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Sample records for bravo pinus pinaster

  1. Efeito do controle do sob coberto e da fertilização no cresci­mento e concentração de nutrientes em pinheiro bravo (Pinus pinaster Ait. Effect of controlling competing vegetation and fertilization on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. growth and nutrient concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o interesse do controle da vegetação do sob coberto e da aplicação de N, P e K no crescimento e concentração de nutrientes em pinheiro bravo (Pinus pinas­ter Ait. escolheu-se um pinhal com seis anos onde, em Julho de 2002, foram aplica­dos cinco tratamentos: testemunha (T; corte e remoção da vegetação (CR; corte, remo­ção da vegetação e fertilização (CRF; corte e destroçamento da vegetação (CD; corte, destroçamento da vegetação e fertilização (CDF. Entre 2002 e 2007, e em relação a todos os parâmetros dendrométricos considerados, altura, diâmetro, área basal e volume, verifi­cou-se que os acréscimos ocorridos no tra­tamento CDF foram superiores (pTo study the interest of controlling the understory vegetation and the addition of N, P and K on the growth and nutrient concen­tration in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., a field trial was established in a 6-year old pine forest. Five treatments were tested: control (T; cutting and removal of compet­ing vegetation (CR; cutting, removal of competing vegetation and fertilization (CRF; cutting and chipping of competing vegetation (CD; cutting, chipping of com­peting vegetation and fertilization (CDF. Between 2002 and 2007, growth in the CDF treatment was higher (p <0.05 than in the other treatments. The lowest growth oc­curred in control and/or in the CR treatment. In general, there were no differences between CD and CRF treatments. Therefore, these re­sults point out that removal of competing vegetation should be considered only if fertil­izers are added (CRF treatment in order to avoid negative effects on pine growth. Ap­plying fertilizers increased N, P and K con­centrations only in 2002 and 2003, although the increase was not significant.

  2. Regeneration of Pinus pinaster forests after wildfire

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, José; Bento, João Manuel; Rego, Francisco

    1990-01-01

    Wildfires are of extreme importance in Pinus pinaster forests of central and northern Portugal. Reforestation plans after wildfires are generally made without consideration for the possibility of natural regeneration. This paper addresses the question of the factors responsible for the occurrence of natural regeneration and concludes that litter accumulation, rock outcrops, slope, aspect, harvest, fire characteristics, and stand age are well related to the regeneration observed. Limitations o...

  3. Influence of xilanase treatment on Pinus pinaster kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Duarte, Ana Paula; Curto, Joana

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, pulp and paper industry uses especially two wood species, Eucalyptus globules and Pinus pinaster. The second species gives pulps with low bleachability (compared with other common softwood species, like Pinus silvester), utilised for packaging papers. It is known that treatments with different hydrolytic enzymes could improve the bleaching capacity of softwood pulp. That is why, xylanases were used to improve Pinus pinaster kraft pulp characteristics. The enzymatic hydrolysis imp...

  4. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reac...

  5. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  6. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M. A.; Louche, Julien; Legname, Elvira; M. Duchemin; Plassard, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in At.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza...

  7. Determination of sugar content in Pinus pinaster and its corresponding hollocellulose, cellulose and kraft pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Ana Paula; Gaiolas, Carla; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Simões, Rogério Manuel dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the polysaccharide complex from Portuguese Pinus pinaster, as well as from its main components, i.e., holocellulose, cellulose and pulps obtained using different cooking conditions. Nordic Pinus sylvestris was also studied in order to compare it with Portuguese pine. Two methods were used: one consisted of the hydrolysis of polysaccharides with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and quantification of the amount of each sugar using High Performance Liquid Chromatogra...

  8. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  9. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg−1. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg−1. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: ► Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. ► Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. ► Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. ► Mycorrhizal symbiosis influenced the accumulation of Cd in P. pinaster seedlings.

  10. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Nadine R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Castro, Paula M.L., E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycorrhizal symbiosis

  11. Desarrollo de un Adsorbente Basado en Taninos de Corteza de Pinus pinaster Development of an Adsorbent Based on Tannins from Pinus pinaster Bark

    OpenAIRE

    G. Vázquez; J. González-Álvarez; S. Freire; G. Antorrena

    2005-01-01

    Se han preparado partículas de gel de taninos de corteza de Pinus pinaster empleando un proceso en dos etapas. En la primera etapa (de pre unión cruzada), los taninos reaccionan con formaldehído. En la segunda (de granulación), la disolución taninos-formaldehído parcialmente gelificada se dispersa sobre una mezcla de decalina y un agente tensoactivo no iónico. Se ha analizado la influencia de las condiciones de operación de ambas etapas sobre el rendimiento y características de las partículas...

  12. Numerical simulations of fire spread in a Pinus pinaster needles fuel bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this paper is to extend the cases of WFDS model validation by comparing its predictions to literature data on a ground fire spreading in a Pinus pinaster needles fuel bed. This comparison is based on the experimental results of Mendes-Lopes and co-workers. This study is performed using the same domain as in the experiments (3.0m×1.2m×0.9m) with a mesh of 49,280 cells. We investigate the influence of wind (varied between 0 and 2 m/s) and moisture content (10 and 18%) on the rate of spread. The WFDS rate of spread is determined using a cross-correlation function of ground temperature profiles. The simulated rate of spread, as well as temperature, compared favourably to experimental values and show the WFDS model capacity to predict ground fires in Pinus Pinaster fuel beds.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9% and β-selinene (13.45% were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils. Conclusions: The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  14. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Vásquez-Gassibe; Juan-Andrés Oria-de-Rueda; Luis Santos-del-Blanco; Pablo Martín-Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability.Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typical...

  15. Anthracological evidence suggests naturalness of Pinus pinaster in inland southwestern Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales Jimenez, Juan Manuel; Garcia-Amorena Gomez del Moral, Ignacio; García Álvarez, Salvia; Morla Juaristi, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The study of well-preserved archaeological charcoals in the pre-Roman Iron Age settlement of Castillejos II (Badajoz, Spain) is used to reconstruct environmental conditions and land-use practices in vegetation landscapes in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula before the arrival of Roman civilization. The results support that, while evergreen Quercus forests dominated during the Holocene, Pinus pinaster existed as a natural element of southwestern Iberian Peninsula vegetation. Although its ...

  16. Evaluacion de la probabilidad de ocurrencia de fuegos en rodales de Pinus pinaster Ait en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, S.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J; Botequim, B.; Ricardo, A.; J.G. Borges; Tomé, Margarida; De Oliveira, M M

    2012-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is an important conifer from the western Mediterranean Basin extending over 22% of the forest area in Portugal. In the last three decades nearly 4% of Maritime pine area has been burned by wildfires. Yet no wildfire occurrence probability models are available and forest and fire management planning activities are thus carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper presents research to address this gap. Specifically, it presents a model ...

  17. Assessing wildfire risk probability in Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Portugal.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Susete; Botequim, Brigite; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Borges, José Guilherme; Tomé, Margarida; Oliveira, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is an important conifer from the western Mediterranean Basin extending over 22% of the forest area in Portugal. In the last three decades nearly 4% of Maritime pine area has been burned by wildfires. Yet no wildfire occurrence probability models are available and forest and fire management planning activities are thus carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper presents research to address this gap. Specifically, it presents a model ...

  18. Genetic resources in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton): molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation and differentiation among maternal lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Martinez, S.C.; Mariette, S.; Ribeiro, M.M.; Burban, C.; Raffin, A.; Chambel, M.R.; Ribeiro, C.A.M.; Aguiar, A; Plomion, C.; Alia, R.; Gil, L.; Vendramin, G G; Kremer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pinus pinaster is a conifer native to western Europe and northern Africa. Following on-going breeding programmes, provenance and progeny trials were established in some of the countries of the species` range (France, Portugal and Spain) and quantitative traits were measured: growth, stem form, survival and pest and disease resistance, amongst others. Populations from the wide range of P. pinaster were recently screened with molecular markers in order to assess their genetic diversity. Data we...

  19. Heat-induced colour changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Bruno; Marques, António Velez; Domingos, Idalina; Pereira, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Heat treatment of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus wood was carried out by hot air in an oven for 2–24 h at 170–200 C and by steam in an autoclave for 2–12 h at 190–210 C. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were determined by the CIELAB method on radial, tangential and transverse sections of untreated and treated wood, and their variation with regard to the treatment (DL*, Da* and Db*) were calculated in percent. For untreated eucalypt wood, lightness (L*) varied betw...

  20. Heat induced colour changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Heat treatment of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus wood was made by hot air in an oven during 2 to 24 h at 170-200 ºC and by steam in an autoclave during 2 to 12 h at 190- 210 ºC. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were determined by the CIELAB method on radial, tangential and transverse sections for untreated and treated wood, and their variation with the treatment (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) were calculated in percent. In the untreated woods, for eucalypt wood lightness (L*) varied between...

  1. Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a Pinus pinaster plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Rey, Maria Xesus; Madeira, Manuel; Coutinho, João; Vasconcelos, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted) on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increased pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal...

  2. The allometric model in the stand density management of Pinus pinaster Ait. in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime F. Sales Luis,; Fonseca, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Modèle allométrique pour la gestion de la densité des peuplements de Pinus pinaster Ait., au Portugal. Le modèle allométrique est très convenable pour des applications pratiques, car il donne une expression quasiment correcte d'un nombre de relations, tels que la densité des plants (N) et la dimension moyenne des plants (dg), très utiles dans l'aménagement forestier. Les diagrammes de gestion de la densité sont une procédure simple et efficace pour présenter les relations dimensionnelles comp...

  3. Plasticity in Pinus pinaster populations of diverse origins: Comparative seedling responses to light and Nitrogen availability

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, Encarna; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of light and N availability, and population on seedling morphology and biomass allocation were assessed in eleven months seedlings from ten Pinus pinaster populations. We conducted a garden experiment using a light gradient (full sunlight, HL= 337.1 μmol m2 s-1; medium light, ML= 120.6 μmol m2 s-1; and low light, LL= 30 μmol m2 s-1) and two contrasting soil fertility regimes: low-N and high-N availability. Light availability was an important factor controlling pheno...

  4. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

    2009-12-01

    Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils. PMID:19840995

  5. Analysis of genetic stability at SSR loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Rocheta, Margarida; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a propagation tool of particular interest for accelerating the deployment of new high-performance planting stock in multivarietal forestry. However, genetic conformity in in vitro propagated plants should be assessed as early as possible, especially in long-living trees such as conifers. The main objective of this work was to study such conformity based on genetic stability at simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) subjected to tissue proliferation during 6, 14 or 22 months, as well as emblings regenerated from several ECLs, were analyzed. Genetic variation at seven SSR loci was detected in ECLs under proliferation conditions for all time points, and in 5 out of 52 emblings recovered from somatic embryos. Three of these five emblings showed an abnormal phenotype consisting mainly of plagiotropism and loss of apical dominance. Despite the variation found in somatic embryogenesis-derived plant material, no correlation was established between genetic stability at the analyzed loci and abnormal embling phenotype, present in 64% of the emblings. The use of microsatellites in this work was efficient for monitoring mutation events during the somatic embryogenesis in P. pinaster. These molecular markers should be useful in the implementation of new breeding and deployment strategies for improved trees using SE. PMID:19153739

  6. Nitrogen transport in the ectomycorrhiza association: the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tobias; Avolio, Meghan; Olivi, Martin; Benjdia, Mariam; Rikirsch, Enno; Kasaras, Alexis; Fitz, Michael; Chalot, Michel; Wipf, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The function of the ectomycorrhizal mutualism depends on the ability of the fungal symbionts to take up nutrients (particularly nitrogen) available in inorganic and/or organic form in the soil and to translocate them (or their metabolites) to the symbiotic roots. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient exchanges between fungus and plant at the symbiotic interface is necessary to fully understand the function of the mycorrhizal symbioses. The present review reports the characterization of several genes putatively involved in nitrogen uptake and transfer in the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster ectomycorrhizal association. Study of this model system will further clarify the symbiotic nutrient exchange which plays a major role in plant nutrition as well as in resistance of plants against pathogens, heavy metals, drought stress, etc. Ultimately, ecological balance is maintained and/or improved with the help of symbiotic associations, and therefore, warrant further understanding. PMID:17083951

  7. Assessing wildfire occurrence probability in Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Botequim, B.; Ricardo, A.; Borges, J. G.; Tome, M.; Oliveira, M. M.

    2012-11-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is an important conifer from the western Mediterranean Basin extending over 22% of the forest area in Portugal. In the last three decades nearly 4% of Maritime pine area has been burned by wildfires. Yet no wildfire occurrence probability models are available and forest and fire management planning activities are thus carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper presents research to address this gap. Specifically, it presents a model to assess wildfire occurrence probability in regular and pure Maritime pine stands in Portugal. Emphasis was in developing a model based on easily available inventory data so that it might be useful to forest managers. For that purpose, data from the last two Portuguese National Forest Inventories (NFI) and data from wildfire perimeters in the years from 1998 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2007 were used. A binary logistic regression model was build using biometrics data from the NFI. Biometric data included indicators that might be changed by operations prescribed in forest planning. Results showed that the probability of wildfire occurrence in a stand increases in stand located at steeper slopes and with high shrubs load while it decreases with precipitation and with stand basal area. These results are instrumental for assessing the impact of forest management options on wildfire probability thus helping forest managers to reduce the risk of wildfires. (Author) 57 refs.

  8. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots. PMID:23543110

  9. Estimación de la biomasa arbórea de "Eucalyptus globulus" y "Pinus pinaster" en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez González, Juan Gabriel; Balboa Murias, M.; Merino, Agustín; Rodríguez Soalleiro, Roque

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha caracterizado la acumulación de biomasa arbórea en masas adultas de Eucalyptus globulus y Pinus pinaster en Galicia. Diferentes intereses industriales, energéticos y ambientales han motivado que en los últimos años el análisis de las distintas posibilidades de aprovechamiento de la biomasa forestal esté adquiriendo un creciente protagonismo, por lo que la cuantificación de la biomasa arbórea de estos sistemas forestales constituye un primer paso f...

  10. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. PMID:26897116

  11. Righting response of artificially inclined maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) saplings to wind loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Stephane; Stokes, Alexia

    2006-01-01

    To determine if trees respond to dynamic and static loading in the same manner, 2-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) trees were subjected to different types of mechanical loading in the field. One block of trees (the control) were kept in pots and planted in the field at an angle of 0 or 45 degrees to the vertical. A similar block of leaning potted trees was planted nearby and subjected to frequent, unilateral wind loading for a period of 1 s every 2 min. Half the leaning trees were oriented toward the direction of wind loading and half were oriented along the axis of wind loading. The stem profile was measured three times during the growing season to quantify the rate of stem straightening. Compression wood formation and stem shape were measured in all plants. No differences in mean height or diameter were observed between blocks and all leaning trees straightened, but not at the same rate. Although no difference in the rate of apical straightening occurred between control and wind-treated trees, the righting response of the basal part of the stem of leaning trees subjected to wind was four times greater than that of leaning trees without wind. No differences in the righting response were observed between leaning trees growing toward and trees growing away from the source of wind. No significant differences in compression wood formation were found between control trees and wind-treated trees, indicating that other factors must determine the reorientation rate of leaning trees. Results are discussed with reference to the quality of compression wood in conifers and the mechanotransductive pathway in plants. PMID:16203716

  12. Two differentially regulated phosphate transporters from the symbiotic fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum and phosphorus acquisition by ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatry, Marie-Violaine; El Kassis, Elie; Lambilliotte, Raphaël; Corratgé, Claire; van Aarle, Ingrid; Amenc, Laurie K; Alary, Rémi; Zimmermann, Sabine; Sentenac, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2009-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis markedly improves plant phosphate uptake, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit are still poorly understood. We identified two ESTs in a cDNA library prepared from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum with significant similarities to phosphate transporters from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme and from non-mycorrhizal fungi. The full-length cDNAs corresponding to these two ESTs complemented a yeast phosphate transport mutant (Deltapho84). Measurements of (33)P-phosphate influx into yeast expressing either cDNA demonstrated that the encoded proteins, named HcPT1 and HcPT2, were able to mediate Pi:H(+) symport with different affinities for Pi (K(m) values of 55 and 4 mum, respectively). Real-time RT-PCR showed that Pi starvation increased the levels of HcPT1 transcripts in H. cylindrosporum hyphae grown in pure culture. Transcript levels of HcPT2 were less dependent on Pi availability. The two transporters were expressed in H. cylindrosporum associated with its natural host plant, Pinus pinaster, grown under low or high P conditions. The presence of ectomycorrhizae increased net Pi uptake rates into intact Pinus pinaster roots at low or high soil P levels. The expression patterns of HcPT1 and HcPT2 indicate that the two fungal phosphate transporters may be involved in uptake of phosphate from the soil solution under the two soil P availability conditions used. PMID:19054369

  13. Long-term persistence of Mediterranean pine forests in the Duero Basin (central Spain) during the Holocene: The case of Pinus pinaster Aiton

    OpenAIRE

    Morales del Molino, Cesar; Postigo Mijarra, Jose Maria; Morla Juaristi, Carlos; Garcia Anton, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    In the southern Duero Basin of central Spain, there are vast areas of aeolian sand sheets and dune fields. A comprehensive survey of the sand quarries in this area identified a number of palaeosols in sedimentary sequences. The identification and AMS radiocarbon dating of soil charcoal fragments collected in these palaeosols indicate the persistence of Pinus pinaster in this area throughout most of the Holocene. Although potential natural vegetation models have usually considered the Pinus pi...

  14. Biomasa arbórea y estabilidad nutricional de los sistemas forestales de "Pinus pinaster Ait., Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Quercus robur L." en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Balboa Murias, M.

    2005-01-01

    El principal objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la caracterización nutricional de los sistemas forestales de Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus y Quercus robur, y evaluar la incidencia de diferentes operaciones selvícolas y de aprovechamiento de las fracciones arbóreas sobre la estabilidad nutricional de los mismos.

  15. An integer programming model for a forest harvest problem in Pinus pinaster stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, T. F.; Cerveira, A.; Mota, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study addresses the special case of a management plan for maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in common lands. The study area refers to 4,432 ha of maritime pine stands in North Portugal (Perimetro Florestal do Barroso in the county of Ribeira de Pena), distributed among five common lands called baldio areas. Those lands are co-managed by the Official Forest Services and the local communities, essentially for timber production, using empirical guidance. As the current procedure does not guarantee the best thinning and clear-cutting scheduling, it was considered important to develop easy-to-use models, supported by optimization techniques, to be employed by the forest managers in the harvest planning of these communitarian forests. Planning of the thinning and clear-cutting operations involved certain conditions, such as: (1) the optimal age for harvesting; (2) the maximum stand density permitted; (3) the minimum volume to be cut; (4) the guarantee of incomes for each of the five baldios in at least a two year period; (5) balanced incomes during the length of the projection period. In order to evaluate the sustainability of the wood resources, a set of constraints lower bounding the average ending age was additionally tested. The problem was formulated as an integer linear programming model where the incomes from thinning and clear-cutting are maximized while considering the constraints mentioned above. Five major scenarios were simulated. The simplest one allows for silvicultural constraints only, whereas the other four consider these constraints besides different management options. Two of them introduce joint management of all common areas with or without constraints addressing balanced distribution of incomes during the plan horizon, whilst the other two consider the same options but for individual management of the baldios. The proposed model is easy to apply, providing immediate advantages for short and mid-term planning periods compared to the empirical

  16. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  17. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region. PMID:27570527

  18. Caracterización anual del metabolismo de las acículas de Pinus pinaster (Aiton) mediante procedimientos transcriptómicos y metabolómicos

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz, C; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martin ML; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende iniciar una serie de estudios sobre el metabolismo nitrogenado en árboles adultos de la conífera Pinus pinaster (Aiton) en condiciones naturales. Durante un año completo se ha caracterizado el metabolismo de las acículas de árboles de P. pinaster que crecen en el paraje natural de Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja, Estepona (Málaga). Para ello se han seguido dos aproximaciones diferentes. En primer lugar se ha analizado la expresión génica mediante el em...

  19. Two genotypes of mycorrhizal Pinus pinaster respond differently to cadmium contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, N. R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Marques, Ana; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization is one of the main anthropogenic sources of Cd accumulation in agricultural soils and when toxic levels have been reached, food crop production is no longer viable. Adequate strategies for the forestation of agricultural metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of two different genotypes of P. pinaster (A and B) to Cd contamination and to assess how inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi influenced each genotype. Seedlin...

  20. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

  1. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  2. Bending creep of Maritime pine wood (Pinus pinaster Ait.) chemically modified

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Duarte Barroso; Mai, Carsten; Militz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The long-term performance of a structural member is determined by its durability and deformation with time. The bending creep behaviour of modified wood was assessed experimentally over a period of 35 days (840 hours). Four chemical modification processes were used: 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU), mmethylated melamine formaldehyde resin (MMF), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and amid wax (WA). Wood stakes with 20.10.200 mm RTL dimensions of Portuguese Maritime pine (Pinus pi...

  3. Efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae), in Pinus pinaster boards

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifacio, Luis; Sousa, Edmundo; Naves, Pedro; Inácio, Maria; Henriques, Joana; Mota, Manuel; Barbosa, Pedro; Drinkall, Mike; Buckley, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is an important conifer disease worldwide. It is the direct cause of the death of millions of pines in south-east Asia (mainly Japan, China and Korea) and has been established in Portugal since 1999. The phasing out of methyl bromide has created an urgent need for alternative treatment of wood packaging materials. The effect of sulfuryl fluoride (SF), a broad-spectrum fumigant used to control insects, was tested in Pinus pinas...

  4. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, C.; Cortez, N; Martins, A.; Azevedo, António; M. Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP) e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG), considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos), quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar), com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com...

  5. Characterization of a Pinus pinaster cDNA encoding an auxin up-regulated putative peroxidase in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet-Candela, V; Hitchin, S; Reddy, M S; Cournoyer, B; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2002-03-01

    As part of a study to identify host plant genes regulated by fungal auxin during ectomycorrhiza formation, we differentially screened a cDNA library constructed from roots of auxin-treated Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol. seedlings. We identified three cDNAs up-regulated by auxin. Sequence analysis of one of these cDNAs, PpPrx75, revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 216 amino acids with the characteristic consensus sequences of plant peroxidases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Arachis hypogaea L. and Stylosanthes humilis HBK cationic peroxidases. Amino acid sequence identities in the conserved domains of plant peroxidases ranged from 60 to 100%. In PpPrx75, there are five cysteine residues and one histidine residue that are found at conserved positions among other peroxidases. A potential glycosylation site (NTS) is present in the deduced sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PpPrx75 is closely related to two A. thaliana peroxidases. The PpPrx75 cDNA was induced by active auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and quercetin, a flavonoid possibly involved in plant-microorganism interactions. Transcript accumulation was detected within 3 h following root induction by auxin, and the amount of mRNA increased over the following 24 h. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not inhibit indole-3-acetic acid-induced transcript accumulation, suggesting that PpPrx75 induction is a primary (direct) response to auxin. This cDNA can be used to study expression of an auxin-regulated peroxidase during ectomycorrhiza formation. PMID:11874719

  6. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vizcaíno-Palomar

    Full Text Available Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton, an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  7. Changes in climate-growth relationships and IADF formation over time of pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean basin has experienced an increase in the mean annual temperature, a decrease in the mean annual precipitation, and an increase in the frequency of severe drought periods during the second half of the 20th century. However, winter and spring precipitation has increased and summer precipitation has decreased in the western Mediterranean region. Aim of the study: The objectives of the present study were: i to compare changes in climate-growth relationships over time for Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Spain ii to quantify the presence of intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs on the three species, and iii to define the associated climatic variables. Area of study: 26 sampling sites (8 P. halepensis sites, 8 P. pinaster sites and 10 P. sylvestris sites were selected in their distribution area in Spain. Main results: Precipitation is the main factor influencing growth and IADF occurrence in the three species. Wet periods during previous winter and spring induced higher growth rates on P. halepensis and P. pinaster, while P. sylvestris was mostly influenced by summer precipitation. However, the influence of these climatic variables on the growth of these species changed over the studied period. The increase of winter and spring precipitation combined with increasingly harsh summer climatic conditions in the second half of the 20th century may have enhanced the importance of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season on the growth of species subject to higher summer drought stress (P. halepensis and P. pinaster and increased IADF occurrence. Research highlights: Besides reflecting changes in the environmental conditions during the growing season, the inclusion of IADF detection in chronologies adds new information to ring-width chronologies, thereby improving its quality.

  8. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

  9. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, C.; Cortez, N; Martins, A.; Azevedo, A.; M. Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP) e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG), considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos), quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar), com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com...

  10. Exploring natural variation of Pinus pinaster Aiton using metabolomics: Is it possible to identify the region of origin of a pine from its metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijón, Mónica; Feito, Isabel; Oravec, Michal; Delatorre, Carolina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Majada, Juan; Valledor, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Natural variation of the metabolome of Pinus pinaster was studied to improve understanding of its role in the adaptation process and phenotypic diversity. The metabolomes of needles and the apical and basal section of buds were analysed in ten provenances of P. pinaster, selected from France, Spain and Morocco, grown in a common garden for 5 years. The employment of complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS) together with bioinformatics tools allowed the reliable quantification of 2403 molecular masses. The analysis of the metabolome showed that differences were maintained across provenances and that the metabolites characteristic of each organ are mainly related to amino acid metabolism, while provenances were distinguishable essentially through secondary metabolism when organs were analysed independently. Integrative analyses of metabolome, environmental and growth data provided a comprehensive picture of adaptation plasticity in conifers. These analyses defined two major groups of plants, distinguished by secondary metabolism: that is, either Atlantic or Mediterranean provenance. Needles were the most sensitive organ, where strong correlations were found between flavonoids and the water regime of the geographic origin of the provenance. The data obtained point to genome specialization aimed at maximizing the drought stress resistance of trees depending on their origin. PMID:26756581

  11. Influence of tree density on climate-growth relationships in a Pinus pinaster Ait. forest in the northern mountains of Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the projected increases in the frequency and duration of drought events in the Mediterranean basin, a better understanding how differences in stand structure influence climate-growth relationships can improve and drive the conservation and management strategies for marginal forests in mountain areas. In this study, we examined the intra-annual variability of growth patterns and responses to climate of two maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands growing at contrasting tree densities at low elevation in northern Sardinia. A dendroclimatic analysis was used to assess the climate-growth relationships of these trees on monthly, seasonal and annual scales. The late spring and summer precipitations of the current year appeared to be the crucial climatic driver that encouraged the radial growth of the species in this mountain stand. However, summer drought was the primary climate constraint, exerting negative effects on P. pinaster growth. Summer Palmer drought severity index showed contrasting influence on latewood growth responses to drought conditions related to stand density, remaining significant also during the autumn months in the stand with the highest tree density. Our findings indicate that stands growing at high tree densities may experience more prolonged water shortages, especially during the late summer and early autumn months. Additionally, since the early 1980s, as precipitation has decreased, the influence of previous rainy years on radial growth has been highly significant in the stand with the lowest tree density. This result might suggests that these trees are able to utilize a greater amount of water reaching deeper soil horizons stored due to the previous rainy years, especially during periods of low precipitation.

  12. Efeito da cinza de biomassa na dinâmica do C e N do solo de uma plantação de pinus pinaster Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a pinus pinaster plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Xesús Gómez-Rey; Manuel Madeira; João Coutinho; Ernesto Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    Estudou-se, através de incubação aeróbia, o efeito da aplicação de cinza de biomassa florestal nas características químicas e na actividade microbiana de um Arenossolo de um povoamento de Pinus pinaster Ait. As doses de cinza aplicadas foram de 0, 4, e 8 g kg-1 solo, sob forma pulverulenta ou peletizada, e na presença ou ausência de fertilizante azotado. A aplicação de cinza sob forma pulverulenta aumentou rápida e significativamente os valores de pH e os teores de bases de troca e de P extra...

  13. Potencialidades do Pinus pinaster e Cytisus multiflorus na fitoestabilização de escombreiras na mina de ouro de Santo António (Penedono Potencialities of Pinus pinaster and Cytisus multiflorus on the phytostabilization of the Santo António (Penedono gold mine dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abreu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A mina de Santo António, localizada a cerca de 10 km ao norte de Penedono (Viseu, foi um importante centro mineiro, tendo-se aí principalmente explorado o ouro e outros elementos químicos, como o arsénio. Actualmente, todo o complexo mineiro está abandonado e bastante degradado. As escombreiras, cortadas por dois barrancos de grande dimensão, estão sujeitas a intensa erosão eólica e hídrica. Estas apresentam teores totais elevados para vários elementos, dos quais se destacam As, Pb, Cd e Au que atingem, respectivamente, 40 000, 653, 14 e 9,8 mg kg-1 . Estudou-se na área mineira, e em particular na envolvente das escombreiras, os solos e as plantas aí desenvolvidas (Pinus pinaster, Quercus pyrenaica, Castanea sativa, Cytisus multiflorus e uma gramínea do género Agrostis. As águas de drenagem da escombreira não vegetalizada apresentavam valores de pH de 2,58 e teores de As e Cd respectivamente de 160 e 0,05 mg/L. As águas recolhidas a jusante de escombreiras vegetalizadas com pinheiros e giestas, mostraram um decréscimo drástico de todos os elementos, em especial do As que ocorria com valores ambientalmente aceitáveis (The Santo António mine is located 10 km north of Penedono (Viseu, Portugal. This mine was in the first half of the twenty’s century an important gold and arsenic mining centre. Nowadays the mining complex is abandoned and presents high level of physical degradation. The waste dumps crossed by two large gullies are under strong water and wind erosion. The total concentrations of As, Pb, Cd e Au, in the dump material reached values as high as 40 000, 653, 14 and 9,8 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils and native plants as Pinus pinaster, Quercus pyrenaica, Castanea sativa, Cytisus multiflorus and gramineous plants (gen. Agrostis from the mining area and the waste dumps surroundings were collect and analysed. The draining waters from a no vegetated dump presented a pH value of 2.58, and As and Cd concentrations of 160

  14. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal. Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. Keywords: forest management; maritime pine; forest modelling; knowledge transfer tool.

  15. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway. PMID:24279702

  16. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  18. Genetic variation of drought tolerance in Pinus pinaster at three hierarchical levels: a comparison of induced osmotic stress and field testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Gaspar

    Full Text Available Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

  19. The auxin-inducible GH3 homologue Pp-GH3.16 is downregulated in Pinus pinaster root systems on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S M; Hitchin, S; Melayah, D; Pandey, A K; Raffier, C; Henderson, J; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether auxin-regulated plant genes play a role in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment, we screened a Pinus pinaster root cDNA library for auxin-upregulated genes. This allowed the identification of a cDNA, Pp-GH3.16, which encodes a polypeptide sharing extensive homologies with GH3 proteins of different plants. Pp-GH3.16 was specifically upregulated by auxins and was not affected by cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid or ethylene, or by heat shock, water stress or anoxia. Pp-GH3.16 mRNAs were quantified in pine roots inoculated with two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Hebeloma cylindrosporum and Rhizopogon roseolus. Surprisingly, Pp-GH3.16 was downregulated following inoculation with both fungal species. The downregulation was most rapid on establishment of symbiosis with an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-overproducing mutant of H. cylindrosporum, which overproduced mycorrhizas characterized by a hypertrophic Hartig net. This indicates that, despite being auxin-inducible, Pp-GH3.16 can be downregulated on establishment of symbiosis with a fungus that releases auxin. By contrast, Pp-GH3.16 was not downregulated in pine root systems inoculated with a nonmycorrhizal mutant of H. cylindrosporum, suggesting that the downregulation we observed in mycorrhizal root systems was a component of the molecular cross-talk between symbiotic partners at the origin of differentiation of symbiotic structures. PMID:16608463

  20. Análisis de la estructura espacial de las masas de Pinus pinaster Aiton de la Comunidad de Madrid mediante imágenes de alta resolución espacial

    OpenAIRE

    Merino De Miguel, Silvia; Solana Gutierrez, Joaquin; González-Alonso, F.

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda el análisis de la estructura espacial de las masas de Pinus pinaster Aiton de la Comunidad de Madrid mediante imágenes de alta resolución espacial, así como la asociación existente entre algunos índices de textura derivados del variograma, y ciertas características dasométricas obtenidas a partir de parcelas de campo. Para ello se utilizaron, ortofotografías y una imagen de satélite IKONOS, correspondientes a puntos en los que se localizan parcelas de muestreo del In...

  1. Nucleotide polymorphisms in a pine ortholog of the Arabidopsis degrading enzyme cellulase KORRIGAN are associated with early growth performance in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, José Antonio; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, María Angeles; Boury, Christophe; de María, Nuria; Eveno, Emmanuelle; Aranda, Ismael; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Brach, Jean; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Cervera, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a candidate-gene-based association genetic study in Pinus pinaster Aiton and evaluated the predictive performance for genetic merit gain of the most significantly associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a second generation 384-SNP array enriched with candidate genes for growth and wood properties to genotype mother trees collected in 20 natural populations covering most of the European distribution of the species. Phenotypic data for total height, polycyclism, root-collar diameter and biomass were obtained from a replicated provenance-progeny trial located in two sites with contrasting environments (Atlantic vs Mediterranean climate). General linear models identified strong associations between growth traits (total height and polycyclism) and four SNPs from the korrigan candidate gene, after multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate. The combined genomic breeding value predictions assessed for the four associated korrigan SNPs by ridge regression-best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and cross-validation accounted for up to 8 and 15% of the phenotypic variance for height and polycyclic growth, respectively, and did not improve adding SNPs from other growth-related candidate genes. For root-collar diameter and total biomass, they accounted for 1.6 and 1.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, but increased to 15 and 4.1% when other SNPs from lp3.1, lp3.3 and cad were included in RR-BLUP models. These results point towards a desirable integration of candidate-gene studies as a means to pre-select relevant markers, and aid genomic selection in maritime pine breeding programs. PMID:26093373

  2. Potencial de comportamento do fogo em manchas de pinhal bravo remanescentes de incêndio

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Henrique Cruz Loureiro da

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal As manchas de pinhal bravo (Pinus pinaster) remanescentes de incêndios florestais são ecologicamente importantes e poderão dar orientações úteis no âmbito da mitigação do risco de incêndio, já que as suas características estruturais e de acumulação de combustível poderão ser extrapoladas para povoamentos de produção ou faixas de gestão de combustível e adotadas como recomendações de silvicultura preventiva. Neste trabalho estudaram-se 50 m...

