficiency steady-flow chemically-reactive engine architecture permitted by physics? On the one hand the search for higher-efficiency cycles continues, often involving newer processes and devices (fuel cells, carbon separation, etc.); on the other hand the design parameters for existing cycles are continually optimized in response to improvements in device engineering. In this paper we establish that any variation in engine architecture—parametric change or process-sequence change—contributes to an efficiency increase via one of only two possible ways to minimize total irreversibility. These two principles help us unify our understanding from a large number of parametric analyses and cycle-optimization studies for any steady-flow chemically-reactive engine, and set a framework to systematically identify maximum-efficiency engine architectures. - Highlights: • A unified thermodynamic model to study chemically-reactive engine architectures is developed. • All parametric analyses of efficiency are unified by two irreversibility-minimization principles. • Variations in internal energy transfers yield a net work increase that is greater than engine irreversibility reduced. • Variations in external energy transfers yield a net work increase that is lesser than engine irreversibility reduced

  5. How to account for irreversibility in integrated assessment of climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to account for irreversibility in integrated assessment of climate change? This Ph. D. thesis in Economics balances discounting, technical progress and the inertia of existing capital stock against uncertainty and the inertia of socio-economic systems to examine the issue of near term limitations of greenhouse gases emissions. After a general overview in chapter 2, and a more historical presentation of the debates in chapter 3, chapter 4 proceeds to review a large number of integrated assessment models. Chapter 5 introduces a Model on the Dynamics of Inertia and Adaptability of energy systems: DIAM, used to discuss how much previous studies might have overestimated the long term costs of CO2 limitations and underestimated adjustment costs. It shows that, given a target date for atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation, a higher inertia implies a lower optimal concentration trajectory. In a sequential decision framework, chapter 6 shows that current uncertainties about which CO2 concentration ceiling would not present dangerous interference with the climate system justifies precautionary action. Finally, chapter 7 uses the irreversibility effect theory to define formally situations of decision under controversy and compare the irreversibility of CO2 accumulation with the irreversibility of investments needed to moderate it. An option value for greenhouse gases emissions limitations is computed. (author)

  6. Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

  7. Use of atomic force microscopy to quantify slip irreversibility in a nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risbet, M.; Feaugas, X.; Guillemer-Neel, C.; Clavel, M

    2003-09-15

    Atomic force microscopy was used to study the evolution of surface deformation during cyclic loading in a nickel-base superalloy. Cyclic slip irreversibility has been investigated using quantitative evaluation of extrusion heights and inter-band spacing. This approach is applied to formulate a microscopic crack initiation law, compared to a classical Manson-Coffin relationship.

  8. Use of atomic force microscopy to quantify slip irreversibility in a nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic force microscopy was used to study the evolution of surface deformation during cyclic loading in a nickel-base superalloy. Cyclic slip irreversibility has been investigated using quantitative evaluation of extrusion heights and inter-band spacing. This approach is applied to formulate a microscopic crack initiation law, compared to a classical Manson-Coffin relationship

  9. A computational workflow for the design of irreversible inhibitors of protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Alberto; Sgobba, Miriam; Parenti, Marco Daniele; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Forestiero, Rosetta; Percivalle, Claudia; Conte, Pier Franco; Freccero, Mauro; Rastelli, Giulio

    2010-03-01

    Design of irreversible inhibitors is an emerging and relatively less explored strategy for the design of protein kinase inhibitors. In this paper, we present a computational workflow that was specifically conceived to assist such design. The workflow takes the form of a multi-step procedure that includes: the creation of a database of already known reversible inhibitors of protein kinases, the selection of the most promising scaffolds that bind one or more desired kinase templates, the modification of the scaffolds by introduction of chemically reactive groups (suitable cysteine traps) and the final evaluation of the reversible and irreversible protein-ligand complexes with molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy predictions. Most of these steps were automated. In order to prove that this is viable, the workflow was tested on a database of known inhibitors of ERK2, a protein kinase possessing a cysteine in the ATP site. The modeled ERK2-ligand complexes and the values of the estimated binding free energies of the putative ligands provide useful indicators of their aptitude to bind reversibly and irreversibly to the protein kinase. Moreover, the computational data are used to rank the ligands according to their computed binding free energies and their ability to bind specific protein residues in the reversible and irreversible complexes, thereby providing a useful decision-making tool for each step of the design. In this work we present the overall procedure and the first proof of concept results. PMID:20306284

  10. Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael; Gallucci, V. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes the application of irreversible thermodynamics to biology. It begins with…

  11. Irreversible thermodynamics of dark energy on the entropy-corrected apparent horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K; Sahraei, N [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, M, E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.i, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.p [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics (CAMP), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    We study the irreversible (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe containing only dark energy. Using the modified entropy-area relation that is motivated by loop quantum gravity, we calculate the entropy-corrected form of the apparent horizon of the FRW universe.

  12. Chemical introduction of the green fluorescence: imaging of cysteine cathepsins by an irreversibly locked GFP fluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizler, Maxim; Yampolsky, Ilia V; Baranov, Mikhail S; Stirnberg, Marit; Gütschow, Michael

    2013-09-21

    An activity-based probe, containing an irreversibly locked GFP-like fluorophore, was synthesized and evaluated as an inhibitor of human cathepsins and, as exemplified with cathepsin K, it proved to be suitable for ex vivo imaging and quantification of cysteine cathepsins by SDS-PAGE. PMID:23912233

  13. Imaging of irreversible loss of brain function; Bildgebende Verfahren zur Diagnostik des irreversiblen Hirnfunktionsausfalles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfermann, H. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Schober, O. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2016-01-15

    The updated guidelines for the determination of irreversible loss of brain function include a substantial innovation, i. e., the use of CT angiography as a supplementary technical examination. Adherence to a standardized protocol is the prerequisite for the application of CT angiography. The guidelines for standardized execution of perfusion scintigraphy are unchanged and still valid. Requirements regarding the quality of examining physicians are specified.

  14. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kang Ma; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun

    2009-10-01

    Finite-time exergoeconomic performance of a Newtonian heat transfer law system generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle model with finite-rate heat transfer, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is presented in this paper. The operation of the generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The performance optimization of the cycle is performed by taking profit as the objective. The optimal profit rate, optimal COP (coefficient of performance), as well as the relation between the optimal profit rate and COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to obtain the compromise optimization between economics (profit rate) and the energy utilization factor (COP) for the cycle, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit rate, which is termed as the finite time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, the effects of various factors, including heat leakage, internal irreversibility and the price ratio, on the profit rate performance of the cycle are analysed by detailed numerical examples.

  15. A Parametric Study Delineating Irreversible Electroporation from Thermal Damage Based on a Minimally Invasive Intracranial Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis Thomas L; Neal Robert E; Rossmeisl John H; Garcia Paulo A; Davalos Rafael V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new minimally invasive technique to kill undesirable tissue in a non-thermal manner. In order to maximize the benefits from an IRE procedure, the pulse parameters and electrode configuration must be optimized to achieve complete coverage of the targeted tissue while preventing thermal damage due to excessive Joule heating. M...

