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Sample records for brassica waste compost

  1. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neugart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold.

  2. Composting of food wastes: Status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Barrena, Raquel; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    This review analyses the main challenges of the process of food waste composting and examines the crucial aspects related to the quality of the produced compost. Although recent advances have been made in crucial aspects of the process, such composting microbiology, improvements are needed in process monitoring. Therefore, specific problems related to food waste composting, such as the presence of impurities, are thoroughly analysed in this study. In addition, environmental impacts related to food waste composting, such as emissions of greenhouse gases and odours, are discussed. Finally, the use of food waste compost in soil bioremediation is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  4. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lăcătuşu Radu; Căpăţână Romeo; Lăcătuşu Anca-Rovena

    2016-01-01

    The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33%) of...

  5. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. The composition from organic waste that could be used as nutrients for crops, soil additive and for environmental management. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different types of organic wastes have different concentrations of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P, K which are the common macro nutrients present in fertilizers. The presences of heavy metals show how composts can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.

  6. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcătuşu Radu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33% of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25% of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.

  7. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  9. Sequential batch anaerobic composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, D.M.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Owens, J.M.; Sifontes, J. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC[sup TM]) was used to treat two fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), the organic fraction of the MSW (processed MSW) and yard waste. Processed MSW gave a mean methane yield of 0.19 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] volatile solids (VS) after 42 days. The mean VS reduction was 49.7% for this same period. Yard waste gave a mean methane yield of 0.07 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] VS. Methane content of the biogas stabilized at a mean of 48% from three to four days after startup. The mean VS reduction for yard waste was 19%. With processed MSW, the volatile acid concentration was over 3000 mg L[sup -1] during startup but these acids were reduced within a few days to negligible levels. The trend was similar with yard waste except that volatile acids reached maximum concentrations of less than 1000 mg L[sup -1]. Composts from the reactors were evaluated for agronomic characteristics and pollution potential. Processed MSW and yard waste residues had marginal fertilizer value but posed no potential for groundwater pollution. Yard waste residue caused no apparent inhibition to mustard (Brassica juncea) germination relative to a commercial growth medium. Anaerobic yard waste compost demonstrated the potential to improve the water holding capacity of Florida soils. (author)

  10. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, Srinath R.; Bhave, Prashant P.

    2006-01-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes

  11. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

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    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  12. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  13. The determinants for the adoption of compost from household waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compost from household waste for crop production by farmers living nearby Yaoundé, ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... The descriptive results show that 14 factors mostly affect the compost adoption by farmers.

  14. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CHNS ANALYSIS TOWARDS FOOD WASTE IN COMPOSTING

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    Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High food waste generation in Malaysia that reached up to 15, 000 tonnes per day assign for major problems towards environment, economy and social aspect. Alternative method had been studied for the past years, but composting was seen among the best possible solution to treat this matter. Composting not only has an environmentally method but it also produces a valuable end product that will benefit in agricultural sector. Further studies had been done in this paper to represent their macro and micro nutrient quality as well as their bioavailability towards plant and the analysis of data collected in both CHNS analyser and mathematical method using ultimate analysis. This study also applied enhanced composting process with its segregation, drying, grinding and standard aeration time. Each container has been rotated for 5 minutes yet different resting time was applied which are 25, 55, 155 minutes namely A, B, C and D within 2 hours period. Result shown that overall Carbon (C, Nitrogen (N and Sulphur (S concentration increases as the higher aeration was applied while the Hydrogen vice versa. The highest elemental percentage distribution recorded is carbon (31% while the lowest recorded is S (0.115%. The data collected from Ultimate Analysis was seen not applicable to be use as it has the same content as food waste after composting. The compound molecular formula recorded was C29H7N5S. Regarding ratio of carbon to nitrogen results, it was found that it ranged from 5.39 to 5.71% for different compost treatment under study, where the lowest value of C and N ratio (5.39% for sample C and the highest value (5.71% was obtained for sample B with all has the same C/N ratio which is 6: 1 which suitable range in application of soil amendment. Therefore, this study found a significant relationship between chemical factors and compost formation which contribute to better analysis, especially to food waste management.

  16. Additives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Bidyadhar, Rajnikant; Bhilawe, Priya; Anand, Duraisamy; Vaidya, Atul N; Wate, Satish R

    2012-06-01

    The effect of various additives such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, jaggery, lime, and polyethylene glycol on green waste composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial growth, enzymatic activities, organic matter degradation, bulk density, quality of finished compost including gradation test, heavy metal analysis, etc. A perusal of results showed that addition of jaggery and polyethylene glycol were helpful to facilitate composting process as they significantly influenced the growth of microbes and cellulase activity. The quality of finished compost prepared from jaggery and polyethylene glycol added treatments were superior to other composts, wherein reduction in C/N ratio was more than 8% in jaggery treatment. All other parameters of compost quality including gradation test also favored jaggery and polyethylene glycol as the best additives for green waste composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing ...

  18. Optimization of control parameters for petroleum waste composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is being widely employed in the treatment of petroleum waste. The purpose of this study was to find the optimum control parameters for petroleum waste in-vessel composting. Various physical and chemical parameters were monitored to evaluate their influence on the microbial communities present in composting. The CO2 evolution and the number of microorganisms were measured as theactivity of composting. The results demonstrated that the optimum temperature, pH and moisture content were 56.5-59.5, 7.0-8.5 and 55%-60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbon reached 83.29% after 30 days composting.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from food and garden waste composting

    OpenAIRE

    Ermolaev, Evgheni

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a robust waste treatment technology. Use of finished compost enables plant nutrient recycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure improvement and mineral fertiliser replacement. However, composting also emits greenhouse gases (GHG) such as methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) with high global warming potential (GWP). This thesis analysed emissions of CH₄ and N₂O during composting as influenced by management and process conditions and examined how these emissions could be ...

  20. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  1. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  2. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  3. Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bharathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the feasibility of hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste with coir pith and caged layer manure. Materials and Methods: Compost bins (4 feet x 4 feet x 4 feet were established with concrete blocks with air holes to facilitate aerobic composting. The broiler slaughter waste and coconut coir pith waste were collected from the local market, free of cost. The caged layer manure available from poultry farms were utilized as manure substrate. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated (USDA-NRCS, 2000. Two control bins were maintained simultaneously, using caged layer manure with coir pith waste and water in a ratio of 0.8:3:1.2 (T and another one bin using caged layer manure alone(T . 2 3 Results: At the end of composting, moisture content, weight and the Volume of the compost were reduced significantly (P<0.01, pH, EC, TDS, total organic carbon and total nitrogen content were also significantly (P<0.01 reduced at the finishing of composting. Calcium, phosphorous and potassium content was progressively increased during composting period. The finished compost contains undetectable level of salmonella. Cowpea and sorghum seeds showed positive germination percentage when this finished compost was used. It indicated that all of the finished compost was free from phytotoxin substances. Conclusion: The results indicated that, composting of slaughter waste combined with coir pith waste may be a hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 359-361

  4. Compostable cutlery and waste management: an LCA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Francesco; Fieschi, Maurizio; Innocenti, Francesco Degli; Bastioli, Catia

    2009-04-01

    The use of disposable cutlery in fast food restaurants and canteens in the current management scenario generates mixed heterogeneous waste (containing food waste and non-compostable plastic cutlery). The waste is not recyclable and is disposed of in landfills or incinerated with or without energy recovery. Using biodegradable and compostable (B&C) plastic cutlery, an alternative management scenario is possible. The resulting mixed homogeneous waste (containing food waste and compostable plastic cutlery) can be recycled through organic recovery, i.e., composting. This LCA study, whose functional unit is "serving 1000 meals", shows that remarkable improvements can be obtained by shifting from the current scenario to the alternative scenario (based on B&C cutlery and final organic recovery of the total waste). The non-renewable energy consumption changes from 1490 to 128MJ (an overall 10-fold energy savings) and the CO(2) equivalents emission changes from 64 to 22 CO(2) eq. (an overall 3-fold GHG savings).

  5. Effect Various Combination of Organic Waste on Compost Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste and agricultural waste have different ratio C/N and nutrients contents. They can be used as compost row materials. The purpose of the research was to get an optimum combination of both wastes to improve compost quality, to meet the Indonesian National Standard 19-7030-2004. Composting process use pots. The treatments were twelve combination of municipal solid waste (garbage market, household waste, restaurant waste and agricultural waste (rice straw, empty fruit bunches of oil palm, cassava peel, banana skin with a ratio of 1:1 and enriche by chicken manure, cow manure, wood ash and cellulolytic microorganisme. The treatment were replicated three times. The results showd that the nutrients content of compost were 0.77 to 1.19% nitrogen, 0.23 to 0.30% phosphorus, 0.46 to 0.69% potassium and 15.48 to 34.69% organic matter. The combination of agricultural waste and municipal solid waste affected the quality of compost. Compost that meets SNI 19-7030-2004 is a combination of rice straw+market waste that contains 1.12% nitrogen, 0.28% phosphorus, 0.63% potassium, ratio C/N 19.50, pH 7.42, and organic matters 37.65%.

  6. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kopeć; Krzysztof Gondek; Kalina Orłowska; Zdzisław Kulpa

    2014-01-01

    Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum...

  7. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public.

  9. Environmental Aspects Of Home Composting Of Organic Household Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Six composting units were monitored during a two-year long experimental campaign. Data regarding chemical compositions of waste inputs and outputs, gaseous emissions and leachate productions were collected, organized in mass balances and assessed by means of LCA. The management of the home...... composting unit was very relevant for the environmental performance of home composting, as the turning frequency influence the emissions of CH4 which is the main responsible for potential impacts on global warming. Results showed that overall home composting has low environmental impacts (between -2 and 16 m...

  10. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  11. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  12. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emission of Gases during Composting of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Kučić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biochemical process converting organic components into stable compost with release of heat, water, CO2 and NH3. The objective of this work was to determine the amount of CO2 and NH3 in the exhaust gases during composting of tobacco waste (TW and mixture of tobacco and grape waste (TGW. The cumulative evolved CO2 during 21 days of composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 94.01 g kg−1 and 208.18 g kg−1, respectively, and cumulative evolved NH3 during composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 504.81 mg kg−1 and 122.45 mg kg−1, respectively.

  14. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  15. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  16. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  17. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  18. [Co-composting of high-moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a batch operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-09-01

    Co-composting of different mixture made of vegetable waste and flower waste were studied. The first stage of composting was aerobic static bed based temperature feedback in a batch operation and control via aeration rate regulation. The second stage was window composting. The total composting period was 45 days. About the station of half of celery and half of carnation, the pile was insulated and temperatures of at least 55 degrees C were maintained for about 11 days. The highest temperature was up to 65 degrees C. This is enough to kill pathogens. Moisture of pile decreased from 64.2% to 46.3% and organic matter was degraded from 74.7% to 55.6% during composting. The value of pH was had stable at 7. Analysis of maturity and nutrition of compost show that end-products of composting were bio-stable and had abundant nutrition. This shows that co-composting of vegetable waste and flower waste can get high quality compost by optimizing composting process during 45 days. Composting can decrease non-point resource of organic solid waste by recycling nutrition to soil and improve fertility of soil.

  19. Compost production from municipal wastes of Canadian mining towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, A.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of results of experiements on composting mumicipal wastes, and an overview of a type of composting process that could be used in small Canadian mining towns are given. The process is a means of waste disposal designed to produce compost. Compost can be used for the revegetation of mine-mill tailings as its sorptive properties complement the chemical action of inorganic fertilizers. The possibility of using compost instead of peat in water pollution-abatement processes can be considered. Difficulties that can be expected if a windrow composting process is continued during the low ambient-temperatures of Canadian winters can be avoided by storing the garbage-sewage mixture as hydraulically-compacted briquettes. Degradation of the briquettes takes place during mild-temperature periods without producing the foul odors of heaped garbage. A tentative plan for composting plant is presented as an illustration of the applicatin of the experimental results in a practical process. Because the process is a means of waste disposal, costs have to be divided between the municipality and the mining industry

  20. Valorization of beer brewing wastes by composting

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Elisabete; Brás, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored b...