  3. Efeito da cinza de biomassa na dinâmica do C e N do solo de uma plantação de pinus pinaster Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a pinus pinaster plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Xesús Gómez-Rey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, através de incubação aeróbia, o efeito da aplicação de cinza de biomassa florestal nas características químicas e na actividade microbiana de um Arenossolo de um povoamento de Pinus pinaster Ait. As doses de cinza aplicadas foram de 0, 4, e 8 g kg-1 solo, sob forma pulverulenta ou peletizada, e na presença ou ausência de fertilizante azotado. A aplicação de cinza sob forma pulverulenta aumentou rápida e significativamente os valores de pH e os teores de bases de troca e de P extraível do solo. A nitrificação líquida foi igualmente estimulada. A quantidade de C microbiano nos solos com cinza pulverulenta foi inferior ao controlo, não sendo observados efeitos significativos para a respiração basal do solo. O quociente metabólico foi superior na fase inicial da incubação. Os efeitos observados foram, em geral, tanto mais intensos quanto maior a dose de cinza aplicada e mais acentuados na presença de N. A cinza aplicada sob forma peletizada não produziu um efeito tão acentuado nas características do solo nem na elevação da alcalinidade, determinando uma fraca influência na dinâmica de C e na produção de nitrato. Em sistemas como o estudado a aplicação de cinza sob forma peletizada é preferível, ao originar um efeito mais prolongado da sua acção, devendo ser acompanhada de fertilizantes azotados para aumentar a disponibilidade de N no solo.Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increased pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal respiration was not affected by treatments. Effects increased with the

  4. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG, considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos, quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar, com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com folhas de EG (Pegões e Rio Maior. Para igual período, a taxa de decomposição das agulhas de PP, estimada pelo modelo exponencial simples, foi inferior à determinada para as folhas de EG, sendo a diferença mais acentuada na fase inicial da decomposição (6 meses, em que a perda de peso das agulhas de PP foi cerca de metade da observada para as folhas de EG. Durante a fase inicial decomposição, tanto das folhas de EG como das agulhas de PP, ocorreu uma assinalável libertação de P, K e de Mg. A libertação do N dependeu da taxa de decomposição, observando- -se imobilização para as agulhas de PP com mais baixa taxa de decomposição, e libertação rápida para as folhas de EG com mais elevada taxa de decomposição. No caso do Ca o factor diferenciador foi a espécie, sendo a respectiva libertação baixa para as agulhas de PP, mas acentuada para as folhas de EG. As folhas verdes de resíduos de abate de EG decompuseram-se e libertaram os nutrientes mais rapidamente do que as folhas senescentes da mesma espécie.Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster (PP and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus (EG was assessed using the litterbag methodology. Decomposition rate of these residues and release dynamics of nutrients with more relevance to the sustainability of forest systems were measured. The study was carried out in the litoral of Central Portugal (Furadouro,Óbidos, using both PP and EG, in inland of North Portugal (Vila Pouca

  5. Aproximaciones metabolómica y transcriptómica a la gestión del metabolismo en las acículas de Pinus pinaster L. aiton

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael A. Cañas; Canales, Javier; Muñoz, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Pascual, Mª Belen; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María Luisa; Francisco M Cánovas

    2014-01-01

    Aproximaciones metabolómica y transcriptómica a la gestión del metabolismo en las acículas de Pinus pinaster L. Aiton Rafael A. Cañas1, Javier Canales1, Carmen Muñoz2, Jose M. Granados1, Ma Belén Pascual1, Concepción Ávila1, María L. García-Martín2, Francisco M. Cánovas1. 1Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto Andaluz de Biotecnología, Universidad de Málaga, Campus Universitario de Teatinos s/n, 29071, MÁLAGA. 2Uni...

  6. Factores anatómicos, dendrométricos y climáticos implicados en la producción de resina de Pinus pinaster AIT. : aplicación a la mejora de los métodos de resinación

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Pinus pinaster Ait. es la conífera con mayor área de distribución en la Península Ibérica y es, a día de hoy, la única especie resinada en nuestro país. La inducción del flujo de resina al exterior para su recolección a través de distintos tipos de heridas ha sido practicada desde hace miles de años por distintas culturas. En todos los casos, las técnicas desarrolladas se basan en la estimulación del característico sistema de defensa de las pináceas. En los últimos siete años se viene observa...

  7. PiroPinus: a spreadsheet application to guide prescribed burning operations in maritime pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Paulo; Loureiro, Carlos; Botelho, Hermínio

    2011-01-01

    The efficient, sustainable and safe use of prescribed burning is based on quantitative application guidelines. PiroPinus was conceived for operational support to line-ignited, hazard-reduction burning in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest, but can be used as a modelling tool for surface fire behaviour in general. PiroPinus rests on a sound empirical foundation and links the fire environment (fuel, weather, terrain), fire behaviour characteristics, and fire effects on fuels and trees. PiroP...

  8. Sergio Bravo y tendencias del montaje Film EditingTendencies in Sergio Bravo's Filmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corro Pemjean

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto ahonda, en términos, críticos tanto en la singular doctrina sobre el montaje cinematográfico propuesta por Gilles Deleuze en sus textos sobre cine, como en el sentido y forma que adopta el montaje en la filmografía del documentalista chileno Sergio Bravo Ramos. Las escuelas de montaje, que distingue el filósofo y que, como escuelas cinematográficas nacionales son asimiladas a conciencias estético-políticas, se identifican en los documentales de Bravo y permiten distinguir, a través de sus aplicaciones, una oscilación de la retórica del cineasta, entre la ampliación del inventario de objetos culturales y sociales del cine documental chileno y la experimentación plástica a partir de ellos mismos.This article examines critical concepts related to Gilles Deleuze's singular doctrine about film editing, as well as the particular form and meaning of editing techniques developed by Chilean documentary maker Sergio Bravo Ramos throughout his filmography. The quality of film editing schools, acknowledged by Deleuze as political aesthetic consciousness, can be recognized in Bravo's documentaries, and by means of its applications, it is possible to distinguish an oscillation of his rhetoric from the widening of the cultural and social objects inventory in Chilean documentary cinema to artistic experimentation developed from them.

  9. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  10. Measurement and modelling of radiation transmission within a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-empirical model of radiation penetration in a maritime pine canopy was developed so that mean solar (and net) radiation absorption by crowns and understorey could be estimated from above-canopy measurements only. Beam radiation Rb was assumed to penetrate the canopy according to Beer's law with an extinction coefficient of 0.32; this figure was found using non-linear regression techniques. For diffuse sky radiation, Beer's law was integrated over the sky vault assuming a SOC (standard overcast sky) luminance model; the upward and downward scattered radiative fluxes were obtained using the Kubelka-Munk equations and measurements of needle transmittance and reflectance. The penetration of net radiation within the canopy was also modelled. The model predicts the measured albedo of the stand very well. The estimation of solar radiation transmitted by the canopy was also satisfactory with the maximum difference between this and the mean output of mobile sensors at ground level being only 18 W m-2. Due to the poor precision of net radiometers, the net radiation model could not be tested critically. However, as the modelled longwave radiation balance under the canopy is always between -10 and -20 Wm-2, the below-canopy net radiation must be very close to the solar radiation balance. (author)

  11. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies. PMID:26358548

  12. Seasonal Variation of Organogenetic Activity and Reserves Allocation in the Shoot Apex of Pinus pinaster Ait.

    OpenAIRE

    JORDY, MARIE‐NOËLLE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims To understand better the basic growth characteristics of pines and the fundamental properties of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), variations within the shoot apex of buds were studied.

  13. Impact of wildfire on the edaphic microarthropod community in a Pinus pinaster forest in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the soil microarthropod community to wildfire in forest ecosystems. The edaphic microarthropod communities of pine stands burned in 2001, in 2009, both in 2001 and in 2009, in 2012 were compared to an area never burned. Sampling was conducted in the spring and autumn of 2011 and 2012 in the areas burned in 2001, in 2009 and those never burned, while in the area burned in 2012, soil samples were collected in March (10 days after fire, June and September. The abundance and biodiversity of the microarthropod community were assessed. A multitemporal analysis was also carried out to assess the effect of fire on soil microarthropod abundance 5 months, 2-3 years and 10-11 years after fire. The results showed that the abundance of edaphic microarthropod communities decreased dramatically in areas burned twice, but also in areas burned once in 2009 and five months after the fire in the area burned in 2012. Different taxonomic groups did not seem to respond to fire in the same way, some taxa being more sensitive than others. Pseudoscorpionida decreased in both the short- and the long-term, while Diplopoda, Thysanoptera and Symphyla showed a reduction in the intermediate- and long-term. In the short-term, Diptera and Coleoptera larvae appeared to be the most influenced taxonomic groups. Our study shows that biomonitoring is a valuable tool to investigate the reaction of forest ecosystems to fire, and that edaphic microarthropods can provide interesting answers about the direct and indirect effects of fire on soil.

  14. Change of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation by a tree cover of Pinus pinaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughfall and stem flow volume generation was measured over 1 year period in a Pinus pinaster stand 9 years old. Throughfall was measured using 8 collectors in a fixed position connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge in a representative 10 x 10 m plot of the forest and stem flow was measured in three trees using a rubber ring around the trunk connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge. The two tipping bucket rainfall gauges was connected to a data logger programmed to record data every 5 minutes. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. BRAVO for many-server QED systems with finite buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, DJ; Leeuwaarden, van, JSH Johan; Nazarathy, Y Yoni

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the occurrence of the feature called BRAVO (balancing reduces asymptotic variance of output) for the departure process of a finite-buffer Markovian many-server system in the QED (quality and efficiency-driven) heavy-traffic regime. The results are based on evaluating the limit of an equation for the asymptotic variance of death counts in finite birth-death processes.

  16. Environmental practices of the tourist companies in Valle de Bravo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article analyzes the environmental practices of the social actors related to the tourist companies of the municipality of Valle de Bravo, Mexico State. The environmental practices were considered from the socioeconomic point of view, including not only the natural resources management, but also the social and economic environment. Considering the previous, using a methodological proposal based on the theory of complex systems, the effects on the above mentioned environments of this tourist destination were analyzed, allowing to holistically visualizing the situation that prevails towards the environmental caring performed by all the social actors of the locality. The results show a great weakness in the implementation of the above mentioned practices, due to the fact that nowadays these practices are imposed by the municipal government and are not an initiative of the actors of the tourist companies. For this reason, the conditions of environmental deterioration in Valle de Bravo are increasing. Based on the results, some recommendations are proposed for the implementation and improvement of environmental practices that contribute to the conservation and care of the environment.

  17. Cartas de un general porfirista: Correspondencia familiar de Ignacio Bravo, 1889-1918 Letters from a Porfirian General: Family Correspondence of Ignacio Bravo, 1889-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ramos Díaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La correspondencia familiar de Ignacio Bravo muestra facetas poco conocidas de los primeros años de vida del territorio de Quintana Roo, de algunos episodios de la revolución mexicana y del exilio del presidente Victoriano Huerta en Texas. Pero, sobre todo, las cartas personales del general Bravo delinean el itinerario de una familia de militares en los años finales del siglo XIX y primeros del siglo XX, en el México de Porfirio Díaz. El presente artículo da la noticia del hallazgo de cientos de piezas de correspondencia personal de Bravo y al mismo tiempo realiza una antología de la información que ayuda a comprender, con nuevos datos, sucesos recurrentes en la historiografía regional del sureste mexicano, como la pacificación de los mayas, la creación del territorio federal de Quintana Roo en la frontera México-Belice y el entorno selvático y hostil para los pioneros que se establecieron en esa alejada región.Ignacio Bravo's family correspondence reveals little-known aspects of the early years of Quintana Roo, certain episodes of the Mexican Revolution and President Victoriano Huerta's exile in Texas. Above all, General Bravo's personal letters trace the lives of a family of military men in the late 19th and early 20th century in the Mexico of Porfirio Díaz. The article reveals the discovery of hundreds of pieces of Bravo's personal correspondence and provides an anthology of the information that uses new data to explain recurrent events in the regional historiography of the Mexican southeast, such as the pacification of the Maya, the creation of the federal territory of Quintana Roo on the Mexico-Belize border and the hostile, jungle environment for the pioneers who settled in this far-off region.

  18. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 2: User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the BRAVO User's Manual is to describe the BRAVO methodology in terms of step-by-step procedures. The BRAVO methodology then becomes a tool which a team of analysts can utilize to perform cost effectiveness analyses on potential future space applications with a relatively general set of input information and a relatively small expenditure of resources. An overview of the BRAVO procedure is given by describing the complete procedure in a general form.

  19. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account ...

  20. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  1. Enhancement of mechanical strength of particleboard using environmentally friendly pine (Pinus pinaster L.) tannin adhesives with cellulose nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Juqing; Lu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Xiaojian; Chrusciel, Laurent; Deng, Yuhe; Zhou, Handong; Zhu, Shangwu; Brosse, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Context Condensed tannins have been successfully used as substitutes for phenol in the production of resins for wood products. However, the enhancement of the properties of tannin-based resins with nontoxic and cost effective additives is of great interest.• Methods In the present work, the performance enhancement of tannin-based particleboards with cellulose nanofibers was investigated.• Results In presence of 2 % of cellulose nanofibers, the viscosity of tannin-based adhesives and the inter...

  2. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morel, A.; Teyssier, C.; Trontin, J.F.; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, M.; Morabito, D.; Boizot, N.; Le Mette, C.; Belal-Bessai, L.; Vágner, Martin; Label, P.; Lelu-Walter, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 1 (2014), s. 184-201. ISSN 0031-9317 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN * ABSCISIC-ACID * HYBRID LARCH Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.138, year: 2014

  3. Caracterização fenólica de extractos tanínicos de casca de Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Paulo; Coimbra, Patrícia; Pepino, Lina; Jorge, Fernando Caldeira; Costa, Rui Pereira da; Gil, Maria Helena; Portugal, António

    2001-01-01

    Os Taninos são compostos polifenólicos naturais, divididos normalmente em dois grandes grupos, não relacionados estruturalmente entre si: Taninos Hidrolizáveis e Taninos Condensados (ou Proantocianidinas). A principal característica destes compostos consiste na sua capacidade de complexarem e precipitarem proteínas. Podem igualmente condensar com formaldeído ou mesmo autocondensar, sem a presença de qualquer agente reticulante externo. Desse modo, são potenciais intervenientes na síntese de a...

  4. Ecología evolutiva de la reproducción en dos pinos mediterráneos: Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus halepensis Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Santos del Blanco

    2014-01-01

    El estudio de los caracteres de historia vital es central en biología evolutiva y ecología, pues están íntimamente relacionados con el entorno vital de los organismos. Entre los caracteres de historia vital destacan los reproductivos, tales como el tamaño umbral de reproducción, la fecundidad y el reparto del esfuerzo reproductor a lo largo de la vida. Su estudio ayuda a entender procesos adaptativos pasados y a inferir los futuros. En el caso de los árboles forestales, este conocimiento es p...

  5. Aplicaciones de la embriogénesis somática para la propagación y mejora de Quercus ilex L. y Pinus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Carlos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis está enfocada a la aplicación de la embriogénesis somática para la conservación y mejora de Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinaster Aiton y Pinus pinea L., especies forestales representativas de los bosques de la Península Ibérica. La propagación clonal mediante embriogénesis somática (ES) es la herramienta más adecuada para la propagación de genotipos de élite y para la implementación de la llamada silvicultura multivarietal. Además los cultivos embriogénicos son explantos adecuados para ...

  6. PINUS OCCIDENTALIS SWARTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Antonio Miniño Mejía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La gran biodiversidad de especies de plantas en la islaLa Española, hace conveniente la elaboración de trabajos quepermitan identificar las familias, géneros y especies, a partir dediversos caracteres, como losanatómicos. En la RepúblicaDominicana se carece de investigaciones sobre las semillas delas especies endémicas. Es importante profundizar en estudiosmorfológicos y anatómicos de las semillas de nuestras especies yemplearlas con diferentes fines, como orientación taxonómica,conocer más sobre su ecología, entre otros. En nuestro trabajotratamos de utilizar un carácter relevante dePinus occidentalis,como es su semilla. El presente estudio nos permite conocer sobrela superficie de la semilla dePinus occidentalis, pues la morfología dela semilla juega un papel importante en la dispersión de la especie.

  7. Instructional Design of Entrepreneurship Courses: Interview Research of Wyoming BRAVO! Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Belinda J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the opportunity recognition process of Wyoming BRAVO! Entrepreneur (WBE) Award winners or nominees, in order to better inform the learner analysis and organizational strategy components of instructional design, specifically with respect to entrepreneurship courses. This study may be of significance to post…

  8. BRAVO [test facility] puts PWR safety and relief valves to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new valve blowdown test facility is completing commissioning at the Marchwood Engineering Laboratories of Britain's Central Electricity Generating Board. BRAVO, as the facility is known, will prove the performance of the safety and relief valves to be used in Sizewell B, Britain's first PWR. (author)

  9. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 3: Workbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A collection of blank worksheets for use on each BRAVO problem to be analyzed is supplied, for the purposes of recording the inputs for the BRAVO analysis, working out the definition of mission equipment, recording inputs to the satellite synthesis computer program, estimating satellite earth station costs, costing terrestrial systems, and cost effectiveness calculations. The group of analysts working BRAVO will normally use a set of worksheets on each problem, however, the workbook pages are of sufficiently good quality that the user can duplicate them, if more worksheet blanks are required than supplied. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  10. Comparison of esophageal placement of Bravo capsule system under direct endoscopic guidance with conventional placement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A Sofi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aijaz A Sofi, Charles Filipiak, Thomas Sodeman, Usman Ahmad, Ali Nawras, Isam DaboulDepartment of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USABackground: Conventional placement of a wireless esophageal pH monitoring device in the esophagus requires initial endoscopy to determine the distance to the gastroesophageal junction. Blind placement of the capsule by the Bravo delivery system is followed by repeat endoscopy to confirm placement. Alternatively, the capsule can be placed under direct vision during endoscopy. Currently there are no published data comparing the efficiency of one method over the other. The objective of this study was to compare the method of Bravo wireless pH deviceplacement under direct visualization with the conventional method.Methods: A retrospective study involving 58 patients (29 patients with indirect and 29 patients with direct visualization who had Bravo capsule placement. The physician endoscopy procedure notes, nurse’s notes, postprocedure notes, recovery notes, and pH monitoring results were reviewed. The safety of the procedures, length of the procedures, and patient tolerability were evaluated.Results: None of the 58 patients had early detachment of the device and had no immediate procedure-related complications. The overall incidence of complications in both the groups was similar. No failures due to the technique were noted in either group. Average amount of time taken for the procedure was similar in both groups.Conclusion: The technique of placing a Bravo pH device under direct visualization is as safe and effective as the conventional method. In addition, there is an added advantage of avoiding a second endoscopic intubation in the direct visualization technique.Keywords: Bravo capsule, technique, esophageal pH monitoring

  11. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. (Study 2.4) Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 2: User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The BRAVO User's Manual is presented which describes the BRAVO methodology in terms of step-by-step procedures, so that it may be used as a tool for a team of analysts performing cost effectiveness analyses on potential future space applications. BRAVO requires a relatively general set of input information and a relatively small expenditure of resources. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  12. URINARY EXCRETION OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM MARSHALLESE EXPOSED TO FALLOUT FROM THE 1954 BRAVO NUCLEAR TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Payne S.; Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of 131I in urine following exposure to fallo...

  13. Constraints on the magnitude and rate of CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome natural gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Kiran J; Hesse, Marc A; Cassidy, Martin; Stockli, Daniel F

    2014-10-28

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) captured at large point sources into deep saline aquifers can significantly reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Dissolution of the injected CO2 into the formation brine is a trapping mechanism that helps to ensure the long-term security of geological CO2 storage. We use thermochronology to estimate the timing of CO2 emplacement at Bravo Dome, a large natural CO2 field at a depth of 700 m in New Mexico. Together with estimates of the total mass loss from the field we present, to our knowledge, the first constraints on the magnitude, mechanisms, and rates of CO2 dissolution on millennial timescales. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology records heating of the Bravo Dome reservoir due to the emplacement of hot volcanic gases 1.2-1.5 Ma. The CO2 accumulation is therefore significantly older than previous estimates of 10 ka, which demonstrates that safe long-term geological CO2 storage is possible. Integrating geophysical and geochemical data, we estimate that 1.3 Gt CO2 are currently stored at Bravo Dome, but that only 22% of the emplaced CO2 has dissolved into the brine over 1.2 My. Roughly 40% of the dissolution occurred during the emplacement. The CO2 dissolved after emplacement exceeds the amount expected from diffusion and provides field evidence for convective dissolution with a rate of 0.1 g/(m(2)y). The similarity between Bravo Dome and major US saline aquifers suggests that significant amounts of CO2 are likely to dissolve during injection at US storage sites, but that convective dissolution is unlikely to trap all injected CO2 on the 10-ky timescale typically considered for storage projects. PMID:25313084

  14. [The making of the sexual and erotic body in the West German youth magazine BRAVO, 1960s-70s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the very successful popular youth magazine BRAVO as a central element of the West German youth culture. The focus is on BRAVO's contribution to the shaping of the sexual and erotic knowledge of the young in West Germany since the mid-1960s. Using a definition of popular culture that is inspired by the cultural studies and by an understanding of gender as a construct, the paper scrutinizes discourses on homosexuality, impotency and frigidity, moral debates on premarital sexual intercourse and changes of sexual behaviour of the young at the end of the 1960s, as well as discourses on the erotic body in the 1970s. By mediating authoritative knowledge about sex BRAVO contributed to stabilizing the heterosexual matrix in West Germany's youth culture. PMID:18019224

  15. A Crítica ao Cinema Brasileiro Atual: a retórica das revistas Veja e Bravo!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOMES, Regina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a rhetorical-comparative study of film reviews about Brazilian movies, published in magazines Veja and Bravo!, between the years 1997 and 2004. Although different institutions, the magazines used similar argumentative resources to convince the reader with aesthetic judgments predominantly positive of recent Brazilian cinema. However, Bravo! presented persuasive rhetoric more stronger that Veja magazine. The dialogue between rhetoric and journalistic criticism demarcated the discussion relating to the methods of interpretation and meaning construction in film reviews.

  16. Ordenamiento territorial, turismo y ambiente en Valle de Bravo, México

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Sierra López; Lilia Zizumbo Villarreal; Tonatiuh Romero Contreras; Neptalí Monterroso Salvatierra

    2011-01-01

    Detrás de ese paisaje idílico de agua, bosques y arquitectura, que la mercadotecnia ofrece y que la tradición evoca, se desarrollaron fuertes conflictos de intereses, necesidades sociales insatisfechas, así como la depredación ambiental constante. En Valle de Bravo pueden observarse paisajes con diferentes visiones y lógicas socioeconómicas, como resultado de un conjunto de políticas de carácter territorial formuladas por el Estado y por la iniciativa privada, con el objetivo de fomentar la a...

  17. Anestesia del toro bravo. Estudio clínico, cardiorrespiratorio y neurológico

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Rascón, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    El toro bravo, tanto por su temperamento como por ser una raza extensiva en semilibertad se asemeja más a los bovinos de vida libre como el búfalo o el bisonte que a los bovinos domésticos. Estos animales, en ocasiones, requieren asistencia veterinaria para la realización de procedimientos medico-quirúrgicos, diagnósticos o de manejo que necesitan de la anestesia como herramienta imprescindible para su realización. La inmovilización de estos animales resulta esencial para minim...

  18. Evaluation of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Using the Bravo Capsule pH System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawenko, Rona Marie A; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-31

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disease predominantly seen in the West but there is a rising trend in Asia. Ambulatory 24-hour catheter-based pH monitoring has been the de facto gold standard test for GERD that correlates symptoms with acid reflux episodes. However, drawbacks such as patients' discomfort, and catheter displacement render the test as cumbersome and error-prone. The Bravo pH wireless system is designed to be user-friendly and has an added advantage of prolonged pH monitoring. The system is comparable to the catheter-based pH monitoring system in terms of diagnostic yield and symptom-reflux association. Indications include evaluation of patients with refractory GERD symptoms and prior to anti-reflux surgery. Bravo utilizes a wireless pH-sensing capsule with a complete prepackaged system, and a data processing software. The capsule may be positioned indirectly using endoscopic or manometric landmarks or under direct endoscopic guidance. Optimal threshold cut-off values are yet to be standardized but based on available studies, for the Asian population, it may be recommended for total % time pH Cost is a limitation but capsule placement is relatively safe although technical failures may be seen in small percentage of cases. PMID:26717929

  19. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Background information is provided which emphasizes the philosophy behind analytical techniques used in the business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO) study. The focus of the summary is on the general approach, operation of the procedures, and the status of the study. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  20. José Julián Bravo (1874-1927), a hitherto unknown conchologist from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogollón Avila, V.; Breure, A.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The recent finding of a private shell collection from Peru, dating from the early 20th century, sheds some new light on the history of Neotropical malacology. The collection of J.J. Bravo is partly reconstructed and some data is given on his life and conchological activities. It shows that, in the e

  1. INDICADORES FECALES Y PATÓGENOS EN AGUA DESCARGADA AL RÍO BRAVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Olivas-Enriquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen pocos estudios disponibles con base en microorganismos enteropatógenos que confirmen el impacto del Río Bravo en la frontera norte sobre la salud pública, aunque algunos datos revelan descargas diarias de millones de litros de aguas residuales, la mayoría sin el más mínimo tratamiento. Las partes bajas del río reciben las aguas negras de áreas urbanas, drenaje agrícola y descargas de la industria, lo que sugiere su alta y peligrosa contaminación con patógenos intestinales. El objetivo fue determinar la calidad microbiológica del agua del Río Bravo, proveniente de drenes y canales que desembocan en ambos lados de la frontera Juárez- El Paso (región denominada Paso del Norte mediante la detección de organismos indicadores de contaminación fecal, los que permiten inferir la presencia de patógenos intestinales. Se identificaron y cuantificaron los indicadores fecales Cryptosporidium y Giardia por técnicas de separación inmunomagnética e inmunofluorescencia; otros indicadores fueron las bacterias coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, usando la técnica de filtración por membrana. Los resultados mostraron que el 100% de las muestras presentaron los dos parásitos y por lo menos alguno de los indicadores bacterianos, aunque en números fluctuantes, atribuido al tipo de descargas. Con base en que estos indicadores deben ser cero en el agua para beber y utilizando referencias para cuerpos de agua, se pudo deducir la calidad microbiológica, no siendo segura en el 100% de las muestras ni para actividades recreativas ni aptas para riego agrícola. Se observó un número mayor de parásitos y bacterias en las muestras del lado mexicano; asimismo, en ambas fronteras se encontró un número mayor del parásito Giardia que de Cryptosporidium. Actualmente la presencia indiscutible de enteropatógenos en el agua del Río Bravo constituye un riesgo para la salud pública, principalmente para los agricultores que la manejan y en el

  2. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Ordenamiento territorial, turismo y ambiente en Valle de Bravo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Sierra López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrás de ese paisaje idílico de agua, bosques y arquitectura, que la mercadotecnia ofrece y que la tradición evoca, se desarrollaron fuertes conflictos de intereses, necesidades sociales insatisfechas, así como la depredación ambiental constante. En Valle de Bravo pueden observarse paisajes con diferentes visiones y lógicas socioeconómicas, como resultado de un conjunto de políticas de carácter territorial formuladas por el Estado y por la iniciativa privada, con el objetivo de fomentar la actividad turística como eje del desarrollo capitalista. El paisaje creado en algunas zonas ofrece una imagen de prosperidad y confort, mientras que en otras es posible observar la segregación socioterritorial que esta actividad ha generado y que excluye a la mayoría de sus habitantes de los beneficios que el turismo puede traer.

  5. Study of population dynamics of bacteria associated with pine wood nematode after inoculation with different strains of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Mariana Roriz Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Durante algum tempo pensou-se que o Bursaphelenchus xylophilus era o único agente etiológico da doença do nemátode da madeira do pinheiro. Recentemente, descobriu-se que existem bactérias associadas ao nemátode que contribuem para a patogénese desta doença, sobretudo através da libertação de toxinas que promovem a morte dos pinheiros. De entre as espécies mais comummente encontradas estão bactérias pertencentes aos géneros Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas e Xanthomonas. Este trabalho teve...

  6. Physiologie moléculaire du développement des embryons somatiques de pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.) : approches transcriptomique et protéomique

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Chez le pin maritime l’embryogenèse somatique, méthode de multiplication végétative performante, n’est pas optimisée la limite étant le contrôle du développement des embryons somatiques (ES). Nos objectifs ont été 1) d’étudier les mécanismes physiologiques, cellulaires et moléculaires précoces contrôlant la différenciation des ES en réponse à une disponibilité en eau réduite 2) d’évaluer pour l'ES cotylédonaire de 12 semaines son état de maturité, son protéome afin de les comparer à l'embryon...

  7. Alimentation oligo-minerale du Pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Soland in Ait) en relation avec quelques caracteristiques physico-chimiques des sols sableux des Landes de Gascogne.

    OpenAIRE

    Saur, Etienne

    1989-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est de tenter de relier la nutrition minérale (plus particulièrement oligo-minérale) du pin maritime à des troubles de croissance que manifeste ce dernier dans certains peuplements sur sols sableux des Landes de Gascogne. Pour ce faire, on a analysé des échantillons de feuilles, d’écorces et de sols, prélevés dans 5 stations représentatives. Les résultats montrent que l'oligominéralomasse (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu) des 5 profils mesurés sur une profondeur de 1 mètre se s...

  8. Exploring natural variation of Pinus pinaster Aiton using metabolomics: Is it possible to identify the region of origin of a pine from its metabolites?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meijon, M.; Feito, I.; Oravec, Michal; Delatorre, C.; Weckwerth, W.; Majada, J.; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-976. ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200871201; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : abiotic stress * adaptation * conifers * flavonoids * terpenoids * UPLC-Orbitrap-MS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.494, year: 2014

  9. Prácticas ambientales de las empresas turísticas en valle de Bravo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Peñaloza1 Nadia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza las prácticas ambientales de los actores sociales que se relacionan con las empresas turísticas del municipio de Valle de Bravo, Estado de México. Cabe mencionar que dichas prácticas se consideraron desde el punto de vista socio- económico, es decir, no sólo como se asumen en cuanto al manejo de los recursos naturales, sino también desde su entorno social y económico. Por ello, a partir de la propuesta metodológica de la teoría de sistemas complejos, se analizan los efectos producidos en los entornos de este destino turístico, lo que permite visualizar deuna manera holística la situación que prevalece para al cuidado del ambiente con la participación de todos los actores sociales de la localidad. Los resultados encontrados muestran una gran debilidaden la implementación de dichas prácticas, ya que éstas, actualmente, son impuestas por el gobierno municipal y no se asumen como una iniciativa de los propios actores que participan en las empresas turísticas. Por esta razón, las condiciones de deterioro ambiental en Valle de Bravo son cada vez mayores. A partir de los resultados generados por este estudio, se formulan recomendaciones de implementación y mejoramiento de las prácticas ambientales que contribuyen a la conservación y al cuidado del ambiente.

  10. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

    2007-01-01

    Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

  11. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions inventory for Mexico with other emerging Mexican emission inventories illustrates their uncertainty. PMID:15991676

  12. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    D. H. Zetina; Maria del S. Cuevas Correa; Javier García-Figueroa; José M. Pino; Julieta Ramos-Elorduy; Eraldo M. Costa Neto

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in...

  13. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and 137Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  14. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. PMID:9314227

  15. Morphological evaluation of the Pinus kesiya complex (Pinaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Businský, R.; Frantík, Tomáš; Vít, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-285. ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : morphological variation * Pinus densata ssp. tibetica * Pinus kesiya complex Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  16. Composition of pectic polysaccharides in a Portuguese apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe is a typical Portuguese apple cultivar classified as Protected Designation and Origin (PDO. It is a traditional product produced under strict conditions and labelled with a specific law protected designation. This cultivar presents quite good sweetness and flavor. The monosaccharide composition of the pectic polysaccharides from this traditional apple is herein reported for the first time. Based on the molar ratios obtained from the sugar composition, the presumable pectin structure could be inferred. The cell-wall polysaccharides present in the alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR of unpeeled BE apple were sequentially fractionated. In addition, pectic material was also extracted by citric acid treatment prior to heat extraction at acidic pH. The water soluble pectin, imidazole soluble pectin and sodium carbonate soluble pectin account for 44, 16 and 40 % of the AIR, respectively. The pectic polysaccharides extracted in the presence of citric acid had lower galacturonic acid content and higher neutral sugars content. The homogalacturonan (HG and less-substituted rhamnogalacturonan (RG domains are extracted first. Pectin treated with citric acid has been shown to contain more substituted polymers, especially RG-I. In addition, the relatively higher Xylose/Galacturonic acid ratio found in the citric acid extract demonstrates that the xylogalacturonan (XG domain presumably is present in the pectic material of the unpeeled BE apple.

  17. Infiltration in unsaturated layered fluvial deposits at Rio Bravo : photo essay and data summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John, Jr.

    2007-08-01

    An infiltration and dye transport experiment was conducted to visualize flow and transport processes in a heterogeneous, layered, sandy-gravelly fluvial deposit adjacent to Rio Bravo Boulevard in Albuquerque, NM. Water containing red dye followed by blue-green dye was ponded in a small horizontal zone ({approx}0.5 m x 0.5 m) above a vertical outcrop ({approx}4 m x 2.5 m). The red dye lagged behind the wetting front due to slight adsorption thus allowing both the wetting front and dye fronts to be observed in time at the outcrop face. After infiltration, vertical slices were excavated to the midpoint of the infiltrometer exposing the wetting front and dye distribution in a quasi three-dimensional manner. At small-scale, wetting front advancement was influenced by the multitude of local capillary barriers within the deposit. However at the scale of the experiment, the wetting front appeared smooth with significant lateral spreading {approx} twice that in the vertical, indicating a strong anisotropy due to the pronounced horizontal layering. The dye fronts exhibited appreciably more irregularity than the wetting front, as well as the influence of preferential flow features (a fracture) that moved the dye directly to the front, bypassing the fresh water between.

  18. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  19. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma

  20. Urinary excretion of radionuclides from Marshallese exposed to fallout from the 1954 Bravo nuclear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Payne S; Simon, Steven L; Ibrahim, Shawki A

    2010-08-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of (131)I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office's Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of (131)I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008. PMID:20622553

  1. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  2. Biological repair of Pichia Pinus yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of liquid-holding recovery of Pichia pinus yeast after γ- and α-irradiation was determined. Haploid cells are not capable of recovery involved. Nonreparable component of diploid yeast recovery is 0.7 after γ-irradiation and 0.8 after α-irradiation

  3. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Hao LIU; Xing, Zhen; Hua ZHANG; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybr...