  16. Quantum thermodynamics: Microscopic foundations of entropy and of entropy generation by irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the physical significance of entropy? What is the physical origin of irreversibility? Do entropy and irreversibility exist only for complex and macroscopic systems? Most physicists still accept and teach that the rationalization of these fundamental questions is given by Statistical Mechanics. Indeed, for everyday laboratory physics, the mathematical formalism of Statistical Mechanics (canonical and grand-canonical, Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions allows a successful description of the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of matter, including entropy values. However, as already recognized by Schrodinger in 1936, Statistical Mechanics is impaired by conceptual ambiguities and logical inconsistencies, both in its explanation of the meaning of entropy and in its implications on the concept of state of a system. An alternative theory has been developed by Gyftopoulos, Hatsopoulos and the present author to eliminate these stumbling conceptual blocks while maintaining the mathematical formalism so successful in applications. To resolve both the problem of the meaning of entropy and that of the origin of irreversibility we have built entropy and irreversibility into the laws of microscopic physics. The result is a theory, that we call Quantum Thermodynamics, that has all the necessary features to combine Mechanics and Thermodynamics uniting all the successful results of both theories, eliminating the logical inconsistencies of Statistical Mechanics and the paradoxes on irreversibility, and providing an entirely new perspective on the microscopic origin of irreversibility, nonlinearity (therefore including chaotic behavior and maximal-entropy-generation nonequilibrium dynamics. In this paper we discuss the background and formalism of Quantum Thermodynamics including its nonlinear equation of motion and the main general results. Our objective is to show in a not-too-technical manner that this theory provides indeed a

  17. Using irreversible compression in digital radiology: a preliminary study of the opinions of radiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Euclid

    2006-03-01

    The large volumes of digital images produced by digital imaging modalities in Radiology have provided the motivation for the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in an effort to provide an organized mechanism for digital image management. The development of more sophisticated methods of digital image acquisition (Multislice CT and Digital Mammography, for example), as well as the implementation and performance of PACS and Teleradiology systems in a health care environment, have created challenges in the area of image compression with respect to storing and transmitting digital images. Image compression can be reversible (lossless) or irreversible (lossy). While in the former, there is no loss of information, the latter presents concerns since there is a loss of information. This loss of information from diagnostic medical images is of primary concern not only to radiologists, but also to patients and their physicians. In 1997, Goldberg pointed out that "there is growing evidence that lossy compression can be applied without significantly affecting the diagnostic content of images... there is growing consensus in the radiologic community that some forms of lossy compression are acceptable". The purpose of this study was to explore the opinions of expert radiologists, and related professional organizations on the use of irreversible compression in routine practice The opinions of notable radiologists in the US and Canada are varied indicating no consensus of opinion on the use of irreversible compression in primary diagnosis, however, they are generally positive on the notion of the image storage and transmission advantages. Almost all radiologists are concerned with the litigation potential of an incorrect diagnosis based on irreversible compressed images. The survey of several radiology professional and related organizations reveals that no professional practice standards exist for the use of irreversible compression. Currently, the

  18. Multi-objective optimization of an irreversible Stirling cryogenic refrigerator cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A parametric investigation of irreversible Stirling cryogenic refrigerator cycles is presented. • Both internal and external irreversibilities are included in this study, moreover, heat capacities of external reservoirs are involved. • Multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II approach is utilized. • Three robust decision making approaches are utilized to determine final optimum solution. - Abstract: The main aim of this research article is a parametric demonstration of irreversible Stirling cryogenic refrigerator cycles that includes irreversibilities such as external and internal irreversibilities. In addition, through this study, finite heat capacities of external reservoirs are considered accordingly. To reach the addressed goal of this research, three objective functions that include the input power of the Stirling refrigerator, the coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling load (RL) have been involved in optimization process simultaneously. The first aforementioned objective function has to minimize; the rest objective functions, on the other hand, have to maximize in parallel optimization process. Developed multi objective evolutionary approaches (MOEAs) based on NSGA-II algorithm is implemented throughout this work. Moreover, cold-side’s effectiveness of the heat exchanger, hot-side’s effectiveness of the heat exchanger, heat source’s heat capacitance rate, heat sink’s capacitance rate, temperature ratio ((Th)/(Tc) ), temperature of cold side are assigned as decision variables for decision making procedure. To gain a robust decision, different decision making approaches that include TOPSIS, LINMAP and fuzzy Bellman–Zadeh are used. Pareto optimal frontier was determined precisely and then three final outputs have been gained by means of the mentioned decision making approaches

  19. Reversible and irreversible electroporation of cell suspensions flowing through a localized DC electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korohoda, Włodzimierz; Grys, Maciej; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2013-03-01

    Experiments on reversible and irreversible cell electroporation were carried out with an experimental setup based on a standard apparatus for horizontal electrophoresis, a syringe pump with regulated cell suspension flow velocity and a dcEF power supply. Cells in suspension flowing through an orifice in a barrier inserted into the electrophoresis apparatus were exposed to defined localized dcEFs in the range of 0-1000 V/cm for a selected duration in the range 10-1000 ms. This method permitted the determination of the viability of irreversibly electroperforated cells. It also showed that the uptake by reversibly electroperforated cells of fluorescent dyes (calcein, carboxyfluorescein, Alexa Fluor 488 Phalloidin), which otherwise do not penetrate cell membranes, was dependent upon the dcEF strength and duration in any given single electrical field exposure. The method yields reproducible results, makes it easy to load large volumes of cell suspensions with membrane non-penetrating substances, and permits the elimination of irreversibly electroporated cells of diameter greater than desired. The results concur with and elaborate on those in earlier reports on cell electroporation in commercially available electroporators. They proved once more that the observed cell perforation does not depend upon the thermal effects of the electric current upon cells. In addition, the method eliminates many of the limitations of commercial electroporators and disposable electroporation chambers. It permits the optimization of conditions in which reversible and irreversible electroporation are separated. Over 90% of reversibly electroporated cells remain viable after one short (less than 400 ms) exposure to the localized dcEF. Experiments were conducted with the AT-2 cancer prostate cell line, human skin fibroblasts and human red blood cells, but they could be run with suspensions of any cell type. It is postulated that the described method could be useful for many purposes in

  20. [Determination of irreversibility of clinical brain death. Electroencephalography and evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A

    2016-02-01

    Principally, in the fourth update of the rules for the procedure to finally determine the irreversible cessation of function of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem, the importance of an electroencephalogram (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are confirmed. This paper presents the reliability and validity of the electrophysiological diagnosis, discusses the amendments in the fourth version of the guidelines and introduces the practical application, problems and sources of error.An EEG is the best established supplementary diagnostic method for determining the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. It should be noted that residual brain activity can often persist for many hours after the onset of brain death syndrome, particularly in patients with primary brainstem lesions. The derivation and analysis of an EEG requires a high level of expertise to be able to safely distinguish artefacts from primary brain activity. The registration of EEGs to demonstrate the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome is extremely time consuming.The BAEPs can only be used to confirm the irreversibility of brain death syndrome in serial examinations or in the rare cases of a sustained wave I or sustained waves I and II. Very often, an investigation cannot be reliably performed because of existing sound conduction disturbances or failure of all potentials even before the onset of clinical brain death syndrome. This explains why BAEPs are only used in exceptional cases.The SEPs of the median nerve can be very reliably derived, are technically simple and with few sources of error. A serial investigation is not required and the time needed for examination is short. For these reasons SEPs are given preference over EEGs and BAEPs for establishing the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. PMID:26785843

  1. Development of the ANL plant dynamics code and control strategies for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and code validation with data from the Sandia small-scale supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the ongoing development of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code (PDC), the ongoing investigation and development of control strategies, and the analysis of system transient behavior for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycles. Several code modifications have been introduced during FY2011 to extend the range of applicability of the PDC and to improve its calculational stability and speed. A new and innovative approach was developed to couple the Plant Dynamics Code for S-CO2 cycle calculations with SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor Code System calculations for the transient system level behavior on the reactor side of a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) or Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The new code system allows use of the full capabilities of both codes such that whole-plant transients can now be simulated without additional user interaction. Several other code modifications, including the introduction of compressor surge control, a new approach for determining the solution time step for efficient computational speed, an updated treatment of S-CO2 cycle flow mergers and splits, a modified enthalpy equation to improve the treatment of negative flow, and a revised solution of the reactor heat exchanger (RHX) equations coupling the S-CO2 cycle to the reactor, were introduced to the PDC in FY2011. All of these modifications have improved the code computational stability and computational speed, while not significantly affecting the results of transient calculations. The improved PDC was used to continue the investigation of S-CO2 cycle control and transient behavior. The coupled PDC-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code capability was used to study the dynamic characteristics of a S-CO2 cycle coupled to a SFR plant. Cycle control was investigated in terms of the ability of the cycle to respond to a linear reduction in the electrical grid demand from 100% to 0% at a rate of 5%/minute. It was determined that