  1. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  2. Critical evaluation of municipal solid waste composting and potential compost markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M; Jones, D L

    2009-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of mixed waste streams is becoming increasingly popular as a method for treating municipal solid waste (MSW). Whilst this process can separate many recyclates from mixed waste, the resultant organic residue can contain high levels of heavy metals and physical and biological contaminants. This review assesses the potential end uses and sustainable markets for this organic residue. Critical evaluation reveals that the best option for using this organic resource is in land remediation and restoration schemes. For example, application of MSW-derived composts at acidic heavy metal contaminated sites has ameliorated soil pollution with minimal risk. We conclude that although MSW-derived composts are of low value, they still represent a valuable resource particularly for use in post-industrial environments. A holistic view should be taken when regulating the use of such composts, taking into account the specific situation of application and the environmental pitfalls of alternative disposal routes.

  3. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  4. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Co-composting of high moisture vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter in pilot scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng; Qiu, Xiangyang

    2003-03-01

    Co-composting of different mixture made of vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter were studied. The first stage of composting was aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. The second stage was window composting. At first stage, the pile was insulated and temperatures of at least 55 degrees C were maintained for a minimum of 3 days. The highest temperature was up to 73.3 degrees C. This is enough to kill pathogens. Moisture of pile decreased from 75% to 56% and organic matter was degraded from 65% to 50% during composting. The value of pH was stable at 8. Analysis of maturity and nutrition of compost showed that end-products of composting ware bio-stable and had abundant nutrition. This shows that co-composting of vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter can get high quality compost by optimizing composting process during 45 days. Composting can decrease nonpoint resource of organic solid waste by recycling nutrition to soil and improve fertility of soil.

  6. Accelerated In-vessel Composting for Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant P.; Joshi, Yadnyeshwar S.

    2017-12-01

    Composting at household level will serve as a viable solution in managing and treating the waste efficiently. The aim of study was to design and study household composting reactors which would treat the waste at source itself. Keeping this aim in mind, two complete mix type aerobic reactors were fabricated. A comparative study between manually operated and mechanically operated reactor was conducted which is the value addition aspect of present study as it gives an effective option of treatment saving the time and manpower. Reactors were loaded with raw vegetable waste and cooked food waste i.e. kitchen waste for a period of 30 days after which mulch was allowed to mature for 10 days. Mulch was analyzed for its C/N ratio, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium and other parameters to determine compost quality, every week during its period of operation. The results showed that compost obtained from both the reactors satisfied almost all compost quality criteria as per CPHEEO manual on municipal solid waste management and thus can be used as soil amendment to increase the fertility of soil.In terms of knowledge contribution, this study puts forth an effective way of decentralized treatment.

  7. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  8. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  9. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week -1 and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 o C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH 4 Mg -1 input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N 2 O Mg -1 ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH 4 and N 2 O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH 4 during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH 4 emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg -1 ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  11. [Co-composting high moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a sequential fed operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-11-01

    Co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes (celery and cabbage) and flower wastes (carnation) were studied in a sequential fed bed. The preliminary materials of composting were celery and carnation wastes. The sequential fed materials of composting were cabbage wastes and were fed every 4 days. Moisture content of mixture materials was between 60% and 70%. Composting was done in an aerobic static bed of composting based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. Aeration was ended when temperature of the pile was about 40 degrees C. Changes of composting of temperature, aeration rate, water content, organic matter, ash, pH, volume, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N were studied. Results show that co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes and flower wastes, in a sequential fed aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation, can stabilize organic matter and removal water rapidly. The sequential fed operation are effective to overcome the difficult which traditional composting cannot applied successfully where high moisture vegetable wastes in more excess of flower wastes, such as Dianchi coastal.

  12. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH 4 and NH 3 emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH 4 , N 2 O, and NH 3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH 4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH 3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N 2 O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively

  13. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couth, R. [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  14. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. ► This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. ► This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  15. Role of biochar as an additive in organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Monedero, M A; Cayuela, M L; Roig, A; Jindo, K; Mondini, C; Bolan, N

    2018-01-01

    The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity, enabling interaction with major nutrient cycles and favouring microbial growth in the composting pile. The enhanced environmental conditions can promote a change in the microbial communities that can affect important microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles: organic matter degradation and humification, nitrification, denitrification and methanogenesis. The main benefits of the use of biochar in composting are reviewed in this article, with special attention to those related to the process performance, compost microbiology, organic matter degradation and humification, reduction of N losses and greenhouse gas emissions and fate of heavy metals. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from green waste composting windrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Bailey, Shannon K; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R

    2017-01-01

    The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH 4 emission of 254±76gCday -1 dry weight (DW) Mg -1 and lowest average N 2 O emission of 152±21mgNday -1 DW Mg -1 compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N 2 O emissions (342±41mgNday -1 DW Mg -1 ) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather. The compost windrow oxygen (O 2 ) concentration and moisture content were the most consistent factors predicting N 2 O and CH 4 emissions from all seasonal compost piles. Compared to N 2 O, CH 4 was a higher contributor to the overall global warming potential (GWP) expressed as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq.). Therefore, CH 4 mitigation practices, such as increasing O 2 concentration in the compost windrows through moisture control, feedstock changes to increase porosity, and windrow turning, may reduce the overall GWP of composting. Based on the results of the present study, statewide total GHG emissions of green waste composting were estimated at 789,000Mg of CO 2 eq., representing 2.1% of total annual GHG emissions of the California agricultural sector and 0.18% of the total state emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, Jose; King, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment

  19. Ammonia emissions from the composting of different organic wastes : dependency on process temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Pagans i Miró, Estel·la

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia emissions were quantified for the laboratory-scale composting of three typical organic wastes with medium nitrogen content: organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge; and the composting of two wastes with high nitrogen content: animal by-products from slaughterhouses and partially hydrolysed hair from the leather industry. All the wastes were mixed with the proper amount of bulking agent. Ammonia emitted in the composting of the five wast...

  20. Role of biochar as an additive in organic waste composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.; Cayuela, M.L.; Roig, A.; Jindo, Keiji; Mondini, C.; Bolan, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity,

  1. Influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at the University of Ghana's Soil and Irrigation Research Centre - Kpong during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice yield, Nitrogen-use efficiency and soil chemical characteristics. The study was laid out in a ...

  2. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum requirements for organic fertilizers. It seems that recycling of organic waste from the poultry industry should be the primary method of nutrient recovery for plants and organic matter contained in them, however on condition that the health safety is preserved.

  3. A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PLANT FOR COMPOSTING ORGANIC WASTE IN THE CITY OF KRAGUJEVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Jovičić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of waste quantity, its harmful influence on natural environments and world experiences has had so far impose the necessity for the analyses of techno-economic possibilities of the processes for treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste stream, in our region. In this paper, problematic of treatment solid waste and composting process, which represents one of the most acceptable options for the processing of solid waste, are given. Composting involves the aerobic biological decomposition of organic materials to produce a stable humus-like product. Base of composting process, review of composting feedstock, use of compost, benefits of composting process and concrete proposal for composting process realization, with techno-economic analysis for the construction of composting plant on territory community Kragujevac, are given in this paper, too.

  4. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: yangfan19870117@126.com [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  6. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%

  7. Influence of the addition of some inorganic waste products on the composting of bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiels, J.; de Vleeschauwer, D.; Verdonck, O.; de Boodt, M.

    1981-11-01

    Natural organic materials can be recycled by composting. It is possible to convert bark, a waste product from papermills or municipal refuse, into valuable materials, such as for growing ornamental plants. This article deals with the effect of the addition of certain inorganic waste products to the composting process. The compost produced was characterized physically and chemically and the value of the compost as a horticultural substrate was evaluated in plant growth experiments. (Refs. 6).

  8. Utilization of the household organic wastes in compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache O, B.

    1995-01-01

    Residues or wastes are a problem to the cities, owing to its collect and disposal produce many negative effects in public health and the environment as odors, microorganism (pathogens), vectors (flies, rodents and mosquitoes), and others. To solve this problem have been propose mainly two alternatives: 1. Sanitary landfills and 2. Recycling. To recover the residues as biodegradable as not-biodegradable, exist alternatives as composting (fermentation process or aerobic oxidation) and recycling - reuse, respectively. The composting process in aspects as the required conditions to that the organism acts efficiently as control of temperature (between 40-75 centigrade degrees), feed (carbon, nitrogen and other organic matter), aeration (by mixing or turning), control of moisture (between 50-60%), are present. Methodology aspects to composting also are described

  9. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (P<0.05) with the dissolved organic carbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L.; Lin, J.-G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

  11. Ammonia emission mitigation in food waste composting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Zeng, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Composting is a reliable technology to treat food waste (FW) and produce high quality compost. The ammonia (NH 3 ) emission accounts for the largest nitrogen loss and leads to various environmental impacts. This review introduced the recent progresses on NH 3 mitigation in FW composting. The basic characteristics of FW from various sources were given. Seven NH 3 emission strategies proven effective in the literature were presented. The links between these strategies and the mechanisms of NH 3 production were addressed. Application of hydrothermally treated C rich substrates, biochar or struvite salts had a broad prospect in FW composting if these strategies were proven cost-effective enough. Regulation of nitrogen assimilation and nitrification using biological additive had the potential to achieve NH 3 mitigation but the existing evidence was not enough. In the end, the future prospects highlighted four research topics that needed further investigation to improve NH 3 mitigation and nitrogen conservation in FW composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste utilization of red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) fish bone to improve phosphorus contents in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, S.; Iswanto, B.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to get the idea that bone waste will be the P content enhancer in compost so that the compost produced meets the standard P levels specified in SNI 19-7030-2004 which regulating compost quality standard. Nutrient levels were obtained in fish bone meal (FBM) are C (3.35%), N (0.48%), P (30.90%) and K (0.02%). Effects of fish bone meal to the rising levels of P in the compost has been known. P levels of compost B, C, D, and E increased at 428.57; 542.85; 657.14 and 914.28% against the compost A (blank). FBM ideal addition indicated in compost B, as much as 15 gr, with a P content of 0.37% and has been passed according standards (0.10% for P). C/N ratio decreased over the 21 days period of composting, with the greatest decline was compost E with a ratio of 16:1. Highest nitrogen (N) levels recorded respectively in compost B and C with value of 1.09% and the lowest of recorded N content was compost A, D and E (1.08%). N content in all samples of compost were eligible minimum N of 0.40%. Carbon (C) is the highest recorded in compost B; 20.20% and the lowest in the compost E; 17.34%. Highest and lowest C levels on the compost has met the minimum C of 9.80%. Composting is done in a bucket as an aerobic composter (with air holes), compost pile turnover for each sample is controlled as much as once/2 days. Mesophilic period (23-450C) occurs during the 21-day period of composting. Compost B has P content of 0.37%, so it has fulfilled the provisions of SNI 19-7030-2004 about the recommended compost standard.