  4. a Review of Late Holocene Fluvial Systems in the Karst Maya Lowlands with Focus on the Rio Bravo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Luzzadder-Beach, S.; Krause, S.; Doyle, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands is mostly an internally draining karst region with about 400 m of regional relief. Fluvial and fluviokarst systems drain the edges of this landscape either from low limestone uplands or igneous and metamorphic complexes. Thus far most fluvial research has focused around archaeology projects, and here we review the extant research conducted across the region and new research on the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala. The Rio Bravo drains a largely old growth tropical forest today, but was partly deforested around ancient Maya cities and farms from 3,000 to 1000 BP. Several studies estimate that 30 to 40 percent of forest survived through the Maya period. Work here has focused on soils and sediment movement along slope catenas, in floodplain sites, and on contributions from groundwater with high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We review radiocarbon dates and present new dates and soil stratigraphy from these sequences to date slope and floodplain movement, and we estimate ancient land use from carbon isotopic and pollen evidence. Aggradation in this watershed occurred by flooding, gypsum precipitation, upland erosion, and ancient Maya canal building and filling for wetland farming. Soil erosion and aggradation started at least by 3,000 BP and continued through the ancient Maya period, though reduced locally by soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction, especially in Maya Classic period from 1700 to 1000 BP.

  5. Socialisation et dépendance. Théories de l’impérialisme chez Luciano Ferrari Bravo et Giovanni Arrighi

    OpenAIRE

    Melegari, Diego

    2016-01-01

    L’article compare les positions de Luciano Ferrari Bravo et Giovanni Arrighi à la fin des années 1970, notamment en ce qui concerne la théorie de l’impérialisme et la relation théorie-politique.

  6. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  7. Cooperation on Climate Services in the Binational Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Shafer, M. A.; Brown, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande/Bravo River Basin (RGB) of the United States and México is exposed to tornadoes, severe storms, hurricanes, winter storms, wildfire, and drought. The combination of these weather and climate-related hazards has resulted in impacts, such as wildfire, crop loss, water supply reduction, and flooding, with exceedingly high economic costs ($13 billion in 2011). In order to contribute to increased binational information flow and knowledge exchange in the region, we have developed a prototype quarterly bilingual RGB Climate Outlook, in PDF, supplemented by Twitter messages and Facebook posts. The goal of the project is to improve coordination between institutions in the U.S. and Mexico, increase awareness about climate variations, their impacts and costs to society, and build capacity for enhanced hazard preparedness. The RGB Outlook features a synthesis of climate products, impact data and analysis, is expressed in user-friendly language, and relies substantially on visual communication in contrast to text. The RGB Outlook is co-produced with colleagues in the U.S. and Mexico, in conjunction with the North American Climate Services Partnership (NACSP) and NOAA's regional climate services program. NACSP is a tri-national initiative to develop and deliver drought-based climate services in order to assist water resource managers, agricultural interests, and other constituents as they prepare for future drought events and build capacity to respond to other climate extremes. The RGB Climate Outlook builds on lessons learned from the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) Southwest Climate Outlook (PDF, html), La Niña Drought Tracker (PDF, html), the Southern Climate Impacts Policy Program (SCIPP) Managing Drought in the Southern Plains webinar series, the Border Climate Summary (PDF), and Transborder Climate newsletter (PDF) and webinar series. The latter two have been the only regularly occurring bilingual climate information products in the U

  8. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  9. Monitorização do coelho-bravo na Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata : 1998-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Anabela Salvado

    2007-01-01

    O Coelho-bravo, Oryctolagus cuniculus, é uma espécie chave nos ecossistemas mediterrâneos ibéricos, desempenhando uma multiplicidade de papéis na dinâmica dos mesmos, dos quais de destaca o facto de ser principal “espécie presa” de um largo espectro de predadores, como por exemplo o Lince-ibérico e a Águia-imperial, e ser uma das principais espécies cinegéticas em Portugal. Na Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata – RNSM, as suas populações têm sofrido um acentuado declínio, r...

  10. La ficción narrativa de la frontera: El río Bravo en tres novelas mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pardo Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El territorio a ambos lados del río Bravo es un espacio de confluencia y memoria compartida, pero al mismo tiempo de divergencias en el modo de entender el mundo, y por tanto, de escribirlo. El espacio cultural, además de las lenguas y su uso, no se encuentran restringidos por los límites políticos o económicos. Este trabajo pretende aproximarse a esta relación, a esta compleja concepción del río como ruptura y paso obligado, el modo de vivirlo o ignorarlo, y las relaciones de diálogo posible o imposible entre los sujetos culturales que desarrollan la escritura en una geografía escindida.

  11. Noble gases preserve history of retentive continental crust in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Smye, Andrew J.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-06-01

    Budgets of 4He and 40Ar provide constraints on the chemical evolution of the solid Earth and atmosphere. Although continental crust accounts for the majority of 4He and 40Ar degassed from the Earth, degassing mechanisms are subject to scholarly debate. Here we provide a constraint on crustal degassing by comparing the noble gases accumulated in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir, New Mexico USA, with the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. A detailed geological model of the reservoir is used to provide absolute abundances and geostatistical uncertainty of 4He, 40Ar, 21Ne, 20Ne, 36Ar, and 84Kr. The present-day production rate of crustal radiogenic 4He and 40Ar, henceforth referred to as 4He* and 40Ar*, is estimated using the basement composition, surface and mantle heat flow, and seismic estimates of crustal density. After subtracting mantle and atmospheric contributions, the reservoir contains less than 0.02% of the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. This shows unequivocally that radiogenic noble gases are effectively retained in cratonic continental crust over millennial timescales. This also requires that approximately 1.5 Gt of mantle derived CO2 migrated through the crust without mobilizing the crustally accumulated gases. This observation suggests transport along a localized fracture network. Therefore, the retention of noble gases in stable crystalline continental crust allows shallow accumulations of radiogenic gases to record tectonic history. At Bravo Dome, the crustal 4He*/40Ar* ratio is one fifth of the expected crustal production ratio, recording the preferential release of 4He during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny, 300 Ma.

  12. Comparative palynology and anatomy of pinus henryi, pinus massoniana and pinus tabulaeformis (pinaceae) and their taxonomic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, micromorphological and anatomic characteristics of 3 Pinus L. taxa (Pinus henryi, P. massoniana and P. tabulaeformis) were compared. These taxa have both endemic and limited distribution in China. For the micromorphological studies, the pollens were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). For the anatomical studies, needle anatomy characteristics of the 3 taxa were studied. After the studies, new characteristics of corpus exine ornamentation had been found. Spiny on the regulate of corpus exine is presented in P. henryi while baculate on the rugulate of corpus exine is existed in P. tabuliformishave. However, there is not ornamentation on rugulate in P. massoniana. The features of pollen size, corpus exine ornamentation, number of microperforations, cappula ridges are significant to distinguish the 3 taxa. Number of resin canals, stomatal rows, epithelial cells and sheath cells, dimensions of cross section, dimensions of resin canals and width of needle are also important in separating these taxa. These studies give taxonomic support for recognizing P. henryi as an independent species closely related to P. massoniana. (author)

  13. Comparison of Results between the Miniature FASat-Bravo Ozone Mapping Detector (OMAD) and NASA’s Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernez-Saldivar, Juan; Underwood, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ozone Layer Monitoring Experiment (OLME) on board the FASat-Bravo microsatellite launched in July 1992 observed backscattered UV to retrieve atmospheric ozone using two instruments: the Ozone Ultraviolet Backscatter Imager (OUBI) and the Ozone Mapping Detector (OMAD). Initial results from this experiment have shown good qualitative agreement with data from NASA’s TOMS instrument [1]. More recent studies of OMAD data have found quantitative agreement in their radiances and even indicated d...

  14. The Ghost of the Bomb : the Bravo Medical Program, scientific uncertainty, and the legacy of U.S. Cold War science, 1954-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Harkewicz, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    After more than 50 years, controversy persists over the effects of radioactive fallout from the 1954 "Bravo" hydrogen bomb test. Although most scholars agree that the exposure was a tragic accident, popular accounts continue to portray the Marshallese as human guinea pigs, victims of scientific imperialism and Cold War atomic politics. Analyzing the historical records of pertinent activist groups as well as government documents of the long-term medical program that was created in response to ...

  15. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  16. Germinação de aquênios de arnica (Lychnophora pinaster Mart. armazenados em diferentes condições Seed germination of arnica (Lychnophora pinaster Mart stored at different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis Bandeira de Melo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A antecipação da coleta pode contribuir para redução da rápida deterioração das sementes no campo, preservando, assim, sua qualidade fisiológica. No caso da arnica (Lychnophora pinaster Mart., a formação dos aquênios ocorre de maneira desuniforme na planta, sendo dristibuída ao longo do período de frutificação. Assim, em se tratando de uma espécie medicinal não domesticada, ameaçada de extinção, e tendo seu potencial genético ainda pouco estudado, urge a necessidade de monitoramento do comportamento dos aquênios no armazenamento, visando garantir sua reprodução e conseqüente preservação. Esse trabalho foi conduzido com a finalidade de se verificar o desempenho germinativo de aquênios de arnica coletados em dois estádios de maturação e armazenados em diferentes condições. Os aquênios utilizados foram provenientes do município de Itumirim, MG, tendo a coleta sido realizada em dezembro de 2003, em função das características morfológicas dos capítulos, constituindo, assim, dois estádios de maturação. Após a coleta, os aquênios foram submetidos à secagem, pré-limpeza e separados com auxílio de um soprador vertical. Os aquênios foram acondicionados em dois tipos de embalagens (papel ou plástico e armazenados em diferentes ambientes (câmara fria a 10ºC/50%UR ou ambiente de laboratório, por um período de 6 meses. O teste de germinação foi conduzido em BOD ajustada à temperatura alternada 20-30ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. O substrato utilizado foi o papel mata-borrão e os aquênios foram dispostos em caixas plásticas tipo gerbox. Foram utilizadas 4 repetições de 100 aquênios para cada tratamento. A análise sanitária foi efetuada pelo método "Blotter test" com 4 repetições de 50 aquênios por tratamento. As avaliações da umidade, da qualidade fisiológica e sanitária foram realizadas aos 0, 2, 4 e 6 meses. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que não houve diferença entre as quatro condi

  17. Historical events associated with fallout from Bravo Shot-Operation castle and 25 y of medical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events prior to Bravo Shot-Operation Castle that led to a decision not to evacuate the Marshallese prior to testing the thermonuclear bombs are presented as are the actions taken after the fallout incident in evacuating the exposed Marshallese and the military personnel. The initial medical effects (findings during first 6 wk after exposure) are briefly described and are followed by description of long term effects, namely, induction of one case or fatal acute myeloid leukemia and a large number of thyroid tumors (benign and malignant) in addition to hypothyroidism in adults and children and two cases of cretinism. The hypothyroidism and cretinism responded well to administration of oral thyroxine. During the first 25 y, there was also much unrest and political agitation initiated by exposed and unexposed Marshallese who were very unhappy as a result of relocation and inability to return to their homelands and feeling that all illness and deaths were due to the mysterious radiation, which they understandably did not understand. The difficulties in part were ameliorated by financial aid from the U.S. Congress. In view of one of us (EPC), no one agency or person in the U.S. Government was willing to take the responsibility for care of the Marshallese and its financing. The exposed and non-exposed Marshallese had their lifestyle changed, some of their homelands made uninhabitable for several years and could aptly be called open-quotes nuclear nomads,close quotes an expression coined by others. 14 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Historical events associated with fallout from Bravo Shot--Operation Castle and 25 Y of medical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkite, E P; Conard, R A; Bond, V P

    1997-07-01

    The events prior to Bravo Shot-Operation Castle that led to a decision not to evacuate the Marshallese prior to testing the thermonuclear bombs are presented as are the actions taken after the fallout incident in evacuating the exposed Marshallese and the military personnel. The initial medical effects (findings during first 6 wk after exposure) are briefly described and are followed by description of long term effects, namely, induction of one case of fatal acute myeloid leukemia and a large number of thyroid tumors (benign and malignant) in addition to hypothyroidism in adults and children and two cases of cretinism. The hypothyroidism and cretinism responded well to administration of oral thyroxine. During the first 25 y, there was also much unrest and political agitation initiated by exposed and unexposed Marshallese who were very unhappy as a result of relocation and inability to return to their homelands and feeling that all illness and deaths were due to the mysterious radiation, which they understandably did not understand. The difficulties in part were ameliorated by financial aid from the U.S. Congress. In view of one of us (EPC), no one agency or person in the U.S. Government was willing to take the responsibility for care of the Marshallese and its financing. The exposed and nonexposed Marshallese had their lifestyle changed, some of their homelands made uninhabitable for several years and could aptly be called "nuclear nomads," an expression coined by others. PMID:9199227

  19. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

  20. Relações de produtividade, área folhear e alternância na macieira bravo de esmolfe: Yield efficiency, leaf area and alternate bearing indices of apple cv. bravo de esmolfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A macieira Bravo de Esmolfe é a mais conhecida e valorizada das variedades regionais, mas o conhecimento técnico disponível é escasso e torna-se necessário aprofundá-lo, em especial no que se refere às formas de gestão e controlo de uma das suas características mais negativas, a forte tendência para alternar as produções. Assim, pretendeu-se identificar algumas relações de produtividade que não desencadeiem alternância, quando cultivada no porta-enxerto ananicante EMLA9, que tem sido considerado entre os melhores actualmente disponíveis para o seu cultivo em regime intensivo. Para o efeito foram seleccionadas 30 macieiras de 8 anos, de estatura semelhante, e que apresentaram diferentes níveis de produtividade no ano de 2004. Em Novembro de 2004 foram recolhidas as folhas e medida a sua área, e contabilizadas as respectivas inflorescências em Abril de 2005, o que forneceu uma perspectiva da produção para essa campanha. Tendo em conta tais valores, e recorrendo ao seu historial produtivo, foram calculados alguns parâmetros que permitiram a análise do comportamento e regularidade de produção das macieiras seleccionadas. Os resultados obtidos nesta primeira abordagem sugerem que intervalos de produtividade da ordem de 8 a 11 g de maçã por folha durante a campanha, a que correspondem 20 a 30 maçãs por cm de diâmetro do tronco, bem como valores entre 10 e 15 folhas por maçã produzida, evitam a alternância de produção, desde que sejam feitas mondas atempadas, conseguindo-se assim bom equilíbrio produção/vegetação.The Bravo de Esmolfe apple tree is the most reputed and valued regional variety, but the available technical knowledge about it does not suffice. It must be deepened, especially on what concerns tools for management and control of one of this cultivar’s most negative characteristics, the strong tendency to alternate bearing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify some yield relations that

  1. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  2. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  3. Caulogénesis adventicia en embriones somáticos de Pinus pinaster, una alternativa para superar la baja productividad de algunas líneas embriogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Mozo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    La embriogénesis somática (ES) es una potente herramienta para la propagación clonal de genotipos superiores cuya aplicación comercial se está ampliando a algunas especies de coníferas. Además de su potencial para la propagación masiva, la ES es una excelente fuente de células competentes para la transformación genética. Algunos genotipos producen embriones somáticos de escasa calidad y/o con baja frecuencia de germinación, lo que hace que la producción a gran escala de estos genotipos sea co...

  4. Mycorrhizal association of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, with Rhizopogon roseolus has contrasting effects on the uptake from soil and root-to-shoot transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 95m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeyn, Ingrid; Plassard, Claude [INRA, UMR 1222, Biogeochimie du Sol et de la Rhizosphere, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Staunton, Siobhan [INRA, UMR 1222, Biogeochimie du Sol et de la Rhizosphere, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France)], E-mail: staunton@montpellier.inra.fr

    2008-05-15

    The beneficial role of mycorrhizal association on plant nutrition and water supply is well-known, however, very little information exists with respect to the availability of radionuclides. We have measured the effect of controlled mycorrhizal association on the root uptake from soil and accumulation in leaves of three radionuclides. The radionuclides have contrasting chemical and biological properties: Cs is strongly adsorbed on soil, has no biological role and is a close analogue of potassium; Sr is less strongly adsorbed on soil and behaves very similarly to calcium; and Tc is very mobile in soil as pertechnetate, but immobilised when reduced to Tc(IV), it is also considered to be easily assimilated by biological systems. We found that mycorrhizal association had no effect on root-to-needle transfer of Cs, but increased root uptake and that this increase could not be explained by improved potassium nutrition. In contrast, the symbiotic relation decreased Tc soil-to-needle transfer, but this resulted from complex dynamics of root uptake and rapid immobilisation of Tc in soil. No effect of mycorrhizal association on Sr, like its stable analogue Ca, was observed. The addition of a phytotoxic metal, Cu, inhibited mycorrhizal association, thus eliminating the effects observed for non-contaminated plant-fungus couples, but had no additional effect on radionuclide dynamics.

  5. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  6. Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumarah, Mark W; Kesting, Julie R; Sørensen, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of five foliar fungal endophytes isolated from Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) that showed antifungal activity in disc diffusion assays were selected for further study. From these strains, the aliphatic polyketide compound 1 and three related sesquiterpenes 2-4 were isolated...

  7. Charcoal production from Pinus species in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Charcoal produced from wood of Pinus strobus var. chiapensis (13 years old) and P. elliottii var. elliotti (15 years old) was compared with charcoal from Eucalyptus maculata and E. camaldulensis (both 4-5 year old). Although their charcoal was inferior to E. maculata charcoal in several respects, both pine species produced better charcoal than E. camaldulensis.

  8. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  9. Valores energéticos e composição bromatológica dos fenos de jureminha, feijão bravo e maniçoba para aves Energy values and chemical composition of jureminha, bravo beans and maniçoba hays for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para determinação dos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn e da composição química dos fenos de feijão-bravo (FFB, jureminha (FJ e maniçoba (FM para uso na alimentação de aves. Duzentos e oitenta pintos com 17 dias de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em sete tratamentos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1 (três tipos de feno x dois níveis de substituição da dieta-referência + dieta-referência, com quatro repetições de dez aves. Os níveis de EMA e EMAn dos fenos de jureminha, feijão-bravo e maniçoba foram 3.205 e 2.911, 2.990 e 2.648, 2.728 e 2.419, determinados com 15% de substituição da dieta-referência pelo alimento e 2.678 e 2.371, 2.875 e 2.523, 2.277 e 1.956 com substituição de 30%, respectivamente, e evidenciaram influência do nível de substituição da dieta-referência sobre os valores de EMA e EMAn das dietas. Os valores de EMA e EMAn, para aves, dos fenos de jureminha e feijão-bravo são superiores aos do feno de maniçoba.An experiment was carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn and chemical composition of bravo bean hay (HBB, jureminha hay (HJ and maniçoba hay (HM for use in birds feeding. Two hundred and eighty, 17 days old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design, into seven treatments organized in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 + 1 (three hay types x two levels of substitution of the reference diet + reference diet, with four repetitions of 10 birds each. The contents of AME and AMEn of jureminha, bravo bean and maniçoba hays were 3.205 and 2.911, 2.990 and 2.648, 2.728 and 2.419, respectively, when the ingredients test substituted 15% of the reference diet, and 2.678 and 2.371, 2.875 and 2.523, 2.277 and 1.956, respectively, when the ingredients test

  10. Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Chen; Huwei Yuan; Xiange Hu; Jingxiang Meng; Xianqing Zhou; Xiao-Ru Wang; Yue Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were sig-nificant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  11. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

  12. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2): Volume 3. Business Risk And Value of Operations in space (BRAVO). Part 4: Computer programs and data look-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Computer program listings as well as graphical and tabulated data needed by the analyst to perform a BRAVO analysis were examined. Graphical aid which can be used to determine the earth coverage of satellites in synchronous equatorial orbits was described. A listing for satellite synthesis computer program as well as a sample printout for the DSCS-11 satellite program and a listing of the symbols used in the program were included. The APL language listing for the payload program cost estimating computer program was given. This language is compatible with many of the time sharing remote terminals computers used in the United States. Data on the intelsat communications network was studied. Costs for telecommunications systems leasing, line of sight microwave relay communications systems, submarine telephone cables, and terrestrial power generation systems were also described.

  13. El valor del suelo habitacional y la intervención de agentes externos Valle de Bravo, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Zuleica Torres Pulido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Como parte fundamental de los estudios de planeación se encuentra el territorio, el suelo como componente esencial de la estructura urbana y sustento de las diferentes actividades realizadas por el hombre, cobra singular importancia al momento que el valor, el uso y los agentes que en ellos interviene se vuelven factores que impulsan o retraen el desarrollo de un lugar, trayendo como consecuencia segregaciones sociales. De ahí que en este trabajo se da a conocer, a partir del caso de Valle de Bravo, la influencia que ejercen los agentes externos en los cambios del valor de suelo habitacional, tomando como punto de partida la evolución del patrón de ocupación del suelo y las actividades económicas.

  14. A radioactive glasnost? Bravo!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scepticism is expressed about the new Soviet 'glasnost' (openness). Swiss politicians are criticized for on the one hand 'courageously' abandoning the Kaiseraugst project (in the light of the Chernobyl disaster) and on the other hand not demanding compensation from the Soviets for the effects of Chernobyl. (G.T.H.)

  15. Observações sobre o efeito da ventilação na qualidade de sementes de Pinus Effects of ventilation on the quality of Pinus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto do Lago

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas amostras de sementes de Pinus oocarpa e Pinus caribaea foram submetidas a ventilação mecânica em aparelho de laboratório, obtendo-se duas frações, uma leve e outra pesada. Diversos testes foram realizados com sementes dessas duas frações e em uma da amostra original. Os resultados revelaram a possibilidade de melhorar a qualidade de lotes de sementes de Pinus por meio desse processo simples de beneficiamento.Seeds of Pinus oocarpa and P. caribaea were subjected to ventilation in a "South Dakota" seed blower, and thus three samples were obtained, i.e., heavy light, plus the original. Several tests were conducted with these samples and the results indicate that a substantial improvement in the quality of Pinus seed can be experimented after this very simple processing operation.

  16. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants. PMID:24963383

  17. Monitoring of chromosomal aberrations in natural populations of Pinus pallasiana

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Koba

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of monitoring research of the chromosome aberrations at the stage of anaphase-telophase. The statistical characteristics of dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in populations of Pinus pallasiana D. Don across the high-altitude zones of the Mountain Crimea is given. It is established that on the southern macroslope of the Crimean Main Ridge the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the P. pallasiana stands is higher in the lower zone in comparison with the mid...

  18. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Huang; , Wei Zhang; Jiangming Mo; Shizhong Wang; Juxiu Liu; Hao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit...

  19. Predictive modelling of climate suitability for Pinus halepensis in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gastón González, Aitor; Garcia Viñas, Juan Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    The response of Mediterranean pine species distribution to global change is a key feature of forest management in a changing environment. Climate suitability models are valuable tools for understanding and anticipating the effects of climate change on species distributions. Logistic regression was used to model climate suitability for Pinus halepensis in Spain, using National Forest Inventory as training sample. Predictive performance was evaluated using ICP Forests Level I grid as independen...

  20. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus heldreichii culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stojičić Dragana; Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Ćulafić Ljubinka; Budimir Snežana

    2007-01-01

    The potential for somatic embryogenesis in zygotic embryo and megagametophyte cultures of Pinus heldreichii was examined. Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from megagametophytes containing immature zygotic embryos at early stages of development. An induction frequency of up to 6.7% was obtained on Gresshoff and Doy medium in the presence of 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA). Formation and further proliferation of embryogenic tissue were achieved u...

  1. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings

    OpenAIRE

    Lila Ferrat; Catherine Fernandez; Stéphane Greff; Vanina Pasqualini; Magali Cannac Cannac

    2007-01-01

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The sec...

  2. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  3. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  4. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  5. Revision of the amphiamerican Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with a description of N. vegrandis n. sp. from the gill lamellae of the blue sea catfish Ariopsis guatemalensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Bullard, Stephen A; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is revised and reassigned to the Dactylogyridae Bychowsky, 1933 based on examinations of specimens representing four species from the gill lamellae of sea catfishes (Ariidae). The monotypic Neotetraonchidae Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is placed in synonymy with the Dactylogyridae. Neotetraonchus bychowskyi Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (type-species), is redescribed from the tete sea catfish Ariopsis seemanni (Günther) (type-host) in the eastern Pacific Ocean off Panama (new geographical record). Neotetraonchus vegrandis n. sp. is described from the blue sea catfish A. guatemalensis (Günther) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Neotetraonchus bravohollisae Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from the hardhead sea catfish A. felis (L.) in the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula. Neotetraonchus felis (Hargis, 1955) Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from A. felis in the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and the Yucatan Peninsula (new geographical record). Morphological similarities between species of Neotetraonchus suggest the likely presence of geminate species pairs flanking the Isthmus of Panama. PMID:19633926

  6. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large

  7. The influence of edaphotope on radionuclide accumulation by Pinus silvestrus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of soil characteristics upon accumulation of radionuclides by Pinus silvestrus has been studied. It was established, that radionuclide accumulation by Pinus silvestrus pant increased with rise of soil moisture. Seasonal dynamics of radionuclide accumulation by plants was demonstrated (authors)

  8. Isolation, Identification and Screening of Ectomycorrhizal fungi for reforestation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinus pinaster occupies almost 30% of Portuguese forest area and fire is one of its major threat. Pinus pinaster is resistant to low fire intensities, however, the frequency and intensity of the current fire regime cuases a disturbing reduction of its area of distribution. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can form symbiotic associations with P. pinaster improving among other factors, plant growth and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, which can be a useful tool for an efficient reforestation of burned areas. (Author)

  9. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Gales, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached th...

  10. Tabla de supervivencia de Pinus Halepensis afectado por incendios forestales

    OpenAIRE

    BORDON PEREZ, PABLO; Pérez-Laorga Arias, Eduardo María; Estruch Fuster, Vicente Domingo; Rodrigo Santamalia, Mª Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    En la Comunidad Valenciana se producen numerosos incendios forestales especialmente en los meses de verano, afectando principalmente a pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill), que es la especie más abundante. Se ha realizado el seguimiento de pinos parcialmente afectados por el fuego en dos incendios que se produjeron en agosto de 2007 y julio de 2009. En estos árboles se midieron: altura del árbol, altura del fuste, diámetro normal, diámetro basal, espesor de corteza, altura del fuste y altura...

  11. Adventitious sprouting of Pinus leiophylla in response to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Casas, Marcos; Zwiazek, Janusz J.

    2014-01-01

    & Context Although adventitious shoots are produced in many tree species in response to injury, little is known about the effects of salinity on sprouting. & Aims The main objective was to examine the sprouting capacity of Pinus leiophylla seedlings in relation to injury and physiological changes induced by NaCl. & Methods Seedlings were grown in controlled-environment growth rooms and treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl. Numbers of adventitious shoots were recorded and growth and physi...

  12. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus heldreichii culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential for somatic embryogenesis in zygotic embryo and megagametophyte cultures of Pinus heldreichii was examined. Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from megagametophytes containing immature zygotic embryos at early stages of development. An induction frequency of up to 6.7% was obtained on Gresshoff and Doy medium in the presence of 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA. Formation and further proliferation of embryogenic tissue were achieved upon transfer of explants to a medium with reduced levels of growth regulators. Somatic embryos are being cultured for further development. .

  13. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  14. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  15. Five year report on the medical follow up of Marshallese receiving special medical care related to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation (January 1992--1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaswani, A.N.; Howard, J.E.

    1999-06-01

    This is the 17th and final report of the Marshall Islands Medical Program as carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of these publications has been to provide information on the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to radiation fallout in 1954. The medical program fulfills a commitment to disclose unique medical information relevant to public health. Details of the Bravo thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published. A 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which described the acute medical effects on the population that required special medical care, remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Marshallese participation in this Congressionally mandated program is voluntary. Throughout the 44 years of the program, each participating individual`s relevant medical findings, laboratory data, disease morbidity, and mortality have been published in the BNL reports in a manner preserving patient confidentiality. In each report, there has been an attempt to interpret these findings and to infer the role of radiation exposure in their development. An equally important aspect of the reports has been the presentation of data that allows for analyses of the medical consequences of the Marshallese exposure.

  16. Five year report on the medical follow up of Marshallese receiving special medical care related to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation (January 1992 -1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 17th and final report of the Marshall Islands Medical Program as carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of these publications has been to provide information on the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to radiation fallout in 1954. The medical program fulfills a commitment to disclose unique medical information relevant to public health. Details of the Bravo thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published. A 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which described the acute medical effects on the population that required special medical care, remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Marshallese participation in this Congressionally mandated program is voluntary. Throughout the 44 years of the program, each participating individual's relevant medical findings, laboratory data, disease morbidity, and mortality have been published in the BNL reports in a manner preserving patient confidentiality. In each report, there has been an attempt to interpret these findings and to infer the role of radiation exposure in their development. An equally important aspect of the reports has been the presentation of data that allows for analyses of the medical consequences of the Marshallese exposure

  17. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana. PMID:26122332

  18. Stimulation of Pinus tropicalis M. seeds by magnetically treated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Govea

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically treated water (MTW was used to stimulate the germination process of Pinus tropicalis M. seeds. This species of Pinus is an endemic of the western part of Cuba and at present is threatened due to a visible decrease that has been detected in its populations. The main cause of this decrease is the low seedling production at nurseries, since the germination percentage of this species rarely exceeds 50%. To carry out our work, normal water (water + ions was treated using 1200 G isotropic strontium magnets. This was done in two forms: statically and dynamically. The MTW was applied to the samples as irrigation water and as water for imbibition during 24 h. The results showed an increase in the germination percentage up to 70-81% with respect to the control samples (43% as well as greater seedling growth after germination. The best results were obtained while the treated water was applied dynamically and statically with initial inbibition. In this last case the germination percentages reached 81%, which represents an increase of 88 % compared to the control samples (43%.

  19. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28�C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  20. Seedling shoot, needle and bud development in three provenances of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus contorta cultivated in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgren, O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture; Little, C.H.A. [Canadian Forest Service, Fredricton, NB (Canada); Sundblad, L.G. [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Saevar (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The patterns of current-year shoot, needle and terminal bud elongation in seedlings of three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and three lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) provenances were compared during the third and fourth growing seasons after planting. Lodgepole pine produced longer shoots and buds than did Scots pine, mainly because lodgepole pine formed more stem units and elongated at a faster rate. Stem unit length and the duration of shoot and bud elongation differed relatively little between species and provenances. Lammas or polycyclic growth occurred in some lodgepole pine provenances, but not in any Scots pine provenance, and was associated with enhanced shoot elongations. Needle elongation commenced earlier, proceeded at a faster rate, and was greater in lodgepole pine than in Scots pine, but ceased about the same time in all species and provenances. The heat sum required to attain 50% of final length was lower for shoots and needles in lodgepole pine than in Scots pine, and for shoots in northern provenances than in southern ones. Mitotic activity in the apical meristem of the terminal bud, which occurred less than one week after the seedlings were free from snow, started and ceased about the same time in each species, but was higher in lodgepole pine than in Scots pine early in the shoot elongation period. 36 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Adaptive Differentiation in Seedling Traits in a Hybrid Pine Species Complex, Pinus densata and Its Parental Species, on the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jingxiang; Mao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Fangqian; Chen, Xinyu; Hao LIU; Xing, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from molecular genetics demonstrates that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from the parent species Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis, and ecological selection may have played a role in the speciation of Pinus densata. However, data on differentiation in adaptive traits in the species complex are scarce. In this study, we performed a common garden test on 16 seedling traits to examine the differences between Pinus densata and its parental species in a hig...

  2. Individual Growth Environment Suitable for Naturally Regenerated Young Pinus koraiensis under Secondary Natural Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShaohui; ZHANGQun; SHENHailong

    2004-01-01

    Impacts on growth of young trees of Pinus Koraiensis of 6 environmental factors of intensity of sunlight, direct sunlight, thickness of soil humus, neighboring trees, upper canopy species, herbs and shrubs were investigated on young tree of Pinus Koraiensis and 4 neighboring trees which are considered the structural unit of the microenvironment. Results indicated that the 6 environmental factors under investigation had effects, to various extents, on growth of the young trees. Based on the findings, suitable growing conditions for regenerated young tree of Pinus Koraiensis under forest were identified and corresponding silvicultural measures were proposed for operational practice.

  3. Análisis de los tipos de fibras musculares del toro bravo (Bos Taurus ibericus): su relación con algunas enzimas de fatiga muscular y el comportamiento durante la lidia

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Sempere, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Muestras de músculo esquelético y sangre fueron tomadas a 48 toros bravos (novillos) lidiados en la plaza de toros de Calasparra (Murcia). Los músculos seleccionados, cabeza larga del tríceps braquial y semitendinoso, fueron analizados desde el punto de vista histológico, con el fin de estudiar las características morfológicas e histoquímicas de los distintos tipos de miocitos y las posibles alteraciones consecuencia de la lidia. Las técnicas histoquímicas han posibilitado reconocer tres tipo...

  4. Análisis de los tipos de fibras musculares del toro bravo (Bos Taurus ibericus): su relación con algunas enzimas de fatiga muscular y el comportamiento durante la lidia

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Sempere, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Muestras de músculo esquelético y sangre fueron tomadas a 48 toros bravos (novillos) lidiados en la plaza de toros de Calasparra (Murcia). Los músculos seleccionados, cabeza larga del tríceps braquial y semitendinoso, fueron analizados desde el punto de vista histológico, con el fin de estudiar las características morfológicas e histoquímicas de los distintos tipos de miocitos y las posibles alteraciones consecuencia de la lidia. Las técnicas histoquímicas han posibilitado reconocer tres tip...

  5. Comparative mapping among subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mervyn; Williams, Claire G

    2008-05-01

    Comparative mapping in conifers has not yet been used to test for small-scale genomic disruptions such as inversions, duplications, and deletions occurring between closely related taxa. Using comparative mapping to probe this smaller scale of inquiry may provide clues about speciation in a phylogenetically problematic taxon, the diploxylon pine subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae). Genetic maps were constructed for two allopatric species of Australes, P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, using microsatellites and an F1 hybrid. A third map was generated directly from the meiotic products of an adult F1 hybrid, eliminating the need for an F2 generation. Numerous small-scale disruptions were detected in addition to synteny and collinearity, and these included (1) map shrinkage, (2) a paracentric inversion, (3) transmission ratio distortion, and (4) mild selection against a parental haplotype. Such cryptic signatures of genomic divergence between closely related interfertile species are useful in elucidating this problematic evolutionary history. PMID:18438435

  6. Interpopulation variability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary studies (genetic and phytocoenological of 4 populations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold were carried out in western and central Serbia. The obtained results gave the same inter-population arrangement in both methods. Dendograms (NTSYS differentiate at the greatest genetic distance the population of Austrian pine in Šargan compared to other populations: Crni Vrh, Goč and Studenica. Using phytocoenological analysis it was determined that population of Austrian pine in Šargan forms a community Erico-Pinetum gocensis, while the other populations form a community Seslerio rigidae-Pinetum gocensis. Multidisciplinary approach that was demonstrated within this paper presents the first studies of Austrian pine that directly link genotype dependence and environmental conditions manifested through the phytocoenological affiliation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31070

  7. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  8. ESTABLISHMENT OF Pinus elliottii Engelm STANDS WITH DIRECT FIELD SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was undertaken to test the possibility of use of direct field sowing as a method of  forest formation. The soil preparation consisted of mechanic mowing followed by cleaning of small circles of 40 cm of diameter, where four seeds of Pinus elliottii Engelm were sowed, previously stratified, and protected by a bottomless plastic glass fastened to the sowing point. The treatments tested were direct sowing, sowing of seeds involved by paper envelop and seedling plantation as testify treatment. The results were not satisfactory, however, being observed at the most 38.46% of the sowing places with seedlings after 84 days of sowing. The main factor that contribuited to the failure of the method was seedling mortality caused by water deficit and high temperatures.