  2. Development of the ANL plant dynamics code and control strategies for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and code validation with data from the Sandia small-scale supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle test loop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-11-07

    Significant progress has been made in the ongoing development of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code (PDC), the ongoing investigation and development of control strategies, and the analysis of system transient behavior for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles. Several code modifications have been introduced during FY2011 to extend the range of applicability of the PDC and to improve its calculational stability and speed. A new and innovative approach was developed to couple the Plant Dynamics Code for S-CO{sub 2} cycle calculations with SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor Code System calculations for the transient system level behavior on the reactor side of a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) or Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The new code system allows use of the full capabilities of both codes such that whole-plant transients can now be simulated without additional user interaction. Several other code modifications, including the introduction of compressor surge control, a new approach for determining the solution time step for efficient computational speed, an updated treatment of S-CO{sub 2} cycle flow mergers and splits, a modified enthalpy equation to improve the treatment of negative flow, and a revised solution of the reactor heat exchanger (RHX) equations coupling the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to the reactor, were introduced to the PDC in FY2011. All of these modifications have improved the code computational stability and computational speed, while not significantly affecting the results of transient calculations. The improved PDC was used to continue the investigation of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and transient behavior. The coupled PDC-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code capability was used to study the dynamic characteristics of a S-CO{sub 2} cycle coupled to a SFR plant. Cycle control was investigated in terms of the ability of the cycle to respond to a linear reduction in the electrical grid demand from 100% to 0% at a rate of 5

  3. Lie-Admissible Invariant Origin of Irreversibility for Matter and Antimatter at the Classical and Operator Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    2006-01-01

    It was generally believed throughout the 20-th century that irreversibility is a purely classical event without operator counterpart. However, a classical irreversible system cannot be consistently decomposed into a finite number of reversible quantum particles (and, vice versa), thus establishing that the origin of irreversibility is basically unknown at the dawn of the 21-th century. To resolve this problem, we adopt the historical an- alytic representation of irreversibility by Lagrange and Hamilton with external terms in their analytic equations; we show that, when properly written, the brackets of the time evolution characterize covering Lie-admissible algebras; we show that the for- malism has a fully consistent operator counterpart given by the Lie-admissible branch of hadronic mechanics; we identify catastrophic mathematical and physical inconsis- tencies when irreversible formulations are treated with the conventional mathematics used for reversible systems; and show that, when the dynamical equation...

  4. Suppression of irreversible capacity loss in Li-rich layered oxide by fluorine doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jay Hyok; Kapylou, Andrei; Choi, Hee Sung; Yu, Byong Yong; Matulevich, Evegeniya; Kang, Sun Ho

    2016-05-01

    Li[Li1/6Ni1/6Co1/6Mn1/2]O2-xFx (x = 0.00 to 0.07) materials were synthesized with low temperature heat treatment (700 °C) and their electrochemical performances were evaluated. With the addition of fluorine, the reversible capacity significantly increased as the irreversibility was suppressed during the first cycle. The reduction of irreversibility was mainly attributed to the enhanced first cycle efficiency of Li2MnO3-like component after the fluorine addition. By combining results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analyses, and first principle calculations, it was proposed that the presence of fluorine facilitated the reduction of cobalt and manganese ions in Li-rich layered oxide, and that the reduced transition metal (TM) ions suppressed structural changes.

  5. Irreversible electrical manipulation of magnetization on BiFeO{sub 3}-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingyu, E-mail: xuqingyu@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: jdu@nju.edu.cn; Xu, Zhenyu [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); He, Maocheng; Du, Jun, E-mail: xuqingyu@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: jdu@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cao, Yanqiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2015-05-07

    We prepared several heterostructures, Co/Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}FeO{sub 3} on surface oxidized Si or (111) SrTiO{sub 3} and NiFe/Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}FeO{sub 3} on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using LaNiO{sub 3} as bottom electrode. With different strategies of voltage application, the exchange bias field H{sub E} decreased with increasing voltage irreversibly for all the heterostructures at room temperature. The chemical state at the NiFe/Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}FeO{sub 3} interface was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after the electrical manipulation. The oxidization of the metallic ferromagnetic layer at interface after the electrical manipulation has been confirmed, which might explain the irreversibility.

  6. Local Stability Analysis for a Thermo-Economic Irreversible Heat Engine Model under Different Performance Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Barranco-Jiménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent work reported a local stability analysis of a thermo-economical model of an irreversible heat engine working under maximum power conditions. That work showed that after small perturbations to the working temperatures, the system decreases exponentially to the steady state characterized by two different relaxation times. This work extends the local stability analysis considering other performance regimes: the Maximum Efficient Power (MEP and the Ecological Function (EF regimes. The relaxation time was shown under different performance regimes as functions of the temperature ratio τ = T2/T1, with T1 > T2, the fractional fuel cost f and a lumped parameter R related to the internal irreversibilities degree. Under Maximum Efficient Power conditions the relaxation times are less than the relaxation times under both Maximum Ecological function and Maximum Power. At Maximum Power Efficient conditions, the model gives better stability conditions than for the other two regimes.

  7. Coefficient of performance under optimized figure of merit in minimally nonlinear irreversible refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Y.; Okuda, K.; Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    We apply the model of minimally nonlinear irreversible heat engines developed by Izumida and Okuda (EPL, 97 (2012) 10004) to refrigerators. The model assumes extended Onsager relations including a new nonlinear term accounting for dissipation effects. The bounds for the optimized regime under an appropriate figure of merit and the tight-coupling condition are analyzed and successfully compared with those obtained previously for low-dissipation Carnot refrigerators in the finite-time thermodynamics framework. Besides, we study the bounds for the nontight-coupling case numerically. We also introduce a leaky low-dissipation Carnot refrigerator and show that it serves as an example of the minimally nonlinear irreversible refrigerator, by calculating its Onsager coefficients explicitly.

  8. Thermo-economic and thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a two-stage irreversible heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of a two-stage irreversible heat pump is performed. • The latter is achieved using NSGA algorithm and thermodynamic analysis. • 3 answers given by the decision-making methods selected. - Abstract: This research study mainly deals with a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling and thermo-economic optimization of an irreversible absorption heat pump. For the optimization goal, various objective functions are considered comprising the specific heating load, coefficient of performance (COP) and the thermo-economic benchmark (F). In order to specify the optimum design variables, non-dominant sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) is applied satisfying some restrictions. In this optimization study, all three objective functions (e.g. COP, F and specific heating load) are maximized. In addition, decision making is carried out using three well-suited approaches namely LINAMP and TOPSIS and FUZZY. Finally, sensitivity analysis and error analysis are conducted in order to improve understanding of the system performance

  9. Irreversible Evolution of a Wave Packet in The Rigged Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcucci, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that a state with complex energy cannot be the eigenstate of a self-adjoint operator, like the Hamiltonian. Resonances, i.e. states with exponentially decaying observables, are not vectors belonging to the conventional Hilbert space. One can describe these resonances in an unusual mathematical formalism, based on the so-called Rigged Hilbert Space (RHS). In the RHS, the states with complex energy are denoted as Gamow Vectors (GV), and they model decay processes. We study GV of the Reversed Harmonic Oscillator (RHO), and we analytically and numerically investigate the unstable evolution of wave packets. We introduce the background function to study initial data not composed only by a summation of GV and we analyse different wave packets belonging to specific function spaces. Our work furnishes support to the idea that irreversible wave propagations can be investigated by means of Rigged Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics and provides insights for the experimental investigation of irreversible dyn...