  15. Inside the small-scale composting of kitchen and garden wastes: Thermal performance and stratification effect in vertical compost bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Juan Pablo; Paladino, Gabriela; Garibaldi, Lucas Alejandro; Laos, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Decentralized composting has been proposed as a best available practice, with a highly positive impact on municipal solid wastes management plans. However, in cold climates, decentralized small-scale composting performance to reach thermophilic temperatures (required for the product sanitization) could be poor, due to a lack of critical mass to retain heat. In addition, in these systems the composting process is usually disturbed when new portions of fresh organic waste are combined with previous batches. This causes modifications in the well-known composting evolution pattern. The objective of this work was to improve the understanding of these technical aspects through a real-scale decentralized composting experience carried out under cold climate conditions, in order to assess sanitization performance and to study the effects of fresh feedstock additions in the process evolution. Kitchen and garden organic wastes were composted in 500 L-static compost bins (without turning) for 244 days under cold climate conditions (Bariloche, NW Patagonia, Argentina), using pine wood shavings in a ratio of 1.5:1 v: v (waste: bulking agent). Temperature profile, stability indicators (microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen contents and ratio) and other variables (pH and electrical conductivity), were monitored throughout the experience. Our results indicate that small-scale composting (average generation rate of 7 kg d -1 ) is viable under cold weather conditions, since thermophilic sanitization temperatures (> 55 °C) were maintained for 3 consecutive days in most of the composting mass, according to available USEPA regulations commonly used as a reference for pathogens control in sewage sludge. On the other hand, stability indicators showed a differentiated organic matter degradation process along the compost bins height. Particularly, in the bottommost composting mix layer the process took a longer period to achieve compost stability than the upper layers, suggesting

  16. Evaluation of composting in the intervention of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F. J.; Claver, F.; Moraleda, M.; Vazquez, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination countermeasures may generate high amounts of wastes. The management of wastes (meaning all those actions to be carried out until its final disposal) should be taking into account during the selection of the optimum restoration strategy. TEMAS Project (Techniques and Management Strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences) considers waste management in the selection of optimized intervention. The management of wastes can follow an stepped process (disposal route) from the origin of waste to its final disposal. Each potential waste can be managed throughout one or more of these disposal routes. These processes must be characterized in the following terms: cost (machinery; manpower and consumables) and added dose for workers. This work deals with the obtention of this type of information required to evaluate the applicability of disposal routes including composting as one step in the management of organic wastes generated during the intervention. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu, E-mail: zhanglu1211@gmail.com; Sun, Xiangyang, E-mail: xysunbjfu@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  18. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL

  19. Composting sewage sludge with green waste from tree pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mello Leite Moretti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS has been widely used as organic fertilizer. However, its continuous use can cause imbalances in soil fertility as well as soil-water-plant system contamination. The study aimed to evaluate possible improvements in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of domestic SS, with low heavy metal contents and pathogens, through the composting process. Two composting piles were set up, based on an initial C/N ratio of 30:1, with successive layers of tree pruning waste and SS. The aeration of piles was performed by mechanical turnover when the temperature rose above 65 ºC. The piles were irrigated when the water content was less than 50 %. Composting was conducted for 120 days. Temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, carbon and nitrogen contents, and fecal coliforms were monitored during the composting. A reduction of 58 % in the EC of the compost (SSC compared with SS was observed and the pH reduced from 7.8 to 6.6. There was an increase in the value of cation exchange capacity/carbon content (CEC/C and carbon content. Total nitrogen remained constant and N-NO3- + N-NH4+ were immobilised in organic forms. The C/N ratio decreased from 25:1 to 12:1. Temperatures above 55 ºC were observed for 20 days. After 60 days of composting, fecal coliforms were reduced from 107 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (MPN g−1 to 104 MPN g−1. I one pile the 103 MPN g−1 reached after 90 days in one pile; in another, there was recontamination from 105 to 106 MPN g−1. In SSC, helminth eggs were eliminated, making application sustainable for agriculture purposes.

  20. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A compost bin for handling privy wastes: its fabrication and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Leonard; S.C. Fay

    1978-01-01

    A 24-ft3 (6.8-m3) fiberglass bin was constructed and tested for its effectiveness in composting privy wastes. A mixture of ground hardwood bark and raw sewage was used for composting. Temperatures in excess of 60°C for 36 hours were produced in the bin by aerobic, thermophilic composting. This temperature is...

  2. Determination of optimal parameters for the composting of solid organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, O.; Penninck, R.; Boodt, M. De (Laboratory of Soil Physics, Soil Conditioning and Horticultural, Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, State University of Gent, Belgium); Vleeschauwer, D. De (Public Waste Company, Mechelen, Belgium); Berthelsen, L.; Wood Pedersen, J. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain the best possible conditions for composting carbon rich wastes should be mixed with nitrogen rich materials to acheive an equilibrated nitrogen concentration. Urea and ammonia addition results in optimal composting, phosphates are not necessary. Ideal pH is about 7, moisture content must be in equilibrium with aeration in compost so that excess does not decrease microbiological activity.

  3. Changes in microbial communities in green waste and sewage sludge composts following maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Ruaudel, F.; Petit, J. Le; Terrom, G.; Perissol, C.

    2009-01-01

    Composting is an interesting way to valorize various bio wastes and is becoming an increasingly used soil amendment. compost is a product obtained after a humification process. However, compost utilization as amendment needs to know precisely its stability and maturity. since composting is mainly a microbial process, knowledge of the various microbial groups and their role in the process of bio-oxidation is essential. (Author)

  4. Design of a Municipal Yard Waste Composting Facility for Anderson County, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klapmeyer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... Large-scale composting is a proven method by which Anderson County can demonstrate sound environmental stewardship while drastically reducing the volume of waste entering county landfills, thereby...

  5. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  8. Waste composting and proving fish for production the organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda San Martins Sanes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of waste generated in the fishing activity are increasing due to the increase in demand for these products. This implies the need for fast processing and cycling of these materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of waste generated in the fishing activity as a source of organic fertilizers in agricultural production systems familiar ecological basis. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Cascade / Embrapa Temperate Climate was assessed throughout the composting process and the fermentation of fish waste, identifying the main points that enable the use of these fertilizers in farming systems ecological base. The composting process of rice husk revealed be incomplete during the experiment. The compound prepared with fish waste and exhausted bark of acacia presents itself as a good source of nutrients for crops, which may be suitable as organic fertilizer for production of ecologically-based systems. For liquid organic fertilizer, the conditions under which the experiment was conducted, it is concluded that the compound resulting from aerobic or anaerobic fermentation of fish waste, present themselves as a viable source of nutrients for productive systems of ecological base. However, further studies need to be conducted to better understanding and qualification of both processes.

  9. Municipal waste processing: Technical/economic comparison of composting and incineration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this paper which assessed the state-of-the-art of municipal waste composting and incineration technologies indicated that the advanced level of available technologies in this field now allows the realization of reliable and safe plants. This second part of the paper deals with the economics of the composting and incineration options. Cost benefit analyses using the discounted cash flow method are made for waste processing plants featuring composting alone, incineration only and mixed composting and incineration. The economic analyses show that plants employing conventional composting techniques work well for the case of exclusively organic waste materials. Incineration schemes are shown to be economically effective when they incorporate suitable energy recovery systems. The integrated composting-incineration waste processing plant appears to be the least attractive option in terms of economics. Current R ampersand D activities in this field are being directed towards the development of systems with lower environmental impacts and capital and operating costs

  10. Evaluation of composting as a strategy for managing organic wastes from a municipal market in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas Masó, Montserrat; Bonmatí Blasi, August

    2008-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate alternatives to the solid waste management of a Central American municipal market located in Estelí, Nicaragua. The municipal solid waste from the local market is the second largest contributor to the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. Waste from the market without any previous sorting or treatment is open dumped. The options evaluated in this study were windrow composting, windrow composting with yard waste, bokashi and vermicompost. Significant differences between the properties of composts produced were found; however, all of them reduce the initial waste volume and are potential useful agronomic products for a survival agrarian milieu.

  11. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  13. Microbiology of Composting Pig Waste: Comparison of Vermicomposting and Open Heap Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ogefere, H. O.; Ogbimi, A. O.; Omoregie, R.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of an effective waste management, microbiological studies of composting pig waste were investigated. Freshly deposited excreta from confined pigs in a private pig farm in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria were composted by two aerobic methods – vermicomposting and open heap. Microbial (bacterial and fungal) counts and characterization were carried out periodically within the 40 weeks of composting, using standard techniques. The results showed that only duration of compos...

  14. Variation in microbial population during composting of agro-industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luísa; Reis, Mário; Dionísio, Lídia

    2013-05-01

    Two compost piles were prepared, using two ventilation systems: forced ventilation and ventilation through mechanical turning. The material to compost was a mixture of orange waste, olive pomace, and grass clippings (2:1:1 v/v). During the composting period (375 days), samples were periodically taken from both piles, and the enumeration of fungi, actinomycetes, and heterotrophic bacteria was carried out. All studied microorganisms were incubated at 25 and 55 °C after inoculation in appropriate growth media. Fungi were dominant in the early stages of both composting processes; heterotrophic bacteria proliferated mainly during the thermophilic stage, and actinomycetes were more abundant in the final stage of the composting process. Our results showed that the physical and chemical parameters: temperature, pH, moisture, and aeration influenced the variation of the microbial population along the composting process. This study demonstrated that composting of these types of wastes, despite the prolonged mesophilic stage, provided an expected microbial variation.

  15. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  16. Study on NPK Performance in Food Waste Composting by Using Agricultural Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Siti Noratifah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Alternative disposal method for food waste could be conducted by using composting method. In this study, investigationon food waste composting by using agricultural fermentation was carried out to find out the performance of the compost. Two types of compost were produced which were commercial compost and research compost and total of 8 reactors were tested during this study. Research compost consist of coconut fiber (decomposing medium and the combination of salt and breadfruit peels as the fermentation liquid, while rice husk was used as decomposing medium for commercial compost along with fermented soybeanand brown sugar as fermentation liquid. Physical and chemical parameters which are temperature, pH value, moisture content, Total Nitrogen (N, Total Phosphorus (P and Potassium (K concentration were determined. Based on the results of 20 weeks composting, the overall temperature range from 27 °C to 45 °C which shown the active phase for composting occurred. On the other hand, during the period of composting, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. As for NPK content, Total Nitrogen value range from 98 ppm to 2268 ppm for commercial compost, while 84 ppm to 2240 ppm for research compost. Total Phosphorus has the values of0.871 ppm to 11.615 ppm for commercial compost and 1.785 ppm to 14.143 ppm for research compost. On the other hand, result for potassium is from 91.85 ppm to 645.55 ppm for commercial compost and from 133.95 ppm to 686.2 ppm for research compost. As a conclusion from the results obtained, the compost in this study is sufficient to be use for agricultural purposes and the best performance of NPK value was demonstrated by Reactor C2 from research compost.

  17. Effect of composting of palm oil mill wastes and cow dung or poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of shelter and different type of manure on degradation of palm oil mills wastes during composting and on growth and yield of African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) grown on acrisol . Methodology and results: Palm oil mills wastes were composted, with poultry manure or cow dung with and ...

  18. Effect of the raw materials and mixing ratio of composted wastes on the dynamic of organic matter stabilization and nitrogen availability in composts of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Théodore Wind-Tinbnoma; Houot, Sabine; Hien, Edmond; Zombré, Prosper; Hien, Victor; Masse, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The effect of raw materials and their proportions in initial mixtures on organic matter (OM) stabilization and nitrogen (N) availability during pit composting in Sub-Saharan Africa was assessed using biochemical fractionation and laboratory incubations to characterize composts sampled throughout the composting process. Stabilization of OM occurred more rapidly in mixtures with slaughter-house wastes, it was progressive in mixture with household refuses while tree leaves compost remained unstable. Carbon mineralization from compost samples was positively correlated to water soluble and hemicellulose-like organic fractions. Mixtures containing large proportions of household refuses reached the highest stability and total N but available N remained weak. Slaughter-house wastes in the initial mixtures made possible to reach good OM stabilization and the largest N availability. The nature of initial mixing influenced composting parameters, OM stabilization and N availability. It is suggested mixing household refuses and slaughter-house wastes with tree leaves to reach better amending and fertilizer qualities of composts.