  9. Endobacteria in some ectomycorrhiza of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of cultivable endobacteria associated with four different ectomycorrhizal morphotypes (Suillus flavidus, Suillus variegatus, Russula paludosa and Russula sp.) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of PCR-amplified rDNA intergenic spacer regions and by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Ectomycorrhizal root tip surface-sterilization methods were developed and assessed for their efficiencies. Bacterial communities from surface-sterilized ectomycorrhizal root tips were different from those of ectomycorrhizal root tips without surface-sterilization for all the morphotypes studied. Endobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus were isolated from more than one ectomycorrhizal morphotype, whereas species of Rahnella, Janthinobacterium and Rhodococcus were only isolated from the single morphotypes of S. variegatus, R. paludosa and Russula sp., respectively. Some of the isolated endobacteria utilized fungal sugars more readily than typical plant sugars in carbon utilization assays. PMID:16542403

  10. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  11. Physiological basis for multiplication of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Andersone-Ozola, Una

    2009-01-01

    Physiological basis for multiplication of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using tissue culture The aim of the present study was to create the physiological basis for micropropagation of mature Pinus sylvestris L. in tissue culture. The most suitable time for introduction in vitro of mature P. sylvestris bud tissue was from July to late October. Long cold storage of dormant mature Scots pine buds before introduction in vitro increases their morphogenic competence in tissue cult...

  12. Interspecific gene flow and ecological selection in a pine (Pinus sp.) contact zone

    OpenAIRE

    Wachowiak, Witold; Cavers, Stephen; Zukowska, Weronika B.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms in a set of nuclear genes were studied in a sympatric population of pines Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris that includes trees classified as pure species and polycormic (multi-stemmed)individuals of potentially hybrid origin. Patterns of genetic diversity were compared between those groups of samples and to the reference allopatric populations of the species in Europe. Polymorphisms at the gene loci clearly distinguished pure parental species as measured by conve...

  13. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah; Ulfah Juniarti Siregar; Noor Farikhah Haneda; Dodi Nandika; Purnama Hidayat

    2012-01-01

    Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native...

  14. Mycorrhiza-like structures in rooted microshoots of Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Mário Rui da Costa Basílio e; Ragonezi Gomes Lopes, Carla Aparecida; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Lima, Mónica; Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme de; Zavattieri, Maria Amely

    2010-01-01

    Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is one of the major plantation species in Iberian Peninsula, being Portugal the largest edible seed producer in the world. The induction and improvement of in vitro rhizogenesis of microshoots of Pinus pinea was developed in our laboratory using a co-culture system with ECM fungi. In the acclimation phase in mixed substrates, or in rhizotrons, anatomical and morphological studies were done to observe the evolution of the root system in microshoots from the co-cultu...

  15. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  16. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  17. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

    2004-01-01

    Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

  18. The design of a real-time formative evaluation of the implementation process of lifestyle interventions at two worksites using a 7-step strategy (BRAVO@Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierenga Debbie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs offer an attractive opportunity to improve the lifestyle of employees. Nevertheless, broad scale and successful implementation of WHPPs in daily practice often fails. In the present study, called BRAVO@Work, a 7-step implementation strategy was used to develop, implement and embed a WHPP in two different worksites with a focus on multiple lifestyle interventions. This article describes the design and framework for the formative evaluation of this 7-step strategy under real-time conditions by an embedded scientist with the purpose to gain insight into whether this this 7-step strategy is a useful and effective implementation strategy. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into factors that either facilitate or hamper the implementation process, the quality of the implemented lifestyle interventions and the degree of adoption, implementation and continuation of these interventions. Methods and design This study is a formative evaluation within two different worksites with an embedded scientist on site to continuously monitor the implementation process. Each worksite (i.e. a University of Applied Sciences and an Academic Hospital will assign a participating faculty or a department, to implement a WHPP focusing on lifestyle interventions using the 7-step strategy. The primary focus will be to describe the natural course of development, implementation and maintenance of a WHPP by studying [a] the use and adherence to the 7-step strategy, [b] barriers and facilitators that influence the natural course of adoption, implementation and maintenance, and [c] the implementation process of the lifestyle interventions. All data will be collected using qualitative (i.e. real-time monitoring and semi-structured interviews and quantitative methods (i.e. process evaluation questionnaires applying data triangulation. Except for the real-time monitoring, the data collection will take place at baseline and

  19. Chemical and cellulose crystallite changes in Pinus radiata during torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on the chemical composition and changes to the cellulose crystallites in Pinus radiata wood chips under light (ca. 230 °C), mild (ca. 260 °C), and severe (290+ °C) torrefaction temperatures at a range of times was examined by solid state 13C CP-MAS and Dipolar Dephased NMR spectroscopy, TGA, and synchrotron based X-ray diffraction. Results indicated the decomposition of hemicelluloses into furfurals at the lowest temperature with little modification to the lignin or cellulose. De-polymerisation of lignin and cellulose was observed as torrefaction severity increased. The increased hydrophobicity under light and mild torrefaction severity was attributed to a combination of thermo-chemical modifications to hemicelluloses and lignin, along with cellulose crystal lattice changes. The observed decrease in hydrophobicity under severe torrefaction conditions was attributed to the degradation of cellulose crystallites. -- Highlights: •It was shown that the torrefaction process has an optimum temperature – time regime with respect to increased hydrophobicity. •Changes to the proportion of ether linkages in lignin after torrefaction were determined by solid state NMR. •Changes to cellulose crystallites after torrefaction were determined by X-ray diffraction. •We relate the hydrophobicity of torrefied wood to changes in wood polymer interactions

  20. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  1. Effect of trace elements on growth of Pinus tabulaeformis seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stimulative effect of trace elements on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis was tested. The experiments were carried out on seed soak and topdressing with different trace elements and varied concentrat ions at the nursery of Gardens Research Institute, Harbin, in 2000-2001. The experimental results showed that soaking seed with 1% and 0.2% concentrations of Mn element produced best result for seed germination, and the germination rate was increased by 9%~19% for the seeds treated with 1% concentration and 12%~14% for the seeds treated with 0.2% concentration compared with the control group. The seeds treated with boron element had lowest germination rate. For trace element topdressing, Mn and Mo elements presented good result for seedling growth and th e treatment with low concentration was even better. The height or chlorophyll co ntent of the seedlings with spray of low-concentration Mn and Mo element was muc h higher than that of untreated ones. In the contrast to the treating method of seed soak, topdressing (application of spraying on foliage) had evident effect o n seedling growth.

  2. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  3. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume. PMID:21712236

  4. Genetic transformation of Pinus taeda by particle bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A protocol is presented for genetically engineering loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Plasmid pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) cryIAc coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator sequences, and the selectable marker gene, neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPTII gene. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant callus, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. The presence of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern blot analysis, and insect feeding assays. The recovered transgenic plants were acclimatized and then established in soil.

  5. Dynamics of monoterpene emissions in Pinus sylvestris during early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, J.; Hari, P.; Juurola, E. [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, Helsinki (Finland); Kulmala, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The seasonal dynamics of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, which can be related to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols, represent an important but at the present poorly understood linkage between vegetation activity and climate. Although a close relationship between photosynthesis and terpenoid emissions has been proposed, high monoterpene emission rates for Scots pine shoots (Pinus sylvestris) are frequently recorded during spring, in times when photosynthetic activity is strongly inhibited due to inherent seasonal restrictions. We suggest that terpenoid emissions are related to either photosynthesis or photorespiration for precursors for terpenoid biosynthesis. We developed two dynamic models describing temporal fluctuations in Scots pine monoterpene emissions, calculating the emissions by using CO{sub 2} exchange and ambient climate data. The models accurately predicted the measured monoterpene flux, and especially in March-April, during the time when photosynthesis was negligible and ambient temperatures were between -5 and +15 C, a good agreement was found with measured emissions and the model involving photorespiration. (orig.)

  6. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  7. Determination of volume production in Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations in the states of Minas Gerais, Goias and Mato Grosso. Determinacao de producao volumetrica dos plantios de Eucalyptus e Pinus nos estados de Minas Gerais, Goias e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Average volume for trees up to 10 yr old, volume increment, and other mensurational characteristics are reported on the basis of studies in plantations of Eucalyptus citriodora, other Eucalyptus spp., Pinus caribaea, and other Pinus spp. established in the Cerrado region. 10 references.

  8. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  9. Microsporogenesis and meiotic behavior in nine species of the genus Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Sheng DENG; Da-Ming ZHANG; De-Yuan HONG; Cheng-Xin FU

    2009-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of 10 taxa (nine species and one variety) of the genus Pinus was investigated using pollen mother cells (PMCs) to reveal the differentiation among karyotypes. Chromosome spreads were prepared by conventional squashing. The meiotic index and the average configuration were higher, whereas the frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments, or micronuclei) was lower, in all l0 taxa compared with other gymnosperms. The meiotic index, average configuration, and frequency of irregularity were found to be uniform among the species. It was shown that the genomes of the Pinus species investigated were highly stable, confirming results of previous mitotic analyses in this genus. However, slight differentiation of homologous chromosomes among genomes was revealed by analysis of meiotic configurations in Pinus nigra var. poiretiana. Quadrivalents were observed in 9.31% of PMCs in this species. This is the first time that quadrivalents have been observed in gynmosperms.

  10. 黄山松的分类学研究%STUDY ON TAXONOMY OF PINUS HWANGSHANENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹惠渝; 黎志; 罗世家; 易咏梅; 王静茹

    2003-01-01

    通过形态解剖学到分子生物学的对比实验.研究结果表明黄山松(Pinus hwangshanensis Hsia)和台湾松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayate)两者在形态上虽然有相似之处;但染色体特征不同,随机扩增DNA多态性分析(RAPD分析)显示两者的遗传距离很远,甚至大于黄山松和马尾松之间的遗传距离.结论是台湾松和黄山松决非同一种系,应恢复黄山松(Pinus hwangshanensis Hsia)的合法性.

  11. Chemical properties of tannic extracts from bark of Pinus oocarpa and their use as adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cardoso Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the properties of aqueous extracts obtained from the bark of Pinus oocarpa under addition of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite and the possibility of employment of tannins from the bark as an adhesive for bonding wood. After evaluation of the chemical properties of tannic extracts it was decided to employ the extraction with distilled water under addition of / 5% sodium sulfite to prepare for the tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. Adhesive phenol formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde were modified with 10% tannin Pinus oocarpa and the effect of this addition on the quality of the adhesive was evaluated. The addition from the bark of Pinus oocarpa showed that it is possible to use pure tannin as an adhesive because of its good gluing characteristics. The addition of tannic extract to synthetic adhesives contributed to increase viscosity values. Thus the substitution of synthetic adhesives by tannins is possible only up to 10%.

  12. Rapid changes of induced volatile organic compounds in Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qin; JIN Youju; HU Yongiian; CHEN Huajun; LI Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer(TCT-GC-MS)technique,the composition and relative contents of volatile compounds were analyzed in undamaged(control),insect-damaged(ID)and artificially-damaged(AD)leaves ofPinus massoniana in field at different times and levels of damage.Results showed that although volatile substances were highly released earlier in AD leaves plants,they were significantly less abundant in AD than in ID leaves treatments.Also,the damage level considerably influenced the changes of induced volatile products from leaves.Compared with the control,the emission rate of camphene,β-pinene,phellandrene,caryophyllene and(E)farnesene was high after 1 h in 25%-40% ID-affected leaves,whereas that of tricyclene,myrcene,camphene,β-Pinene,phellandrene and caryophyllene reached its maximum after 24 h in 60%-75% D-affected leaves.In the same manner,some volatile compounds in the AD leaves treatment displayed their peaks just after 1 h,but others after 24 h.The AD and ID leaves at the damage level of 25%-40% did not exhibit an obvious regularity with time;however,in 60%- 75% AD leaves,peaks of volatile substances were attained after 1 or 2 h.Our results also showed that the relative content ofβ-pinene increased and was higher in damaged than control plants,β-pinene plays an important role in inducing the insect resistance of P.massoniana trees.

  13. Modeling the water balance of a small Pinus radiata catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    An hourly biophysical model was used to calculate the water balance over a period of one year for an 8.7-ha catchment with a closed-canopy, 13-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Components of the model are transpiration from the dry tree canopy, evaporation from the partially wet tree canopy and stems, evaporation from the understory and soil, and drainage from a single-layer root zone. The model requires input of hourly weather data (net radiation, air and wet bulb temperatures, windspeed, and rainfall), tree stand characteristics (average height, tree number, leaf area index), physical characteristics of the site (root zone depth, relationship between root zone matric potential and volumetric water content, the relationship between the rate of drainage from the root zone and volumetric water content, and the area of open-stream channels). A submodel of the response of stomatal conductance to air saturation deficit and root zone matric potential is also required. Tree transpiration (704 mm year(-1) or 50% of annual rainfall) was a dominant component of the catchment water balance. Estimated evaporation from the wet tree canopy was 203 mm year(-1) (15%). Evaporation from the understory was much less, amounting to 94 mm year(-1) (7%) and an increase in water storage for the 3.5 m root zone depth was estimated to be 53 mm year(-1) (4%). Estimated daily rates of drainage generally agreed well with measurements of streamflow, although estimated annual drainage (349 mm year(-1), 24%) exceeded measured streamflow (234 mm year(-1)). The significance of the results is discussed in relation to closure of the hydrologic balance. PMID:14972854

  14. [Stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Xiao, Dongmei; Liu, Hailiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, soil respiration chamber, a simple and precise method, was used to measure the stem respiration of trees. LI-6400-09 respiration chamber serving as a system is usually used in soil respiration, but we made polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar and fixed it on the stem surface to measure the stem respiration. From May to October 2003, the stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis, the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain, was measured in different time and different places using this technique. Meanwhile, the temperatures in the stems and in the forests were measured. The results showed that the stem respiration rate had a remarkably seasonal tendency with a single peak, the maximum was in August and the minimum was in February. The stem respiration rate had an exponential relationship with stem temperature, and the curve exponential regressions for stem respiration rate and temperature factor of trees with big DBH were better than those with small DBH. The stem respiration in different DBH trees was higher in the south stem face than that in the north stem face, and the variance of respiration rate between south and north decreased with a decrease of DBH trees. During the growing season from May to October, the average maintenance respiration accounted for 63.63% in different DBH trees, and the maintenance respiration contribution to total respiratory consumption increased with increasing DBH, which was 66.76, 73.29% and 50.84%, respectively. The stem respiration Q10 values ranged from 2.56-3.32 in different DBH of trees, and the seasonal tendency for stem R, and Rm in different DBH of trees was obtained by using respiration Q10. Therefore, the differences between different parts of stem and different DBH of trees should be considered in estimating the respiration model in ecosystem. PMID:15852948

  15. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  16. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  17. Diameter growth prediction for individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno-López S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictive equations calibrated with remeasurement data from 25 permanent plots having individually identified trees were used to project stem diameter of Pinus occidentalis Sw. in Dominican Republic. The general form of the models used to fit the growth and yield functions included fixed effect covariates related to three subsets of explanatory variables: initial tree size, stand attributes, and competition indexes. The subsets were incrementally added in a stepwise fashion for each of the three response variables and the intercept of the model was allowed to vary randomly between plots. The models evaluated included a yield function that predicted future diameter at year t (dt, a periodic annual increment model using five-year diameter increment (id5 and its natural log transformation [ln(id5+0.01]. For trees that were not remeasured exactly 5 years after the first measurement, id5 was computed by averaging the mean annual increment nearest the 5 year point and multiplying by five. Each approach was evaluated using an independent validation data set based on seven goodness-of-fit statistics, graphical display of residuals and the variance components of each model combination. LMM, including fixed and random parameters, provided a better fit among the models tested. For estimating future diameter, accuracy of predictions is within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval, and bias is negligible. All the models had moderately improved fit statistics when random effects were included in the evaluation. The degree of improvement behaved in a similar manner for most fit statistics, with differences in the range of values for MSE, RMSE and RMSE% of 0.53, 0.23 and 1.05, respectively. The absolute difference between the extreme values for Bias and relative Bias (% in all the models was 0.20 and 0.92. The differences in values for MAD were only 0.15 and R2 values were practically equivalent.

  18. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

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    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  19. Vergleichende Studien des Pinus-Krummholzes in den japanischen und europäischen Alpen

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmanns, Otti; Bogenrieder, Arno; Nakamura, Yukito

    1985-01-01

    Die Formation des von Nadelhölzern beherrschten Krummholzes ist sowohl in den japanischen als auch in den europäischen Alpen landschaftsprägend entwickelt; die beiden Ausbildungen werden hier vergleichend-autökologisch und vergleichend-pflanzensoziologisch betrachtet. Schlüsselart des (Nadel-) Krummholzes ist in Japan Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel, in Europa Pinus mugo Turra. P. pumila unterscheidet sich bei an sich gleichem Wuchs durch die Fähigkeit, an älteren Ästen Nebenwurzeln und damit Poly...

  20. Resistência de amendoim-bravo aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase Wild poinsettia resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas A. Vidal

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle contínuo de plantas daninhas através da aplicação de herbicidas que apresentam atividade em um único local de ação nas plantas favorece a seleção de biótipos resistentes a estes herbicidas, em certas espécies vegetais. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos em condições casa-de-vegetação, na Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, com os objetivos de avaliar a ocorrência de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em vários biótipos de leiteiro ou amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla EPHHL e avaliar a ocorrência de resistência múltipla a herbicidas com atividade em outros locais de ação. Biótipo oriundo de Passo Fundo foi resistente ao imazethapyr, enquanto biótipo oriundo de Porto Alegre foi suscetível. O biótipo de Passo Fundo apresentou resistência cruzada aos herbicidas imidazolinonas: imazapyr, imazaquin e imazethapyr; sulfoniluréias: chlorimuron, nicosulfuron e metsulfuron; e sulfonanilida: flumetsulan. Este biótipo não foi resistente aos herbicidas com os seguintes mecanismos de ação: inibidores de EPSPs, mimetizadores de auxina, inibidores dos fotossistemas I e II e inibidores de PROTOX. A confirmação de resistência aos inibidores de ALS em biótipos oriundos de Nãome-Toque, Passo Fundo e Rio Pardo sugere ampla dispersão no Rio Grande do Sul de resistência de E. heterophylla aos herbicidas deste mecanismo de ação.The continuous weed control with herbicides of only one site of action selects biotypes resistant to these herbicides. Four experiments were conducted in greenhouse of UFRGS, Brazil, to confirm the occurence of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistance to herbicides inhibitors of acetholactate synthase (ALS, and to determine whether there was cross resistance to herbicides with other site of action. A biotype from Passo Fundo -RS was resistant to imazethapyr, whereas a biotype from Porto Alegre -RS

  1. First Steps Towards the Paleoseismological History of the Pastores and Venta de Bravo Faults, Acambay Graben, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, M.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.; Villamor, P.; Langridge, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Acambay graben is part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) which strikes ESE-WNW across central Mexico. The belt is an active, calc-alkaline volcanic arc that is related to the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates underneath the North American plate (e.g. Suter et al. 1995). The TMVB comprises a series of intra-arc basins that form the Chapala-Tula fault zone (450 km long, 50 km wide, Suter et al. 1995). The Acambay graben is c. 80 km long, 15 to 35 km wide and limited by four large E-W striking normal faults that are from west to east, the Epitacio-Huerta (EHF) and the Acambay-Tixmadejé faults (ATF) in the north and the Venta de Bravo (VBF) and the Pastores faults (PF) in the south. In the region, there is a low current seismicity but two known historic earthquakes occurred in the graben, the November 19, 1912, ms = 7.0 Acambay event and the February 22, 1979, ms = 4.9 Maravatío earthquake (Astíz-Delgado 1980). The paleoseismic history of the ATF has been previously studied by Langridge et al. (2000). Our focus lies on the paleoseismicity of the southern faults. The rupture history is assessed by tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismic trenches. To study the recent paleoseismic history of the two southern faults, we excavated two trenches on the PF. These trenches lie on young alluvial fans protruding from the Pastores fault scarp. Their location was chosen because of ' steps'\\ in the surface of the alluvial fan that might indicate the position of the most recent fault scarps, in combination with georadar profiles that confirmed vertical displacements in reflectors underneath those steps. The strata in the trenches consist of lake sediments at the base of one trench overlain by interbedded volcanic pyroclastic flows and ash falls which are found in both trenches. In both trenches we found evidence for one paleoearthquake respectively. We are in the process of dating these events by means abundant charcoal which we found in the pyroclastic

  2. Design and methods for the Better Resiliency Among Veterans and non-Veterans with Omega-3's (BRAVO) study: A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation among adult individuals at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Killeen, Therese K; Magruder, Kathryn M; Holes-Lewis, Kelly; Tolliver, Bryan K; Turner, Travis H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide remains the 10th leading cause of death among adults in the United States (U.S.). Annually, approximately 30 per 100,000 U.S. military Veterans commit suicide, compared to 14 per 100,000 U.S. civilians. Symptoms associated with suicidality can be treatment resistant and proven-effective pharmaceuticals may have adverse side-effects. Thus, a critical need remains to identify effective approaches for building psychological resiliency in at-risk individuals. Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) are essential nutrients, which must be consumed in the diet. N-3 HUFAs have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and impulsivity - which are associated with suicide risk. Here we present the design and methods for the Better Resiliency Among Veterans and non-Veterans with Omega-3's (BRAVO) study, which is a double blind, randomized, controlled trial among individuals at risk of suicide of an n-3 HUFA versus placebo supplementation in the form of all natural fruit juice beverages. The BRAVO study seeks to determine if dietary supplementation with n-3 HUFAs reduces the risk for serious suicidal behaviors, suicidal thinking, negative emotions, and symptoms associated with suicide risk. Sub-analyses will evaluate efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms, alcohol, and nicotine use. A sub-study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of n-3 HUFAs. We also outline selection of appropriate proxy outcome measures for detecting response to treatment and collection of ancillary data, such as diet and substance use, that are critical for interpretation of results. PMID:26855120

  3. Revision of Parancylodiscoides Caballero y C. & Bravo-Hollis, 1961 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with a redescription of P. longiphallus (MacCallum, 1915) from the Atlantic spadefish Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet) (Acanthuroidei: Ephippidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C

    2012-02-01

    The generic diagnosis of Parancylodiscoides Caballero y C. & Bravo-Hollis, 1961 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with three valid species, was amended to include dactylogyrids having: a haptor with dorsal and ventral anchor/bar complexes, 14 hooks (seven pairs) and four reservoirs (two pairs); a dorsal bar with bifurcate ends; hooks with protruding, blunt and slightly depressed thumbs and undilated shanks; a dextroventral vaginal aperture leading to an elongate and oblique vaginal vestibule; a germarium dextral to the testis; a vas deferens looping the left intestinal caecum; a copulatory complex lacking an accessory piece; and two intestinal caeca lacking diverticula and united posterior to the gonads. Parancylodiscoides is most similar to Sundatrema Lim & Gibson, 2009, from which it differs only by the position of the vaginal aperture (sinistroventral in Sundatrema spp.) and by lacking a sucker-like genital pore. New information concerning the number and distribution of haptoral hooks, the relative positions of the gonads and the course of the vas deferens was provided for the type-species, P. chaetodipteri Caballero y C. & Bravo-Hollis, 1961. Parancylodiscoides longiphallus (MacCallum, 1915) Lim & Gibson, 2009 was redescribed based on specimens collected from the Atlantic spadefish Chaetodipterus faber from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil; its occurrence on the Atlantic spadefish from the Gulf of Mexico, Guaratuba Bay and off Puerto Rico represented new geographical records for this helminth. Parancylodiscoides caballerobravorum Cezar, Luque & Amato, 1999 was considered a junior subjective synonym of P. longiphallus. The monotypic Isohaliotrema Young, 1968 was placed in synonymy with Parancylodiscoides and its type-species, I. platacis Young, 1968, transferred to Parancylodiscoides as Parancylodiscoides platacis (Young, 1968) n. comb. PMID:22183919

  4. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd. As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (PCondensed tannins (CT of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01. Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency. No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43% and high in flor-de-seda (80%. The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097.

  5. Ash properties of Pinus halepensis needles treated with diammonium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, S.; Katsigiannis, G.; Lymperopoulou, T. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)

    2007-02-01

    The ash properties of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) needles before and after treatment with diammonium phosphate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} (DAP) have been investigated, using thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), titrimetry, inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DAP is extensively used as active component in wildland fire retardants. The following crystalline compounds have been identified in ashes prepared at 600 C before treatment with DAP: KCl, Ca(OH){sub 2}, MgO, (CaMg)CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.CaCO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, CaO and CaCO{sub 3}, whereas CaO, MgO, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, KCl and CaO, MgO, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 800 and 1000 C, respectively. The presence of DAP alters the composition of ashes converting, almost completely at high temperatures, the metallic oxides into phosphate salts. Thus, decreasing their alkalinity. The micrographs obtained by SEM indicate that pine needles ashes contain large porous particles of carbon compounds and several inorganic particles of irregular shape <1.0 mm, whereas after treating the needles with DAP an amorphous rigid structure was formed. To facilitate our investigation model mixtures of CaCO{sub 3} + DAP, MgCO{sub 3} + DAP, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + DAP were heat treated under the same conditions used for preparing the ashes. The chemical transformations taken place during heating were studied by analysing the reaction products using thermal analysis and XRD. The physical, mineralogical and chemical forest ash properties determined could be used to evaluate the environmental risk of the use of fire retardants on soils, plants and aquatic systems as well as to investigate the mechanism of combustion of forest fuels in the presence of DAP. (author)

  6. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thapliyal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middleand high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variationssuggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. Thewide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have beenobserved in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes.The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied from 7

  7. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  8. Seleção precoce de progênies de Pinus radiata a Sphaeropsis sapinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rachel Rabelo Corrêa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985734Sphaeropsis sapinea é um importante patógeno para Pinus radiata, causando seca de ponteiros e morte de árvores, em plantios comerciais. Este estudo teve como objetivo selecionar progênies de Pinus radiata resistentes ao patógeno. Mudas de 16 progênies de Pinus radiata foram inoculadas com três isolados monospóricos do patógeno, em condição de casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados o comprimento das lesões e o grau de secamento dos ponteiros. Os resultados indicaram que a metodologia de seleção precoce foi adequada para selecionar progênies de Pinus radiata resistentes ao Sphaeropsis sapinea. A herdabilidade média das progênies variou de acordo com o isolado testado e o critério de seleção utilizado.

  9. JUVENILE-MATURE GENETIC CORRELATIONS IN Pinus taeda CLONES PROPAGATED VIA SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Coqueiro Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate the genetic correlation among selection ages (juvenile - adult and efficiency of early selection for the height, diameter, and volume traits of individuals from Pinus taeda families propagated via somatic embryogenesis. This study was carried out by genetic-statistical analysis, estimation procedure of variance (Reml, and prediction components of breeding values (Blup, using the Selegen-Reml/Blup software. Genetic correlations among juvenile ages and rotation age were performed by applying the linear model developed by Lambeth (1980. In accordance with results of the established model, the early selection can be performed in clones of Pinus taeda with high selection efficiency. Ages from 4 to 6 years old are enough to select Pinus taeda clones propagated via somatic embryogenesis for harvesting at 8 and 12 years old; and 6 to 10 years old are enough to select them for harvesting at 20 years old. On the basis of the genetic correlations estimates from the environments, the clones' selection of Pinus taeda propagated via somatic embryogenesis should be developed specifically for each environment. The clones' selection can be performed considering the diameter due to the high correlation between volume and diameter.

  10. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  11. Mechanical resistance by an ectorganic soil layer on roo development of seedling Pinus sylvestris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ouden, J.; Vogels, D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated early root development of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in relation to bulk density and natural particle layering in an ectorganic soil layer from a bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) stand. Responses in root development to two levels of bulk density (0.07 and 0.15 g/cm3) in mixed bracken su

  12. Strength of adsorption of polyethylene glycol on pretreated Pinus radiata wood and consequences for enzymatic saccharification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Softwood substrates are recalcitrant in enzymatic hydrolysis to reducing sugars, in part because of unproductive binding of enzymes on lignin. Interactions between polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a softwood substrate were characterised in order to estimate the PEG loadings required for effective blocking of unproductive enzyme binding. For the first time, the adsorption of Rhodamine labelled PEG (Mw 3400) on thermo-mechanically treated Pinus radiata fibres was characterised by fluorimetry, giving a best-fit binding constant of 68 L g−1. This was considerably stronger than published binding constants of 6 L g−1 for enzymes on lignin, accounting for the success of PEG as an additive. Glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis of the same substrate, when unlabelled PEG (Mw 4000) was used, were consistent with a PEG adsorption capacity of 0.01–0.02 g g−1 substrate. Thus, PEG was shown to be effective at affordably low loadings and further mathematical modelling work predicts savings correspond to 6 kg PEG per tonne when pretreated Pinus radiata substrate was processed at higher substrate concentration. - Highlights: • Binding constant of Rhodamine labelled PEG on pretreated Pinus radiata is 68 L g−1. • This value is ten-fold higher than binding constant for cellulase on lignin. • Effect of PEG molecular weight and substrate lignin content on saccharification. • PEG is affordable in saccharification of pretreated Pinus radiata. • Model predicts savings in PEG at high substrate consistency saccharification

  13. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  14. The seed bank in Pinus stand regeneration in NW Spain after wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Calvo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Cantabrian area (northwest Spain Pinus stands occupy many of the original shrub communities that have been considered unproductive. These Pinus stands represent the vegetation which is most affected by fire. Regeneration after fire may occur in different ways: by resprouting or by germination or both. Germination was the only regeneration mechanism in Pinus species that appeared in these areas. The aim of this study is to determine the role of the soil seed bank in regeneration in this type of ecosystem. In order to carry out the study, three communities dominated by Pinus sylvestris which had suffered wildfires were chosen. In each of the three experimental sites of Pinus sylvestris stands the seed bank composition and above-ground vegetation were studied. The results allowed three species groups in the seed bank to be differentiated: those favoured by fire, amongst which some hardseeds, mainly belonging to Cistaceae and Leguminosae, were found; another group formed by outsider or opportunist species from outside the community and which used anemochory as their main dispersion mechanism; and the third group formed by those negatively affected, amongst which were species using vegetative resprout as the main regeneration mechanism. The species of greatest quantitative importance in the seed bank was Erica australis. In general, anemochorous species were predominant in the soil seed bank. During the first stages of succession chamaephytes were dominant and in the two years after fire therophytes were. No great similarity was observed between the bank composition and field vegetation from a qualitative viewpoint, due to differences in the presence of seeds of outsider plants in the bank and to the significance of the resprouting species in the field.

  15. Comparative recruitment success of pine provenances (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra) under simulated climate change in the Swiss Rhone valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sarah; Moser, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Low elevation Scots pine forests of European inner-alpine dry valleys may potentially disappear under continued climate warming, largely in response to increased warming and drought effects. In the upper Rhone valley, the driest region in Switzerland, increased Scots pine mortality in mature forest stands and sparse tree establishment after a large-scale forest fire already give evidence for ongoing climate change. Furthermore, vegetation models predict a decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) even under a moderate temperature increase of 2-3°C. A decline of tree species in the region may lead to a transition from forest to a steppe-like vegetation. Such a change is of considerable concern for both biodiversity and natural hazard protection. Although changing climate conditions affect all life stages of a tree, its most vulnerable stage is recruitment. We tested P. sylvestris and P. nigra seedlings to simulated temperature increase and water stress, using seeds from the upper Rhone valley, Switzerland (CH), and from Peñyagolosa, Spain (ES). The experiment was located outdoors at the bottom of the Rhone Valley. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of 3 precipitation regimes (‘wet spring-wet summer', ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer') and 3 soil heating levels (+0 °C, +2.5 °C, +5 °C). Automatically operated shelters intercepted natural rainfall and different precipitation regimes were simulated by manual irrigation. We found significantly lower germination rates under dry conditions compared to wet conditions, whereas soil temperature affected germination rates only for P. nigra and when elevated by 5°C. Contrastingly, an increase of soil temperatures by 2.5 °C already caused a substantial decrease of survival rates under both ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer' conditions. Precipitation regime was more important for survival than temperature increase. Seasonality of

  16. Degree of Hybridization in Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. In the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila-Flores, Israel Jaime; Hernández-Díaz, José Ciro; González-Elizondo, Maria Socorro; Prieto-Ruíz, José Ángel; Wehenkel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force, because interspecific gene transfer can introduce more new genetic material than is directly generated by mutations. Pinus engelmannii Carr. is one of the nine most common pine species in the pine-oak forest ecoregion in the state of Durango, Mexico. This species is widely harvested for lumber and is also used in reforestation programmes. Interspecific hybrids between P.engelmannii and Pinus arizonica Engelm. have been detected by morphologica...

  17. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra) connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized dist...

  18. Densidade e tamanho de formigueiros de Acromyrmex crassispinus em plantios de Pinus taeda Density and size of Acromyrmex crassispinus nests in Pinus taeda plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele; Wilson Reis Filho; Edilson Batista Oliveira; Edson Tadeu Iede

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a densidade e o tamanho dos formigueiros de Acromyrmex crassispinus, ao longo do ano, em plantios de Pinus taeda de diferentes idades. Os experimentos foram realizados, em Rio Negrinho e em Três Barras, SC, em talhões de P. taeda com diferentes idades (recém-plantado, três anos e seis anos de idade). Em cada tratamento, foram demarcadas três parcelas de 1 ha. Os formigueiros foram classificados em três classes de tamanho: classe I, até 30 cm de diâmetro; ...

  19. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson da Silva; Francisco A. Ferreira; José F. da Silva; Luís E. Firmino

    1999-01-01

    Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1), oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1), oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1), imazapyr (250 g ha-1) e testemunhas (capinada e sem ca...

  20. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. PMID:26626827

  1. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón Francisco R; Ordás Ricardo; Soto Álvaro; Cervera M Teresa; Collada Carmen; Perdiguero Pedro; Guevara M Ángeles; Flores-Monterroso Arantxa; Bautista Rocío; Díaz-Moreno Sara M; Villalobos David P; Guerrero-Fernández Darío; Canales Javier; Fernández-Pozo Noé; Avila Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it...