  10. Effects of Detunings on Dynamically Induced Irreversibility in Coherently Driven Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiang-Ming; PENG Jin-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    Effects of detunings on dynamically induced irreversibilityis studied for coherently driven V systems in which there is no conventional source of irreversible population pumping. For atomic barium (γ1/γ2 = 400 》 1, where γ1 and γ2 are the rates of the spontaneous decay from the excited states 6s6p 1P1 and 6s6p 3p1 to the ground state 6s2 1So, espectively), the strong irreversibility is found to lead to a maximum inversion of 0.77 [only 0.1 in Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 4311]. The maximum population inversion requires relatively strong fields coupled respectively to two transitions, a disparity in two atomic decay rates, and the atom-field detunings of opposite signs. However, it is also shown that even in the cases where two detunings have the same sign, or where two decay rates are equal, population inversion takes place.

  11. Irreversible Change of the Pore Structure of ZIF-8 in Carbon Dioxide Capture with Water Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huang; Guo, Ping; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa;

    2016-01-01

    showed an irreversible change of its framework, which occurs during the CO2 capture process. It was found that there is an irreversible chemical reaction among ZIF-8, water, and CO2, which creates both zinc carbonate (or zinc carbonate hydroxides) and single 2-methylimidazole crystals, and therefore the......The performance of zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) for CO2 capture under three different conditions (wetted ZIF-8, ZIF-8/water slurry, and ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry) was systemically investigated. This investigation included the study of the pore structure stability of ZIF-8 by using X...... pore structure of ZIF-8 collapses. It is suggested therefore that care must be taken when using ZIF-8 or products containing ZIF-8 for gas capture, gas separation, or other applications where both water and acid gases coexist....

  12. Problems of saturation of the excitation and creation of irreversible changes in solid after laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of modeling of processes of the irreversible interaction light and solid is discussed. This problem is connected with the processes of the saturation the excitation of respective scattering centers. The possible cascades of these processes are analyzed. The correlation between nonequilibrium and irreversible phenomena are analyzed. Two-dimensional sphalerite lattice of InSb was used for the kinetic modeling of the hierarchic processes of saturation of the excitation respective chemical bonds. The cascade characteristics of these processes were estimated for the cylindrical form of 'zone of energy scattering' of photon. The comparative analyses these results with results, which were received with the help straight method and method the spherical form of 'zone of energy scattering' of photon, is represented too. The good concordance of experimental and theoretical data was received. (authors)

  13. Lagrangian formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” system. The Lagrangian is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the Lagrangian. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such that there exists an “integral of evolution” which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium

  14. Lagrangian formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, K S

    2015-05-28

    We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called "mirror-image" system. The Lagrangian is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the Lagrangian. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such that there exists an "integral of evolution" which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium. PMID:26026433

  15. Labile phytochrome and photoperiodic flower induction in Pharbitis nil Chois. The irreversible phytochrome hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Cymerski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Pharbitis nil cultivated under non-inductive conditions of white light were subjected to generative induction applying one 16-hour-long period of inductive night. During the eighth hour the night was interrupted with 1 min of red light pulse which completely inhibited the flowering. Treating the plants with KCN blocked the inhibiting effect of red light. Because KCN lowers considerably the rate of destruction of labile Pfd in some plant systems, it seems probable that red light night-break irradiation (without KCN, which blocked the flowering, leads also to the accumulation of unknown Pfd destruction products (irreversible phytochrome. It also suggests that it is not the labile PfrI itself but the products of its irreversible transformation that could be active in the photoperiodic control of flowering.

  16. Irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources (Revision 1) - June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with 10 CFR Part 51, Licensing and Regulatory Policy and Procedures for Environmental Protection, applicants are required to discuss any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that would be involved in a proposed action, should it be implemented. The construction and operation of nuclear power stations involve commitments of such resources as water, fuel and materials. The guide presented identifies a report on material resources that forms a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for required discussions of irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources involved in the construction of a 1000 MWe pressurized water reactor. The guide describes numerical estimates useful in all such discussions. It also provides methods of computation that may be referenced

  17. Peptidyl cyclopropenones: Reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors, or substrates of cysteine proteases?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Meital; Bretler, Uriel; Albeck, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl cyclopropenones were previously introduced as selective cysteine protease reversible inhibitors. In the present study we synthesized one such peptidyl cyclopropenone and investigated its interaction with papain, a prototype cysteine protease. A set of kinetics, biochemical, HPLC, MS, and 13C-NMR experiments revealed that the peptidyl cyclopropenone was an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme, alkylating the catalytic cysteine. In parallel, this cyclopropenone also behaved as an alter...

  18. TRPM8 axonal expression is decreased in painful human teeth with irreversible pulpitis and cold hyperalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Lisa T.; Perry, Griffin M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Henry, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Pulpitis pain may be triggered by a cold stimulus, yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. One possible mechanism involves the direct activation of cold-responsive thermoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of the TRPM8 thermoreceptor in cold-mediated noxious pulpal pain mechanisms by comparing expression patterns in pulpal nerves from healthy control molars to cold-sensitive painful molars with irreversible pulpitis. ...

  19. Fourteenβ-(bromoacetamido)morphine irreversibly labels μ opioid receptors in rat brain membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding properties of 14β-(bromoacetamido)morphine (BAM) and the ability of BAM to irreversibly inhibit opioid binding to rat brain membranes were examined to characterize the affinity and selectivity of BAM as an irreversible affinity ligand for opioid receptors. BAM had the same receptor selectivity as morphine, with a 3-5-fold decrease in affinity for the different types of opioid receptors. When brain membranes were incubated with BAM, followed by extensive washing, opioid binding was restored to control levels. However, when membranes were incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT), followed by BAM, and subsequently washed, 90% of the 0.25 nM [3H][D-Ala2,(Me)Phe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin (DAGO) binding was irreversibly inhibited as a result of the specific alkylation of a sulfhydryl group at the μ binding site. This inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of both DTT and BAM. The μ receptor specificity of BAM alkylation was demonstrated by the ability of BAM alkylated membranes to still bind the δ-selective peptide [3H][D-penicillamine2,D-penicillamine5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and (-)-[3H]bremazocine in the presence of μ and δ blockers, selective for κ binding sites. Morphine and naloxone partially protected the binding site from alkylation with BAM, while ligands that did not bind to the μs site did not afford protection. These studies have demonstrated that when a disulfide bond at or near μ opioid binding sites was reduced, BAM could then alkylate this site, resulting in the specific irreversible labeling of μ opioid receptors

  20. The Market for Used Capital: Endogenous Irreversibility and Reallocation over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Lanteri

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the procyclicality of capital reallocation documented by Eisfeldt and Rampini (2006) and Cui (2012) by endogenising the resale price of capital in a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous firms hit by aggregate and idiosyncratic productivity shocks. I build a simple theory of endogenous investment irreversibility by assuming that used investment goods are imperfect substitutes for newly produced ones because of firm-level capital specificity. This creates a d...

  1. IRREVERSIBLE INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN PERENNIAL CROPS WITH YIELD AND PRICE UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Price, T. Jeffrey; Wetzstein, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Optimal entry and exit thresholds for Georgia commercial peach production are calculated when both price and yield follow a Brownian motion process. The thresholds are based on an irreversible sunk-cost investment model, where revenue from peach production is affected by the timing of when to enter production. Results indicate stability in Georgia peach production, with growers who are currently producing peaches remaining in production and potential peach growers delaying investment unless t...