  19. Recent developments in biochar utilization as an additive in organic solid waste composting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Li, Ronghua; Park, Jonghwan; Pensky, Scott M; Wang, Quan; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, considerable studies have been devoted to investigating the effect of biochar application on organic solid waste composting. This review provides an up-to-date overview of biochar amendment on composting processes and compost quality. Biochar production, characteristics, and its application coupled with the basic concepts of composting are briefly introduced before detailing the effects of biochar addition on composting. According to recent studies, biochar has exhibited great potential for enhancing composting. It is evident that biochar addition in composting can: (1) improve compost mixture physicochemical properties, (2) enhance microbial activities and promote organic matter decomposition, (3) reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and (4) upgrade compost quality by increasing the total/available nutrient content, enhancing maturity, and decreasing phytotoxicity. Despite that, further research is needed to explore the mechanism of biochar addition on composting and to evaluate the agricultural and environmental performances of co-composted biochar compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey the Effect of Pistachio Waste Composting Process with Different Treatments on Concentration of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Composting is one of the pistachio wastes management methods. In the appropriate compost production nutrients and heavy metals are determinant. The aim of this study is survey the effect of pistachio wastes composting process with different treatments on the concentration of heavy metals. Methods: In this study, during the 60-day pistachio wastes composting process with two treatments of dewatered sewage sludge and cow manure, pH, EC, carbon to nitrogen ratio, Heavy metals and nutrients indicators were studied. The results were compared with WHO and Iranian National standard. Drawing the diagrams by Excel software (Version 2007 and Statistical analysis was performed by Spss Software (version 20 at a significance level of 0.005.  Results: During the 60-day composting pH initially had downward trend and then increased. The Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and C/N ratio had downward trend and the EC, Na, K had increasing trend. Eventually, Iron, zinc, copper and manganese were less than the standard, Sodium was in Standard range and potassium was more than specified standards in the produced compost from pistachios waste with both treatments.  Conclusion: The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals and nutrients in the produced compost with both treatments were in the acceptable range. Eventually quality of produced compost with cow manure treatment due to better decomposition and greater stability was better than processed compost with dewatered sewage sludge treatment.

  1. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations

  2. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makan, Abdelhadi, E-mail: abdelhadi.makan@gmail.com

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  3. Weed seed inactivation in soil mesocosms via biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing waste amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmon, Yigal; Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Hernandez, Katie; McCurry, Dlinka G; Harrold, Duff R; Su, Joey; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-05-01

    Biosolarization is a fumigation alternative that combines passive solar heating with amendment-driven soil microbial activity to temporarily create antagonistic soil conditions, such as elevated temperature and acidity, that can inactivate weed seeds and other pest propagules. The aim of this study was to use a mesocosm-based field trial to assess soil heating, pH, volatile fatty acid accumulation and weed seed inactivation during biosolarization. Biosolarization for 8 days using 2% mature green waste compost and 2 or 5% tomato processing residues in the soil resulted in accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the soil, particularly acetic acid, and >95% inactivation of Brassica nigra and Solanum nigrum seeds. Inactivation kinetics data showed that near complete weed seed inactivation in soil was achieved within the first 5 days of biosolarization. This was significantly greater than the inactivation achieved in control soils that were solar heated without amendment or were amended but not solar heated. The composition and concentration of organic matter amendments in soil significantly affected volatile fatty acid accumulation at various soil depths during biosolarization. Combining solar heating with organic matter amendment resulted in accelerated weed seed inactivation compared with either approach alone. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of maifanite and silage as amendments for green waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2018-04-23

    Composting is a popular method for recycling organic solid wastes including agricultural and forestry residues. However, traditional composting method is time consuming, generates foul smells, and produces an immature product. The effects of maifanite (MF; at 0%, 8.5%, and 13.5%) and/or silage (SG; at 0%, 25%, and 45%) as amendments on an innovative, two-stage method for composting green waste (GW) were investigated. The combined addition of MF and SG greatly improved composting conditions, reduced composting time, and enhanced compost quality in terms of composting temperature, bulk density, water-holding capacity, void ratio, pH, cation exchange capacity, ammonia nitrogen content, dissolved organic carbon content, crude fibre degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, nutrient contents, and phytotoxicity. The two-stage composting of GW with 8.5% MF and 45% SG generated the highest quality and the most mature compost product and did so in only 21 days. With the optimized composting, the degradation rate of cellulose and hemicellulose reached 46.3 and 82.3%, respectively, and the germination index of Chinese cabbage and lucerne was 153 and 172%, respectively, which were all far higher than values obtained with the control. The combined effects of MF and SG on GW composting have not been previously explored, and this study therefore provided new and practical information. The comprehensive analyses of compost properties during and at the end of the process provided insight into underlying mechanisms. The optimized two-stage composting method may be a viable and sustainable alternative for GW management in that it converts the waste into a useful product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Municipal household waste used as complement material for composting chicken manure and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Amadji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few organic materials available as agricultural soil amendment because their low chemical content means that large quantities are required. In order to improve the availability of raw materials for composting, as well as the quality of the compost produced, municipal solid waste (MW was added to cotton-seed residue (CSR and to the association of CSR with chicken manure (M in different weight/weight (MW/added materials ratios of 5:1 and 2:1. Aerobic composting was processed and compost yield was determined, as well as compost particle size and pH. Also, the compost bulk density and its water holding capacity were determined as well as contents of total nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium (Ca, magnesium and heavy metals. According to its pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio values, the municipal waste of Cotonou was judged to be a good raw material for composting in order to improve availability of the organic source of nutrients. The composts produced with MW+M+CSR had the highest potential for amending Ferralsols, especially with a mixture of 2:1 (200 kg MW+100 kg M+100 kg CSR that could be applied at 10 t ha–1. However, further improvement in composting methods was suggested to increase Ca++ and reduce mercury contents, respectively. Moreover, potassium balance should be improved in the produced compost.

  6. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-04-01

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Composting of municipal solid wastes in Jujuy (Argentina); Compostaje de residuos solidos urbanos en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Romero, E. E.; Boccardo, R.; Kosir, A.; Altamirano, F.; Figliolo, C.; Arias, P.; Aguado, R.; Zankar, G. [Universidad de Jujuy. Argentina (Argentina); Gonzalez Carcedo, S. [Universidad de Burgos (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    The results from a first experience of composting of urban solid waste in Jujuy (Argentine) were shown. The organic part of a solid waste collected from the city San Salvador, was composted during 3 months experience in windrow piles and physico-chemical properties were monitored. The time of composting was diminished by the application of an aqueous aminoacid solution. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  9. In-Vessel Co-Composting of Food Waste Employing Enriched Bacterial Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop a good initial composting mix using a bacterial consortium and 2% lime for effective co-composting of food waste in a 60-litre in-vessel composter. In the experiment that lasted for 42 days, the food waste was first mixed with sawdust and 2% lime (by dry mass), then one of the reactors was inoculated with an enriched bacterial consortium, while the other served as control. The results show that inoculation of the enriched natural bacterial consortium effectively overcame the oil-laden co-composting mass in the composter and increased the rate of mineralization. In addition, CO 2 evolution rate of (0.81±0.2) g/(kg·day), seed germination index of (105±3) %, extractable ammonium mass fraction of 305.78 mg/kg, C/N ratio of 16.18, pH=7.6 and electrical conductivity of 3.12 mS/cm clearly indicate that the compost was well matured and met the composting standard requirements. In contrast, control treatment exhibited a delayed thermophilic phase and did not mature after 42 days, as evidenced by the maturity parameters. Therefore, a good composting mix and potential bacterial inoculum to degrade the oil are essential for food waste co-composting systems.

  10. In-Vessel Co-Composting of Food Waste Employing Enriched Bacterial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Awasthi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to develop a good initial composting mix using a bacterial consortium and 2 % lime for effective co-composting of food waste in a 60-litre in-vessel composter. In the experiment that lasted for 42 days, the food waste was first mixed with sawdust and 2 % lime (by dry mass, then one of the reactors was inoculated with an enriched bacterial consortium, while the other served as control. The results show that inoculation of the enriched natural bacterial consortium effectively overcame the oil-laden co-composting mass in the composter and increased the rate of mineralization. In addition, CO2 evolution rate of (0.81±0.2 g/(kg·day, seed germination index of (105±3 %, extractable ammonium mass fraction of 305.78 mg/kg, C/N ratio of 16.18, pH=7.6 and electrical conductivity of 3.12 mS/cm clearly indicate that the compost was well matured and met the composting standard requirements. In contrast, control treatment exhibited a delayed thermophilic phase and did not mature after 42 days, as evidenced by the maturity parameters. Therefore, a good composting mix and potential bacterial inoculum to degrade the oil are essential for food waste co-composting systems.

  11. Biological compost stability influences odor molecules production measured by electronic nose during food-waste high-rate composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Crivelli, Fernando; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Composting is a technique that is used to convert organic waste into agriculturally useful products. Composting is an aerobic, solid-state biological process, which typically can be divided into two phases, a high-rate composting phase and a curing phase. High-rate composting plays an important role during the composting process, owing to the high microbial activity occurring during this phase. It requires an accurate plant design to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions and odors. The formation of anaerobic conditions mainly depends on the rate of O 2 consumption needed to degrade the substrate, i.e., the biological stability of the substrate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the biological activity, measured by the dynamic respiration index (DRI) and the odor molecules production, measured by an electronic nose (EN) during two food-waste high-rate composting processes. Although the O 2 concentration in the biomass free air space (FAS) was kept optimal (O 2 > 140 ml l -1 , v/v) during composting, strong anaerobic conditions developed. This was indicated by the high levels of sulfur compounds, methane, and hydrogen in the outlet air stream. Both the high level of O 2 consumption, needed to degrade the high-degradable water-soluble organic matter and the low water O 2 solubility, caused by high temperature reached in this stage (up to 60 deg. C), led to the anaerobic conditions observed in the biofilm-particle level. The application of the partial least square (PLS) analysis demonstrated a good regression between the DRI and the odor molecules produced that was detected by the EN (R 2 = 0.991; R 2 CV = 0.990), signifying the usefulness of the DRI as a parameter to estimate the potential production of odor molecules of the biomass

  12. Development of microbial community in the course of composting of garden waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting represents one of the technologies of processing of biodegradable municipal waste. Samples collected from composting plants were analyzed chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of bio waste samples increased from 6.5 to 8.6. The total carbon to nitrogen ratio in samples of bio waste decreased, in the course of composting, from 40:1 up to the value of 25:1 while the total nitrogen to phosphorus ratio decreased from 10:1 up to 8:1. Indicator groups of microorganisms were monitored in compost samples. Representatives of Enterobacter genus, namely E. cloacae and E. aerogenes were identified in the samples on the basis of biochemical tests. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. order Bacillales and Actinomycetales, were present in appreciable amounts.

  13. The Effect of Red Pepper Waste Added to Compost on Selenium Content of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalyoncu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selenium levels of P.citrinopileatus added different rates of red pepper waste to compost as a source of selenium were determined. For this purpose, six different compost groups were prepared and inoculated with P.citrinopileatus mycelia. Selenium levels of harvested mushrooms were analysed. In conclusion, 0.338 µg/g selenium were determined in one gram dry mushroom that red pepper waste added to compost at 5%. Mycelia growth and selenium accumulation were negatively affected by higher rates of red pepper waste.

  14. Mass balances and life cycle inventory of home composting of organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental setup with six single-family home composting units was monitored during 1year. The composting units were fed with 2.6–3.5kg organic household waste (OHW) per unit per week. All relevant consumptions and emissions of environmental relevance were addressed and a full li...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  16. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... 74% total organic matter (TOM), 7.2 pH and 132% germination index (GI) further showed the potentials of the produced compost. Based on this, food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT) showed an economic potential for sustainable production of compost using low technology. Key words: Lignocellulolytic ...

  17. Composting of urban solid waste in Lomé, Togo: Fate of some heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metals may constitute problems in waste management because of their multiple sources and potentially high toxicity of some constituents. Processes of composting do not always guarantee acceptable quality of the compost in terms of hazardous metals. The aim of this article is to assess the balance of some heavy metals ...