  2. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.P. [California State Univ., Humbolt, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  3. Development and Characterization of Nine Microsatellites for an Endangered Tree, Pinus wangii (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Dou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pinus wangii is an endemic and endangered species in southwestern China, and microsatellite primers were developed to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO protocol, nine sets of microsatellite primers were developed in P. wangii. One population with 26 individuals of P. wangii, as well as 11 individuals each for two congeneric species, P. taiwanensis and P. squamata, were used to test their polymorphism and transferability. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven with an average of 3.7, and the observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.91 and 0 to 0.75, respectively. Conclusions: We developed nine sets of polymorphic microsatellite loci that are suitable for investigating genetic diversity and population structure of P. wangii, and these markers may be useful for other Pinus species.

  4. Pinus taeda L. INITIAL GROWTH RELATED TO N, P AND K FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect N, P and K on the growth of young (19 month-old Pinus taeda. The experiment took place near Cambará do Sul county, with UTM coordinates of 562125 E and 6777386 N. The statistical methodology was the confounding technique, for three factors, with four levels, totalizing 64 treatments, allocated in four blocks. The following variables were measured: total height, crown height, steam diameter and crown diameter. The results pointed out a significant linear quadratic effect for P, indicating that P fertilization is essential on the initial development of Pinus taeda plants, with a maximum cylindric volume achieved at 64 and 87 kg ha-1 doses of P2O5 and K2O respectively.

  5. Occurrence of cyclic AMP and related enzymes during germination of Pinus pinea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Lusini, P; Bovalini, L; Bartali, R; Franchi, G G; Cinci, G

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of cAMP, adenylate cyclase and cAMP phosphodiesterase has been tested in Pinus pinea seed during germination. The study has been carried out on dormant and imbibed seeds, seedlings, endospermic residues, roots and cotyledons. cAMP has been detected by the protein binding method and its occurrence has been verified by HPLC detections. cAMP phosphodiesterase shows a very high activity at acidic pH, while being completely inactive at pH 7.4. At this pH value, well detectable levels of adenylate cyclase have been observed. Therefore, the classical pathway of synthesis and breakdown of cAMP, already accepted for animal and bacterial cells, seems to be operating in Pinus pinea plant too. PMID:3038780

  6. Discussion on Pipe Model through Hydraulic Architecture of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAIHongbo; LIJiyue; NIELishui

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the hydraulic architecture parameters of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings (4 years old) were measured by improved flushing method under normal water condition in the green house and the basic theory of hydraulic architecture is used to discuss the rationality of the pipe model. The results of the experiment and simulation show that the differences of hydraulic conductivity, specific conductivity and leaf specific conductivity is great in different stems and branches of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. The hydraulic conductivity of non-constriction area is higher than that of constriction area. The devotion of functional xylem of stem to unit leaf growth is not a constant, namely, the Huber value is diverse. Even though the pipe model has been accepted in some areas, its precondition is not perfect, and it is helpless in correctly understanding the essence of water transport in seedlings from the prospective of water physiology.

  7. Voltammetric analysis of Pinus needles with physiological, phylogenetic, and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Miranda, Annette S; König, Peter; Kahlert, Heike; Scholz, Fritz; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are electrochemically active components of vegetal matter which were targeted under simple experimental conditions to produce voltammetric profiles characterizing the metabolite composition. Application to bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques permits to discriminate the species and age of plant leaves, illustrated here for the case of six Pinus species from two different subgenera. Such responses, associated with the electrochemical oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (quercetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, among others), define a voltammetric profile which varies systematically with the age of the leaves for the different species. The application of this methodology for phylogenetic studies, plant physiology, forensic science, and chemoecology is discussed. Graphical Abstract Image of Pinus in a typical Mediterranean forest; Courtesy of the Botanic Garden of the University of Valencia. PMID:27173392

  8. Vegetation control and fertilization in midrotation Pinus taeda stands in the southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Albaugh, Timothy; Lee Allen, H.; Zutter, Bruce; Quicke, Harold

    2003-01-01

    - Contrôle de la végétation et fertilisation de peuplements de Pinus taeda à mi-révolution dans les états du Sud-Est des USA. Nous avons évalué l'effet sur des plantations de Pinus taeda L. de différentes méthodes de contrôle de la végétation (VC) à savoir des traitements chimiques (glyphosate, imazapyr, metsulfuron, methyl et triclopyr) , des interventions mécaniques et une fertilisation phosphatée, ceci sur un ensemble de stations situées en plaine et en piedmont des Etats du Sud Ouest, por...

  9. Effects of silviculture treatments on vegetation after fire in Pinus halepensis Mill. woodlands (SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge De Las Heras,; González-Ochoa, Ana; López-Serrano, Francisco; Simarro, María

    2004-01-01

    Effets des traitements sylvicoles sur la végétation après un feu dans des forêts de Pinus halepensis Mill. (sud-est de l'Espagne). En août 1994, deux grands feux se sont produits dans le sud-est de l'Espagne et ont brûlé 44000 ha de forêt de Pinus halepensis Mill. adultes. Après le feu, il y a eu une régénération intense de la forêt qui a formé des bosquets touffus de plantules. On a alors procédé à des études sur la régénération naturelle du pin en appliquant différents traitements sylvicole...

  10. HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN PINE (Pinus eldarica Medw. TREE BARKS AS INDICATORS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Kord

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-monitoring of air quality in TehranCity was investigated by analyzing 36 pine tree (Pinus eldarica Medw. barks. The samples were taken from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, industrial, highway, and control sites. Then, the concentrations of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, and chromium (Cr were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest metal concentrations were found in the heavy traffic sites and the control site, respectively. Lead content was found to be the highest in high traffic density areas. The industrial part of the city was characterized by high Zn, Cr, and Ni contents. Variation in heavy metal concentrations between sites was observed and attributed to differences in traffic density and anthropogenic activities. The research also confirms the suitability of Pinus eldarica Medw barks as a suitable bio-indicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals.

  11. Resistance to water stress in seedlings of eight European provenances of Pinus halepensis Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Calamassi, Roberto; Della Rocca, Gianni; Falusi, Mauro; Paolettiinstb, Elena; Strati, Sara

    2001-01-01

    Résistance au stress hydrique des plantules appartenant à huit provenances européennes de Pinus halepensis Mill. Sur des plantules âgées de 24 semaines, appartenant à 8 provenances de Pinus halepensis (Mill.) subsp. halepensis, des courbes pression-volume ont été effectuées après une semaine de stress hydrique (-0,033, -0,4, -0,8, -1,2, -1,6 MPa). P. halepensis a montré des ajustements osmotiques en réponse au stress hydrique, bien que de façon différenciée parmi les provenances. L'eau apopla...

  12. Xylem acoustic signals from mature Pinus sylvestris during an extended drought

    OpenAIRE

    Perks, Michael; Irvine, James; Grace, John

    2004-01-01

    Signaux acoustiques du xylem chez des Pinus sylvestris matures soumis à une sécheresse prolongée. Des pins sylvestres matures (Pinus sylvestris) ont été soumis à partir de novembre 1994 et pendant 11 mois à une sécheresse artificielle du sol. Des placeaux témoins ont bénéficié de la pluie et d'un supplément d'eau sous forme d'irrigation. On a comparé l'importance de la cavitation dans le xylème des branches et des fûts par des mesures d'émission acoustique ultrasonique (UAE). On a également e...

  13. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  14. L’adaptation à la sécheresse chez le pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.) : patrons de diversité et différenciation nucléotidiques de gènes candidats et variabilité de caractères phénotypiques

    OpenAIRE

    Eveno, Emmanuelle

    2008-01-01

    Les changements climatiques annoncés risquent de constituer des pressions de sélection importantes sur des caractères tels que la résistance à la sécheresse, notamment pour des espèces forestières comme le pin maritime. Dans ce contexte, une question essentielle est de savoir si ces espèces pourront s’adapter suffisamment rapidement aux nouvelles conditions climatiques. Les objectifs de cette thèse étaient d’évaluer le potentiel adaptatif de populations naturelles de pin maritime pour des car...

  15. EFFECTS OF BELT SPEED, PRESSURE AND GRIT SIZE ON THE SANDING OF Pinus elliottii WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves; Luiz Fernando Frezzatti Santiago; Marcos Tadeu Tiburcio Gonçalves; Ivaldo De Domênico Valarelli; Francisco Mateus Faria de Almeida Varasquim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the factors (belt speed, pressure and grit size) on the output parameters (temperature and surface roughness) for Pinus elliottii wood sanding, processed parallel to the fibers. Three levels of belt speed, three levels of pressure and four levels of grit size were employed, with six replicates for each process, totaling 216 observations. The experiment conducted under a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The results were...

  16. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez; Rabia Mouhbi; José Javier Santiago-Freijanes; María del Pilar González-Hernández; María Rosa Mosquera-Losada

    2012-01-01

    Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener) and beta (Jaccard and Magurran) biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system....

  17. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Barbara; Kipfer, Tabea; Richter, Sarah; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and assessed whether differe...

  18. Effect of irradiation on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus armandi Franch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soaking seeds of Pinus armandi Franch. were irradiated with 60Co γ-ray at dose of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy, and the treated seeds were planted. The result showed that the irradiation treatment retarded the time of germination, and the seed germination rate, for reduced, the ratio of yellow to living seedlings. The treatment also lowered the height of seeding, especially for the yellow seedlings. (authors)

  19. Characterization and mapping of QTL used in breeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Aleksandra; Ukalska, Joanna; Simińska, Joanna; Szyp-Borowska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the construction a map based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic DNA (AFLP) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The main purpose of map construction was its application to quantitative traits loci (QTL) mapping for breeding traits economically important in Scots pine breeding program such as tree height and diameter at breast height, number of needles and their length, width, and area. Genomic DNA of needles and haploid megagamethophytes from seeds originating from a ...

  20. Controlling water dynamics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds before and during seedling emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Pamuk, Gunnar Sven

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines if water dynamics before and during seedling emergence after autumn and summer direct seeding can be controlled in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds by hydrophobic polymer coating and hydrophilic (hydrogels) polymer packages. A method was created by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the quality of the polymer seed coating. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and germination tests indicated that the critical moisture content of Scots pi...

  1. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae) oil

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed...

  2. Accelerated artificial aging of particleboards from residues of CCB treated Pinus sp. and castor oil resin

    OpenAIRE

    Marília da Silva Bertolini; Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr; Maria Fátima do Nascimento; José Augusto Marcondes Agnelli

    2013-01-01

    Tests simulating exposure to severe weather conditions have been relevant in seeking new applications for particleboard. This study aimed to produce particleboards with residues of CCB (chromium-copper-boron oxides) impregnated Pinus sp. and castor oil-based polyurethane resin, and to evaluate their performance before and after artificial accelerated aging. Panels were produced with different particle mass, resin content and pressing time, resulting eight treatments. Particles moisture and si...

  3. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots ...

  4. Sustained in vitro root development obtained in Pinus pinea inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo; Barriga, João; Cavaleiro, Cremilde; Peixe, Augusto; Zavattieri, Amely

    2003-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) is an economically important forest tree in Mediterranean climates and has been the target for selection efforts through micropropagation. Previous attempts on microshoots, derived from mature seed cotyledons, reached incipient rooting after induction with a combination of auxin and hypertonic shock, but their development in vitro was not sustained. At this stage, co-culturing plantlets with some fungi isolated from ectomycorrhizas succeeded in over...

  5. Exploring lignification in conifers by silencing hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Pinus radiata

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Armin; Ralph, John; Akiyama, Takuya; Flint, Heather; Phillips, Lorelle; Torr, Kirk; Nanayakkara, Bernadette; Te Kiri, Lana

    2007-01-01

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm that does not produce syringyl lignin. This gene was up-regulated during tracheary element (TE) formation in P. radiata cell cultures and showed 72.6% identity to the amino acid sequence of the Nicot...

  6. Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Associated with Red Pine, Pinus resinosa, in Western Maryland

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Amy L.; Krusberg, Lorin R.; Nickle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Red pines Pinus resinosa in Garrett and Allegany counties, Maryland, were examined during 1982-84 to determine distribution of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, within and among trees. Approximately 25-year-old (younger) and 47-year-old (older) trees were subdivided into the following categories: 1) trees with mostly green needles; 2) trees with mostly reddish-brown needles; 3) trees lacking needles but with bark intact; 4) trees lacking both needles and bark; and 5) trees wi...

  7. Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Pardos M; Calama R; Mayoral C; Madrigal G; Sánchez-González M

    2015-01-01

    In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 20...

  8. Regeneration of a Coastal Pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) Forest 11 Years after Thinning, Niigata, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojun Zhu; Yutaka Gonda; Lizhong Yu; Fengqin Li; Qiaoling Yan; Yirong Sun

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The a...

  9. Seedling emergence and establishment of Pinus sylvestris in the Mongolian forest-steppe ecotone

    OpenAIRE

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) for regeneration and encroachment onto dry grasslands in the forest-steppe ecotone was experimentally studied at the south-eastern distribution limit of the species in Mongolia. The experiment consisted of a sowing and planting (2-year old seedlings) assay at two different distances from the forest line and manipulation of the water supply by irrigation in one half of the replicate plots. Seedling emergence was strongly inhibited by post-dispersa...

  10. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  11. Quantification and Physiology of Carbon Dynamics in Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Christopher Michael

    2003-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) occupies 13 million hectares in the United States and represents a critical component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Forest management alters C dynamics, affecting the C sequestration capacity of a site. Identifying drivers that influence C cycling, quantifying C fluxes, and determining how management alters processes involved in C cycling will allow for an understanding of C sequestration capacity in managed forests. Objectives of the first study included (...

  12. Effect of two successive wildfires in Pinus halepensis stands of central Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Goudelis, G.; P. Ganatsas; T. Tsitsoni; Y. Spanos; E. Daskalakou

    2008-01-01

    We estimated differences, five years after a wildfire, in soil and vegetation between Pinus halepensis stands that were once burnt (1998) and stands that were burnt twice in a short time interval (1995 and 1998), in the area of Penteli, central Greece. The parameters monitored were the physical and chemical attributes of upper soil layer and the vegetation composition, density and height. The results showed that five years after the wildfire, soil pH did not differ be...

  13. Impact of Seed Transmission on the Infection and Development of Pitch Canker Disease in Pinus radiata

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Evira-Recuenco; Eugenia Iturritxa; Rosa Raposo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of seed inoculum on subsequent disease development in nurseries, specifically studying incidence of seed infection, transmission rate of seed to seedlings, and rate of disease development from the primary inoculum source. Transmission rate of Fusarium circinatum (F. circinatum) from symptomatic trees of Pinus radiata (P. radiata) to seed was 0.73%, being the fungus mainly on the coat. Seed infection incidence was positively correlated with tre...

  14. Dichotomization of mycorrhizal and NPA-treated short roots in Pinus sylvestris

    OpenAIRE

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salo, Vanamo

    2008-01-01

    Conifers like Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) have a complicated root system consisting of morphologically and anatomically different root types, of which the short roots have a very limited ability to elongate. Short roots have an important role in nature since they are able to establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, in which the growth of fungal mycelium between the epidermal cells and in the intercellular space between cortical cells leads to formation of dichotomous short roots, which may, thr...

  15. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Sederoff Ron; van Zyl Len; Osborne Jason; Li Guosheng; Adomas Aleksandra; Heller Gregory; Finlay Roger D; Stenlid Jan; Asiegbu Frederick O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array appr...

  16. EFFECT OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY ON STATIC BENDING PROPERTIES IN PLYWOOD OF Pinus elliotti Engelm

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Alfonso Lara Palma

    2009-01-01

      The objetive of this work was to determine the relation between the rigidity and strength properties in static bending and specifie gravity of plywood manufactured from five veneer of Pinus elliotti Engelm, plantation from a 30 year-old. Linear simples, multiple and polynomial relations involving the modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), strees at proportional limit (TLP) and specifie gravity (Me) of the plywood were studied. The specifie gravity did not prove to be a very ...

  17. Produção de compensados de Pinus taeda L. E Pinus oocarpa Schiede com diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia formaldeído Plywood manufacturing from Pinus elliottii L. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede with different formulations of the urea-formaldheyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda e de Pinus oocarpa, com 20 e 24 anos de idade, respectivamente, utilizando três diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia-formaldeído. Foram produzidos 18 painéis, com três repetições por tratamento. As formulações com maior proporção relativa de resina não influenciaram de forma conclusiva as propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis.Os painéis de P. oocarpa apresentaram valores médios de resistência da linha de cola, módulos de elasticidade e de ruptura superiores àqueles dos painéis de P. taeda. Os resultados das propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis indicaram grande potencial de utilização de lâminas de P. oocarpa para produção de compensados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of both Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa plywood, 20 and 24-years-old, respectively, using three different formulations of urea formaldheyde resin. A total of 18 boards were produced, using three repetitions per treatment. The formulations containing a high relative proportion of the resin did not show a conclusive influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards. The boards made from P. oocarpa showed higher average values of the glue line strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in comparison to boards of P. taeda. The results showed that the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of the board, indicate that the veneers of P. oocarpa have a high potentiality for plywood production.

  18. Peculiarities of Pinus sylvestris seedling growth under the effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings was delayed and poystem occurrence increased with chronic irradiation (a cumulative dose of external γ-radiation was 6-8 Gy in 1986 and 0.7 Gy in 1990). The apical meristem activity was inhibited and central stem and main root died off under the effect of the radiation doses applied resulting in the development of plants of a specific floating form

  19. Fertilization and allelopathy modify Pinus halepensis saplings crown acclimation to shade

    OpenAIRE

    Monnier, Y.; Vila, B.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.; Prévosto, B.; Fernandez, C

    2011-01-01

    Pinus halepensis Mill. is a Mediterranean pioneer forest species with shade intolerance features. The purpose of this study is to better understand how stand fertility and allelopathic properties of adult trees influence shade acclimation of saplings. Crown growth and morphological plasticity were studied under different light, fertilization, and allelopathic conditions in a nursery experiment. We tested whether shade-acclimation capacity increases with fertilization, and is affected by autot...

  20. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haria, Atul H.; Price, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall ...

  1. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haria, Atul H.; Price, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and inten...

  2. Micropropagation of a recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L.): An overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonezi, C.; Caldeira, A. T.; Martins, M. R.; Teixeira, D.; Dias, L.S.; Miralto, O.; Ganhão, E.; Klimaszewska, K.; Zavattieri, A.

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) is an economically important forest species in some regions of Iberian Peninsula. Portugal and Spain have nearly 500,000 ha of stone pine stands, representing 85% of worldwide distribution. The main use of this species is for the production of seeds (pinion) for food industry. In addition to its enormous profitability as a producer of seeds, it has beneficial impact on soil protection, dunes fixation and is a pioneer species particularly for cork and holm oaks degr...

  3. Family Outcrossing Rates of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea in Seed Orchard and Natural Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Family outcrossing rates of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea populations that differed in origin and management were estimated by using isozyme markers. The family outcrossing rates were estimated by (1)fixing the probability of pollen gene frequency (p); (2) allowing pollen gene frequency to vary among families. The estimates of family outcrossing rates for all the populations varied widely among families (clones of the seed orchard), ranging from 0.39 to 2.0. The average family outcrossing rates of both m...

  4. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author)

  5. Changes of Morphogenic Competence in Mature Pinus sylvestris L. Buds in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSONE, UNA; IEVINSH, GEDERTS

    2002-01-01

    The effects of season and cold storage on morphogenic competence in mature Pinus sylvestris buds were investigated. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity were measured as markers of oxidative metabolism. No growth in vitro was observed on explants detached from the end of January until the beginning of March. Brachioblasts, each with a couple of needles, formed on 11 % of the buds without macrostrobili that were detached in early April and introduced immediately into culture. Of the expl...

  6. Invasive behaviour of white pine (Pinus strobus) in sandstone areas in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadincová, Věroslava; Köhnleinová, I.; Marešová, Jana

    Praha: Academia, 2007 - (Hartel, H.; Cílek, V.; Herben, T.; Jackson, A.; Williams, R.), s. 219-224 ISBN 978-80-200-1577-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/05/0430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : invasions * Pinus strobus * species composition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  8. Dissipation of excess excitation energy of the needle leaves in Pinus trees during cold winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, AO; Cui, Zhen-Hai; Yu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Zi-Ling; Ding, Rui; Ren, Da-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Photooxidative damage to the needle leaves of evergreen trees results from the absorption of excess excitation energy. Efficient dissipation of this energy is essential to prevent photodamage. In this study, we determined the fluorescence transients, absorption spectra, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a/b ratios, and relative membrane permeabilities of needle leaves of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Pinus armandi in both cold winter and summer. We observed a dramatic decrease in the maximum fluorescence (F m) and substantial absorption of light energy in winter leaves of all three species. The F m decline was not correlated with a decrease in light absorption or with changes in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio. The results suggested that the winter leaves dissipated a large amount of excess energy as heat. Because the cold winter leaves had lost normal physiological function, the heat dissipation depended solely on changes in the photosystem II supercomplex rather than the xanthophyll cycle. These findings imply that more attention should be paid to heat dissipation via changes in the photosystem complex structure during the growing season.

  9. THE EFFECT OF Eucalyptus APMP FIBERS REINFORCEMENT ON Pinus radiata KRAFT PULP PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulps derived from pine species are largely used for high strength paper products. The quality of such pulps hasbeen improved significantly in the last decades through advances in wood quality and adequate choice of pine species. The quality ofpine fibers can be further improved by incorporating other fibers to them. In fact, the mixture of pine fibers with hardwood fibers iscommon practice around the world. An alternative to further improve the quality of pine fibers is by mixing them with wood fibersproduced by modern techniques. This study evaluated the impact of mixing 10-40% of eucalyptus wood fibers produced by the P-RCAPMP process on the Pinus radiata fiber properties. The pulp mixes were beat in a PFI mill and evaluated for the main physicalproperties. It was observed that the eucalyptus wood fibers improve the bonding capacity of the Pinus radiata fibers. At a given tensilestrength, the properties of tear index and opacity of the pulp mix increase with increasing proportion of eucalyptus wood fibers. It isconcluded that addition of up to 30% eucalyptus wood fibers to Pinus radiata kraft pulp is viable alternative to improve some of itsproperties.

  10. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  11. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  12. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native to boreal and temperate areas.  Hypothesis was pine woolly adelgids infestation on P. merkusii in Java is consistent with their native distribution.  There were 9 Forest Management Unit (KPH with infested P. merkusii plantations which were located at altitude between 900 to 1,700 m asl. with temperature ranging 16-22 ˚C and air humidity 80-90%. This indicated that Pine Woolly Adelgids required low temperature to survive, which was consistent with their original distribution. Host preference with regard to scale of infestation was closely related to temperature, altitude, and number of trees per hectare. The scale of infestation varied among regions, from light to heavy infested/death of trees.Keywords: pine woolly adelgid, Pinus merkusii, scale of infestation, host preferences

  13. Effects Of Drought Stress on Germination in Fourteen Provenances of Pinus Brutia Ten. Seeds in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Şevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus brutia Ten., Red pine, known to be tough drought resistant pine specie, could effectively be used for afforestation of disturbed areas. It is of great interest for the afforestation in arid zones. Appropriate seed sources for the specific areas guarantees reforestation success. Away from its native areas Pinus brutia Ten. is planted for its ornamental value and timber production purposes. Selection of drought resistant provenances can very well increase the survival success. In this study, the effects of water potential on germination were studied in fourteen provenances of Pinus brutia Ten. from Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000 solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 day at 20 ± 0.5°C. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage and germination value. As a result, significant variations between the provenances were found. It was determined that, under a -8 bar water stress, Isparta-Bucak and Mersin-Silifke, respectively corresponding to 58% and 57% of the control group, were the least water stress affected provenances.

  14. Strenght of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merielen de Carvalho Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the strength of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different industrial adhesives. Three types of adhesives (poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI and polyurethane (PU glued in two side gluing orientation (radial and tangential and analyzed after the conditioning tests (dry and wet were analyzed. The 360 specimens were prepared for determining the shear strength of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda, and these were tested in a universal testing machine called EMIC. The shear strength of the glue line at dry condition was lower in the tangential side for the three types of adhesives analyzed. The PU adhesive showed the highest values of shear strength in the applied conditions, differing from PVAc and EPI adhesive when tested on dry condition and did not differ from the others adhesives when tested on wet condition. The highest percentage of wood failure was observed after the shear strength test at dry condition to EPI adhesive glued in the radial side. And in the wet condition, the EPI adhesive and PU adhesive glued in tangential side showed higher mean values of wood failure. Thus, it was possible to conclude that the strength of the glue line of Pinus taeda wood was influenced by the type of adhesive and side gluing orientation, and showed differently behavior according to the condition of use (wet or dry.

  15. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L. were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized distances between them being nearly 50% significantly different from 0. The sample studied in this respect is distinctly different from pure stands of both putative parental species (i.e. Pinus mugo and P. sylvestris. Every plant studied shows a different combination of traits typical (or nearly typical for both the above-mentioned species and traits that are truly intermediate between them. The results support the frequently expressed opinion that the mountain pine population from the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem" is, in fact, a hybrid swarm formed by hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris.

  16. Intra- and interpopulation relationships and taxonomic status of Pinus nigra Arnold in Croatia according to morphology and anatomy of needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational relationships and taxonomic status of six natural black pine populations (Pinus nigra Arnold from Croatia were analyzed. Special attention in this research was paid to the establishment of taxonomic status and distribution of stenoendemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco. Three morphological and twenty-one anatomical traits of needles were used as well as analysis by the methods of multivariate statistics. Most of the researched individuals showed strong population affiliation, whereas a clinal transition of morphological and anatomical traits of needles was determined among the populations. The opinion of the existence of three subspecies of black pine on the territory of Republic of Croatia (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. nigra, Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco and Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. illyrica (Vid. Fukarek was confirmed. For each of the three subspecies new ranges were represented. Four Croatian populations were included in the stenoendemic subspecies of the Dalmatian black pine (Brač, Hvar, Grobnik and Pelješac, and a new distribution, broken in two, was suggested. Since the Dalmatian black pine has been reduced to several populations only, and there are some signs of continuous diminishing of its range, this research points out the need of making an action plan to preserve all natural populations of this subspecies.

  17. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  18. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations for four growing seasons' exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YuMei; HAN ShiJie; ZHANG HaiSen; XIN LiHua; ZHENG JunQiang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous species-Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis were exposed to 700,500μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2(approx.350 μmol·mol-1)for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was measurd during the second, third and fourth growing seasons' exposure to elevated CO2.The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. Koraiensis was stimulated and that of P. Sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend between the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. Sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. However, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. Koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  19. Densidade e tamanho de formigueiros de Acromyrmex crassispinus em plantios de Pinus taeda Density and size of Acromyrmex crassispinus nests in Pinus taeda plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a densidade e o tamanho dos formigueiros de Acromyrmex crassispinus, ao longo do ano, em plantios de Pinus taeda de diferentes idades. Os experimentos foram realizados, em Rio Negrinho e em Três Barras, SC, em talhões de P. taeda com diferentes idades (recém-plantado, três anos e seis anos de idade. Em cada tratamento, foram demarcadas três parcelas de 1 ha. Os formigueiros foram classificados em três classes de tamanho: classe I, até 30 cm de diâmetro; classe II, 31 a 60 cm; e classe III, mais que 61 cm. A densidade de formigueiros de A. crassispinus foi menor no início do desenvolvimento da floresta, praticamente duplicou nos plantios com três anos, e reduziu quando a floresta estava com seis anos. A maior densidade de formigueiros ocorreu no período de dezembro a abril. Os formigueiros aumentaram de tamanho com a idade do pínus.The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and size of Acromyrmex crassispinus nests in Pinus taeda plantations along the year. The experiments were carried out in Rio Negrinho and Três Barras, SC, Brazil, in P. taeda plantations of different ages (recently planted and three and six years old. Three plots of one hectare were delimited in each treatment. The nests were classified according to three size classes: class I, up to 30 cm diameter; class II, 31 up to 60 cm; class III, above 61 cm. The density of A. crassispinus nests was low in recently planted areas, nearly twofold in three year-old plantations, and it reduced when the forest was six years old. The greatest nest density occurred in the period from December to April. The nests size increased along with the age of the P. taeda plantations.

  20. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  1. Identification of microorganisms of Phytophthora genre associated to Quercus sp. and Pinus sp. species in the provinces of Guatemala and Sacatepéquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Calderón Díaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean purpose of this research was to identify microorganism belonging to Phytophthora genera which are affecting mixed natural forests and nurseries of Pinus sp. and Quercus sp. These species have economic and social impact in provinces such as Guatemala and Sacatepéquez. Soil and vegetal tissue were used to isolate Phytophthora from natural forest of Guatemala, 45 Pinus sp. and 10 Quercus sp. were sampled and from nurseries 88 Pinus sp. and 11 Quercus sp. From Sacatepéquez province, from natural forest system were sampled 48 Pinus sp. and 15 Quercus sp. From nurseries were sampled 58 Pinus sp. and 25 Quercus sp. After processing the samples from soil and roots 13 were found positive to Phytophthora sp. in Pinus maximinoi, 10 from Guatemala and three from Sacatepéquez provinces. The culture of Phytophthora sp. on PDA produced two colonies without define form and five stoloniferous, five semipetaloid, one stelade type colonies. VP16 isolate was inoculated in five species of pine for pathogenicity test, causing high percentages of incidence and severity on Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, P. pseudostrobus and P. maximinoi and low rates of incidence and severity on Pinus tecunumanii.

  2. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  3. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  4. Pinus roxburghii plant needles as a three-season biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring along roadside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the determination of 36 elements in Pinus roxburghii plant needles to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The needles of Pinus roxburghii were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad. The method validation was performed by analyzing two certified reference materials i.e., Citrus leaves - NIST-SRM-1572 and IAEA-Soil-7. Pollution level was assessed by using three indicators: enrichment factor, pollution load index and average toxic element concentration. The results indicated that the needles of Pinus roxburghii plant had potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of high traffic areas.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

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    Sederoff Ron

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase. Conclusion This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris – Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events

  6. Estimativa do comportamento do fogo em queimas experimentais sob povoamentos de Pinus elliottii

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Batista; Alexandre Beutling; José Fernando Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Foram realizadas 23 queimas experimentais em um talhão de Pinus elliottii da Estação Experimental de Rio Negro-PR, município de Rio Negro, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Paraná, durante o inverno de 2008. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi desenvolver modelos de previsão do comportamento do fogo para o planejamento de prevenção e combate aos incêndios florestais. Nos locais preparados paras as queimas foram efetuadas observações e medições sobre o material combustível e variáveis meteorológ...

  7. Influência da intensidade do desbaste sobre o crescimento em altura de Pinus elliottii E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho estudou a influência da intensidade de desbaste sobre o desenvolvimento da altura média e dominante de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii E., submetidos  a  4 (quatro  tratamentos de desbastes 25, 50 e 75 % da área basal da testemunha sem desbaste, além da testemunha sem desbaste. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a intensidade do desbaste influi no desenvolvimento da altura média e não no da altura dominante.

  8. Zanimljive vrste makrormiceta u šumama munike (Pinus leucodermis Ant.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tortić, Milica; Sylejmani, Sami

    1982-01-01

    U Jugoslaviji je do sada objavljeno nekoliko radova (vidi engleski tekst), u kojima se navode makromicete koje se razvijaju na drvu endemskog balkanskog bora munike (Pinus leucodermis Ant.), ali je od terestričnih gljiva munikinih šuma spomenuta u literaturi samo jedna vrsta, Rhizopogon luteolus. Autori su u čistoj sastojini munike iznad sedla Prevalac na obroncima Ošljaka (sjeverni ogranak Šar-planine) sabirali više gljive na tlu i drvetu toga bora, pa ovdje izvješćuju o rezultatima svoji...

  9. (14C)-glucose metabolism during shoot bud development in cultured cotyledon explants of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured under shoot-forming (plus benzyladenine) and non shoot-forming (minus benzyladenine) conditions for 10 and 21 days were fed U-[14C]-glucose for 3 h in the light followed by a 3 h chase period. The labelling of individual metabolites as well as 14C incorporation into protein was assessed. It was found that the general metabolic patterns were qualitatively the same in shoot-forming and non shoot-forming conditions, however, metabolism leading to respiration as well as to the synthesis of some amino acids and protein synthesis was enhanced in the shoot-forming cultures. (author)

  10. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800–2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pin...

  11. Estudi del decaïment en Pinus halepensis al Parc de Collserola

    OpenAIRE

    Fité Malla, Xavier; MARTÍNEZ VILALTA, Jordi; Vayreda Duran, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Aquest és un treball fet amb l'objectiu general d'intentar determinar les causes més probables del decaïment i mort d'un gran nombre de peus de l'espècie Pinus halepensis a la finca de Can Catà (parc natural de Collserola), després dels aprofitaments forestals que s'hi van fer entre agost i novembre de 2012. Com a punt de partida és planteja comparar els patrons de creixement entre els arbres morts i els vius, en relació a les principals variants climàtiques (pluviometria i temperatura, tant ...

  12. Effect of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on the Assimilation and Translocation of 14 C in Pinus sylvestris

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H; Webster, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wound, wound + water, wound + Bursaphelenchus xylophilus culture filtrate, or wound + lethal B. xylophilus doses on the assimilation and translocation of ¹⁴C by 8-month-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings was tested. In two separate experiments, pine seedlings were exposed to 28.35 μCi of ¹⁴CO₂ for 20 minutes below or above (to the pine shoot leader) the point of nematode inoculation. After 2 and 4 hours of dark adaptation, 80% ethanol soluble ¹⁴C tissue extracts were determined by l...

  13. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Pinus taeda L. RELACIONADO A DOSES DE N, P E K

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi Witschoreck; Lindolfo Storck; Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de diferentes doses de N, P e K no crescimento inicial de plantas de Pinus taeda, aos 19 meses de idade. O experimento localiza-se próximo do Município de Cambará do Sul, tendo como coordenadas UTM “centrais” 565125 E e 6777386 N. O solo da região é classificado como Cambissolo Humico alumínico típico, textura argilosa. A metodologia estatística utilizada foi a técnica do confundimento, para três fatores, com quatro níveis, totalizando...

  14. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Machacova; Jaana Bäck; Anni Vanhatalo; Elisa Halmeenmäki; Pasi Kolari; Ivan Mammarella; Jukka Pumpanen; Manuel Acosta; Otmar Urban; Mari Pihlatie

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and...

  15. Modelos de volumen comercial variable para Pinus patula en Zacualtipán, Hidalgo.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pérez, Disraeli

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta un sistema compatible de ahusamiento y volumen comercial variable para estimar con mayor precisión el volumen total y la distribución de productos maderables en Pinus patula, cultivado en rodales coetáneos, repoblados bajo el sistema de árboles padre. Se utilizaron, de forma destructiva, 78 árboles. La base de datos se sometió a la evaluación de 11 sistemas compatibles de ahusamiento-volumen que incluyen modelos segmentados. Todos los sistemas se ajustaron mediante estimación simu...