  2. The Influence of a Metal Stent on the Distribution of Thermal Energy during Irreversible Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffer, Hester J.; Vogel, Jantien A; Willemien van den Bos; Neal, Robert E.; van Lienden, Krijn P; Besselink, Marc G. H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van der Geld, Cees W. M.; Meijerink, Martijn R; Klaessens, John H.; Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Irreversible electroporation (IRE) uses short duration, high-voltage electrical pulses to induce cell death via nanoscale defects resulting from altered transmembrane potential. The technique is gaining interest for ablations in unresectable pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancer. Metal stents are often used for palliative biliary drainage in these patients, but are currently seen as an absolute contraindication for IRE due to the perceived risk of direct heating of the metal and its sur...

  3. A relation between irreversibility and unlinkability for biometric template protection algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    井沼, 学

    2014-01-01

    For biometric recognition systems, privacy protection of enrolled users’ biometric information, which are called biometric templates, is a critical problem. Recently, various template protection algorithms have been proposed and many related previous works have discussed security notions to evaluate the protection performance of these protection algorithms. Irreversibility and unlinkability are important security notions discussed in many related previous works. In this paper, we prove that u...

  4. Irreversible photo- and radiation-induced effects in amorphous films of arsenic trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is found that irreversible photo- and radiation-induced effects in virgin As2S3 thin films are accompined by the similar changes of their optical properties. The process of homopolar chemical bond breaking in the thin layer alongside with the creation of the differently charged diamagnetic defects associated with the non-equilibrium breaking of chemical bonds is proper in radiation induced effects, only

  5. Fourteen. beta. -(bromoacetamido)morphine irreversibly labels. mu. opioid receptors in rat brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidlack, J.M.; Frey, D.K.; Seyed-Mozaffari, A.; Archer, S. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (USA))

    1989-05-16

    The binding properties of 14{beta}-(bromoacetamido)morphine (BAM) and the ability of BAM to irreversibly inhibit opioid binding to rat brain membranes were examined to characterize the affinity and selectivity of BAM as an irreversible affinity ligand for opioid receptors. BAM had the same receptor selectivity as morphine, with a 3-5-fold decrease in affinity for the different types of opioid receptors. When brain membranes were incubated with BAM, followed by extensive washing, opioid binding was restored to control levels. However, when membranes were incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT), followed by BAM, and subsequently washed, 90% of the 0.25 nM ({sup 3}H)(D-Ala{sup 2},(Me)Phe{sup 4},Gly(ol){sup 5})enkephalin (DAGO) binding was irreversibly inhibited as a result of the specific alkylation of a sulfhydryl group at the {mu} binding site. This inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of both DTT and BAM. The {mu} receptor specificity of BAM alkylation was demonstrated by the ability of BAM alkylated membranes to still bind the {delta}-selective peptide ({sup 3}H)(D-penicillamine{sup 2},D-penicillamine{sup 5})enkephalin (DPDPE) and (-)-({sup 3}H)bremazocine in the presence of {mu} and {delta} blockers, selective for {kappa} binding sites. Morphine and naloxone partially protected the binding site from alkylation with BAM, while ligands that did not bind to the {mu}s site did not afford protection. These studies have demonstrated that when a disulfide bond at or near {mu} opioid binding sites was reduced, BAM could then alkylate this site, resulting in the specific irreversible labeling of {mu} opioid receptors.

  6. Boltzmann-Equation Based Derivation of Balance Laws in Irreversible Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Liu; Yang, Zaibao; Zhu, Yi; Yong, Wen-An

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach to construct macroscopic balance equations and constitutive equations describing various irreversible phenomena. It is based on the general principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and consists of four basic steps: picking suitable state variables, choosing a strictly concave entropy function, separating entropy fluxes and production rates properly, and determining a dissipation matrix. Our approach takes the advantage of both EIT and GENERIC form...

  7. Rapid irreversible encephalopathy associated with anti-D immune globulin treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kenneth; Horkan, Clare; Barb, Ilie T; Arbelaez, Christian; Hodgdon, Travis A; Yodice, Paul C

    2004-11-01

    Intravenous Rho (D) immune globulin (IV RhIG, WinRho SDF) has been shown to be a safe treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Common side effects of IV RhIG include mild hemolysis, febrile reaction, and headache. Significant hemolysis with renal impairment following IV RhIG has been reported. We report a case of irreversible encephalopathy 48 hr following an infusion of IV RhIG for treatment of ITP. PMID:15495245

  8. A Three-Dimensional In Vitro Tumor Platform for Modeling Therapeutic Irreversible Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Christopher B.; Szot, Christopher S.; Garcia, Paulo A.; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is emerging as a powerful tool for tumor ablation that utilizes pulsed electric fields to destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells past the point of recovery. The ablated region is dictated primarily by the electric field distribution in the tissue, which forms the basis of current treatment planning algorithms. To generate data for refinement of these algorithms, there is a need to develop a physiologically accurate and reproducible platform on which...

  9. Uncertainty, instability, and irreversible investment : theory, evidence, and lessons for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Serven, Luis

    1997-01-01

    A recent (but rapidly growing) literature has focused on how uncertainty and instability affect the adoption of fixed investment projects. That literature shows that if fixed investment projects are costly or impossible to reverse, uncertainty can become a powerful deterrent to investment. The author reviews the literature on irreversible investment to identify the implications for macroeconomic policy and to gauge the practical importance, especially for sub-Saharan Africa, of the link betwe...

  10. The Carnot Cycle for Small Systems: Irreversibility and the Cost of Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Sekimoto, Ken; Takagi, Fumiko; Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    We employ the recently developed framework of the energetics of stochastic processes (called `stochastic energetics'), to re-analyze the Carnot cycle in detail, taking account of fluctuations, without taking the thermodynamic limit. We find that both processes of connection to and disconnection from heat baths and adiabatic processes that cause distortion of the energy distribution are sources of inevitable irreversibility within the cycle. Also, the so-called null-recurrence property of the ...

  11. Broken versus Non-Broken Time Reversal Symmetry: Irreversibility and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dal Cengio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We review some approaches to macroscopic irreversibility from reversible microscopic dynamics, introducing the contribution of time dependent perturbations within the framework of recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics. We show that situations commonly assumed to violate the time reversal symmetry (presence of magnetic fields, rotating reference frames, and some time dependent perturbations in reality do not violate this symmetry, and can be treated with standard theories and within standard experimental protocols.

  12. Irreversible-thermodynamic Analysis of the Efficienty of PEM Transport Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František

    Bialystok : Bialystok Technical University, 2008 - (Butrymowicz, D.; Goscik, J.; Skiepko, T.), s. 479-482 [HEAT 2008 /5./. Bialystok (PL), 30.06.2008-03.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400760701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/1612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : PEM fuel cell * efficiency * irreversible thermodynamics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  13. A general kinetic method to predict sequence length distributions for non-linear irreversible multicomponent polymerizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2006-01-01

    A method to predict the sequence length distribution (SLD) for homogeneous non-linear irreversible multicomponent polymerizations is described. With more than two monomers, it also predicts chain length distributions of the sub-domains containing a prescribed sub-set of the repeating units, but in all possible orderings. Its goal is the analysis of polymerization systems involving complex kinetic schemes in an automated way. The radical terpolymerization of two vinyl monomers with a divinyl m...

  14. Irreversible Denaturation of Maltodextrin Glucosidase Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Circular Dichroism, and Turbidity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Megha; Chaudhuri, Tapan K; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of Escherichia coli maltodextrin glucosidase was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism (230 nm), and UV-absorption measurements (340 nm), which were respectively used to monitor heat absorption, conformational unfolding, and the production of solution turbidity. The denaturation was irreversible, and the thermal transition recorded at scan rates of 0.5–1.5 K/min was significantly scan-rate dependent, indicating that the thermal denaturation was ...