  18. Towards low carbon society in Iskandar Malaysia: Implementation and feasibility of community organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Cassendra Phun-Chien; Goh, Rebecca Kar Yee; Lim, Jeng-Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew-Tin; Hashim, Haslenda; Abu Mansor, Nur Naha; Ho, Chin Siong; Ramli, Abdul Rahim; Takeshi, Fujiwara

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic fractions during drum composting of mixed organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vempalli Sudharsan Varma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the microbial population involved in lignocellulose degradation during drum composting of mixed organic waste i.e. vegetable waste, cattle manure, saw dust and dry leaves in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Lignocellulose degradation by different microbial populations was correlated by comparing results from four trials, i.e., Trial 1 (5:4, Trial 2 (6:3, Trial 3 (7:2 and Trial 4 (8:1 of varying waste combinations during 20 days of composting period. Due to proper combination of waste materials and agitation in drum composter, a maximum of 66.5 and 61.4 °C was achieved in Trial 1 and 2 by observing a temperature level of 55 °C for 4–6 d. The study revealed that combinations of waste materials had a major effect on the microbial degradation of waste material and quality of final compost due to its physical properties. However, Trial 1 was observed to have longer thermophilic phase leading to higher degradation of lignocellulosic fractions. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and fluorescent spectroscopy confirmed the decrease in aliphatic to aromatic ratio and increase in polyphenolic compounds of the compost. Heterotrophic bacteria were observed predominantly due to the readily available organic matter during the initial period of composting. However, fungi and actinomycetes were active in the degradation of lignocellulosic fractions.

  20. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  1. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsdotter Beck-Friis, Barbro

    2001-01-01

    In Sweden, composting of source-separated organic household waste is increasing, both domestically at the small-scale, and in larger municipal plants. Composting means a microbial decomposition of organic material, which results in the production of environmentally undesirable gases, such as ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). The aim of this thesis was to study the emissions of NH 3 , N 2 O and CH 4 to the atmosphere during composting of source-separated organic household waste. The studies were conducted in an experimental reactor under constant and controlled conditions and in municipal compost heaps. Emissions of NH 3 , N 2 O and CH 4 occurred at different phases during composting. Ammonia started to volatilise during the shift from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions when short-chained fatty acids were decomposed. Nitrous oxide was only emitted during the first days of composting and later during the cooling phase when nitrate was formed. Methane was only produced during the thermophilic phase. Large municipal compost heaps are a significant source for the production and emission of the greenhouse gases N 2 O and CH 4 . To avoid unwanted gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during composting, gaseous exchange with the atmosphere should be controlled in future composting plants

  2. Nitrogen conservation and acidity control during food wastes composting through struvite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Chan, Manting; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2013-11-01

    One of the main problems of food waste composting is the intensive acidification due to initial rapid fermentation that retards decomposition efficiency. Lime addition overcame this problem, but resulted in significant loss of nitrogen as ammonia that reduces the nutrient contents of composts. Therefore, this study investigated the feasibility of struvite formation as a strategy to control pH and reduce nitrogen loss during food waste composting. MgO and K2HPO4 were added to food waste in different molar ratios (P1, 1:1; P2, 1:2), and composted in 20-L composters. Results indicate that K2HPO4 buffered the pH in treatment P2 besides supplementing phosphate into the compost. In P2, organic decomposition reached 64% while the formation of struvite effectively reduced the nitrogen loss from 40.8% to 23.3% during composting. However, electrical conductivity of the compost increased due to the addition of Mg and P salts that requires further investigation to improve this technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of lime on struvite formation and nitrogen conservation during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of supplementing lime with struvite salts to reduce ammonia emission and salinity consequently to accelerate the compost maturity. Composting was performed in 20-L bench-scale reactors for 35days using artificial food waste mixed with sawdust at 1.2:1 (w/w dry basis), and Mg and P salts (MgO and K2HPO4, respectively). Nitrogen loss was significantly reduced from 44.3% to 27.4% during composting through struvite formation even with the addition of lime. Lime addition significantly reduced the salinity to less than 4mS/cm with a positive effect on improving compost maturity. Thus addition of both lime and struvite salts synergistically provide advantages to buffer the pH, reduce ammonia emission and salinity, and accelerate food waste composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: asatou@ari.pref.niigata.jp [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroyuki [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Oyanagi, Wataru [Niigata Livestock Research Center, 178 Tanahire, Sanjo, Niigata 955-0143 (Japan); Nishihara, Eiji [Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Masaharu [Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  5. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  6. Composting technology in waste stabilization: On the methods, challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Igbokwe, Victor C; Odimba, Joyce N; Eke, Ifeanyichukwu E; Nwankwoala, Mary O; Iroh, Ikemdinachi N; Ezeogu, Lewis I

    2017-04-01

    Composting technology has become invaluable in stabilization of municipal waste due to its environmental compatibility. In this review, different types of composting methods reportedly applied in waste management were explored. Further to that, the major factors such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, moisture, particle size that have been considered relevant in the monitoring of the composting process were elucidated. Relevant strategies to improve and optimize process effectiveness were also addressed. However, during composting, some challenges such as leachate generation, gas emission and lack of uniformity in assessing maturity indices are imminent. Here in, these challenges were properly addressed and some strategies towards ameliorating them were proffered. Finally, we highlighted some recent technologies that could improve composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on mechanisms of biosurfactant-enhanced composting technology for waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.Y.; Huang, G.H.; Chen, B.; Xi, B.D.; Maqsood, I. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Composting is increasingly being used for solid waste treatment. The efficiency of solid waste composting might be enhanced using biosurfactants produced by microbial activities. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of biosurfactant on solid waste biodegradation throughout the composting process. The method employed involves shredding solid waste, followed by a treatment in an 8-litre (L) batch reactor. Biosurfactant production was monitored daily along with characteristics and maturity degree. Surface tension and emulsification capacity were of particular concern. The measurement of indices such as humic acid carbon (CHA) and fulvic acid carbon (CFA) were used to evaluate the maturity degree. The results indicated that the highest level of biosurfactant concentration was achieved on the third day, and within two days, related emulsification capacity reached its peak. This study confirmed the presence of biosurfactants and their function during the composting process. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg strain W 775 during composting of biowastes and garden wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceustermans, A; De Clercq, D; Aertsen, A; Michiels, C; Geeraerd, A; Van Impe, J; Coosemans, J; Ryckeboer, J

    2007-07-01

    Determination of the minimum requirements (time-temperature relationship and moisture content) that are needed for a sufficient eradication of an indicator organism. To determine the hygienic safety of composting processes, the indicator organism Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serotype Senftenberg strain W 775 (further abbreviated as W 775) was artificially inoculated on a meat carrier and monitored subsequently. Different types of composting processes, e.g. composting in enclosed facilities, in open-air and in-vessel composting, were investigated. The waste feedstocks used in this work were either biowastes (i.e. vegetable, fruit and garden wastes; also called source-separated household wastes) or pure garden wastes. Beside these large-scale trials, we also conducted some lab experiments in order to determine the impact of temperature, moisture content and the presence of an indigenous microflora on the eradication of W 775. We found the temperature to be the most important parameter to eradicate W 775 from compost. When the temperature of the compost heap is 60 degrees C and the moisture content varies between 60-65%, W 775 (10(8) CFU g(-1)) will be inactivated within 10 h of composting. The moisture content is, beside temperature, a second parameter that influences the survival of W 775. When the water content of the composting materials or meat carriers is reduced, a higher survival rate of W 775 was observed (survival rate increases 0.5 log(10) unit when there is a reduction of 5% in moisture content). In addition, other parameters (such as microbial antagonism, toxic compounds, etc.) have an influence on the survival of W 775 as well. Our study demonstrates that all types of composting processes tested in this work were sufficient to eradicate W 775 providing that they are well managed in terms of temperature and moisture content. To give a better view on the parameters of importance for the eradication of W 775 during composting.

  10. Evolution of organic matter during the mesophilic composting of lignocellulosic winery wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2013-02-15

    Winery wastes were composted in the laboratory during five months in order to study the composting process of lignocellulosic wastes. In a first experiment, spent grape marc was composted alone, and in a second one, hydrolyzed grape marc, which is the residue generated after the acid hydrolysis of spent grape marc for biotechnological purposes, was composted together with vinification lees. During the composting of spent grape marc, total organic matter did not change, and as total N increased only slightly (from 1.7% to 1.9%), the reduction in the C/N ratio was very low (from 31 to 28). The mixture of hydrolyzed grape marc and lees showed bigger changes, reaching a C/N ratio around 20 from the third month on. Water-soluble organic matter followed the usual trend during composting, showing a progressive decrease in both experiments. Although the mixture of hydrolyzed grape marc and lees presented the highest initial water-soluble carbon concentrations, the final values for both experiments were similar (8.1 g kg(-1) for the spent grape marc, and 9.1 g kg(-1) for the mixture). The analysis of the humification parameters did not allow an adequate description of the composting process, maybe as a consequence of the inherent problems existing with alkaline extractions. The total humic substances, which usually increase during composting as a consequence of the humification process, followed no trend, and they were even reduced with respect to the initial values. Notwithstanding, the fractionation of organic matter into cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin enabled a better monitoring of the waste decomposition. Cellulose and hemicellulose were degraded mainly during the first three months of composting, and the progressive reduction of the cellulose/lignin ratio proved that the main evolution of these wastes took place during the first three months of composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Micaela A. R.; Quina, Margarida M. J.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporati...

  12. Anaerobic composting of waste organic fraction. Compostaje anaerobico de la fraccion organica de los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, L. de; Verdonck, O.; Verstraete, W.

    1994-01-01

    The dry anaerobic composting can be carried out in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Gas production of 6,2 and 8.5 m''3 biogas m''3 daily in laboratory fermenters was obtained. The quality of waste is higher than obtained in aerobic process. The streptococcus sludge was destroyed. This experimental can be applied for big scale and it permits energy recovery and organic compost of municipal solid wastes. (Author)

  13. Effects of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure on some soil physical properties and lettuce yield

    OpenAIRE

    Çerçioğlu, Melis; Okur, Bülent; Delibacak, Sezai; Ongun, Ali Rıza

    2008-01-01

    This research was held in Agriculture Faculty of Ege University Menemen Investigation and Practise Farmyard. Tobacco waste gathered from cigarette industry were composted and applied to the soil together with farmyard manure. lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was grown as test plant. No mineral fertilizers or pestisides were applied. The effects of composted tobacco wastes and farmyard manures on soil physical properties and lettuce yield were investigated. All application...

  14. Composting of tobacco plant waste by manual turning and forced aeration system

    OpenAIRE

    Nonglak Saithep

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of tobacco plant waste composting, by the manual turning and the forced aeration system, was compared. Tobacco plant waste, cow manure, urea fertiliser, and a compost inoculum mixture at a 100:10:0.2:0.01 ratio respectively, with 60% (w/v) moisture content, were set up in piling forms. The piles of the manual turning system were provided with turning aeration by hand at intervals of 7 days during the composting process. For the forced aeration system, each pile was aerated by a...

  15. Substrate composition and moisture in composting source-separated human faeces and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwagaba, C; Nalubega, M; Vinnerås, B; Sundberg, C; Jönsson, H

    2009-04-14

    The composting of a faeces/ash mixture and food waste in relative proportions of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:3 was studied in three successive experiments conducted in Kampala, Uganda in 216 L reactors insulated with 75 mm styrofoam or not insulated. The faeces/ash mixture alone exceeded 50 degrees C for composting and ways of decreasing substrate moisture should be investigated. The results obtained are applicable to the management of small- to medium-scale composting of faeces/ash and food waste at household and institution levels, e.g. schools and restaurants.

  16. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  17. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yongqiang; Chen Liming; Gao Lihong; Michel, Frederick C.; Wan Caixia; Li Yebo; Dick, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55–74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible. - Highlights: ► Melamine resin in waste paint sludges could be efficiently composted at bench scale. ► Melamine resin degradation after 147 days of composting was 73–95% complete. ► Nutrients, gypsum and melamine-degrading microorganisms increased composting rate. ► Melamine degradation products first increased and then decreased in the compost. ► Final compost was enriched in nitrogen and other essential plant nutrients. - Melamine resin in waste paint sludges was efficiently composted at bench scale, with finished composts having low levels of heavy metals and enriched in plant nutrients.