  16. Post-Fire Dynamics of Cistus spp. in a Pinus brutia Forest

    OpenAIRE

    TAVŞANOĞLU, Çağatay; GÜRKAN, Behzat

    2005-01-01

    The population dynamics of 2 species of Cistus L. (C. salviifolius L. and C. creticus L.) were studied along a post-fire successional gradient in Pinus brutia Ten. forests in Marmaris National Park, Turkey. The population density of Cistus spp. was 16 individual m-2 at the end of the first year after fire and then decreased exponentially (r2 = 0.926, P < 0.001) the second year after fire to later successional stages. Total projected foliage cover of Cistus spp. was 26% by the end of the fi...

  17. Micropropagation of recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L) an overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Martins, María do Rosário; Teixeira, Dora; Silva Dias, Luís; Miralto, Maria Otília; Ganhão, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Amely

    2012-01-01

    Oral presentation Micropropagation of recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L.). An overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation Carla Ragonezi1; Ana Teresa Caldeira2 3; Maria do Rosário Martins2,5; Otília Miralto5,6; Luís Silva Dias6; Elsa Ganhão6, Krystyna Klimaszewska4, Amely Zavattieri5,6 1 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Évora, Ap. 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Évora, Ap. 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal 3...

  18. Dispersal of invasive Pinus strobus in sandstone areas of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadincová, Věroslava; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Wild, Jan; Šajtar, L.; Marešová, J.

    Leiden: Backhuys Publisher, 2008 - (Tokarska-Guzik, B.; Brock, J.; Brundu, G.; Child, L.; Daehler, C.; Pyšek, P.), s. 117-132 ISBN 978-3-8236-1528-6. [8th International conference Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions.. Silesian University Katowice, Poland (PL), 05.09.2005-12.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/05/0430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : dispersal * invasion * Pinus strobus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  19. Mitotic instability of Pichia pinus diploid cells 2. Segregation induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of genetic damages resulted from gamma rays in diploid cells of yeasts Pichia pinus MH4: nonlethal damages resulting in increasing frequency of mitotic crossing-over and lethal damages leading to cell death or arising unstable clones have been described. Survaving irradiated cells with lethal damages (which nature is not established) originate ''grown'' colonies which instability is manifested in the increased frequency of segregation of lethal sections and aneuploid segregants; in such colonies segregants without one, two or three nonhomologous chromosomes are often found. It is concluded that losses of separate chromosomes are not those primary damages which result in radiation inactivation of cells

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  1. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  2. Prirodna obnova u sastojinama alepskog bora (Pinus halepensis Mill.) nakon požara

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravac, Tomislav; Vrbek, Boris; Lalić, Zlatko

    2006-01-01

    U radu se istražuje problematika prirodne obnove opožarenih površina u sastojinama alepskog bora (Pinus halepensis Mill.) na tri trajne pokusne plohe. Rezultati se temelje na petogodišnjem sustavnom motrenju (2001.-2005.) u Šibeniku, trogodišnjem (2001.-2003.) u Splitu te dvogodišnjem (2002.-2003.) na Korčuli. Izmjerom je praćena prirodna obnova vegetacije po vrstama, brojnosti i visinskim klasama te učinci radova njege nakon požara. Istraživanja su obuhvatila pedološku obradu pokusnih plo...

  3. Storage products and tissue interaction in the ovule of Pinus silvestris (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Engels

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The organel-sequence in ovular cells of Pinus silvestris was investigated by light- and electronmicroscopy during the post-pollination and pre-fertilization period. Changes in starch and lipid storage suppose starch to be a pool for lipid synthesis and a reserve for ovule development. The base nucellus plays an important role in the distribution of metabolites all over the ovular tissues. Lipid, starch and callose are of interest for the cells to protect them against low temperatures by means of isolation, antifreeze and plug formation respectively.

  4. ADDITION OF Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. BARK TO Pinus elliottii ENGELM PARTICLEBOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvá Oliveira Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards manufactured with Eucalyptus pellitabark added to Pinus elliottii wood. The mechanical properties evaluated were static bending (modulus of rupture and modulus ofelasticity and tensile strength perpendicular to surface, while the physical ones were thickness swelling and water absorption. UreaformaldehydePB 2346 adhesive was used in the rates of 6% and 8%, in particleboard manufacturing. The bark/wood rates were:0/100, 10/90, 20/100 and 30/70, with three repetitions to each treatment. Bark inclusion into particleboard production showed to betechnically possible, according to physical and mechanical results obtained.

  5. Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of natural populations of Pinus kesiya var. Langbinanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of natural populations of Pinus kesiya var. Langbinanensis were examined by means of electrophoresis technique. Analysis of 9 enzyme systems including 16 loci showed that all the three natural populations of the pine were high in genetic diversity but low in inter -population genetic differentiation. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.667 , with eachlocus holding 2.13 alleles, averagely. The average expected and obse rved heterozygosity was 0.288 and 0.197, respectively. The gene differentiation among populations was 0.052, but the mean genetic distance was only 0.015.

  6. Effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiqiang; HE Kangning; WANG Yunqi; WANG Baitian; DENG Juntao; ZHOU Yi; ZHONG Xijun; LI Zhaoqing

    2007-01-01

    In order to offer a scientific basis for cultivation and management of forests,effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were studied under different soil moisture contents.By adopting artificial control methods to soil moisture,and under simulated photosynthetic radiation (SPR),the net photosynthetic rate (PN),transpiration rate (Tr),water use efficiency (WUE) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci,) of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau,were studied.Results are as follows:within the photon range of 0-2,200 μmol/(m2·s),PN,Tr and WUE were enhanced with an increase in SPR in both species.PN and WUE of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis,however,declined with continued increase in SPR.PN,Tr,WUE and light saturation point (LSP) of Platycladus orientalis were higher than those of Pinus tabulaeformis,while light compensation point (LCP) of Platycladus orientalis was lower than that of Pinus tabulaeformis at the same soil moisture content.The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis;PN,Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content,whereas WUE declined.At soil moistures of 7.90%,13.00% and 19.99%,LSP of Platycladus orientalis LCP was 42,25 and 13 μmol/(m2·s) respectively,with corresponding maximal net CO2 photosynthetic rates (Pmax)of 3.04,4.06 and 5.53 μmol(m2·s).At soil moistures of 7.83%,13.04% and 20.15%, the LSP of Pinus tabulaeformis was 1,100, 1,325 and 1,500 μmol/(m2·s) respectively and LCP was 60,30 and 23μmol/(m2·s), with Pmas of 1.08, 3.35 and 4.36 μmol/(m2·s)respectively.

  7. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  8. Effect of storage conditions on post planting water status and performance of Pinus radiata D. Don stock-types

    OpenAIRE

    Mena-Petite, Amaia; Estavillo, José; Duñabeitia, Miren; González-Moro, Begoña; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto; Lacuesta, Maite

    2004-01-01

    Effet des conditions de stockage sur l'état hydrique et l'établissement de plantules de Pinus radiata D. Don avec motte et à racines nues. L'étude a porté sur l'effet du stockage sur la qualité du plant et sur les potentialités de survie initiale de plantules de Pinus radiata D. Don à racine nue (BR) et avec motte (PR), replantées dans des sols humides et secs. Les plantules ont subi un stress de transplantation, même dans des conditions hydriques optimales. Malgré la diminution de la transpi...

  9. Avaliação de adesivos à base de taninos de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis e de Acacia mearnsii na fabricação de painéis aglomerados

    OpenAIRE

    Amélia Guimarães Carvalho; Roberto Carlos Costa Lelis; Alexandre Miguel do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814588Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os métodos para a extração dos taninos da casca do Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, assim como verificar a viabilidade técnica de utilização dos taninos da casca de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, de Acacia mearnsii, de misturas de taninos de acácia negra e pinus e de misturas do adesivo ureia-formaldeído (UF) com taninos de acácia e pinus na produção de adesivos para aglomerados. As cascas de Pinus caribaea var. ba...

  10. Rapid changes in induced non-volatile secondary metabolites in damaged Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin REN; Yongjian HU; Youju JIN; Wenhong DENG; Zhenyu LI; Li YANG; Mwange Kalima NKOMA

    2008-01-01

    Plants initiate the development of defense mechanisms as soon as pests start to cause damage to them. In order to have a thorough understanding of the physiological mechanisms of the Pinus massoniana self-defense mechanism, and to provide a theoretical founda-tion for an effective ecological management of this plant, levels of tannin, polyamine and phenolic acids were ana-lyzed in undamaged (UDL), insect-damaged (IDL) and artificially-damaged (ADL) leaves at different times. Results show that, although the content of tannin signifi-cantly increased in IDL and ADL compared to UDL, its peaks appeared earlier in ADL than in IDL treatment. Tannin concentration substantially increased again 48 h after IDL treatment. On the other hand, the damage mode considerably affected putrescine and spermidine levels in leaves. Their concentrations in IDL plants remained higher than in UDL after a relatively long time (72 h), but spermine was barely detected in any of the samples. In general, total content of phenol acids significantly increased in damaged leaf treatments (ADL and IDL), with a higher level in IDL for most of the investigated phenolic acids, except for ferulic acid. Our study showed that, when damaged by insects, Pinus massoniana rapidly produces substances required in resistance induction to insects in order to insure its self-protection.

  11. Effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Honghua [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lin Kunde, E-mail: lin.kunde@gamil.co [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Wang Hailong [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3046 (New Zealand); Gan, Jay [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Biochars are anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent and their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants need to be characterized. Here we evaluated the effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene. Two biochars separately produced at 350 {sup o}C and 700 {sup o}C and three soils were tested. Biochar amendment generally enhanced the soil sorption of phenanthrene. The biochar produced at 700 {sup o}C generally showed a greater ability at enhancing a soil's sorption ability than that prepared at 350 {sup o}C. The single-step desorption measurement showed an apparent hysteresis in biochar-amended soils. After 28 d equilibration, the sorptive capacity of biochar-amended soil (with an organic carbon content of 0.16%) significantly decreased. This study clearly suggested that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds, but the magnitude of enhancement depended on the preparation of biochars, the indigenous soil organic carbon levels, and the contact time between soil and biochar. - Pinus radiata derived biochars influence soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene.

  12. Energy characterization of fresh and torrified pellets produced from Pinus waste wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this research was to evaluate torrified and fresh pellets produced from Pinus waste wood, used for direct generation of thermal energy. The compaction of Pinus sp. waste wood from lumbermill was performed in a pelletizer with a planar array of 8 mm. Roastings were performed in an electric furnace, type muffle, stabilized at final temperatures of 220 °C and 250 °C for 30 min. The following pellets properties were determined: apparent and unit energy density, bulk density, energy bulk density, immediate chemical composition (volatile materials, ash and fixed carbon, high heating value and moisture. It was observed an increase in high heating value and reduction of moisture content of torrified pellets. However, the gain in calorific value was less than the mass loss of the pellets after roasting, reducing the energy densities of the pellets. The pellets raw have marketing potential in European countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden. The methodology used for roasting is not suitable for pellets heat treatment. However, further research on pellet roasting in a wider temperature and residence time range is recommended, in order to define parameters that optimize their energetic properties.

  13. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  15. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  16. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Pinus taeda L. RELACIONADO A DOSES DE N, P E K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Witschoreck

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de diferentes doses de N, P e K no crescimento inicial de plantas de Pinus taeda, aos 19 meses de idade. O experimento localiza-se próximo do Município de Cambará do Sul, tendo como coordenadas UTM “centrais” 565125 E e 6777386 N. O solo da região é classificado como Cambissolo Humico alumínico típico, textura argilosa. A metodologia estatística utilizada foi a técnica do confundimento, para três fatores, com quatro níveis, totalizando 64 tratamentos, distribuídos em quatro blocos. Foram medidas as seguintes variáveis no campo: altura total, altura de copa, diâmetro à altura do colo e diâmetro de copa. Os resultados indicam que foi obtida resposta linear e quadrática significativa para o P, evidenciando a importância da aplicação desse nutriente no crescimento inicial das plantas de Pinus taeda, com máximo ganho em volume cilíndrico, nas doses de 64 e 87 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e K2O respectivamente.

  17. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å3 Da−1, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way

  18. The complete chloroplast genome of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jin; Zu, Yu-Meng; Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis Hayata chloroplast genome (cpDNA) is determined in this study. The genome is composed of 119,741 bp in length, containing a pair of very short inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 495 bp, which was divided by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 65,670 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 53,080 bp in length. The cpDNA contained 115 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (73 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 37 tRNA genes (22 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbored a single intron, and one (rps12) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of the Taiwan red pine cpDNA is 61.5%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 62.2%, 60.6% and 63.6%, respectively. A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis suggested that the genus Pinus, Picea, Abies and Larix were strongly supported as monophyletic, and the cpDNA of P. taiwanensis is closely related to that of P. thunbergii. PMID:26057016

  19. Modeling Dominant Height Growth in Planted Pinus pinea Stands in Northwest of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sghaier Tahar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Six generalized algebraic difference equations (GADAs derived from the base models of log-logistic, Bertalanffy-Richards, and Lundqvist-Korf were used to develop site index model for Pinus pinea plantations in north-west of Tunisia. To assure the base-age invariance of the model parameter estimates, a dummy variable approach was used. Data from stem analysis, corrected with Carmean's method, were used for modelling. To take into account the inherent autocorrelation of the longitudinal data, a second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used, which allows the models to be applied to irregularly spaced, unbalanced data. Both a qualitative analysis based on the biological realism of the models and numerical and graphical analyses based on the accuracy of the models as well were used to evaluate the performance of candidate models. The relative error in site index predictions was used to select 30 years as the best reference age. Based on the analysis, a generalized algebraic difference equation (GADA derived from the base model of Lundqvist-Korf realized the best compromise between biological and statistical constraints, producing the most adequate site index curves. It is a polymorphic model with site-dependent asymptotes. This model is therefore recommended for height growth prediction and site classification of Pinus pinea plantations in north-west of Tunisia.

  20. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  1. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  2. Effect of two successive wildfires in Pinus halepensis stands of central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Spanos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated differences, five years after a wildfire, in soil and vegetation between Pinus halepensis stands that were once burnt (1998 and stands that were burnt twice in a short time interval (1995 and 1998, in the area of Penteli, central Greece. The parameters monitored were the physical and chemical attributes of upper soil layer and the vegetation composition, density and height. The results showed that five years after the wildfire, soil pH did not differ between areas burnt once and twice, while the organic matter was higher in the once-burnt areas. The vegetation composition was similar in the two areas and the dominant species were those pre-existing the fire. On the contrary, vegetation density was considerably lower in the twice-burnt areas. The height of woody species oscillated in the same levels in the two areas. The plant community was composed mainly by resprouting species, like Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus, or Phillyrea latifolia, and less individuals from seed-regenerated species, like Pinus halepensis, Cistus monspeliensis, and C. creticus. It is suggested that the recurrence of wildfire affected negatively the ecosystem attributes, and contributed to the increased risk of degradation.

  3. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High O3 levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O3 fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O3 levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O3 regime (2xO3) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O3 levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings

  4. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  5. Short Communication. Physiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Alfonso Domínguez Núñez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The inoculation of forest seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi can improve the morphological and physiological qualities of plants, especially those used for regeneration of arid areas. Rhizopogon roseolus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM commonly used for reforestation. In this study, the specific objectives were to know some morphophysiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings under standard nursery conditionsArea of study: ETSI Montes and EUIT Forestal, Madrid.Material and Methods: In nursery, under well watered conditions and peat growing substrates, Aleppo pine seedlings were inoculated with R. roseolus. Five months after the inoculations, we examined the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at full turgor [Ψπfull], osmotic potential at zero turgor [Ψπ0], and the tissue modulus of elasticity near full turgor [Emax], mycorrhizal colonization, and concentration and content of macronutrients in the seedlings. Subsequently, a trial was conducted to assess the root growth potential.Main results: The mycorrhization decreased the height and diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings but increased the root weight and root branching. R. roseolus did not cause any significant effect on the regeneration of new roots or on any of the tested hydric parameters, but it did improve N uptake of the seedlings.Research highlights: The mycorrhizal inoculation increased the N uptake. The mycorrhizal inoculation caused opposite effects on some growth parametersKeywords: Osmotic adjustment; elastic adjustment; mineral nutrition; root growth potential; nursery; Rhizopogon roseolus;  Pinus halepensis. 

  6. Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases from Pinus brutia Ten.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. Oztetik; F. Kockar; M. Alper; M. Iscan

    2015-09-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) play important roles in stress tolerance and metabolic detoxification in plants. In higher plants, studies on GSTs have focussed largely on agricultural plants. There is restricted information about molecular characterization of GSTs in gymnosperms. To date, only tau class GST enzymes have been characterized from some pinus species. For the first time, the present study reports cloning and molecular characterization of two zeta class GST genes, namely PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 from Pinus brutia Ten., which is an economically important pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region and have to cope with several environmental stress conditions. The PbGSTZ1 gene was isolated from cDNA, whereas PbGSTZ2 was isolated from genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 226 amino acids with typical consensus sequences of the zeta class plant GSTs. Protein and secondary structure prediction analysis of two zeta class PbGSTZs have shared common features of other plant zeta class GSTs. Genomic clone, PbGSTZ2 gene, is unexpectedly intronless. Extensive sequence analysis of PbGSTZ2, with cDNA clone, PbGSTZ1, revealed 87% identity at nucleotide and 81% identity at amino acid levels with 41 amino acids differences suggesting that genomic PbGSTZ2 gene might be an allelic or a paralogue version of PbGSTZ1.

  7. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  8. Photosynthetic response of Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated carbon dioxide and its influential factor analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The photosynthetic response of 12-year old Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 and its influential factors were tested and analyzed in the forest region of Changbai Mountain in 1999. Trees grown at the natural condition were controlled at three levels of CO2 concentration (350 μL.L-1·, 500 μL.L -1 and 700 μL.L-1) by CO2 rich settlement designed by us. Net photosynthetic rates (NPR), temperature, relative humidity, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) were measured at 6:00, 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, 16:00 and 18:00 hours a day. Experimental results showed that the NPR of Pinus sylvestriformis increased by 32.6% and 123.0% at 500 μL.L-1 and 700 μL.L-1 CO2 concentration respectively, compared to ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (350 μL.L-1). The relations between NPR and influential factors, including temperature, relative humidity, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic active radiation, were analyzed respectively by regression analysis at different CO2 concentrations.

  9. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  10. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  11. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentra-tions for four growing seasons’ exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous spe- cies—Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis were exposed to 700, 500 μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was meas- ured during the second, third and fourth growing seasons’ exposure to elevated CO2. The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. koraiensis was stimu- lated and that of P. sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend be- tween the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. How- ever, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  12. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  13. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... that in the Rocky Mountains, the highest mortality from white pine blister rust generally occurs in...-caused landscape fragmentation. As a high-elevation, long-lived species with limited mobility, P... published in the Federal Register on January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). Species Information Pinus albicaulis...

  14. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... rust and mountain pine beetle predation. As forests become more dense, individual Pinus albicaulis are... and mountain pine beetles, have created more homogenous forest stands with reduced numbers of P..., snow drifts around P. albicaulis trees, thereby increasing soil moisture, modifying soil...

  15. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  16. Research on Assessment Method of Economic Performances of Provenance Trial and Popularization Project of Pinus massoniana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZhangqi; WENZhihong

    2004-01-01

    Applying the economic principles, this article carries out the assessment of economic performances brought by forestry research achievement through research and discussion on the assessment method of economic performances of provenance popularization of Pinus massoniana L. The article also brings in the option method to fully display the value of forest research achievement.

  17. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finla

  18. Can we expect to protect threatened species in protected areas? A case study of the genus Pinus in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aguirre Gutiérrez; J.F. Duivenvoorden

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 56 Pinus species in Mexico was modelled with MAXENT. The pine species were classified as threatened according to IUCN criteria. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not threatened pine species were adequately represented in protected areas. Almost 70% of the species had less than

  19. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  20. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    OpenAIRE

    Stojičić Dragana; Janošević Dušica; Uzelac Branka; Čokeša V.; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  1. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m3. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m3. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for

  2. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  3. 四种松属植物叶的抗寒抗旱特点研究%Study on Dry Resistance and Cold Resistance of Leaf of Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福太; 李长有; 王占武; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    为了研究松属植物叶片与植物抗寒抗旱特点的关系,以松属(Pinus)两种植物樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litvin.)和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)为主要实验材料,同时,观察黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb.),研究针叶的表皮特征及叶片不同部位的解剖结构.结果表明,松属植物叶表皮外具有发达的角质层,气孔下陷,具有大的孔下室,树脂道发达.这说明松属植物叶具有旱生和寒性植物的形态结构特征.%In order to study the relationship between leaf of Pinus and drought resistance and cold resistance,epidermis characteristic and anatomy construction of needle leaf of two specices plants(Pinus sylvestrisa var.mongolica Litvin.and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in Pinus are observed.The results indicated that the leaf of Pinus plants have some construction of drought resistance and cold resistance.For example:the outside on the surface of leaf is covered with a cuticle and epicuticular waxes,its stomata are stand out of the epidermis with big bore bottom room and so on.

  4. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  5. Preservative treatment of wood (Pinus oocarpa) for use as poles on electrification net; Tratamento preservativo de madeira (Pinus oocarpa) para uso como postes de linhas de eletrificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeca Filho, Antonio [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Targa, Luiz A. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    1998-12-01

    Four poles, class M, nominal length of 10,0 m, of Pinus oocarpa, treated with hydro soluble immunization, to the copper base, chromium and boron were tested. The poles were treated in the Processing /Wood Laboratory of the UNESP Mechanical Engineering Department, Campus of Bauru. The chemical analysis of the hydro soluble immunization retention and penetration determination was realized at the state of Sao Paulo Technological Research Institute. The used methodology for the poles treatment, supported by modified Boucherie process, consist in to move the the preservation product in aqueous solution, along the shaft of the poles, from one extremity to the another, using hydrostatic pressure to facilitate the operation. The solution shift the sap, and in the end of operation, the tissues before soaked of sap. become soaked by the preservation product. This treatment process requests equipment of easy maintenance and moderate price. I can be manufactured easily by the own farmer and, without difficulty, it can be transferred from a position to another, according to the needs of wood treated, and also the available raw material. With that procedure described it was possible to obtain a satisfactory retention of the immunization product along it shaft of the poles, satisfying the minimum values recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Norms (1984a.). (author)

  6. Respuesta a la sequía de Pinus radiata D. Don y su implicación en los procesos de tolerancia

    OpenAIRE

    De Diego Sánchez, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    160 p. (Bibliogr. 141-160) Correo electrónico de la autora: [ES] En este estudio se evaluaron cinco ecotipos de Pinus radiata D. Don y un híbrido de especie (O4, Pinus radiata x Pinus attenuata) con el fin de caracterizar fisiológicamente su respuesta al estrés hídrico y determinar su tolerancia, capacidad de recuperación y endurecimiento. La plantas de O4 fueron incluidas como modelo de tolerancia debido a la alta resistencia a la sequía descrita en P. attenuata (Begle...

  7. Phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii associations from Northern Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrullah Khan; Kishwar Ali; Shahid Shaukat

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii in 40 stands in northern areas of Pakistan by using cluster analysis (Ward’s agglomerative clustering) and ordination (Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling). Cluster analysis revealed three major groups associated with specific environmental characteristics: (1) P. roxburghii (2) Pinus-Quercus baloot and (3) Pinus-Olea ferruginea community types. NMS-ordination showed the major gradient as an amalgam of elevation (r2=0.441, p<0.01) and slope (r2=0.391, p<0.05) as the two topographic factors correlated with species distribution. The first ordination axis also showed positive correlation with soil variables like pH and electrical conductivity, suggesting that soil chemistry was related to topographic characteristics and probably acted as a secondary gradient. We also examined size class distributions, age structures and growth rates of the three communities in order to describe community development and dynamics. Total tree density was 14700 plants/ha, with P. roxburghii having a relative density of 82%to 100%. Density of juve-nile and total density and basal area of the subordinate tree species were low. The low density of trees in the smallest diameter size-class sug-gested that the recruitment of small P. roxburghii plants into the adult population may be lower than the required replacement rate for the stands. Pooled size-class distributions for the species showed a multimo-dal pattern with some regeneration gaps. Browsing, heavy logging and other anthropogenic activities were the overriding factors responsible for the poor recruitment of P. roxburghii. We concluded from the age struc-ture that the forests were characterized by the dominance of young trees. Growth rate analysis revealed that P. roxburghii was the fastest growing species among the conifers species in Pakistan. In view of its relatively fast growth and longevity, P. roxburghii seems to be a suitable choice for short

  8. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume 51 (1, 2008, pages 11-18Back Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians     D.V. PolitovLaboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences Y.V. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine N.N. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine E.A. MudrikDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine I.I. KorshikovDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine  contact authors by Editorial Office  SUMMARY  In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical, characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in the East Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation of outcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation or reforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations

  9. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.parraga@upct.es [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain); Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio [Water and Soil Conservation Department, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura CEBAS-CSIC Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, Espinardo-Murcia ES-30100 (Spain); González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 18}O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain

  10. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ13C and δ18O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain. - Highlights: • Significant amounts of

  11. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol® dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French maritime bark (Pinus maritima) has been widely used as an herbal remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standardized bark extract is available that complies with its USP monograph and is derived from Pinus pinaster, Ait. (Pycnogenol®, Horphag Research Ltd., UK). The method specified in...

  12. ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA IN VITRO DO LÁTEX DO AVELOZ (Euphorbia tirucalli L., PINHÃO BRAVO (Jatropha mollissima L. E PINHÃO ROXO (Jatropha gossypiifolia L. SOBRE MICRORGANISMOS PATOGÊNICOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Angelo Gurgel da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Por milênios, o Homem tem explorado a flora como recurso terapêutico. Muitas das espécies medicinais utilizadas possuem fitoquímicos com potencial aplicação no controle do crescimento microbiano. A resistência microbiana crescente representa um sério risco à Saúde Coletiva, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de projetos que visem a prospecção e/ou o desenvolvimento de novas drogas antimicrobianas. Na Caatinga da Região do Seridó do RN são encontradas as plantas medicinais Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Baill (Pinhão-bravo, a Jatropha gossypiifolia L (Pinhão-roxo e Euphorbia tirucalli L (Aveloz, pertencentes à Família Euphorbiaceae, na qual estão presentes fitoquímicos antimicrobianos. O presente projeto objetivou caracterizar a ação antibacteriana do látex destas espécies vegetais contra os patógenos Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi e Listeria monocytogenes. Duplicatas de Placas de Petri contendo ágar Mueller-Hinton foram semeadas em superfície com culturas padronizadas de cada microrganismo. Foram perfurados poços de 10 mm de diâmetro nos quais se inoculou 100 µL das diluições dos látex testados. As placas foram incubadas a 35±2oC/24 h. Os halos de inibição quando existentes foram medidos e registrados. L. monocytogenes apresentou a maior sensibilidade ao látex de J. mollissima; S. aureus foi inibido por J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia, sendo mais sensível no primeiro caso. S. typhi e S. typhimurium apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição (J. gossypiifolia, sendo S. typhi mais sensível ao látex de J. gossypiifolia e S. typhimurium ao de J. mollissima. E. tirucalli não apresentou atividade inibitória. Padrões de sazonalidade parecem influenciar a capacidade inibitória do látex. Recomendamos que sejam efetuados estudos mais detalhados acerca das propriedades antimicrobianas do látex de J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: atividade antimicrobiana, Jatropha

  13. EFFECTS OF BELT SPEED, PRESSURE AND GRIT SIZE ON THE SANDING OF Pinus elliottii WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the factors (belt speed, pressure and grit size on the output parameters (temperature and surface roughness for Pinus elliottii wood sanding, processed parallel to the fibers. Three levels of belt speed, three levels of pressure and four levels of grit size were employed, with six replicates for each process, totaling 216 observations. The experiment conducted under a randomized complete block design (RCBD. The results were analyzed employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA with 5% of significance level. Only grit sizes were significant to different temperature levels. The same outcome was observed for roughness, where only grits sizes were significant. No interaction between the pressure and belt speed factors were observed for all the results analyzed.

  14. MODELLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF Pinus taeda L. USING DIFUSION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozane de Loyola Eisfeld

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work tested a methodology for growth and yield modeling. The diffusion process is not yet widely used incommercial plantations in Brazil, but it can provide predictions comparable to others methodologies, producing satisfactory resultsto simulate growth and yield. For this purpose, 325 permanent samples established in unthinned Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine standsowned by the International Paper of Brazil Co were used. The diffusion process methodology consists in connecting growthincrement and mortality models in Kolmogorov equation . Seventy sample plots were randomly chosen in order to make thecomparison among the observed and predicted values. In general, the diffusion process provided satisfactory estimates of number oftrees, basal area per hectare and stem volume.

  15. NATURAL WEATHERING OF SCOTS PINE (Pinus sylvestris L. BOARDS MODIFIED WITH FUNCTIONALISED COMMERCIAL SILICONE EMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal C. Ghosh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A quat-silicone micro-emulsion (particle size <40 nm, an amino-silicone macro-emulsion (110 nm, and an alkyl modified silicone macro-emulsion (740 nm were used to modify Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood. Treated and uncoated boards were exposed to natural weathering for one year along with water treated controls according to EN 927-3. The treatment with silicone emulsions did not enhance the color stability, which was assessed at three months intervals using a spectrophoto-meter and classified according to the CIE-Lab system. Treatment with amino-silicone emulsions gave a more yellowish appearance of the wood surface before weathering than the other silicones and the control. Boards treated with quat- and amino-silicone were less overgrown by staining fungi and displayed reduced surface roughness than those treated with alkyl-modified silicone and the control samples.

  16. Monitoring of Pinus massoniana spatial pattern changes based on RS and GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HUANG Hua-guo; ZHANG Xiao-li; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan

    2008-01-01

    Our research focused on Pinus massoniana information extracted from remote sensing images based on the knowledge detection and decision tree algorithm and established a spatial pattern model, combining quantitative theoretical ecology with remote sensing (RS) and geometric information system (GIS) techniques. Applying information extraction methods and a spatial pattern model, we studied P. massoniana spatial patterns changes before and after the invasion by pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Fuyang and Zhoushan counties, Zhejiang Province, east China. The P. massoniana spatial patterns are clustering,whether the invasion happened or not. But the degree of clustering is different. Our results show good agreement with field data.Applying the results, we analyzed the relationship between spatial patterns and the invasion level. Then we drew the elementary conclusion that there are two kinds of patterns for pine wood nematode to spread: continuous and discontinuous diffusion. This approach can help monitor and evaluate the changes in ecological systems.

  17. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in a disturbed Pinus halepensis plantation in the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    El karkouri, Khalid; Martin, Francis; Mousain, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Diversité ectomycorhizienne dans une plantation à Pinus halepensis. La diversité génétique des ectomycorhizes de plants de P. halepensis a été examinée une année et demie après introduction dans un site incendié de Rieucoulon (Hérault, France). Cette diversité a été caractérisée à l’aide du polymorphisme de fragments de restriction (RFLP) et du séquençage de l’espaceur interne transcrit (ITS) de l’ADN ribosomal nucléaire. Trois traitements ont été examinés : des plants témoins, des plants myc...

  18. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  19. Effects of three irradiation methods on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Pinus thunbegii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 30 keV nitrogen ion beams, UV and γ-rays irradiation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Pinus thunbergii were investigated. Results showed that the biological effects induced by ion beam implantation were different from those induced by UV and γ-rays irradiation. The dose response curve of ion implantation treatment presented a particular 'saddle-likepattern, and ion implantation also significantly induced pollen tube tip swelling. These results indicated that low energy ion implantation might work in different way compared to UV and γ-rays irradiation. It was suggested that pollen could be served as an excellent model system to study the underlying mechanisms responsible for biological effects of ion beam irradiation at cellular level. (authors)

  20. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  1. The effects of understory vegetation on P availability in Pinus radiata forest stands:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Arivin Rivaie

    2014-01-01

    In many second-rotation Pinus radiata forest planta-tions, there has been a steady trend towards wider tree spacing and an increased rate of application of P fertiliser. Under these regimes, the potential for understory growth is expected to in-crease through increased light and greater nutrient resources. Therefore, understory vegetation could become a more signifi-cant component of P cycling in P. radiata forests than under closely-spaced stands. Studies have shown that growth rates and survival of trees is reduced in the presence of understory vegeta-tion due to the competition of understory vegetation with trees. Other studies have suggested that understory vegetation might have beneficial effects on nutrient cycling and conservation within forest stands. This review discusses the significance of understory vegetation in radiata pine forest stands, especially their role in enhancing or reducing P availability to forest trees.

  2. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations. PMID:20608157

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery of Pinus radiata with chromosome walking PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Hui LI; Xiaoyang CHEN; Harry WU

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the basic principle of chromosome walking is presented and we used an actin gene of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) as an example to conduct upstream and downstream chromosome walking for EST sequences. The full genomic sequence (2154 bp) of the actin gene, including promoters 5' UTR, CDS and 3' UTR, was identified by chromosome walking. PCR amplification and DNA band sequencing from 200 unrelated radiata pine trees revealed a total of 21 SNPs for the actin gene, three in the promoter region, 15 in CDS and 4 in 3' UTR. The results of this experiment provide a technical framework for SNPs dis-covery in none coding regions of candidate genes.

  4. Genetic Differentiation of Pinus koraiensis under Different Altitude Conditions in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGFujuan

    2004-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in different altitudes in Changbai Mountain was analyzed by ISSR technique, and it was found that the level of genetic diversity of Korean pine reduces along with altitude increasing in Changbai Mountain. The variation of Korean pine is mainly from intra-population and there is a positive relativity between genetic distance and vertical geographic distance of Korean pine in different altitudes. The genetic coherence shows that altitude has less insulation to Korean pine. Therefore, it is deduced that the terrain formation of vertical distribution of Korean pine is a result of diffusion from lower altitude to higher altitude in the course of enlarging its adaptability.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DE PROTETORES FÍSICOS EM SEMEADURA DIRETA DE Pinus taeda L

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    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avalia a eficiência de protetores físicos de pontos, na implantação de Pinus taeda L. por semeadura direta. Como proteção foram utilizados o copo plástico, sem fundo, o laminado de madeira e maravalha. Ambos colocados sobre pontos semeados com três sementes cada. A análise de emergência, sobrevivência e número de pontos com pelo menos uma planta, um ano após a semeadura, demonstrou que a utilização de um protetor físico, é indispensável para evitar elevadas perdas de sementes, causadas por pássaros e pela movimentação do solo.