  15. Irreversible thermodynamic description of interacting dark energy - dark matter cosmological models

    OpenAIRE

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the interaction between dark energy and dark matter in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics of open systems with matter creation/annihilation. We consider dark energy and dark matter as an interacting two component (scalar field and "ordinary" dark matter) cosmological fluid in a homogeneous spatially flat and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. The thermodynamics of open systems as applied together with the gravitational field equations to the two comp...

  16. Microbiome of Deep Dentinal Caries Lesions in Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Lima, Kenio C.; Assunção, Isauremi V.; Gomes, Patrícia N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in the advanced front of caries biofilms associated with pulp exposure and irreversible pulpitis. Samples were taken from the deepest layer of dentinal caries lesions associated with pulp exposure in 10 teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. DNA was extracted and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 14 phyla and 101 genera composed by 706 different OTUs. Three phyla accounted for approximately 98% of the sequences: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. These phyla were also the ones with most representatives at the species level. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in 9/10 samples. As for genera, Lactobacillus accounted for 42.3% of the sequences, followed by Olsenella (13.7%), Pseudoramibacter (10.7%) and Streptococcus (5.5%). Half of the samples were heavily dominated by Lactobacillus, while in the other half lactobacilli were in very low abundance and the most dominant genera were Pseudoramibacter, Olsenella, Streptococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. High bacterial diversity occurred in deep dentinal caries lesions associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The microbiome could be classified according to the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Except for Lactobacillus species, most of the highly prevalent and abundant bacterial taxa identified in this study have been commonly detected in infected root canals. The detected taxa can be regarded as candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and possibly the pioneers in pulp invasion to initiate endodontic infection. PMID:27135405

  17. Irreversible electroporation in the treatment of locally advanced pancreas and liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wichtowski, Mateusz; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Kocur, Jacek; Murawa, Dawid

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Irreversible electroporation is a new, non-thermal ablation technique in the treatment of parenchymal organ tumors which uses short high voltage pulses of electricity in order to induce apoptosis of targeted cells. In this paper the application of this method of treatment in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and liver cancer is analyzed. Material and methods Between 04.2014 and 09.2014 two patients with LAPC and one with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) were qualifi...

  18. A statistical model describing combined irreversible electroporation and electroporation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharabi Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroporation-based therapies such as electrochemotherapy (ECT and irreversible electroporation (IRE are emerging as promising tools for treatment of tumors. When applied to the brain, electroporation can also induce transient blood-brain-barrier (BBB disruption in volumes extending beyond IRE, thus enabling efficient drug penetration. The main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model predicting cell death and BBB disruption induced by electroporation. This model can be used for individual treatment planning.

  19. A statistical model describing combined irreversible electroporation and electroporation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Sharabi Shirley; Kos Bor; Last David; Guez David; Daniels Dianne; Harnof Sagi; Mardor Yael; Miklavcic Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Background Electroporation-based therapies such as electrochemotherapy (ECT) and irreversible electroporation (IRE) are emerging as promising tools for treatment of tumors. When applied to the brain, electroporation can also induce transient blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption in volumes extending beyond IRE, thus enabling efficient drug penetration. The main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model predicting cell death and BBB disruption induced by electroporation. This m...

  20. Local Ablative Strategies for Ductal Pancreatic Cancer (Radiofrequency Ablation, Irreversible Electroporation): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Paiella; Roberto Salvia; Marco Ramera; Roberto Girelli; Isabella Frigerio; Alessandro Giardino; Valentina Allegrini; Claudio Bassi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has still a dismal prognosis. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) accounts for the 40% of the new diagnoses. Current treatment options are based on chemo- and radiotherapy regimens. Local ablative techniques seem to be the future therapeutic option for stage-III patients with PDAC. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) and Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) are actually the most emerging local ablative techniques used on LAPC. Initial clinical studies on ...

  1. Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C02Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO2 Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling the reactor side of the plant in combination with the existing automatic control strategy for the S-CO2 Brayton cycle are explored using the ANL Plant Dynamics Code together with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Analysis Code System coupled together using the iterative coupling formulation previously developed and implemented into the Plant Dynamics Code. The first option assumes that the reactor side can be ideally controlled through movement of control rods and changing the speeds of both the primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pumps such that the intermediate sodium flow rate and inlet temperature to the sodium-to-CO2 heat exchanger (RHX) remain unvarying while the intermediate sodium outlet temperature changes as the load demand from the electric grid changes and the S-CO2 cycle conditions adjust according to the S-CO2 cycle control strategy. For this option, the reactor plant follows an assumed change in load demand from 100 to 0 % nominal at 5 % reduction per minute in a suitable fashion. The second option allows the reactor core power and primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pump flow rates to change autonomously in response to the strong reactivity feedbacks of the metallic fueled core and assumed constant pump torques representing unchanging output from the pump electric motors. The plant behavior to the assumed load demand reduction is surprising close to that calculated for the first option. The only negative result observed is a slight increase in the intermediate inlet sodium temperatures by about 10 C

  2. Calcium-Enriched Mixture Pulpotomy of Primary Molar Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis. A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Fijan, Soleiman; Asgary, Saeed; Keikhaee, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of vital pulp therapy in primary teeth with irreversible pulpitis by using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement according to clinical and radiographic assessment. Participants and Methods: Fifty primary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis in 50 children aged 6-8 years underwent pulpotomy using CEM cement as the dressing material. Following pulpotomy, pain intensity was evaluated by use of a visual analog scale at 1 and 7 days from the treatment and in clinical appointments at 3, 6 and 12 months after baseline. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 6 and 12 months. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test. Results: A total of 42 children (mean age 7.26 ± 0.82 year) completed the study. After one day treatment 56 % of children reported complete relief of pain and after 7 days 62% reported the same. However, two children complained of increased pain 1 day after treatment. None of the children reported pain in the subsequent appointments. One child complained of tenderness in percussion after 6 months. Pulp canal obliteration was the most common change in the radiographic assessment. There was no significant difference between clinical (92.8%) and radiographic (90.4%) success (p=0.990). Conclusion: Pulpotomy using CEM cement could present a successful treatment in primary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:27326265

  3. Magnetic irreversibility and relaxation in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, G.F. E-mail: goya@macbeth.if.usp.br; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, J.Z

    2000-08-01

    In this work, we present a study on the magnetic behavior of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with different particle sizes. Magnetic particle size distribution obtained from M(H) curves in the superparamagnetic (SPM) state showed good agreement with data obtained from X-ray powder diffraction. Field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization data showed a blocking temperature T{sub B}{approx}225 K, independent of particle size, which is associated to interparticle interactions. It was observed that T{sub B} and the irreversibility temperature T{sub irr}, shift to lower temperature with increasing applied fields, both with an H{sup -1} dependence. Strong training effects were observed from relaxation data, assigned to the irreversible behavior of the spin-disordered particle surface. The magnetic viscosity at T=4.2 K was analyzed for sample with D{sub mean}=7.7 nm, revealing strong irreversibility after each major hysteresis loop. These results are discussed in terms of multiple spin-disordered configurations, at particle surface, with quasidegenerate states.

  4. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Analysis on the Performance of AN Irreversible Thermally Driven Brownian Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianfu; Chen, Jincan

    Based on the general model of thermally-driven Brownian motors, an equivalent cycle system is established and the Onsager coefficients and efficiency at the maximum power output of the system are analytically calculated from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is found that the Onsager reciprocity relation holds and the Onsager coefficients are affected by the main irreversibilities existing in practical systems. Only when the heat leak and the kinetic energy change of the particle in the system are negligible, can the determinant of the Onsager matrix vanish. It is also found that in the frame of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the power output and efficiency of an irreversible Brownian motor can be expressed to be the same form as those of an irreversible Carnot heat engine, so the results obtained here are of general significance. Moreover, these results are used to analyze the performance characteristics of a class of thermally-driven Brownian motors so that some important conclusions in literature may be directly derived from the present paper.