  18. Struvite for composting of agricultural wastes with termite mound: Utilizing the unutilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Das, Kuntal

    2015-01-01

    Although, compost is the store house of different plant nutrients, there is a concern for low amount of major nutrients especially nitrogen content in prepared compost. The present study deals with preparation of compost by using agricultural wastes with struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) along with termite mound. Among four composting mixtures, 50kg termite mound and 2.5kg struvite with crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65kg; soybean: 354.59kg; potato: 357.67kg and mustard: 373.19kg) and cow dung (84.90kg) formed a good quality compost within 70days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 21.59, 3.98 and 34.6gkg(-1), respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the composts. The four composts formed two (pit 1, pit 2 and pit 3, pit 4) different groups. Two principal components expressed more than 97% of the total variability. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted two homogeneous groups of composts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth of eucalyptus rooted cuttings in toxic organic waste compost of textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBiodegradation techniques may help contaminated organic wastes to become useful for plant production. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of composting in the biodegradation of toxic residues from the textile industry and its use as substrate in saplings production. Cotton cloths contaminated with oil and grease, used in loom maintenance, were composted in a mixture with cattle manure. The composted material replaced coconut fiber in the substrate for the production of eucalyptus rooted cuttings: mixture of vermiculite, carbonized rice husk and coconut fiber in the ratio of 2:1:1 (v/v and using it as control. Thus, the amount of rice husks remained unchanged and the amount of vermiculite and compost varied. The compost proportion in the tested substrates were 0, 19, 37, 56 and 75%. The compost produced from textile wastes showed high nutrient levels and low levels of heavy metals. In general, the survival, growth and some growth indices of rooted cuttings produced on substrates with 19 and 37% compost were similar to those of rooted cuttings grown in commercial substrate. Composting is efficient and the material is useful for rooted cuttings production.

  20. Effects of pH and microbial composition on odour in food waste composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Yu, Dan; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid; Kauppi, Sari; Smårs, Sven; Insam, Heribert; Romantschuk, Martin; Jönsson, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    A major problem for composting plants is odour emission. Slow decomposition during prolonged low-pH conditions is a frequent process problem in food waste composting. The aim was to investigate correlations between low pH, odour and microbial composition during food waste composting. Samples from laboratory composting experiments and two large scale composting plants were analysed for odour by olfactometry, as well as physico-chemical and microbial composition. There was large variation in odour, and samples clustered in two groups, one with low odour and high pH (above 6.5), the other with high odour and low pH (below 6.0). The low-odour samples were significantly drier, had lower nitrate and TVOC concentrations and no detectable organic acids. Samples of both groups were dominated by Bacillales or Actinobacteria, organisms which are often indicative of well-functioning composting processes, but the high-odour group DNA sequences were similar to those of anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic species, not to typical thermophilic composting species. High-odour samples also contained Lactobacteria and Clostridia, known to produce odorous substances. A proposed odour reduction strategy is to rapidly overcome the low pH phase, through high initial aeration rates and the use of additives such as recycled compost. PMID:23122203

  1. Effects of bean dregs and crab shell powder additives on the composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2018-07-01

    Composting is an effective and economic technology for the recycling of organic waste. In this study, bean dregs (BD) (at 0, 35, and 45%) and crab shell powder (CSP) (at 0, 15, and 25%) were evaluated as additives during the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The GW used in this experiment mainly consisted of branch cuttings collected during the maintenance of the urban green landscape. Combined additions of BD and CSP improved composting conditions and compost quality in terms of composting temperature, specific surface area, average pore diameter, pH and EC values, carbon dioxide release, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, E 4 /E 6 ratio, elemental composition and atomic ratios, organic matter degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, compost phytotoxicity, and environmental and economic benefits. The combined addition of 35% BD and 25% CSP to the two-stage composting of GW resulted in the highest quality compost product in only 22 days. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chinese medicinal herbal residues as a bulking agent for food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to co-compost Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) as the bulking agent with food waste (FW) to develop a high value antipathogenic compost. The FW, sawdust (SD) and CMHRs were mixed at three different mixing ratios, 5:5:1, 2:2:1 and 1:1:1 on dry weight basis. Lime at 2.25% was added to the composting mix to buffer the pH during the composting. A control without lime addition was also included. The mixtures were composted in 20-L in-vessel composters for 56 days. A maximum of 67.2% organic decomposition was achieved with 1:1:1 mixing ratio within 8 weeks. The seed germination index was 157.2% in 1:1:1 mixing ratio, while other ratios showed compost food waste at the dry weight ratio of 1:1:1 (FW: SD: CMHRs) was recommended for FW-CMHRs composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Composting of tobacco plant waste by manual turning and forced aeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonglak Saithep

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of tobacco plant waste composting, by the manual turning and the forced aeration system, was compared. Tobacco plant waste, cow manure, urea fertiliser, and a compost inoculum mixture at a 100:10:0.2:0.01 ratio respectively, with 60% (w/v moisture content, were set up in piling forms. The piles of the manual turning system were provided with turning aeration by hand at intervals of 7 days during the composting process. For the forced aeration system, each pile was aerated by a 3-HP air pump with a flow rate of 19 litres min-1 for 15 minutes every morning and evening. The completely randomised design of turned and force-aerated piles was performed in triplicate. The composting activity of both systems during the composting period was measured by several parameters: temperature, pH, moisture content, C/N ratio, growth of microorganisms, cellulase activity, and nicotine degradation in the set-up piles. Both systems had similar temperature, pH, and moisture content conditions in the piles during the composting process. However, the forced aeration system was more advantageous for the growth of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, for cellulase activity from cellulase-producing microorganisms, and for nicotine degradation, when compared to the manual turning system. In conclusion, the forced aeration system was more efficient than the manual turning system in composting and is a viable alternative method for the composting process.

  4. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  5. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    , but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products...... organic wastes has been proposed as a potential strategy to reduce gaseous emissions, and is increasingly being used to handle large volumes of surplus manure in areas of intensive livestock production. Composting appears to have the potential for minimising gaseous emissions from organic wastes....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...

  6. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  7. Effect of moisture content on fed batch composting reactor of vegetable and fruit wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanun, B; Tripetchkul, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chaiprasert, P; Towprayoon, S

    2005-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit wastes mixed with sawdust were composted in a laboratory scale reactor by controlling the waste feeding rate at 21 kg m(-3) day(-1) and aeration rate at 10.6 l m(-3) min(-1). The effects of initial moisture content on organic matter degradation and process performance of fed batch composting were investigated. The absolute amount of removal, removal percentage, and removal rate of dry mass obtained were substantially different among the initial moisture contents. The rapid rise of moisture content and the lowest absolute amount of removal observed were achieved in the 50% condition. The initial moisture content yielding the largest absolute amount of removal in both feeding and curing stage was 30% whereas the removal percentage and rate constant of waste decomposition were highest in the 50% condition. Examined by traditional soil physics method, the moisture content at 50-55% was suitable for satisfying the degree of free air space (65-70%) of compost during the fed batch composting. Most degradable organic matter was mainly consumed in the feeding stage as indicated by a higher removal rate of dry mass in all cases. It is recommended that the initial moisture content of 30% and mode of aeration and agitation should be adopted for achieving practical fed batch composting of vegetable and fruit wastes. The study also demonstrated that the composting kinetics of vegetable and fruit wastes mixed with sawdust can be described by a first order model.

  8. Microbiology of Composting Pig Waste: Comparison of Vermicomposting and Open Heap Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogefere, H. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of an effective waste management, microbiological studies of composting pig waste were investigated. Freshly deposited excreta from confined pigs in a private pig farm in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria were composted by two aerobic methods – vermicomposting and open heap. Microbial (bacterial and fungal counts and characterization were carried out periodically within the 40 weeks of composting, using standard techniques. The results showed that only duration of composting significantly (p<.0.05 affected microbial counts as the counts decreased from the initial value at week zero to much lower value at week 40. A total of 274 bacterial and fungal isolates were recovered from the composting waste and majority (60.58% were isolated from the open heap. Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus flavus were the predominant isolates recovered (9.49% each, and were the only isolates recovered throughout the period of composting irrespective of the composting technique. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were the least isolated (1.09% each. Vermicomposting technique was recommended on health and environmental grounds.

  9. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčić, Nina; Vuković Domanovac, Marija; Kučić, Dajana; Briški, Felicita

    2014-02-01

    Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physical-chemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min(-1). During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a "mirror image" of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5h after the peak oxygen consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of N2O and CH4 from the aerated composting of food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Sun, T.; Inamori, Y.; Mizuochi, M.; Kong, H.; Iwami, N.

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 from an aerated composting system were investigated using small-scale simulated reactors. The results show relatively high emissions of N 2 O at the beginning of composting, in proportion to the application amount of food waste. After 2 days, the N 2 O emission decreased to 0.53 ppmv on average, near to the background level in the atmosphere (0.45 ppmv). The addition of composted cattle manure increased N 2 O emissions not only at the beginning of composting, but also during the later period and resulted in two peak emission curves. Good correlation was observed between the N 2 O concentration at the air outlet and NO 2 - concentration in waste, suggesting a generation pathway for N 2 O from NO 2 - to N 2 O. Methane was only detected in treatments containing composted cattle manure. The high emission of methane illustrates the involvement of anoxic/anaerobic microorganisms with the addition of composted manure. The result suggests the existence of anoxic or anaerobic microsite inside the waste particles even though ventilation was employed during the composting process

  11. Developing Optimal Combination of Bulking Agents in an In-Vessel Composting of Vegetable Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Monson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the optimum combination of feed stock components for composting the organic solid waste, a prerequisite for effective microbial degradation and for obtaining quality compost. Combination of dry leaves with locally available bulking agents like sawdust, wood shavings, paddy straw, sugarcane bagasse and rice husk are composted along with vegetable waste in a laboratory scale reactor for the study. The central core of composting process is replicated in controlled conditions in the in-vessel by keeping initial feed stock C/N ratio fixed between 30 and 35. The study is monitored for 14 days for the variations in temperature, pH, moisture and macronutrients C and N of the compost. It is found that composting vegetable waste with the combination of paddy straw and dry leaves provided best results of C/N ratio of 17.58 confirming that, if right feedstock components are provided, an effective environment for the growth of microorganisms is achieved to accelerate the process to produce a resultant C/N ratio acceptable to be used as compost.

  12. Home composting using different ratios of bulking agent to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni; Marques, Roger Vasques; Moncks, Rodrigo Bilhalva; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; da Paz, Matheus Francisco; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2018-02-01

    The negative environmental impacts associated with home composting may be due to the absence of a defined operation criteria for the degradation process. In addition to the potentially low environmental impact in terms of energy and water usage, which is minimal to the manufacture of the composting unit and avoiding the processing and transportation of waste or byproduct, composting at home can also promote a reduction in the emission of unpleasant gases. The proportion of the food waste and bulking agents in the composting mixture may be decisive to fulfill good practices of waste stabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate how different ratios of bulking agent and organic household waste can affect the progress and outcome of the composting process. Three treatments, varying in the ratio of rice husk: raw fruit and vegetable leftovers (70:30, 50:50, 30:70; v:v) were used in a home composting system on a pilot scale. Results show that the proportion of starting materials used in the composting mixture influenced the degradation of organic matter, nitrogen dynamics of the process and its toxicity on germinating plants. The proportions with greater amounts of food waste had higher concentrations of mineral matter, higher peak temperature, and a better initial carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, while the proportion containing 70% of bulking agent lacked odors and leachate generation and showed a low nitrogen loss. A higher proportion of food waste presented better conditions for microbiological development and less time to obtain characteristics of matured composts. A higher proportion of bulking agents resulted in favorable conditions for household handling and less potential for environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  14. Evaluation of physical, chemical and heavy metal concentration of food waste composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food waste composting with rice husk and coconut fibre as compost medium were carried out. Two types of different fermentation liquids were prepared which were fermented liquid (banana peel and fermented liquid from fermented soybeans. During the composting process, a compost samples for a twenty week duration at an interval time of two weeks. Among the physico-chemical parameters that were tested were temperature, moisture content, pH value, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, Potassium and Total Organic Carbon and Carbon Nitrogen ratio. Heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and arsenic were observed and analysed. From this study, it was found that, the temperature increased during the thermophilic phase while there was gradually increase of Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous and Potassium from the beginning till the end of the composting process. It was also found that the total organic carbon (TOC and the carbon nitrogen ratio decreased significantly during the decomposition process. Traces amounts of heavy metals were also detected and remains below the standard Malaysian Environmental regulations. It was concluded that, the composting process was faster with processed food waste followed by combination of processed food waste and raw. Raw food waste were demonstrated the lowest degradation rate.