  6. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles. PMID:26452572

  7. Evaluation of the transpiration of Pinus pinea L under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transpiration of Pinus pinea L. was measured in the field using the tritiated water method. The stand is located on the french mediterranean coast. It has a density of 800 trees per hectare. The mean DBH is 20.2 cm per tree and their age approximately 35 years. The consumption of water by the forest stand was 974 mm between April and October 1978. As the rainfall input, during this same time, amounted only 265 mm, water supply came from the water table by root absorption and from the soil moisture by capillary rise. Low transpiration rates were attained in April (3.1 mm. day) and October (3.9 mm. day), while higher rates were attained in May (5.2 mm. day) and June (6.0 mm. day). Recorded seasonal values agreed with estimates obtained by studying the fluctuations of the ground water table and by using BOUCHET's 'Piche corrected' equation

  8. Characterization of the bacterial flora associated with root systems of Pinus contorta var. latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerfield, J A; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D

    1978-12-01

    Root systems of young and mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Englem.) were removed from forest stands and the associated aerobic bacterial flora isolated. Characterization of rhizoplane and control soil isolates from these tree root systems demonstrated differences from that reported for agricultural crops. Ammonifying, proteolytic, and amylolytic organisms were proportionately reduced within the rhizoplane. The rhizoplane organisms grew more slowly than the control soil isolates, although they responded in greater numbers to the addition of an amino acid supplement to the growth media. The rhizoplane organisms also showed an increased ability to solubilize phosphate. The chitinolytic organisms were suppressed within the rhizoplane of the mature tree but were stimulated by the young trees. With this exception, the rhizoplane microflora of older and younger trees were similar. PMID:747813

  9. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle, base sections and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants

  10. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  11. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants

  12. PARTICLEBOARD MADE WITH CROP RESIDUES MIXED WITH WOOD FROM PINUS RADIATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Garay

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of crop residues was studied in particleboard panels (agrifibers, AG in mixture with wood from Pinus radiata D. Don. Four crop residue stubble types were used, wheat, corn, rice plants, and rice husk. Their densities were compared. A wide array of mixtures varying from 9:1 = wood:AG to 1:9 = AG:wood were used to make the boards, from which the fundamental physical and mechanical properties were determined, to select one with the best properties and use potential. All AG were suited for board panels, although wheat and corn stubble gave better results, and their low fibre content was easily incorporated in low proportions without major modifications of processes and products.

  13. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Marco, Lue M. [Universidad Centro Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Depto. de Quimica, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-12-09

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bio-Bio, 37 15'' South-73 19'' West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 μg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg. (orig.)

  14. Factors influencing germination and growth of isolated embryos of Pinus heldreichii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nutritional, hormonal, and physical factors on the germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of Pinus heldreichii were studied under in vitro conditions. The optimum medium for embryo germination and adequate conversion into seedlings was basal Gresshoff and Doy (1GD medium. All tested carbohydrates at the applied concentrations stimulated embryo growth, but only 3% sucrose increased embryo germination compared to the control, while maltose had an inhibitory effect. Among the applied plant growth regulators, only gibberelic acid (GA3 had a few benefits on the development of isolated embryos into plantlets, while the others had a negative effect. Embryos cultured on an agar-solidified medium grew better and the germination percentage was higher than in a liquid medium. Light treatment did not affect embryo germination, but generally stimulated seedling growth.

  15. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  16. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  17. Early testing of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term climate changes have been evident in the past. In the future an increase in the rate of climate change is predicted owing to man-made emissions. Studies of adaptedness to different climatic conditions are of great importance for the design of appropriate breeding and gene conservation programmes. This thesis presents studies of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies and explores the possibilities of utilising differences in adaptedness to obtain juvenile-mature (J-M) correlations strong enough for efficient early testing. Offspring from clones in two Swedish Pinus sylvestris seed orchards and one Picea abies seed orchard were grown in growth chambers for one and two growth periods respectively. Two temperature regimes and two irrigation regimes were applied in a factorial design. Both species expressed high phenotypic plasticity and additive variance for height growth and biomass traits. This implies that these populations should be able to adapt both to short-term and to long-term climate changes. Genotype by environment (GxE) interaction indicated strong differences in adaptedness to temperature and low differences in adaptedness to water availability. Parent rank changes between treatments indicated that climate change could seriously alter the ranking of clones in breeding populations and thus decrease the genetic gain obtained in previous selections. Differences in stability among parents suggested that culling of unstable genotypes could be a way to reduce the negative effects of GxE interaction. Genetic correlations between growth chamber and 14-30 year old field progeny trials with the same parents were mainly weak for both species. The correlations were improved by the drought treatment in the Picea abies experiment suggesting that further development of early testing methods for this species should include treatments with limiting water availability

  18. The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandell Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is

  19. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  20. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  1. 6-benzyladenine metabolism during reinvigoration of mature Pinus radiata buds in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaibi; Horgan, Kathryn J; Reynolds, Paul H S; Jameson, Paula E

    2010-04-01

    Maturation or phase change is a serious challenge in the deployment of superior trees of Pinus radiata D. Don because of the difficulties associated with propagation of cuttings from mature trees. We used an in vitro system to study 6-benzyladenine (BA)-induced reinvigoration of the fascicle meristems of mature buds during in vitro culture. Anatomical examinations revealed that BA inhibited the development of secondary needle primordia and 'rejuvenated' the fascicle meristems of the mature bud to produce primary needles, which are characteristic of the juvenile phase in P. radiata. Without BA supplement in the culture media, fascicle primordia continued developing secondary needles and quiescent fascicle meristems. BA metabolite analysis showed that the novel cytokinin pathway reported previously in P. radiata (H. Zhang, K.J. Horgan, P.H.S. Reynolds, G.E. Norris and P.E. Jameson. 2001. Novel cytokinins: The predominant forms in mature buds of Pinus radiata. Physiol. Plant. 112: 127-134) was mirrored in vitro, with BA converted into a variety of metabolites including 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine and its novel phosphorylated form, 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine. The culture of mature buds in the presence of BA caused a reduction in the level of endogenous cytokinins, suggesting a direct action of BA itself. Similar correlations are noted between levels of certain metabolites and the maturation status of buds from field-grown trees and buds in culture, indicating that this in vitro system may be a good model for studying the processes of maturation and reinvigoration. PMID:20144924

  2. The biogeographical role of Pinus forest on the Northern Spanish Meseta: a new Holocene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Antón, Mercedes; Franco-Múgica, Fátima; Morla-Juaristi, Carlos; Maldonado-Ruiz, Javier

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the variation in the vegetation during the Holocene on the Northern Meseta through pollen analysis in order to determine the roles played by Pinus and Quercus in the vegetation dynamics. A new pollen sequence, Camporredondo, in the centre of the Duero River basin, Northern Meseta, Spain, is presented. It covers the period from ca 11,250 to 1630 cal yr BP. The Camporredondo sequence suggests that a forested landscape existed from the start of the Holocene with values of approximately 90% of arboreal pollen mainly derived from pine forests in the surroundings. Shortly after 8600 cal yr BP pine forests continued to dominate but the landscape became more open while stands of deciduous and evergreen Quercus developed. Around 4500 years ago, coinciding with the start of a period of less rainfall, the lacustrine areas in these territories began to silt up, favouring hydrophytic taxa such as Salix or Cyperaceae. A comparison with other Holocene pollen sequences from the central-eastern part of the Northern Meseta confirms the presence of pine forests in the whole region since the early Holocene. We discuss the variations of the general vegetation pattern in terms of the local or regional conditions at each site. Throughout the Holocene, Pinus forests dominated at least in the eastern half of the Duero River basin. The typical Holocene substitution of conifers by broadleaf species as recorded in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Europe, never takes place in the study area. The results of the present study suggest that the current view of the potential vegetation in the Spanish Northern Meseta should be reviewed.

  3. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region. PMID:26748929

  4. Avaliação e seleção precoce para crescimento de Pinus taeda Early evaluation and selection for growth in Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de seleção quanto aos caracteres ligados ao crescimento do fuste e o potencial da seleção precoce de genitores. Em 48 progênies de meios-irmãos de Pinus taeda L., foi medido o diâmetro do fuste a 30 cm e a 1,30 m do solo, aos 16 e 84 meses de idade, além da altura total. As progênies foram cultivadas em espaçamento tradicional e reduzido. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros e valores genéticos aditivos foram obtidos a partir de um modelo de análise individual. A seleção indireta foi de eficiência similar à direta quanto ao diâmetro (93% e menor quanto à altura (78%. A seleção seqüencial foi 16% (altura e 28% (diâmetro mais eficiente que a seleção única. A eficiência da seleção combinada foi maior em relação a direta para diâmetro. Vinte genitores selecionados por valores genéticos aditivos quanto ao diâmetro, aos 16 e 84 meses, aumentaram a média em 7,6% e 8,1%, respectivamente. A alta magnitude da correlação genética no que diz respeito ao diâmetro entre idades revelou que esse caráter, avaliado aos 16 meses de idade, prediz o crescimento aos 84 meses. Isso reduz custos de avaliação de progênies, antecipa o desbaste de genitores e a oferta de sementes melhoradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of selection in growth traits and early selection. Individual total height and stem diameter at 30 cm above the ground in close-spaced early genetic evaluation at 16 months were assessed. In a 84 month sib cohort, as a comparison, height and diameter at breast height were evaluated. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for height and diameter were estimated for 48 open-pollinated families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. planted in Southern Brazil using an individual tree model. In this retrospective study, the indirect selection was of similar effectiveness as direct selection in stem

  5. Modelos de afilamento para o sortimento do fuste de Pinus taeda L Taper function for assortment of Pinus taeda L. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes modelos de afilamento do fuste de Pinus taeda para estimar variáveis de interesse ao longo do fuste. Foram avaliadas as funções propostas por Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan e o Polinômio de 5° grau. O estudo teve como base dados de cubagem rigorosa de 68 árvores, provenientes de plantios com idade de 25 anos, pertencentes à empresa Florestal Gateados Ltda, localizada no município de Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC, Brasil. A partir das estatísticas coeficiente de determinação ajustado (R²aj, erro padrão das estimativas (Syx, desvio médio, média das diferenças (md e desvio padrão das diferenças (dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio do 5° grau para estimar as variáveis ao longo do fuste, como a altura comercial, o volume comercial, os diâmetros e os volumes das 1ª e 2ª toras. Em relação à altura comercial, a equação proveniente do modelo escolhido apresentou resultados sem tendências e com erros oscilando em intervalo pequeno. Em se tratando do volume comercial, pode ser observada certa tendência em subestimativas para as árvores com menores DAP e uma leve tendência para aquelas árvores com maior DAP. Em relação ao diâmetro e ao volume da 1a tora, houve superestimativa dos valores, mas com erros baixos, principalmente para o diâmetro. Para as estimativas do diâmetro e do volume da 2ª tora, os resultados foram melhores do que os encontrados na 1a tora, com leve tendência em subestimar o diâmetro e, praticamente, sem tendência para o volume.This research had as objective to evaluate different taper models for Pinus taeda and select the best one to estimate variables of interest throughout the stem. The functions proposed by Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan and the 5° degree Polynomial were evaluated. With data from rigorous cubage of 68 trees, with 25 years old, coming from plantation of Florestal Gateados Ltda, located, in the

  6. Phenolic Compounds of Pinus brutia Ten.: Chemical Investigation and Quantitative Analysis Using an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization Source

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Kıvrak; Şeyda Kıvrak; Mansur Harmandar; Yunus Çetintaş

    2013-01-01

    In this study, phenolic content of Pinus brutia ’s bark was examined using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization source (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) working in multiple reaction monitoring mode. U ltrasonic extraction method with 50% ethanol solution was used for the extraction of bark. The bark of Pinus brutia consisted of 15 compounds: gallic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, catechin hydrate, vanillic acid, caff...

  7. Das jahresperiodische Verhalten der Fettsäuren in Rinden und Blättern von Pinus halepensis Mill. und Schinus molle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantoglou, Stergos; Kull, Ulrich

    1981-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the saponifiable lipids from barks and leaves of Pinus halepensis and of Schinus molle was investigated throughout the period of a year by gas liquid chromatography. Both species showed a great variety of different fatty acids of saponifiable lipids. In barks of Pinus, the contents of stearic, oleic and linoleic acids are higher during late winter and the growth period, whereas the percentage of behenic, lignocerinic, octadecatetraenoic, eicosatrienoic, and eicos...

  8. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  9. Ultrastructural study of ectomycorrhizas on Pinus caribaea Morelet. var. hondurensis Barr. & Golf. seedlings Estudo ultraestrutural de ectomicorrizas em plântulas de Pinus caribaea Morelet. var. hondurensis Barr. & Golf.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Gross; Lilian I. Thomazini Casagrande; Flávio Henrique Caetano

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructure of ectomycorrhizas formed between Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch and Telephora terrestris (Ehrenb.) Fr. was analyzed just before the transplant of these seedlings to the field to ascertain if fungi are established in the roots. Ectomycorrhizal fungi formed a well-developed compact mantle in lateral roots. Vacuoles, nuclei and dolipore septa were observed in mantle hyphae and numerous nuclei, endoplasmatic reticulu...

  10. Análise da madeira do Pinus oocarpa parte II: caracterização estrutural da lignina de madeira moída Chemical analysis of the Pinus oocarpa wood. Part II: characterization of the milled wood lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracterizou a Lignina de Madeira Moída (LMM proveniente de Pinus oocarpa cultivado na região do Cerrado brasileiro. A LMM foi isolada e analisada por meio das espectrometrias no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (IVTF, de ressonância magnética nuclear do próton e carbono-13 e por intermédio de métodos químicos de análise por via úmida. A LMM apresentou uma fórmula mínima igual a C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 e massas molares médias em massa (Mw e numérica (Mn de 3.969 e 1.133 Da, respectivamente. A LMM dessa madeira se enquadra dentro das ligninas típicas de coníferas.This work presents the characterization of the milled wood lignin (MWL of the Pinus oocarpa cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado. FTIR, carbon-13 and proton NMR spectroscopies as well as wet chemical methods were used. The established C9 unit formula for MWL was C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 and its relative molecular weights (Mw and (Mn were 3969 and 1133 Da, respectively. Pinus oocarpa MWL was typical of softwood lignins.

  11. Radiation and genetic monitoring of populations of Pinus sylvestris L. within the zone of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic and genetic effects in populations of Pinus sylvestris L. (in forests of the external zone of the Chernobyl NPP) suffered weak, average strong and sublethal radiation damage after the accident in 1986 were studied. Absorbed doses for trees in these plantings were from 0.1 up to 20 Gy. It was shown that the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds of a crop of 1993, are comparable with the effects marked at once after accident in 1986. In 1997 and in 1998 the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds in majority inspected plantings decreased to control values. Effect of adaptation was detected, when seeds of Pinus sylvestris L., gathered in 1997 from inspected trees, were exposed to additional 4 Gy γ-radiation

  12. FINE ROOT QUANTIFICATION IN A Pinus taeda L. STAND AND IN GRASSLAND AREA IN CAMBARÁ DO SUL (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Guilherme Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comparatively quantify length and biomass of fine roots (≤ 2.0 mm in the soil profile (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm  and in the litter of a 15-year-old Pinus taeda L. stand, as well as in an adjacent Grassland area. The samples were obtained through monolith excavation. Roots were separated through washing and collecting and were then distributed over a white sheet of paper, where images were obtained with a digital camera. Using the software Image Tool for Windows version 3.00© the images were processed to quantify root length. Subsequently, roots were dried in a stove and, weighed to determine the biomass. The vegetation in the Grassland area showed 234.28% greater density of fine roots than the adjacent area where the Pinus taeda L.stand is located.

  13. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed. PMID:26471643

  14. Individual-tree growth and mortality models for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in north-east Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palahí, Marc; Pukkala, Timo; Miina, Jari; Montero, Gregorio

    2003-01-01

    Modèles individuels de croissance et de mortalité pour le pin (Pinus sylvestris L.) dans le nord-est de l'Espagne. Un modèle non spatialisé de croissance en diamètre, un modèle statique de hauteur et des modèles de mortalité pour Pinus sylvestris L. en Espagne du Nord ont été développés, à partir de 24 placettes permanentes établies en 1964 par l'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias (INIA). Cet ensemble de modèles permet de simuler le développement du peuplement au niveau de l'arbre...

  15. Genetic composition and diploid hybrid speciation of a high mountain pine, Pinus densata, native to the Tibetan plateau.

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, X. R.; Szmidt, A E; Savolainen, O.

    2001-01-01

    Pinus densata has been suggested to have originated from hybridization events involving P. tabulaeformis and P. yunnanensis. In this study, allozyme differentiation at 12 loci was studied in 14 populations of P. tabulaeformis, P. densata, and P. yunnanensis from China. The observed genetic composition of P. densata supported the hybrid hypothesis and showed varying degrees of contribution from P. yunnanensis and P. tabulaeformis among its populations. These data, together with previous chloro...

  16. WEAK CROSSABILITY BARRIER BUT STRONG JUVENILE SELECTION SUPPORTS ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION OF THE HYBRID PINE PINUS DENSATA ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Meng, Jingxiang; Wang, Baosheng; Zhang, Lisha; Xu, Yulan; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Li, Yue; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Determining how a new hybrid lineage can achieve reproductive isolation is a key to understanding the process and mechanisms of homoploid hybrid speciation. Here, we evaluated the degree and nature of reproductive isolation between the ecologically successful hybrid species Pinus densata and its parental species P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. We performed interspecific crosses among the three species to assess their crossability. We then conducted reciprocal transplantation experiments t...

  17. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Blada; Ştefan Tănasie

    2013-01-01

    By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twenty Pinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh.) of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within...

  18. A Flexible Hybrid Model of Life Cycle Carbon Balance for Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Rafael De La Torre; Martin, Timothy A.; Eric J. Jokela

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of silvicultural treatments on carbon (C) budgets in Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) plantations in the southeastern United States. We developed a hybrid model that integrated a widely used growth and yield model for loblolly pine with published allometric and biometric equations to simulate in situ C pools. The model used current values of forest product conversion efficiencies and forest product decay rates to calculate ex situ C pools. Using the model t...

  19. Changes in Germination and Physiological Characteristics of Seeds of Robinia pesudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis during Artificial Ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to study seed quality changes of main afforestation species under high temperature and high relative humidity, the deterioration mechanism of seeds of Robinia pesudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis from arid and semiarid areas of Northern China was elucidated in this study. The seeds were artificially aged for 2 and 6 d at the temperature of 45 oC and the relative humidity (RH) of 50%, 75% and 100% , respectively. The results showed that the germinability decreased and the cell membrane deteriorated ...

  20. Effect of auxin (iaa) upon the proteolytic system in differentiating secondary xylem of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof J. Rakowski; Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2014-01-01

    Effects of decapitation and IAA on proteolytic activity were studied in main stem of 4-7 year-old Pinus sylvestris trees. Proteolytic activity in the extract from differentiating secondary xylem was found to be totally reduced in decapitated 2-3 year-old segments of the main stem after a few weeks. Simultaneous application of IAA in lanolin paste prevented this reduction. Proteolytic activity reduced totally after decapitation was restored within 2 days when auxin was applied. Analogous respo...

  1. PENGARUH JENIS DAN DOSIS PUPUK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN GAHARU (Gyrinops sp.) DI BAWAH TEGAKAN PINUS DI HUTAN PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Millang, Syamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Tanaman gaharu merupakan salah satu jenis hasil hutan bukan kayu yang memiliki prospek pasar yang menjanjikan. Untuk itu perlu dibudidayakan secara luas baik dalam kawasan hutan maupun di luar kawasan hutan dalam bentuk sistem agroforestry. Penelitian ini bertujan untuk menemukan jenis pupuk (pupuk kandang, NPK, dan mulsa gamal) dan dosis yang tepat untuk pertumbuhan tanaman gaharu (Gyrinops sp.) di bawah tegakan Pinus merkusii di hutan pendidikan Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini di...

  2. Impacts of climate change on the establishment, distribution, growth and mortality of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Boden S; Pyttel P; Eastaugh CS

    2010-01-01

    Anticipated future climate changes are expected to significantly influence forest ecosystems, particularly in treeline ecotones. Climate change will have both direct and indirect effects on the future distribution of alpine tree species, some of which will be positive and others negative. Although increased temperatures are on the whole likely to have a positive impact on growth and distribution of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), indirect effects that influence seed dispersal may threaten...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Seedlings in Disturbed Sites and Undisturbed Old Forest Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities between disturbed sites and undisturbed old forest sites. ECM root tips of Pinus densiflora were collected from 4 sites disturbed by human activities and 3 undisturbed old forest sites adjacent to the disturbed sites. Results in this study showed that the number of ECM root tips, species diversity, and number of species were significantly higher in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites, suggest...

  4. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on...

  5. Mycorriha-like structures during in vitro culture of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). A matter of stress?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zavattieri; Miralto, M.O.; Ragonezi, C.; Klimaszewska, K.; Dias, L. S.; Pereira, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dichotomous branching of short lateral roots and the formation of coralloid organs are diagnostic of ectomycorrhizas in many pine species, but the micorrhyzae-like structures found in non mycorrhizated plants of pinus plants show a striking similarity to those of ectomycorrhizas. This phenomenon has been observed previously in other pine species and might be indicative of the long co-evolution of these two kingdoms for millions of years. Therefore, it is possible that in the past mycorrhiza-l...

  6. Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea L. in Tunisia as influenced by canopy cover, litter biomass and understorey vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Adili, B.; El Aouni, M.H.; Garchi, S.; Balandier, P.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Pinus pinea is one of the most valuable species used in Tunisia in the reforestation program. This species is shade-intolerant and hence needs light to correctly regenerate. It is also influenced by the understorey vegetation and the litter biomass, both also correlated to light availability. To quantify the importance of these different factors, the natural regeneration and evolution of the biomass of understorey vegetation and litter were studied in artificial fore...

  7. Essential Oil of Pinus koraiensis Exerts Antiobesic and Hypolipidemic Activity via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Gamma Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Suk Ko; Hyo-Jeong Lee; Hyo-Jung Lee; Eun Jung Sohn; Miyong Yun; Min-Ho Lee; Sung-Hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, incl...

  8. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands

    OpenAIRE

    Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Küçük, Mehmet; Sağlam, Bülent; Bilgili, Ertuğrul; Altun, Lokman

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The standswere established byplanting and were subjected to prescribed burning in Jul...

  9. Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Sandhill Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lavoie; Mack, Michelle C; John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Analie Barnett; Louis Provencher

    2014-01-01

    Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known about the long-term impacts of typical restoration techniques on ecosystem properties. In 1994, the Longleaf Pine Restoration Project (LPRP) was established in fire-excluded longleaf pine sa...

  10. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Veronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; De Reffye, P.; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in...

  11. Effects of Water Stress on Germination in Six Provenances of Pinus brutia Seeds from Different Bioclimatic Zones in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Boydak, Melih; DİRİK, Hüseyin; TİLKİ, Fahrettin; ÇALIKOĞLU, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The effects of water potential on germination were studied in six provenances of Pinus brutia from different bioclimatic zones in Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) solutions. Seeds were kept for 28 d in light (12 h photoperiod at 1000 lux) and at 20 ± 0.5 oC. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage, germination speed and germination value. Significant variations between the provena...

  12. Combustion Properties of Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) Wood Treated with Vegetable Tanning Extracts and Boron Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYSAL, Ergun; YALINKILIC, M. Kemal; ÇOLAK, Mehmet; Göktaş, Osman

    2003-01-01

    Specimens prepared from Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood were treated with borate-supplemented aqueous solutions of Calabrian pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder and gall-nut powder. Then, fire test methods containing flame source, without flame source and glowing stages was performed according to the ASTM E 160-50 American Standard. The results showed that the lowest temperature (323 °C) for the flame source stage was recorded for specimens treated with mixtures of bor...

  13. SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

  14. O-coumaric acid ester, a potential early signaling molecule in Pinus pinea and Pisolithus arhizus symbiosis established in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonezi, Carla; Teixeira, Dora; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Martins, Maria do Rosário; Santos Silva, Celeste; Ganhão, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Maria Amely

    2013-01-01

    During ectomycorrhizal (ECM) establishment, biochemical signals lead to the development of complex structures in both the plant and the fungus that ultimately result in the formation of an ectomycorrhiza. The cross-talk between partners begins before physical contact. Our objective was to investigate the chemical nature of the signals during the first stages of in vitro mycorrhization of Pinus pinea with Pisolithus arhizus. For this purpose a double-phase solid–liquid medium was expressly dev...

  15. Der Effekt der Ektomykorrhiza auf die Aufnahme und Verteilung von Calcium in Sämlingen von Pinus sylvestris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Anna Mareike

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the influence of ectomycorrhiza on the uptake and distribution of calcium in pine seedlings (Pinus sylvestris). A focal point of interest was the apoplastic permeability of the fungal sheath of the fungi Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus. Using different methods (micro- and macroautoradiography, liquid scintillation spectrometry, atom absoption spectrometry, EDXS), the distribution of calcium within the mycorrhizae and the uptake into the ...

  16. Tree mortality, fire scar formation and regeneration 8 years after low-intensity fire in managed Pinus sylvestris stands

    OpenAIRE

    Piha, Aura

    2011-01-01

    Fire is an important driver of the boreal forest ecosystem, and a useful tool for the restoration of degraded forests. However, we lack knowledge on the ecological processes initiated by prescribed fires, and whether they bring about the desired restoration effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of low-intensity experimental prescribed fires on four ecological processes in young commercial Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands eight years after the burning. The proce...

  17. A review of Pinaceae resistance mechanisms against needle and shoot pathogens with a focus on the Dothistroma–Pinus interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, S; Martın-Garcıa, J.; Perry, A; M.S. KABIR; Owen, T; Solla, A.; Brown, A. V.; Bulman, L. S.; Barnes, I.; Hale, M. D.; Vasconcelos, M. W.; Lewis, K. J.; Dogmus-Lehtijarvi, H. T.; Markovskaja, S.; Woodward, S.

    2015-01-01

    Dothistroma needle blight (DNB), caused by Dothistroma septosporum and Dothistroma pini, is a highly damaging disease of pine. DNB was originally considered a problem on exotic Pinus radiata plantations in the Southern Hemisphere and on both exotic and native pines in parts of North America in the 1960s. Since the mid-1990s, however, DNB has increased in importance in various parts of the world, including Europe. On susceptible species, DNB causes premature needle drop, a loss of yie...

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Leaf Decomposition of Single-Species and Litter Mixture in Pinus tabulaeformis Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Jinsong Wang; Wensheng Bu; Bo Zhao; Xiuhai Zhao; Chunyu Zhang; Juan Fan; Gadow, Klaus V.

    2015-01-01

    The litter decomposition process is closely correlated with nutrient cycling and the maintenance of soil fertility in the forest ecosystem. In particular, the intense environmental concern about atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition requires a better understanding of its influence on the litter decomposition process. This study examines the responses of single-species litter and litter mixture decomposition processes to N addition in Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) ecosystems. Chinese ...

  19. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Torsten W.; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Black pine (Pinus nigra) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected foll...

  20. Effects of pre-commercial thinning on growth and reproduction in post-fire regeneration of Pinus halepensis Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano, Irene; Rodríguez García, Encarna; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Excessive recruitment in post-fire regeneration of Pinus halepensis can require pre-commercial thinning. The 1994 Moratalla fire (Spain) and the thinning applied there since 2004 provided good conditions for testing pre-commercial thinning effectiveness. Aims To analyse pre-commercial thinning effects on tree size, reproductive potential, stem biomass and annual growth in 15-year-old saplings. Methods Twenty nine circular plots (5 m radius) were established based on (1) years si...

  1. Endogenous cytokinin profiles and their relationships to between-family differences during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinea cotyledons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cuesta, C.; Novák, Ondřej; Ordas, R. J.; Fernandez, B.; Strnad, Miroslav; Doležal, Karel; Rodriguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 18 (2012), s. 1830-1830-1837. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Natural cytokinins * Adventitious shoot organogenesis * Pinus pinea Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  2. Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Plantation Response to Mechanical Site Preparation in the South Carolina and Georgia Piedmont

    OpenAIRE

    Cerchiaro, Michael Paul

    2003-01-01

    Site preparation is fundamental for establishing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations, but long-term sustainability of plantations established using mechanical treatments is in question because of concerns regarding soil tillage and the removal of harvest residue and soil organic matter. A study was installed in 1981 on 12 locations in northeastern Georgia and west-central South Carolina to evaluate pine plantation response to mechanical site preparation. Site preparation treatments i...

  3. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsoni, T. K.

    2009-01-01

    Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-...

  4. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drough...

  5. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Wang; Véronique Letort; Qi Lu; Xuefeng Bai; Yan Guo; Philippe de Reffye; Baoguo Li

    2012-01-01

    International audience Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within...

  6. The effect of cambial zone isolation upon the autolytic system in maturing tracheids of pine (Pinus silvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Zakrzewski; Krzysztof Rakowski

    2014-01-01

    The autolytic protease system in maturing tracheids of the main stem of Pinus silvestris was investigated after separation (using surgical methods) of the cambial zone from the layer of differentiating xylem, in combination with decapitation and IAA application. Separation of the cambium prevented autolysis of the protoplast in maturing tracheids, although the specific activity of proteases was little reduced. It was found that a radial or longitudinal concentration gradient of exogenously ap...

  7. Effects of carbon source, carbon concentration and culture conditions on in vitro rooting of Pinus pinea L. microshoots

    OpenAIRE

    Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Lima, Mónica; Sobral, Virginia; Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme de; Costa, Alexandra Rosa da

    2009-01-01

    In stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), clonal propagation via adventitious shoot formation from cotyledons has been reported before but rooting of these shoots is poor. The number of rooted shoots had low frequency limiting the used of micropropagation protocols as a choice for mass propagation of superior genotypes. Therefore the main objective of the present work was to increase the number and quality of roots per shoot in order to ensure the survival and growth of a great number of plants in the ...

  8. Can we expect to protect threatened species in protected areas? A case study of the genus Pinus in Mexico Podemos proteger especies en riesgo en áreas protegidas? Un estudio de caso del genero Pinus en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aguirre Gutiérrez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 56 Pinus species in Mexico was modelled with MAXENT. The pine species were classified as threatened according to IUCN criteria. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not threatened pine species were adequately represented in protected areas. Almost 70% of the species had less than 10% of their modelled distribution area protected. None of the pine species reached their representation targets. Threatened pine species were less widely distributed, occurred at lower maximum elevations, and were less well represented in protected areas than other pine species. The results suggest that the present system of protected areas in Mexico fails to protect pine species adequately. Conservation targets should be especially directed to species with narrow distributions which occur at low altitudes, such as Pinus. attenuata, P. cembroides subsP. cembroides var. lagunae, P. radiata var. binata, P. rzedowskii, and P. muricata.La distribución de 56 especies del género Pinus en México fue modelada por medio de MAXENT. Nuestro objetivo principal fue investigar si las especies de pino clasificadas por IUCN como amenazadas tienen una representación adecuada en las áreas protegidas de México. Se encontró que casi el 70% de las especies tienen menos del 10% de su distribución modelada protegida. Ninguna de las especies alcanzó el nivel de representación propuesto como adecuado. Se observó que las especies de pino clasificadas como amenazadas tienen un distribución más estrecha, ocurren a menores elevaciones máximas y se encuentran menos representadas en las áreas protegidas en comparación con las otras especies de pino modeladas. Los resultados sugieren que la red actual de áreas protegidas en México no protege adecuadamente el genero Pinus. Proponemos que los esfuerzos de conservación deben estar dirigidos especialmente a especies con distribución reducida y que se encuentran principalmente distribuidas a bajas altitudes, como por

  9. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  10. Compression wood in Pinus radiata II: Density and chemical composition Madera de compresión en Pinus radiata II: Densidad y compuestos químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E Díaz-vaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten 22 year old radiata pine trees growing in two stands in Chile, one in clay and the other in humid sand soils showing some lean, were assessed for chemical composition and wood density of compression wood. Significant differences in type of wood in density (33 kg/m³, lignin (1.944 %, alpha-cellulose (-2.634 %, ethanol toluene extractives (0.567 % and pentose (0.742 % were found between matched sample of compression and opposite woods. Differences in juvenile and mature wood were significant for both density (-4 kg/m³ and pentose (1.628 %, and site differences were found for wood density (28 kg/m³, extractives (0.978 % and apparent for alpha cellulose (1.223%. In comparison with other studies, our results suggested that the compression wood formed from trees with light visible lean corresponded to a mild compression class.Se analizó la madera de compresión en diez árboles de 22 años de edad de Pinus radiata D Don creciendo en dos sitios en Chile, uno en suelo de arena húmeda y el otro en suelo arcilloso. Singularidades de la madera de compresión y madera opuesta se compararon en estos árboles con inclinaciones menores a 10º y excentricidades reducidas. Diferencias significativas se registraron entre madera de compresión y opuesta en los valores registrados para la densidad básica de 33 (kg/m³, en proporción de lignina de 1.944 (%, en alfa-celulosa de -2.634 (%, en pentosanos de 0.742 (% y en extraíbles en etanol-tolueno de 0.978 (% y aparentemente diferente en el caso de alfa celulosa en 1.223 (%. Las diferencias entre madera juvenil y madera madura fueron significativas en los casos de la densidad de -4 (kg/m³ y en pentosanos en 1.628 (%, y diferencias entre los dos sitios para los casos de la densidad con 28 (kg/m³, en extractivos con 0.978 (% y diferencias moderadas en alfa celulosa con 1.223 (%. Las diferencias y coincidencias de estos resultados con los de otros autores se han considerado para estimar que la madera de

  11. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of miRNAs from Pinus densata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Li-Chuan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play key roles in diverse developmental processes, nutrient homeostasis and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The biogenesis and regulatory functions of miRNAs have been intensively studied in model angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. However, global identification of Pinus densata miRNAs has not been reported in previous research. Results Here, we report the identification of 34 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 miRNA families from a P. densata mRNA transcriptome database using local BLAST and MIREAP programs. The primary and/or precursor sequences of 29 miRNAs were further confirmed by RT-PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing. The average value of the minimal folding free energy indexes of the 34 miRNA precursors was 0.92. Nineteen (58% mature miRNAs began with a 5' terminal uridine residue. Analysis of miRNA precursors showed that 19 mature miRNAs were novel members of 14 conserved miRNA families, of which 17 miRNAs were further validated by subcloning and sequencing. Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the expression levels of 7 miRNAs were more than 2-fold higher in needles than in stems. In addition, 72 P. densata mRNAs were predicted to be targets of 25 miRNA families. Four target genes, including a nodal modulator 1-like protein gene, two GRAS family transcription factor protein genes and one histone deacetylase gene, were experimentally verified to be the targets of 3 P. densata miRNAs, pde-miR162a, pde-miR171a and pde-miR482a, respectively. Conclusions This study led to the discovery of 34 conserved miRNAs comprising 25 miRNA families from Pinus densata. These results lay a solid foundation for further studying the regulative roles of miRNAs in the development, growth and responses to environmental stresses in P. densata.