  5. Note on magnesite formation (Studies on irreversible geochemical reactions N° 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deelmann John C.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent laboratory experiments magnesite (MgC03 has been synthesized at a temperature of 313°K (= 40°C. The experiments have demonstrated that irreversible reactions are involved in the low-temperature formation of magnesite. Fundamental to such irreversible reactions is a requirement for fluctuations, i.e., alternations between precipitation and dissolution. But unequivocal evidence for the necessity for fluctuations in order to produce such irreversible geochemical reactions can be demonstrated only by static control experiments. The present note describes several static control experiments on the low-temperature synthesis of magnesite. The first experiment consisted of adding the total amount of ammonia (used in the original experiment in 14 different titration steps in a single action: only magnesium hydroxide carbonate formed, not magnesite. In the second experiment the possible reaction between magnesium chloride, ammonia and carbon dioxide in solution was studied at 318°K (= 45°C: magnesium hydroxide formed, not magnesite. The third static control experiment involved the reaction between magnesium chloride and ammonium carbamate; this time nesquehonite formed, not magnesite. The implications of these static control experiments in relation to the low-temperature formation of magnesite and dolomite in the sedimentary environment are discussed.

  6. Influence of defects on the irreversible phase transition in Fe–Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Fe–Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloys a face-centered tetragonal (fct) martensite can be obtained when cooling the face-centered cubic austenite through the martensite transition. Nevertheless, further irreversible transformation on cooling into a body-centered tetragonal (bct) martensite needs to be prevented in order to retain the shape memory properties. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments demonstrate that high temperature thermal treatments stabilize the fct phase, reducing the fct–bct transformation temperature. A large misfit between the cell parameters of fct and bct phases was determined by neutron diffraction, pointing to the critical role of dislocations in the accommodation of both phases. The presence of dislocations and its dynamics was analyzed by mechanical spectroscopy, and a relaxation peak at ∼443 K related to the dislocation movement was identified. The driving force of the relaxation process can be proposed as a dislocation dragging mechanism controlled by the migration of vacancies without break-away. Defects such as dislocations and vacancies have been shown to play an important role in changing the irreversible phase transformation temperature. A reduction in the dislocation density reduces the irreversible transformation temperature and so increases the stability range of the alloy

  7. Novel Selective and Irreversible Mosquito Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Controlling Malaria and Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dengfeng; Park, Jewn Giew; Rana, Sandeep; Madden, Benjamin J.; Jiang, Haobo; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We reported previously that insect acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) could be selectively and irreversibly inhibited by methanethiosulfonates presumably through conjugation to an insect-specific cysteine in these enzymes. However, no direct proof for the conjugation has been published to date, and doubts remain about whether such cysteine-targeting inhibitors have desirable kinetic properties for insecticide use. Here we report mass spectrometric proof of the conjugation and new chemicals that irreversibly inhibited African malaria mosquito AChE with bimolecular inhibition rate constants (kinact/KI) of 3,604-458,597 M-1sec-1 but spared human AChE. In comparison, the insecticide paraoxon irreversibly inhibited mosquito and human AChEs with kinact/KI values of 1,915 and 1,507 M-1sec-1, respectively, under the same assay conditions. These results further support our hypothesis that the insect-specific AChE cysteine is a unique and unexplored target to develop new insecticides with reduced insecticide resistance and low toxicity to mammals, fish, and birds for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuhu [PPPL; Calzolaio, Ciro [Univ of Geneva; Senatore, Carmine [Univ of Geneva

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  9. Irreversibility behavior in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconducting wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C.; Wang, J.; Jin, X.J.; Hu, Q.Y. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia)); Shi, D.L.; Salem-Sugui, S.; Wang, Z. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Irreversibility lines for Ag/(Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}(2223) wires prepared through a phase formation- decomposition-recovery (PFDR) process and normal annealing process were determined using both AC susceptibility measurements under DC fields and magnetisation measurements. It was found that flux pinning was enhanced in the PFDR processed samples over the normal processed samples, in particular at temperature above 77 K. The PFDR process results in high mass density, grain alignment, uniform distribution of impurity precipitates and high density of defects. The irreversibility temperatures scaled with the applied field according to H{sup 1/3}, which is in contrast to H{sup 2/3} law for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and conventional superconductors. The irreversibility lines for PFDR processed tapes showed a crossover with those for normal processed tapes at temperature below {Tc} of the (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} (2212), suggesting that at temperature above {Tc} of the 2212 phase, the 2212 as nonsuperconducting region, may serve as effective pinning sites for fluxoids.

  10. Irreversibility behavior in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Liu, H. K.; Guo, Y. C.; Wang, J.; Jin, X. J.; Hu, Q. Y.; Shi, D. L.; Salem-Sugui, S.; Wang, Z.

    1992-04-01

    Irreversibility lines for Ag/(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(y)(2223) wires prepared through a phase formation- decomposition-recovery (PFDR) process and normal annealing process were determined using both AC susceptibility measurements under DC fields and magnetization measurements. It was found that flux pinning was enhanced in the PFDR processed samples over the normal processed samples, in particular at temperatures above 77 K. The PFDR process results in high mass density, grain alignment, uniform distribution of impurity precipitates, and high density of defects. The irreversibility temperatures scaled with the applied field according to H(sup 1/3), which is in contrast to H(sup 2/3) law for YBa2Cu3O(7-x) and conventional superconductors. The irreversibility lines for PFDR processed tapes showed a crossover with those for normal processed tapes at temperatures below T(sub c) of the (Bi,Pb)2Sr2CaCu2O(8+x) (2212), suggesting that at temperatures above T(sub c) of the 2212 phase, the 2212 as a nonsuperconducting region, may serve as effective pinning sites for fluxoids.

  11. Generalization of the singular normal mode method for isothermal irreversible Vlasov systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irreversible Vlasov systems, i.e. systems governed by a Vlasov-type kinetic equation including entropy-producing collision terms, are treated by the techniques of singular normal modes and singular integral equations using a new indirect method which renders possible a straightforward generalization of the Case formalism as developed originally for collision-free Vlasov plasmas. This method is in contrast to a more complex method given by the present authors for the first application of the singular normal mode expansion to irreversible Vlasov systems (1970). The linearized Vlasov operator supplemented by complete Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision integrals as the most important model collision terms is analyzed in detail for a nonrelativistic, nondegenerate, stationary electron gas with neutralizing positive ions and neutral particles without a magnetic field at constant temperature, generalizations for more complex irreversible Vlasov systems being possible. The key of the indirect method given is the introduction of a transformed electron distribution function containing as an additive term an integral over the usual distribution function. The new kinetic equation and its adjoint equation become again linear integral equations and yield a set of regular and singular normal modes which are proved to be orthogonal and complete. The initial value problem is solved exactly. A comparison is made with the Laplace transform theory of Landau which for the full Vlasov-BGK equation is recast into a compact form. The time-behaviour of the solutions is discussed. (author)

  12. Climate Change and the Irreversibility Effect. Combining Expected Utility and MaxiMin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), P.O.Box 103443, D-68034 Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes decisions on emissions of a stock pollutant under uncertainty in a two period model. Decisions are based on a weighted average of expected utility (EU) and the MaxiMin criterion. I first show that more weight on the worst case (less weight on EU) may lead to increased first period emissions. The effect of learning possibilities on emissions is not clear in general, but depends qualitatively on the weight given to MaxiMin: For the quadratic utility case, considering prospective learning increases today's abatement effort, i.e. the ``irreversibility effect'' holds, if the weight on EU is small. This contrasts standard results on the irreversibility effect for EU which translates to small weights on MaxiMin. There is, however, the possibility of a negative value of learning. It is shown that the irreversibility effect holds if and only if the value of learning is negative. Consequences for the applicability of generalized EU-MaxiMin are discussed.