  15. Role of psychrotrophic bacteria in organic domestic waste composting in cold regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ning; Wen, Luming; Cao, Huiming; Liu, Keran; An, Xuejiao; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Hailan; Du, Xiaopeng; Li, Chunyan

    2017-07-01

    To study the influence of psychrotrophic bacteria on organic domestic waste (ODW) composting in cold regions, twelve new efficient psychrotrophic composting strains were isolated. Together with the published representative composting strains, a phylogenetic tree was constructed showing that although the strains belong to the same phylum, the genera were markedly different. The twelve strains were inoculated into the ODW in the composting reactor at 13°C. After treatment, the indices of temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, C/N, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the compost had reached maturity. The thermophilic phase was reached at 17d, and composting was completed at 42d, a markedly shorter composting time than that in previous studies. High-throughput sequencing indicated that the inoculative strains became the dominant community during the mesophilic phase and that they enhanced the stability of the microbial community structure. Thus, psychrotrophic bacteria played a key role in low-temperature composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida M J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2013-11-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporation of 30% (w/w) ES in a composting mixture did not affect mixture biodegradability, nor its capacity to reach sanitizing temperatures. After 25 days of composting, ES addition caused a nitrogen loss of about 10 g N kg(-1) of initial volatile solids, thus reducing nitrogen nutritional potential of the finished compost. This study showed that a composting mixture with a significant proportion of ES (30% w/w) may be converted into calcium-rich marketable compost to neutralize soil acidity and/or calcium deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  18. Chemical changes of spinach waste during composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering this, the present study was planned to prepare compost and vermicompost of spinach collected from the supermarket of Amritsar and to estimate various chemical changes; nitrates, phosphates, sodium, potassium, calcium and pH during its composting and vermicomposting. It was observed that fresh vegetable ...

  19. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopčić, Nina, E-mail: nkopcic@fkit.hr; Vuković Domanovac, Marija; Kučić, Dajana; Briški, Felicita

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Apple and tobacco waste mixture was efficiently composted during 22 days. • Physical–chemical and microbiological properties of the mixture were suitable the process. • Evaluation of selected mathematical model showed good prediction of the temperature. • The temperature curve was a “mirror image” of the oxygen concentration curve. • The peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption. - Abstract: Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physical–chemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min{sup −1}. During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a “mirror image” of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption.

  20. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopčić, Nina; Vuković Domanovac, Marija; Kučić, Dajana; Briški, Felicita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apple and tobacco waste mixture was efficiently composted during 22 days. • Physical–chemical and microbiological properties of the mixture were suitable the process. • Evaluation of selected mathematical model showed good prediction of the temperature. • The temperature curve was a “mirror image” of the oxygen concentration curve. • The peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption. - Abstract: Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physical–chemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min −1 . During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a “mirror image” of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption

  1. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Adamcová; Magdalena Vaverková

    2016-01-01

    In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba) plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retard...

  2. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  3. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottle, Troy A.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Landis, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO 2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO 2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO 2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the

  4. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottle, Troy A., E-mail: troy.hottle@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 370 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States); Bilec, Melissa M., E-mail: mbilec@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 153 Benedum Hall, 3700 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261-3949 (United States); Brown, Nicholas R., E-mail: nick.brown@asu.edu [Arizona State University, University Sustainability Practices, 1130 East University Drive, Suite 206, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Landis, Amy E., E-mail: amy.landis@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 375 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  5. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model.

  6. Bioaerosol releases from compost facilities: Evaluating passive and active source terms at a green waste facility for improved risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Longhurst, P. J.; Smith, R.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    The passive and active release of bioaerosols during green waste composting, measured at source is reported for a commercial composting facility in South East (SE) England as part of a research programme focused on improving risk assessments at composting facilities. Aspergillus fumigatus and actinomycetes concentrations of 9.8-36.8×10 6 and 18.9-36.0×10 6 cfu m -3, respectively, measured during the active turning of green waste compost, were typically 3-log higher than previously reported concentrations from static compost windrows. Source depletion curves constructed for A. fumigatus during compost turning and modelled using SCREEN3 suggest that bioaerosol concentrations could reduce to background concentrations of 10 3 cfu m -3 within 100 m of this site. Authentic source term data produced from this study will help to refine the risk assessment methodologies that support improved permitting of compost facilities.

  7. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O 2 concentration (p −1 (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%

  8. Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physicochemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Shuqi; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhao, Tingning; Zhang, Bolin

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. The results showed that the most abundant phyla among the treatments were the Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The shannon index and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed higher bacterial abundance and diversity at the metaphase of composting. Comparing with 5-mm treatments, particle size of 2-mm had a richer diversity of bacterial communities. The addition of cellulase and a microbial inoculum could promote the fermentation temperature, reduce the compost pH and C/N ratio and result in higher GI index. The humic substance (HS) and humic acid (HA) contents for 2-mm particle size treatments were higher than those of 5-mm treatments. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that differences in bacterial abundance and diversity significantly correlated with HA, E 4 /E 6 and temperature, and the relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was affected by composting stages. Based on these results, the application of cellulase to promote green waste composting was feasible, and particle size was identified as a potential control of composting physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hazard to man and the environment posed by the use of urban waste compost: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deportes, Isabelle; Benoit-Guyod, Jean-Louis [Gedexe, Meylan (France); Zmirou, Denis [Public Health Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Joseph Fourier University, La Tronche (France)

    1995-09-29

    This review presents the current state of knowledge on the relationship between the environment and the use of municipal waste compost in terms of health risk assessment. The hazards stem from chemical and microbiological agents whose nature and magnitude depend heavily on the degree of sorting and on the composting methods. Three main routes of exposure can be determined and are quantified in the literature: (1) The ingestion of soil/compost mixtures by children, mostly in cases of pica, can be a threat because of the amount of lead, chromium, cadmium, PCDD/F and fecal streptococci that can be absorbed; (2) Though concern about contamination through the food chain is weak when compost is used in agriculture, some authors anticipate accumulation of pollutants after several years of disposal, which might lead to future hazards; (3) Exposure is also associated with atmospheric dispersion of compost organic dust that convey microorganisms and toxicants. Data on hazard posed by organic dust from municipal composts to the farmer or the private user is scarce. To date, microorganisms are only measured at composting plants, thus raising the issue of extrapolation to environmental situations. Lung damage and allergies may occur because of organic dust, Gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Further research is needed on the risk related to inhalation of chemical compounds

  11. 2 Influence of Composted Organic Waste.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Fertilization on Rice Yield, N-Use Efficiency and Soil. Chemical .... Effect of compost and urea fertilizers on panicles per m , spikelets per panicle, 1000 seeds weight, percentage of filled grains and grain yield. Year. Treatment. Panicles.

  12. Role of biochar on composting of organic wastes and remediation of contaminated soils-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; He, Huijun; Inthapanya, Xayanto; Yang, Chunping; Lu, Li; Zeng, Guangming; Han, Zhenfeng

    2017-07-01

    Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of biomass residues under limited oxygen conditions. In recent years, biochar as an amendment has received increasing attention on composting and soil remediation, due to its unique properties such as chemical recalcitrance, high porosity and sorption capacity, and large surface area. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the chemical characteristics (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen loss, decomposition and humification of organic matter) and microbial community structure during composting of organic wastes. This review also discusses the use of biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals as well as related mechanisms. Besides its aging, the effects of biochar on the environment fate and efficacy of pesticides deserve special attention. Moreover, the combined application of biochar and compost affects synergistically on soil remediation and plant growth. Future research needs are identified to ensure a wide application of biochar in composting and soil remediation. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.

  14. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase.

  15. Bacterial and fungal communities and contribution of physicochemical factors during cattle farm waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-12-01

    During composting, the composition of microbial communities is subject to constant change owing to interactions with fluctuating physicochemical parameters. This study explored the changes in bacterial and fungal communities during cattle farm waste composting and aimed to identify and prioritize the contributing physicochemical factors. Microbial community compositions were determined by high-throughput sequencing. While the predominant phyla in the bacterial and fungal communities were largely consistent during the composting, differences in relative abundances were observed. Bacterial and fungal community diversity and relative abundance varied significantly, and inversely, over time. Relationships between physicochemical factors and microbial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The variation in bacterial community composition was significantly related to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and pile temperature and moisture (p composts. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Composting of selected organic wastes from peri-urban areas of Harare, Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhindu, RL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of selected o e a se f pi d degradation, atmospheric pollution, soil health, soil bio- waste and rely on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Mhindu et al. International Journal Of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 2013, : http... is an important source of organic matter. Soil organic matter improves physico-chemical and biological properties and Composting as a waste management strategy has multiple benefits for peri-urban agriculture considering the scarcity of animal manures among small...

  17. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  18. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Possibility to Use Urban Organic Waste for Compost or Biogas Productions. Application to Rosario City, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Vega, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    The city waste is one of the main urban problems to be solved, since they generate large impacts on the environment, like use of land, contamination of the soil, water and air, and human diseases, among others. In Rosario city, placed in the Argentina Humid Pampa and having about 1 million inhabitants, the Municipality is developing different strategies in order to reduce the waste impact (295 000 Tons in 2016). One of the most important actions was the construction of the Bella Vista compost plant in 2012 (within the largest in South America). In the present work we analysed the possibility to use urban organic waste (that for Rosario city represents about 58% of the total waste in the last years) for: a) compost production and b) biogas production, with compost as a by-product. We determined the produced compost and biogas and the corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, considering three possible scenarios: A reference scenario (Sr ) where 24 100 Tons of urban solid waste per year is transported from the city houses and buildings to a transfer landfill and then to the a final disposal landfill; a scenario number one (S1 ) in which the same fraction of waste is transported to the Compost plant and transformed to compost and a scenario number two (S2 ) where the same quantity of waste is used for the production of biogas (and compost). Applying the IPCC 2006 Model, we compare the results of the annual GHG emissions, in order to select the best alternative: to expand the Compost plant or to build a Biogas (plus compost) plant. We also discussed the extension of the present analysis to the situation in which all the capability of the Compost plant (25% of the 2016 waste production of the city) is used and the impact these plants are having for a better quality of life of persons involved in the informal waste activity.

  20. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, I-F.; Tsai, C.-J.; Shen, S.-H.; Lin, T.-F.; Chen, W.-K.; Chen, M.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH 3 , amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery

  1. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, I-F. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ifmao@ym.edu.tw; Tsai, C.-J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-H. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-K. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-L. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH{sub 3}, amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery.

  2. Synergistic effect of fly ash in in-vessel composting of biomass and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Vivek; Mandpe, Ashootosh; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to utilize coal fly ash for its property to adsorb heavy metals and thus reducing the bioavailability of the metals for plant uptake. Fly ash was incorporated into the in-vessel composting system along with organic waste. The in-vessel composting experiments were conducted in ten plastic vessels of 15 L capacity comprising varying proportions of biomass waste, kitchen waste and fly ash. In this study, maximum degradation of organic matter was observed in Vessel 3 having k value of 0.550 d -1 . In vessel 10, 20% fly ash with a combination of 50% biomass waste and 30% kitchen waste along with the addition of 5% jaggery as an additive produced the best outcome with least organic matter (%C) loss and lowest value of rate constant (k). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Windrow Composting of Garden Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Boldrin, Alessio; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    to evaluate three methods for quantifying GHG emissions from central composting of garden waste. Two small-scale methods were used at a windrow composting facility: a static flux chamber method and a funnel method. Mass balance calculations based on measurements of the C content in the in- and out...... tool for accounting for C losses and, therefore, we believe that the method is Suitable for measuring GHG emissions from composting facilities. The total emissions were found to be 2.4 +/- 0.5 kg CH4-C Mg-1 wet waste (ww) and 0.06 +/- 0.03 kg N2O-N Mg-1 ww from a facility treating 15,540 Mg of garden...