  12. On the role of bulk properties and fuel species on the burning dynamics of pine forest litters

    OpenAIRE

    SIMEONI, A.; Bartoli, P.; Torero, J L; Santoni, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to characterize pine needles as a fuel for a better understanding of the burning dynamics of forest floor fuels in wildland fires. Three Mediterranean species of pine have been studied: Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus laricio. These species have been chosen because they present close but slightly different physical and chemical properties. The study focuses on the influence of the bulk and particle properties on the burning dynamics of pine needles litters. The perme...

  13. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  14. Mir v Indonezii : Bravo, Ahtisaari! / Gennadi Muravin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muravin, Gennadi

    2005-01-01

    Soome presidendi Martti Ahtisaari eesistumisel toimunud läbirääkimistel suutsid Indoneesia valitsus ja Acehi provintsi mässulised jõuda kokkuleppele sõjategevuse, mis Sumatra saarel on kestnud ligi 30 aastat, lõpetamiseks

  15. Analysis of fungal diversity impacts on pinus roxburghii seeds from pine forest and plant nurseries of azad kashmir, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinus tree plays a pivotal role in commercial revenue generation, domestic lives of rural communities and sustaining of climate of Azad Kashmir. Pinus grows in forest as wild species but due to harsh environmental parameters it is also cultivated in nurseries for propagation and plantation. In this research, injurious impacts of mycofloral diversity on seed germination of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. in nature (forest) and nurseries were explored from different localities of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. In the analysis two protocols viz., blotter method (BM) and agar plate method (APM) were employed and 11 fungal species of nine genera were isolated. APM was found better (66a ± +-0.32) than BM (60a ± 0.09). The prevalence of different isolated taxa was as: Aspergillus niger (42.75%), Aspergillus flavus (24.0%), Botrytis sp (14.25%), Botryosphaeria sp. (17.75%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (32.75%), Drechslera sp. (5.75%), Fusarium sp. (47.50%), Penecillium sp. (7.25%), Rhizopus stolonifer (11.50%), Rhizopus oryzae (13.0%) and Mucor sp.(7.0%). Pathogenicity analysis depicted that Fusarium was the most harmful (15.75e ± 0.54), followed by Aspergillus flavus (20.50d ± 0.32), Aspergillus niger (25.75c ± 0.42) and Rhizopus sp. (35.75b ± 0.12). Different pathogenicity results of analyzed fungal species were found in different areas and it was highest in Muzaffarabad (52.0%), Kotli (45.6%), Samahni (42.4 %) and least in Bhimber (36.0 %). Radical length (mm) of Pinus roxburghii was severely affected by Aspergillus flavus (46.6a ± 0.44) in Muzaffarabad, Rhizopus sp. (44.1a ± 0.72) in Samahni, Fusarium sp.( 42.5a ± 0.28) in Kotali, Aspergillus niger (37.8a ± 0.44) in Samahni, respectively. The tested species showed that plumule length (mm) of samples was most retarded in Muzaffarbad (37.98%) and least affected in Mirpur (24.58%). The results depict that fungi do cause damage to seed germination and growth of seedlings in nature and nurseries and these findings will be useful

  16. EFEITO DA POROSIDADE DO SUBSTRATO CASCA DE PINUS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PITANGUEIRA E UVAIEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suguino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although they are natives of São Paulo state, these fruits are discarded and cut down in their natural habitat, even in the legal reserve, which is causing their disappearance. Aiming to evaluate the pine bark substrate porosity in the development of Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. and uvaia plant (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess, two experiments were conducted in greenhouses. The treatments were: 100% ground pine bark without separation of particles; 100% pine bark of ≤ 0,1mm; 75% pine bark of ≤ 0,1mm + 25% between 0,1-4,0 mm; 50% of pine bark ≤ 0,1mm + 50% between 0,1-4,0 mm; 25% pine bark of ≤ 0,1mm + 75% between 0,1-4,0 mm and 100% pine bark of 0,1-4,0 mm. The evaluations (stem diameter, length and average dry weight of seedlings occurred at 90, 120 and 150 days after sowing. The results indicated that substrates with Total Porous Space (EPT exceeding 90.0%, with over 75% of particles smaller than 0,1mm are not suitable for the production of Surinam cherry seedlings; and for uvaia plant it should be use substrates with EPT value less than 85%, since the small particles (≤ 0.1mm should not exceed 25% of the total volume.Apesar de nativas do estado de São Paulo, estas frutíferas, são desprezadas e cortadas de seu habitat natural, mesmo na reserva legal, o que está provocando seu desaparecimento. Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da porosidade em substratos de casca de pinus na produção de mudas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. e uvaieira (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos foram assim definidos: 100% casca de pinus moído sem separação de partículas; 100% casca de pinus ≤ 0,1 mm; 75% casca de pinus ≤ 0,1 mm + 25% entre 0,1 - 4,0 mm; 50% casca de pinus ≤ 0,1 mm + 50% entre 0,1 - 4,0 mm; 25% casca de pinus ≤ 0,1 mm + 75% entre 0,1 - 4,0 mm e 100% casca de pinus 0,1-0,4 mm. As avaliações (diâmetro do caule, comprimento total e média de massa seca das

  17. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  18. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of Cr(VI) by Pinus sylvestris Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of chromium(VI) ions onto cone biomass were studied in a batch system with respect to temperature and initial metal ion concentration. The biosorption efficiency of chromium ions to the cone biomass decreased as the initial concentration of metal ions was increased. But cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linn. exhibited the highest Cr(VI) uptake capacity at 45 oC. The biosorption efficiency increased from 67% to 84% with an increase in temperature from 25 to 45 deg. C at an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 300 mg/L. The Langmuir isotherm model was applied to experimental equilibrium data of Cr(VI) biosorption depending on temperature. According to Langmuir isotherm, the monolayer saturation capacity (Qmax) is 238.10 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to test the experimental data for initial Cr(VI). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation of the used experimental data compared to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was determined as 41.74 kJ/mol using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) were also evaluated

  19. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  20. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  1. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigsPd), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress. - Ozone and drought stress induce the activation of similar processes related to C and N metabolism

  2. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  3. Cost optimization of the system of use of wood in natural forests de Pinus caribaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Cándano Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in natural forests of Pinus caribaea in areas of the forest company “La Palma” in the province of Pinar del Río in Cuba. The objective of the investigation was to minimize the cost of harvesting by combining the costs of haulage and road and load patio densities. In addition, the study also takes into consideration the interaction of costs of transportation and the thickness and quality of the layer of gravel on the road. The results of the investigation have shown a significant increase in the spacing between roads and load patios with the decrease of US$0.45/m³. It was possible to improve the quality of the layer of gravel on the road without changing the construction costs significantly, which led to a cost reduction of US$1.01/m³. The overall cost considering the new system decreases in US$1.46/m³. Another significant contribution is made by decreasing the impact to the ecosystem once the reduction on road density may reach around 44% in comparison to the current density.

  4. Equilibrium and kinetics of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and metal concentration on sorption efficiency. The favorable pH for maximum cadmium adsorption was at 9.0. For the investigated cadmium concentrations (1-50 mg/L), maximum adsorption rates were achieved almost in the 10-20 min of contact. An adsorbent dose of 10 g/L was optimum for almost complete cadmium removal within 30 min from a 5 mg/L cadmium solution. For all contact times, an increase in cadmium concentration resulted in decrease in the percent cadmium removal (100-87%), and an increase in adsorption capacity (0.11-5.36 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.960). The kinetics of cadmium adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.999).

  5. Distinct niche divergence characterizes the homoploid hybrid speciation of Pinus densata on the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2011-04-01

    Ecological divergence and selection for novel adaptations to new habitats have been theoretically proposed to play important roles in promoting homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS). The successful establishment of Pinus densata on the Tibetan Plateau is one of the few known examples of HHS. In this study, we carried out extensive field expeditions to obtain representative coverage of occurrence sites of P. densata and its two putative parents. We then applied a series of geographic information system-based analyses to define the patterns of environmental variation within and among the three pine species, to remove potentially confounding effects of spatial autocorrelation in the environmental data due to allopatric ranges, and to build species distribution models. All results consistently indicated that the ecological preferences of P. densata and its parental species have diverged, and they identified candidate ecological factors associated with habitat-specific adaptation. Projections from niche modeling indicated that P. densata could extend across a vast range along the parallel valley systems of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our findings provide evidence of a distinct niche shift in P. densata and support the hypothesis that local adaptation and geographic isolation help maintain and reinforce between-species differences and reproductive isolation in the species complex. PMID:21460565

  6. Endophytic fungi isolated from Pinus halepensis needles in M'sila (Algeria) region and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjal, S; Harzallah, D; Dahamna, S; Bouamra, D; Bouharati, S; Khennouf, S

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes grow asymptomatically within the tissues of all vascular plants and some are known to provide their host plants with tolerance to different types of environmental stress. Endophytic fungi were detected, isolated and collected from healthy needles of Alep pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) from the canton of El-Haourane in M'sila, Algeria. For the author's knowledge, these fungi are reported from this conifer for the first time in this region. A survey has been conducted using randomly sampled needles of symptomless trees for two categories of needles (old and young). From 600 surface-sterilized needles collected from 15 trees (300 needles for each age), 29 fungal isolates were obtained and identified on the basis of the morphological characterization using microscopic observations. The fungal isolates were grouped in Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes. Species of Moniliales were the most common fungi assaciated with P. halepensis. It appears from the results also that the colonization frequency (CF%) was dependant on the age of the needles; older needles were more densely colonized than the younger needles with a 68.5%. The results of this study indicate that P. halepensis serves as a host to numerous endophytic fungi. These fungi could have significance as a source of novel metabolites. And therefore the mycoendophytes genera of Penicillium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Trichosporon, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Trichoderma. Expressed an antagonistic and antibiotic effect against pathogenic microorganisms to humans and plants. PMID:25151842

  7. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  9. MECANIC PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF PLYWOOD PANELS OF Eucalyptus dunnii AND Eucalyptus dunnii/Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Jaeger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of eucalyptus has been spreading out in Brazil and in several wood processing sectors. Apprehension relatedto lack of raw material in the south of Brazil makes eucalyptus an alternative for the substitution or use together with pine for makingplywood panels. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two types of plywood panels: one that isproduced with alternate plates of Eucalyptus dunnii and Pinus taeda (T1 and the other entirely with E. dunnii (T2. The results showedthat the elasticity module (MOE in T1 was inferior to T2, but with variance presenting higher value, indicating smaller stability of thetested material. This behavior was noticed in cutting directions, perpendicular and parallel. The module of rupture (MOR showedsimilar values in both directions of cutting, but T1 showed higher variances only in the transversal direction. The resistance to cuttingin the glue line in the treatment with cool water was similar in both treatments, with T2 presenting higher variance. On the same test16% of the pieces of T1 came off during pre-treatment. When put to boil, T2 obtained better results, even though it presented a higherpercentage of pieces coming off during pre-treatment.

  10. Spatial distribution pattern, scale and gap characteristics of Pinus armandii population in Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Guoyu; CHEN Wei; LEI Ruide

    2007-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 27 plots of the Pinus armandii community in Qinling Mountains,we studied the spatial distribution pattern,scale,and gap characteristics of the P.armandii population.The results showed that the population had a clumped distribution before age 50.At the age range from 15 to 25,though the population tended to be distributed randomly,the distribution was still clumped.The population distribution at the age range from 40 to 50 was at the transitional stage from clumped to random.After age 50,the population started to be senesced,the distribution pattern turning from clumped to random.The distribution pattern scale of P.armandii always changes with the development stage of the population,being 100 m2 in general.The gap size of P armandii population was similar to its distribution pattem scale,and the gaps of 80-130 m2 occupied 59% of the total.Because of the better light and nutrient condition in the gap,P.armandii seedlings grew well,which helped the population keep its stability through "mobile mosaic circling".

  11. Does simultaneous variable selection and dimension reduction improve the classification of Pinus forest species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerbhay, Kabir Yunus; Mutanga, Onisimo; Ismail, Riyad

    2014-01-01

    Tree species information is important for forest inventory management and supports decisions related to the composition and distribution of forest resources. However, traditional methods of obtaining such information involve time consuming and cost intensive ground-based methods. Hyperspectral data offer an alternative source for obtaining information related to forest inventory. Utilizing Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications Eagle hyperspectral data (393 to 994 nm), this study compares the utility of two partial least squares (PLS)-based methods for the classification of three commercial Pinus tree species. Results indicate that the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (SPLS-DA) method performed variable selection and dimension reduction successfully to produce an overall accuracy of 80.21%. In comparison, the PLS-DA method and variable importance in the projection (VIP) selected bands produced an overall accuracy of 71.88%. The most effective bands selected by PLS-DA and VIP coincided within the visible region of the spectrum (393 to 700 nm). However, SPLS-DA selected fewer wavebands within the blue (415 to 483 nm), green (515 to 565 nm), and red regions (674 to 694 nm) to confirm the importance of the visible in discriminating tree species. Overall, this study shows the potential of SPLS-DA to perform simultaneous variable selection and dimension reduction of hyperspectral remotely sensed data resulting in improved classification accuracies.

  12. Growth of Pinus radiada in soil containing solid waste from the kraft pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M.; Vicuna, R.; Gonzalez, B.; Bronfman, M. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Santiago (Chile); Osses, M. [Celulosa Arauco y Constitucion, Arauco (Chile); Toro, J.; Balocchi, C.; Rodriguez, E. [Bioforest, S.A, Concepcion (Chile)

    2000-06-01

    The germination and growth of Pinus radials Don. plantlets in solid residues deriving from a Kraft pulp industry was evaluated. Plant conditions were monitored by histological studies of roots and shoot-tips, as well as by plant analyses of several essential and non essential elements. The solids employed consisted of ashes, fly-ashes, dregs, grits, primary sludge, brown stock screening rejects and various mixtures of them. Their addition, in a range of combinations to sandy/metamorphic or marine terrace/clay soils, resulted in effective and sustained growth under greenhouse conditions. Low proportions of wastes favored growth in most cases, indicating that they may act as fertilisers. In some experiments, especially in those where waste was added in proportions ranging from 50% to 60%, germination and/or development were slightly affected. Two-year old field experiments have confirmed that in spite of the high pH values, Na ion content or elevated water retention capacity exhibited by some of the solids tested, their use is beneficial for the growth of radiate pine. To date, we have not observed negative effects other than growth inhibition when some solids are present at concentrations above 60%. Our preliminary results suggest that an adequate use as fertiliser of solid waste from the Kraft pulp industry may constitute a profitable alternative in its management. (orig.)

  13. Modeling compatible single-tree aboveground biomass equations for masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei-sheng; TANG Shou-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Because of global climate change,it is necessary to add forest biomass estimation to national forest resource monitoring.The biomass equations developed for forest biomass estimation should be compatible with volume equations.Based on the tree volume and aboveground biomass data of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in southern China,we constructed one-,two-and three-variable aboveground biomass equations and biomass conversion functions compatible with tree volume equations by using error-in-variable simultaneous equations.The prediction precision of aboveground biomass estimates from one variable equation exceeded 95%.The regressions of aboveground biomass equations were improved slightly when tree height and crown width were used together with diameter on breast height,although the contributions to regressions were statistically insignificant.For the biomass conversion function on one variable,the conversion factor decreased with increasing diameter,but for the conversion function on two variables,the conversion factor increased with increasing diameter but decreased with increasing tree height.

  14. Introduction of Pinus radiata for afforestation: a review with reference to Aba, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIHui-quan; JackSimpson; LIRong-wei; YANHong; WUZong-xing; CAIShi-min; RobertEldridge

    2003-01-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don, native to a Californian coastal environment, has been introduced to many parts of the world as an exotic species for afforestation. It is now a major plantation species in the Southern Hemisphere. In 1990, it was introduced to the heavily degraded, dry Min river valley area in Aba prefecture of Sichuan Province, P. R. China. Survival and growth of young trees planted at several sites appear to be reasonable. This review is to serve as an introduction to the large body of literature on P.radiata for forest scientists in China. It covers the following aspects: P. radiata in its native environment and in ex situ plantations,provenance and genetic variations, environmental limitations and climate niche, diseases and pests, lessons from unsuccessful introductions, and the use of P. radiata for ecological restoration. The early growth of P. radiata planted in the dry river valley area is briefly described. Potential problems associated with the introduction of P. radiata in Aba and future research needs are also identified.

  15. Energy Balance and CO2 Exchange Behaviour in Sub-Tropical Young Pine (Pinus roxburghii) Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, B. K.; Singh, N.; Soni, P.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50-200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80) though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72) with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X - 5.382, R2 = 0.63) The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  16. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%, β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%, and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%. HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and PCA (Principal Component Analyses were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  17. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  18. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  19. Genome hypermethylation in Pinus silvestris of Chernobyl - a mechanism for radiation adaptation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptation is a complex process by which populations of organisms respond to long-term environmental stresses by permanent genetic change. Here we present data from the natural 'open-field' radiation adaptation experiment after the Chernobyl accident and provide the first evidence of the involvement of epigenetic changes in adaptation of a eukaryote-Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), to chronic radiation exposure. We have evaluated global genome methylation of control and radiation-exposed pine trees using a method based on cleavage by a methylation-sensitive HpaII restriction endonuclease that leaves a 5' guanine overhang and subsequent single nucleotide extension with labeled [3H] dCTP. We have found that genomic DNA of exposed pine trees was considerably hypermethylated. Moreover, hypermethylation appeared to be dependent upon the radiation dose absorbed by the trees. Such hypermethylation may be viewed as a defense strategy of plants that prevents genome instability and reshuffling of the hereditary material, allowing survival in an extreme environment. Further studies are clearly needed to analyze in detail the involvement of DNA methylation and other epigenetic mechanisms in the complex process of radiation stress and adaptive response

  20. Accelerated artificial aging of particleboards from residues of CCB treated Pinus sp. and castor oil resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília da Silva Bertolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tests simulating exposure to severe weather conditions have been relevant in seeking new applications for particleboard. This study aimed to produce particleboards with residues of CCB (chromium-copper-boron oxides impregnated Pinus sp. and castor oil-based polyurethane resin, and to evaluate their performance before and after artificial accelerated aging. Panels were produced with different particle mass, resin content and pressing time, resulting eight treatments. Particles moisture and size distribution were determined, beyond panel physical and mechanical properties, according to NBR14810-3: 2006. After characterization, treatments B and G (small adhesive consumption and better mechanical performance, respectively were chosen to artificial aging tests. Statistical results analysis showed best performances were achieved for waterproof aged samples, of both B and G treatments. As example, in treatment B, MOR and MOE values were 23 MPa and 2,297 MPa, samples before exposure; 26 MPa and 3,185 MPa, 32 MPa and 3,982 MPa for samples after exposure (non-sealed and sealed, respectively.

  1. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions. PMID:23242587

  2. Heavy metal binding properties of Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas from industrial wastes

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    Katarzyna Turnau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizas of Pinus sylvestris, collected from zinc wastes in Poland and France were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. At both sites, mycorrhizas of Hebeloma were the most frequent, however, they were often characterised by a sparse or only locally developed fungal mantle. Mycorrhizas formed by suilloid fungi were much less frequent, and usually produced a clearly defined fungal mantle characterised by abundant formation of pigments and crystals covering the hyphae of the outer mantle. These two groups of mycorrhizas differed in their heavy metal binding properties. A biofiltering effect of Pb and Zn by the fungal mantle was observed only in the case of suilloid mycorrhizas, which represented up to 10% of the total number of mycorrhizas. No statistical differences between the mantle, the cortical cell walls and the vascular tissue were demonstrated in mycorrhizas formed by other fungi dominating on industrial wastes. In the case of Hebeloma and Inocybe, however, elements such as Cu and Cd were present in higher amounts in the extra-matrical mycelium, whereas no or only low amounts of these elements were detected within fungal mantles, mainly in mycorrhizas from the French waste. Analysis of the root systems has shown relatively high percentage of nonmycorrhizal short roots, suggesting the inhibition of mycorrhiza formation or a decreased number of mycorrhizal propagules. The role of dead roots and mycorrhizas in biosorption and immobilization of heavy metals was discussed.

  3. [Effects of artificial tending on Pinus tabulaeformis forest growth and its structural characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Yang, Yie; Song, Bingyu; Huang, Heping; Yang, Mingbo; Zheng, Min

    2005-03-01

    The investigation on the growth status, community composition, and structural characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis forest artificially tended for six years showed that there were significant differences in the average DBH, height, and crown size of the forest among the treatments DA (trimming without intermediate cutting), FA (trimming and intermediate cutting) and CK (without trending). Treatment FA had the highest values of average DBH (7.8 +/- 0.29 cm), height (5.5 +/- 0.09 m) and crown size (249 +/- 7.24 cm), while the CK had the lowest ones. The average biomass of new leaf (1-year-old), old leaf (2 or more-year-old), and branch per tree increased significantly (P<0.01) with enhancing tending treatments. The aboveground biomass of treatment FA was the biggest (44.0 t x hm(-2)), and that of CK was the smallest (14.9 t x hm(-2)). The leaf length and SLA at the early and terminal stages of development (May, June and September) had significant difference among the treatments, and the amount of community composition and the cover degree of undergrowth plants increased evidently under artificial tending treatments. PMID:15943345

  4. Growth of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. European provenances in central Chile

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    Loewe_Muñoz V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus pinea is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, tolerance to harsh soils and climates, but low differentiation in growth parameters and low genetic variability. Growth and cone production of six European stone pine provenances (two from Italy, three from Spain and one from Slovenia were analyzed in a field trial experiment established in central Chile. The study evaluated height, diameter at breast height (DBH and crown diameter growth of 147 nineteen-year-old trees per provenance, as well as fruiting variables (i.e., number of cones per tree and cone weight. Survival over the first 7 years was also evaluated. Provenances significantly differed in cone number per tree, cone weight, height and DBH growth, and crown diameter growth. Provenances were grouped according to growth and production variables: one group included the Italian and Slovenian provenances, the second group Andalucía and Sierra Morena (Spain, and the third included Meseta Castellana (Spain. Individual cone production was positively correlated with cone weight and other growth variables. Meseta Castellana provenance showed the highest growth and productivity. Our results provide useful information for the selection of P. pinea provenances to be used in new plantations in central Chile.

  5. Effect of pine mistletoe on radial growth of Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Yilmaz; Carus, Serdar

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the influence of infection by pine mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Volmann) on the radial growth of crimean pine (Pinus nigra Amold) in Turkey was investigated. We built local residual tree-ring-width chronologies using dendrochronogical techniques. Tree ring chronologies of uninfected (control) crimean pine were used to estimate potential radial growth characteristics in the "infected" crimean pine (light, moderate and severe infection groups). In 2005, increment cores were collected from 26 infected and 19 control dominant or co-dominant trees and annual radial growth indices from 1930-2005 were calculated for each infection group in a 14 point sampling. We compared radial growth in the uninfected trees with mean regional chronology. We found a strong decrease in radial growth in during the 1998-2005 period. The periodic average radial growth reduction (in %) from 1998 to 2005, respectively, were 0 for control, 26 for light, 39 for moderate and 63 for severe infection groups. It can be especially concluded that a severe degree of pine mistletoe attack has a negative effect on radial growth of the infected crimean pine trees. PMID:22167935

  6. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO2 responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO2 responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO2 responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO2 exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO2 scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  7. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  8. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forests in the Višegrad area

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    Blagojević Velibor D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complexity of the geological structure and relief dynamics are dominant environmental factors that condition the expressed variability of soils in the study area. Forest communities of Austrian pine are formed on the peridotites and serpentinites, eutric ranker (haplic leptosol, eutric cambisol (haplic cambisols and pseudogley (haplic planosol, dense granular and marl limestones calcomelanosol (mollic leptosol, rendzina (rendzic leptosol and calcocambisol (leptic cambisol. The productivity of these soils is highly correlated with depth and texture composition, and the impact of these factors is linked with soil type, climate and other site conditions. In the research area, soil types with low production potential such as rankers, rendzinas, limestone and dolomite calcomelanosol are dominant. Deeper variants of eutric cambisol, pseudogley and calcocambisol can be classified as soils with moderate to high production potential.

  9. Migration and Attacking Ability of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Joung A; Jung, Chan Sik; Han, Hye Rim

    2016-01-01

    To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P. thunbergii was the same as that of B. xylophilus. We therefore concluded that the non-pathogenicity of B. mucronatus could not be attributed to its migration ability. The sparse and sporadic attacking pattern of B. mucronatus was also the same as that of B. xylophilus. However, the number and area of the dead epithelial cells in pine cuttings inoculated with B. mucronatus were smaller than in those cuttings inoculated with B. xylophilus, meaning that the attacking ability of B. mucronatus is weaker than that of B. xylophilus. Therefore, we concluded that the weaker attacking ability of B. mucronatus might be the factor responsible for the non-pathogenicity. PMID:27493609

  10. Controlled-release fertilizers combined with Pseudomonas fluorescens rhizobacteria inoculum improve growth in Pinus halepensis seedlings

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    Dominguez-Nuñez JA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis seedlings are currently used to regenerate arid Mediterranean regions. Optimized methods for seedling fertilization in nurseries improve plant growth and are essential for successful reforestation. Previously, we showed that inoculation of P. halepensis seedlings with Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 rhizobacteria improved plant growth and N uptake. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and morphological response of P. halepensis seedlings to a combined treatment including controlled-release fertilization and inoculation with the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens. P. halepensis seedlings were grown in a nursery under well-watered conditions and were fertilized (F, inoculated with P. fluorescens (Ps or fertilized and inoculated (F x Ps. Growth and water parameters (osmotic potential at both full and zero turgor and modulus of elasticity were measured in seedlings under each treatment. The total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe contents and concentrations in seedling roots and shoots were also measured. Finally, root growth potential was estimated. F x Ps increased both seedling growth and nutrient uptake compared with the independent treatments. Interestingly, amendment with rhizobacteria had a slight negative effect on osmotic potential and P uptake, which was lessened by combining Ps with F. The present work shows that F x Ps is highly efficient for improving the quality of forest seedlings in nurseries. As such, F x Ps represents a potential alternative treatment that could reduce contaminant emissions and increase microbiota soil regeneration in degraded soils.

  11. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo; Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Ovie Princewill Okoro; Shola Hezekiah Awojide; Ilias Olufemi Awoniyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method:The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results:The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85%larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L;LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.

  12. The role of endophytic fungal individuals and communities in the decomposition of Pinus massoniana needle litter.

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    Zhilin Yuan

    Full Text Available The role of fungal endophytes (FEs as "pioneer" decomposers has recently been recognized; however, the extent to which FEs contribute to litter loss is less well understood. The genetic and enzymatic bases of FE-mediated decomposition have also rarely been addressed. The effects of populations and individuals (with an emphasis on two dominant Lophodermium taxa of FEs on needle-litter decomposition were assessed for Pinus massoniana, a ubiquitous pine in southern China. Data from in vivo (microcosm experiments indicated that the percentage of litter-mass loss triggered by FEs was linearly correlated with incubation time and approached 60% after seven months. In vitro decomposition tests also confirmed that endophytic Lophodermium isolates caused 14-22% mass loss within two months. Qualitative analysis of exoenzymes (cellulase and laccase, important for lignocellulose degradation revealed that almost all of the Lophodermium isolates showed moderate or strong positive reactions. Furthermore, partial sequences of β-glucosidase (glycoside hydrolase family 3, GH3, laccase, and cellobiohydrolase (GH7 genes were amplified from Lophodermium isolates as "functional markers" to evaluate their potential for lignocellulolytic activity. Three different genes were detected, suggesting a flexible and delicate decomposition system rich in FEs. Our work highlights the possibility that the saprophytism and endophytism of FEs may be prerequisites to initiating rapid decomposition and thus may be key in Fes' contribution to litter decomposition, at least in the early stage. Potential indicators of the presence of core fungal decomposers are also briefly discussed.

  13. Spatial variability of throughfall in a Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Weiqing; ZHANG Zhiqiang; WU Jun; XIAO Jinqiang

    2007-01-01

    The interception of rainfall by vegetation and the subsequent evaporation of intercepted water from the canopy surface play an important role in hydrological processes,and the water and energy balance of forest ecosystems.Spatial variability of interception has different effects on water yield from watersheds located in different climatic and biome regions.In order to explain the spatial patterns of interception,we adopted grid-sampling method to install rain-gauges to measure throughfall.Results show that the coefficient of variation (Cv) of throughfall tends to decline as rain intensity increases.After the canopy is saturated,Cv of throughfall remained at a constant value,which is close to the Cv of the canopy leaf area index (LAI) value 0.18.Thus,the Cv of LAI is regarded as the extremum of that of throughfall.Because of the special characteristic of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis),and the lower droopy branches,negative values for interception account for only 13% of the total samples.Furthermore,the max is above 70% of gross rainfall.

  14. Impact of Seed Transmission on the Infection and Development of Pitch Canker Disease in Pinus radiata

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    Margarita Evira-Recuenco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of seed inoculum on subsequent disease development in nurseries, specifically studying incidence of seed infection, transmission rate of seed to seedlings, and rate of disease development from the primary inoculum source. Transmission rate of Fusarium circinatum (F. circinatum from symptomatic trees of Pinus radiata (P. radiata to seed was 0.73%, being the fungus mainly on the coat. Seed infection incidence was positively correlated with tree disease severity. Seeds also become contaminated with F. circinatum during storage, where high relative humidity had a great effect regardless of temperature. Transmission rates from seeds to symptomatic seedlings measured at 48 days after seed inoculation with 104 and 106 was 28% and 80%, respectively. Seedlings showed symptoms of wilting and dieback, and eventually died within the total duration of this study (475 days. By this time, there were two remaining symptomless seedlings (1% of the total. F. circinatum was recovered from each of them, demonstrating its persistence in seedlings. Fungus populations in roots were estimated between 105 and 107 cfu/g in symptomatic plants for both inoculum doses and up to 104 cfu/g in asymptomatic plants. Disease infection rate was similar in post-emergence damping-off (up two months growing and for established seedlings (up to eight months after seeds were inoculated with 104 spores/mL.

  15. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  16. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  17. An experimental test of dietary enzyme modulation in pine warblers Dendroica pinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, D J; Place, A R; Rey, P J; Martínez Del Rio, C

    1999-01-01

    Modulation of gut function is important in an ecological and evolutionary context because it likely determines what food items an animal can and cannot eat. We examined how diet affects activity of digestive enzymes in an omnivorous bird, the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus). Pine warblers were fed insect-based, fruit-based, and seed-based diets for approximately 54 d. We then measured activity of amylase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase-N, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B, pancreatic lipase, and carboxyl ester lipase. We predicted that carbohydrase activities would be highest in birds fed the diet highest in carbohydrates (fruit based), protease activities would be highest in those fed the diet highest in protein (insect based), and lipase activities would be highest in those fed the diets highest in lipid (insect based and seed based). Also, we predicted that pine warblers would exhibit greater dietary modulation of enzyme activity than reported for a less omnivorous congener, the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata). All predictions were upheld, supporting the hypothesis that pine warblers modulate the activity of digestive enzymes in proportion to demand from substrates in the diet. PMID:10521325

  18. Dichotomization of mycorrhizal and NPA-treated short roots in Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salo, Vanamo

    2008-02-01

    Conifers like Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) have a complicated root system consisting of morphologically and anatomically different root types, of which the short roots have a very limited ability to elongate. Short roots have an important role in nature since they are able to establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, in which the growth of fungal mycelium between the epidermal cells and in the intercellular space between cortical cells leads to formation of dichotomous short roots, which may, through further splitting of the meristem, form coralloid root structures. Dichotomous short roots have been suggested to result from changes in either auxin or ethylene concentrations due to the fungal growth inside the root. NPA, the inhibitor of polar auxin transport, enhances the dichotomization of P. sylvestris short root tips similarly to the fungal growth in the root, thus confirming that auxin plays a role in short root morphogenesis. Ethylene is also known to have an important role in the regulation of root morphogenesis. In future the research dealing with the root system and ectomycorrhiza development in P. sylvestris must take into account that both auxin and ethylene are involved and that there is no contradiction in obtaining the same phenotype with both hormones. The expression analysis of PIN proteins, auxin efflux carriers, could give valuable information about the role of auxin transport in regulating the root growth and morphogenesis of coniferous root system and mycorrhiza. PMID:19704726

  19. Effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the subunit vaccine of Proteus mirabilis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guolin; Zhong, Shixun; Yang, Shifa; Zuo, Xuemei; Liang, Manfei; Sun, Jing; Liu, Jingjing; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2013-05-01

    Three adjuvants, namely, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), white mineral oil (WO) and propolis (PP), were added to the outer membrane protein (OMP) of Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and their effects were compared. Three hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups (I-V), with 60 chicks per group, and injected subcutaneously with WO-OMP vaccine (I), PP-OMP vaccine (II), TPPPS-OMP vaccine (III), OMP-only vaccine (IV) and physiological saline (V) at 3, 7 and 12 days old. On days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 after the first vaccination, the antibody titers, interleukin-2 levels (IL-2) and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in the peripheral blood as well as the secreting-type IgA levels (SIgA) in the duodenum were measured. On day 7 after the third vaccination, the chicks were challenged with P. mirabilis strain Q1 and the protective effects of each group were observed. The highest protective rate was observed in group III. Moreover, the antibody titers as well as IL-2, SIgA and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in this group significantly increased and were significantly higher than those in the other groups at most time points. The results indicate that TPPPS could significantly enhance the effects of the subunit vaccine of P. mirabilis; induced stronger humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity as compared with WO and PP; and should be developed as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23403027

  20. Characterization and Bioactivity of Polysaccharides Obtained from Pine Cones of Pinus koraiensis by Graded Ethanol Precipitation

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    Xin Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus koraiensis polysaccharides (PKP were extracted by hot water from P. koraiensis pine cones. Five polysaccharide fractions named PKP-A, PKP-B, PKP-C, PKP-D and PKP-E were successfully separated at final ethanol concentrations of 30%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%, respectively. HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and automatic amino-acid analysis were applied to investigate their chemical characteristics. Monosaccharide component analysis indicated that the five fractions were all composed of d-ribose, l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose, but their molar ratios were quite different. HPLC results revealed that the polysaccharides precipitated by higher concentrations of ethanol solution had lower molecular masses. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the five fractions were studied on the basis of hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical scavenging tests. The five graded polysaccharide fractions exhibited good inhibitory power, and MTT tests in vitro showed the IC50 of PKP-A and PKP-E were 1,072.5 and 2,070.0 μg·mL−1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the PKP could be a potential source of natural antioxidants or dietary supplements.