  13. New hierarchy for the Liouville equation, irreversibility and Fokker-Planck-like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of irreversibility is revisited for a closed system formed by N classical non-relativistic particles inside a volume Ω, interacting through two-body potentials, for large N and Ω. The classical phase-space distribution function f, multiplied by suitable Hermite polynomials and integrated over all momenta, yields new moments. The Liouville equation and the initial distribution fin imply a new non-equilibrium linear infinite hierarchy for the moments. That hierarchy differs from the BBGKY one for distribution functions and displays some suggestive Fokker-Planck-like structures. A physically motivated ansatz for fin (which introduces statistical assumptions), used by previous authors, is chosen. All moments of order n ≥ n0 are expressed in terms of those of order n0 - 1 and of fin. The properties of the Fokker-Planck-like structures (hermiticity, non-negative eigenvalues) allow for implementing a natural long-time approximation in the hierarchy, so as to introduce relaxation to equilibrium and irreversibility, consistently with the hydrodynamical balance equations. Further (more restrictive) assumptions and approximations lead to new irreversible models, generalizing non-trivially the Fokker-Planck equation. They are described through a truncated hierarchy of linear equations for moments of order n ≤ n0 - 1 (n0 being finite). The connections with Brownian particle dynamics and Fluid Dynamics are analyzed, for consistency. (orig.)

  14. Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess endothelial dysfunction and the risk for coronary atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease (CHD). The study included 18 cyanotic patients (the mean age was 12.28 ± 3.26 years) who developed irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to cyanotic and acyanotic CHDs, and 18 control patients (the mean age was 11.78 ± 3.00 years). Study groups were compared for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerotic risk factors. Compared to the control group, the mean FMD was significantly reduced in the cyanotic group (5.26 ± 2.42% and 9.48 ± 2.60%, respectively; P-value < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the groups in CIMT (0.41 ± 0.08 mm and 0.39 ± 0.06 mm, respectively; P-value = 0.299). The levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol were statistically significantly lower compared tothe control group (P-value = 0.001, 0.006 and 0.014, respectively), whereas no statistically significant difference was found in the levels of high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and triglycerides (P-value = 0.113 and 0.975, respectively). Systemic endothelial dysfunction in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to CHD was noted but there was no increased risk for atherosclerosis

  15. Rules to transform concentrations and currents for irreversible reactions to those of quasireversible reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simple rules convert irreversible analytical solutions to quasireversible ones • These work for many common convective diffusion situations • Rules involve substitution of kf by kf + kb then scaling and constant addition • Irreversible numerical solutions can be converted to quasireversible ones - Abstract: Transformation rules are given that take the concentration or current expressions for the simple irreversible electron-transfer reaction R → P + e− and convert them to the corresponding quantities for the quasireversible reaction. They apply for many standard electrochemical mass-transport cases, including simple diffusion and convection-diffusion for the rotating disk or channel flow, provided that the diffusivities of the two species are equal. The forward rate constant is replaced by the sum of the forward and reverse rate constants, the result is scaled and then a constant added. Rules are also given for some cases where the diffusivities are unequal. As an application, a new solution of the concentration profile for a channel electrode within the Lévêque approximation neglecting axial diffusion is given

  16. In vivo imaging of irreversible electroporation by means of electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroporation, the increased permeability of cell membranes due to a large transmembrane voltage, is an important clinical tool. Both reversible and irreversible in vivo electroporation are used for clinical applications such as gene therapy and solid malignant tumor ablation, respectively. The primary advantage of in vivo electroporation is the ability to treat tissue in a local and minimally invasive fashion. The drawback is the current lack of control over the process. This paper is the first report of a new method for real-time three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo electroporation process. Using two needle electrodes for irreversible electroporation and a set of electrodes for reconstructing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images of the treated tissue, we were able to demonstrate electroporation imaging in rodent livers. Histology analysis shows good correlation between the extent of tissue damage caused by irreversible electroporation and the EIT images. This new method may lead the way to real-time control over genetic treatment of diseases in tissue and tissue ablation.

  17. In vivo imaging of irreversible electroporation by means of electrical impedance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Yair; Maor, Elad; Rubinsky, Boris [Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ivorra, Antoni [Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: yair.granot@gmail.com

    2009-08-21

    Electroporation, the increased permeability of cell membranes due to a large transmembrane voltage, is an important clinical tool. Both reversible and irreversible in vivo electroporation are used for clinical applications such as gene therapy and solid malignant tumor ablation, respectively. The primary advantage of in vivo electroporation is the ability to treat tissue in a local and minimally invasive fashion. The drawback is the current lack of control over the process. This paper is the first report of a new method for real-time three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo electroporation process. Using two needle electrodes for irreversible electroporation and a set of electrodes for reconstructing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images of the treated tissue, we were able to demonstrate electroporation imaging in rodent livers. Histology analysis shows good correlation between the extent of tissue damage caused by irreversible electroporation and the EIT images. This new method may lead the way to real-time control over genetic treatment of diseases in tissue and tissue ablation.

  18. In vivo imaging of irreversible electroporation by means of electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Yair; Ivorra, Antoni; Maor, Elad; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-08-01

    Electroporation, the increased permeability of cell membranes due to a large transmembrane voltage, is an important clinical tool. Both reversible and irreversible in vivo electroporation are used for clinical applications such as gene therapy and solid malignant tumor ablation, respectively. The primary advantage of in vivo electroporation is the ability to treat tissue in a local and minimally invasive fashion. The drawback is the current lack of control over the process. This paper is the first report of a new method for real-time three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo electroporation process. Using two needle electrodes for irreversible electroporation and a set of electrodes for reconstructing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images of the treated tissue, we were able to demonstrate electroporation imaging in rodent livers. Histology analysis shows good correlation between the extent of tissue damage caused by irreversible electroporation and the EIT images. This new method may lead the way to real-time control over genetic treatment of diseases in tissue and tissue ablation.

  19. A derivation of a microscopic entropy and time irreversibility from the discreteness of time

    CERN Document Server

    Riek, Roland

    2014-01-01

    All of the basic microsopic physical laws are time reversible. In contrast, the second law of thermodynamics, which is a macroscopic physical representation of the world, is able to describe irreversible processes in an isolated system through the change of entropy S larger than 0. It is the attempt of the present manuscript to bridge the microscopic physical world with its macrosocpic one with an alternative approach than the statistical mechanics theory of Gibbs and Boltzmann. It is proposed that time is discrete with constant step size. Its consequence is the presence of time irreversibility at the microscopic level if the present force is of complex nature (i.e. not const). In order to compare this discrete time irreversible mechamics (for simplicity a classical, single particle in a one dimensional space is selected) with its classical Newton analog, time reversibility is reintroduced by scaling the time steps for any given time step n by the variable sn leading to the Nose-Hoover Lagrangian. The corresp...

  20. Time-irreversibility of the statistics of a single particle in a compressible turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Grafke, Tobias; Falkovich, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We investigate time-irreversibility from the point of view of a single particle in Burgers turbulence. Inspired by the recent work for incompressible flows we analyze the evolution of the kinetic energy for fluid markers and use the fluctuations of the instantaneous power as a measure of time irreversibility. For short times, starting from a uniform distribution of markers, we find the scaling $\\left\\propto t$ and $\\left \\propto \\textrm{Re}^{n-1}$ for the power as a function of the Reynolds number. Both observations can be explained using the "flight-crash" model, suggested by Xu et al. Furthermore, we use a simple model for shocks which reproduces the moments of the energy difference including the pre-factor for $\\left$. To complete the single particle picture for Burgers we compute the moments of the Lagrangian velocity difference and show that they are bi-fractal. This arises in a similar manner to the bi-fractality of Eulerian velocity differences. In the above setting time irreversibility is directly man...