  4. Municipal solid wastes composting: Estrela (Brasil); Compostaje de residuos solidos municipales: el ejemplo de Estrela, brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, O.; Bezama, A.; Navia, R.; Lorber, K. E.

    2002-07-01

    In Estrela, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, an improved separation system for the municipal solid wastes was implemented. The objective is to enhance the performance of the composting process of the solid wastes. In the original separation system, the fractions corresponding to organic matter, recyclable materials and the light-weight fraction (destined to sanitary landfill) were obtained, where the organic fraction reached a 70%. This fraction was destined to a composting process which after 80 days of processing was still in the thermophilic stage and had to be later stabilized through a worm composting process. In order to improve this situation, a modified system was proposed and implemented. In this way, four fractions were obtained during the separation process: a light fraction destined to sanitary land filling, a recyclable materials fraction and two organic fractions. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Improvement of home composting process of food waste using different minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, M; Psarras, K; Panaretou, V; Thanos, A G; Malamis, D; Sotiropoulos, A

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the experimental study of the process of composting in a prototype home-scale system with a special focus on process improvement by using different additives (i.e. woodchips, perlite, vermiculite and zeolite). The interventions with different bulking agents were realized through composting cycles using substrates with 10% additives in specific mixtures of kitchen waste materials. The pre-selected proportion of the mixtures examined was 3:1:1 in cellulosic:proteins:carbohydrates, in order to achieve an initial C/N ratio equal to 30. The control of the initial properties of the examined substrates aimed at the consequent improvement of the properties of the final product (compost). The results indicated that composting process was enhanced with the use of additives and especially the case of zeolite and perlite provided the best results, in terms of efficient temperature evolution (>55 °C for 4 consecutive days). Carbon to nitrogen ratios decreased by 40% from the initial values for the reactors were minerals were added, while for the bioreactor tested with woodchips the reduction was slight, showing slowest degradation rate. Moisture content of produced compost varied within the range of 55-64% d.m., while nutrient content (K, Na, Ca, Mg) was in accordance with the limit values reported in literature. Finally, the composts obtained, exhibited a satisfactory degree of maturity, fulfilling the criterion related to the absence of phytotoxic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  7. Effects of Different Addition Amounts of Superphosphate on Vegetable Waste Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different addition amounts of superphosphate on vegetable waste compost were studied. Results showed that, addition of superphosphate improved the temperature during the compost. It had the highest temperature of 64.33℃, when the addition quantity of superphosphate was 10.26% of dry matter weight. At the end of the composting, adding superphosphate had no significant effect on C/N, however, it decreased pH and improved the EC of the compost. The EC values were significantly higher than CK, when the addition amount was be tween 4.10%and 10.26%of dry matter weight. When the addition below 10.26%, the GI values were significantly higher than CK(P<0.01, and the highest value was 105.61%, when the addition was 2.05%(S5. Adding superphosphate significantly reduced the nitrogen loss rate of composting(P<0.05, and the lowest was 23.94%,when the addition was 2.05%, meanwhile, the input-output ratio was 3.93, which was the highest value. Under this experimental condition, adding superphosphate promoted the compost maturity significantly, reduced the nitrogen loss rate, and the optimal addition of superphosphate was 2.05%of dry matter weight.

  8. Nutrients dynamics of co-composting poultry litter with fast food wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.; Chaudhary, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Co-composting of poultry litter (PL) and fast food waste (FFW) in different combinations was carried out to explore the nutrient dynamics. The PL and FFW were co-composted in pits of dimensions 2 m*2 m*1.5 m (L*W*D) in ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, respectively, for a period of 105 days. Co-composts of PL and FFW in a 50:50 ratio yielded highest total nitrogen (3.63%), total phosphorus (0.81%), and total potassium (3.40%) levels in the mature compost after 105 days of composting period. Carbon to nitrogen ratio for this combination was 18.33, which is suitable for safe land application. Present study identified PL and FFW co-composting in equal proportions yields maximum N, P and K levels with suitable C:N ratio which may be applied to soils to meet crop nutrient demands and enhanced agricultural productivity. (author)

  9. Design of experiment (DOE) based screening of factors affecting municipal solid waste (MSW) composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Khoshrooz; Zhang, Baiyu; Lye, Leonard M; Cai, Qinghong; Cao, Tong

    2016-12-01

    A design of experiment (DOE) based methodology was adopted in this study to investigate the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on the performance of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting process. The impact of four factors, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), moisture content (MC), type of bulking agent (BA) and aeration rate (AR) on the maturity, stability and toxicity of compost product was investigated. The statistically significant factors were identified using final C/N, germination index (GI) and especially the enzyme activities as responses. Experimental results validated the use of enzyme activities as proper indices during the course of composting. Maximum enzyme activities occurred during the active phase of decomposition. MC has a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity (DGH), β-glucosidase activity (BGH), phosphodiesterase activity (PDE) and the final moisture content of the compost. C/N is statistically significant for final C/N, DGH, BGH, and GI. The results provided guidance to optimize a MSW composting system that will lead to increased decomposition rate and the production of more stable and mature compost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and Microbial Dynamics during Composting of Herbal Pharmaceutical Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Zameer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to analyze the dynamics of chemical, biochemical and microbial parameters during composting of herbal pharmaceutical waste. All the parameters were analyzed at three different intervals of composting (1st, 15th and 60th days. Temperature of the compost pile was initially high (46.2 °C and on 60th day it dropped to 33.3 °C. The pH of the sample was initially acidic (2.39 and with the progress of decomposition gradually changed to neutrality (7.55. Electrical conductivity (EC value was high (3.8 mS during last day of composting compared to other stages. The activity of degradative enzymes namely amylase, invertase and urease were initially high (4.1, 4.79 mg of glucose/g/h and 0.19 mg of ammonia/g/h respectively while it decreased with composting. The beneficial microbial load was initially low and very high at the last stages of decomposition. The bioassay studies using compost extracts revealed that the 60th day old sample was not phytotoxic in nature.

  11. Effect of inoculation dosing on the composting of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Gómez, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a commercial inoculum (MicroGest 10X, Brookside Agra L.C.) on the field-scale composting of the source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have been studied by following routine parameters of the composting process (temperature, oxygen content and moisture) and biologically-related tests such as the respirometric index and the maturity grade. The inoculum was added to composting piles of OFMSW at different levels: control (no added inoculum), treatment A...

  12. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the composting of different waste matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Martini, Luca Matteo; Corrà, Cesare; Scapinello, Marco; Coller, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo; Ragazzi, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The complaints arising from the problem of odorants released by composting plants may impede the construction of new composting facilities, preclude the proper activity of existing facilities or even lead to their closure, with negative implications for waste management and local economy. Improving the knowledge on VOC emissions from composting processes is of particular importance since different VOCs imply different odour impacts. To this purpose, three different organic matrices were studied in this work: dewatered sewage sludge (M1), digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (M2) and untreated food waste (M3). The three matrices were aerobically biodegraded in a bench-scale bioreactor simulating composting conditions. A homemade device sampled the process air from each treatment at defined time intervals. The samples were analysed for VOC detection. The information on the concentrations of the detected VOCs was combined with the VOC-specific odour thresholds to estimate the relative weight of each biodegraded matrix in terms of odour impact. When the odour formation was at its maximum, the waste gas from the composting of M3 showed a total odour concentration about 60 and 15,000 times higher than those resulting from the composting of M1 and M2, respectively. Ethyl isovalerate showed the highest contribution to the total odour concentration (>99%). Terpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) were abundantly present in M2 and M3, while sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were the dominant components of M1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jara-Samaniego

    Full Text Available Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador, more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17 with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10 with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25 with C/N ratio 33, prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter

  14. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Samaniego, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Gavilanes-Terán, I; López, M; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Brito, H; Moral, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  15. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Climent, A.; Gomis, P.; Martín-Mata, J.; Bustamante, M. A.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Paredes, C.; Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio. PMID:26418458

  16. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  17. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  18. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...

  19. Effect of organic waste compost and microbial activity on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major problems of agricultural soils in the coastal areas of the Niger Delta is the low organic matter content. Therefore, land application of composted organic material as a fertilizer source not only provides essential nutrients to plants, it also improves soil quality and effectively disposes soil wastes. In this study ...

  20. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  1. Technical evaluation of two methods for composting of organic wastes to be used in domestic vegetables gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rooel; Brenes-Peralta, Laura; Jiménez-Morales, María Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The need to achieve organic waste management solutions has led to treatment options of waste like composting. This practice is defined as the transformation of organic wastes by biological means in controlled conditions; the result is a fertilizer or substrate which can be used in agriculture. In this investigation, a technical evaluation of two composting methods to be applied in home vegetable gardens was carried out. The first  method for degrading of residues evaluated consists in the add...

  2. Role of compostable tableware in food service and waste management. A life cycle assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieschi, Maurizio; Pretato, Ugo

    2018-03-01

    It is estimated that in Europe 88-100 million tonnes of food waste are generated every year, with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of around 227 MT of CO 2 equivalents generated for their collection and disposal. A 12% of this waste is estimated to arise from food service within the hospitality sector, which includes quick service restaurants, casual and fine dining, contract catering (canteens, prisons, hospitals, schools etc.) as well as indoor and outdoor events and exhibitions. Given this considerable amount and that the mixed unsorted collection is often the only practicable way to handle such waste flows, the choice of tableware and cutlery can make a big difference in facilitating waste collection as well as in reducing the overall environmental impact of food waste management. This study compares the environmental performance of using biodegradable & compostable single use tableware with organic recycling of food waste through composting against a traditional scenario using fossil-based plastic tableware and disposal of the waste flows through incineration and landfill. The study has taken into account the main requirements of the recently published Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) methodology of the European Commission. The results confirm that the use of biodegradable and compostable tableware combined with organic recycling is the preferred option for catering in quick service restaurants, contract catering and events, since it reduces significantly the carbon, water and resource footprint and is fully in line with the principles of a circular economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic composting of pyrethrum waste with and without effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    production through composting of solid pyrethrum remains after extraction of pyrethrins (marc). ... production of biogas at EM ratio 1:500 v/v, while biogas produced at EM ratio of 1:250 v/v ..... Handbook of Drinking Water Quality (2nd edition),.

  4. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Plant diseases are one of the seriously limiting factors of agriculture efficiency around the world. Diseases caused by fungi are the major threat to plants. Crop protection in modern agriculture heavily depends on chemical fungicides. Disadvantages of chemical pesticides soon became apparent as damage to the environment and a hazard to human health. In this regard use of biopesticides becomes an attractive alternative method of plant protection. For biological control of fungal plant diseases, separate bacterial or fungal strains as well as their communities can be used. Biopreparations must consist of microbes that are typical for local climate and soil conditions and therefore are able to survive in environments for a long time. Another option of plant pests' biological control is implementation of suppressive composts made of agricultural or other organic wastes. These composts can not only prevent the development of plant diseases, but also improve the soil fertility. The objective of this work was estimation of potential of composts and strains isolated from these composts as means for biological control of fusariosis that is one of the most widespread plant soil born disease. The composts were made up of the commonly produced agricultural wastes produced in Tatarstan Republic (Russia). Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was used as a model phytopathogen. Ten types of organic waste (Goat manure (GM), Chicken dung (CD), Chicken dung with straw addition (CS), Rabbit dung (RD), Cow manure (CM), Rerotting pork manure (RPM), Fresh pork manure (FPM), Pork manure with sawdust and straw (PMS), the remains of plants and leaves (PL), the vegetable waste (VW) were sampled in the big farms situated in Tatarstan Republic which is one of the main agricultural regions of Russia. The initial wastes were composted for 150 days. Further, the following characteristics of the composts were assessed: pH, electro conductivity, TOC, DOC, Ntot. On petri dishes with meat

  5. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  6. Comparison between Windrow and Pit Composting of Poultry Wastes, Leaves and Garbage of Municipal Solid Waste in Damghan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmaeian K, Malakootian M, Noorisepehr M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic principles of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM are: Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery (4Rs. Composting as an element of ISWM strategy that can be applied to separately collected or mixed wastes, is a controlled aerobic process carried out by successive microbial populations combining both mesophilic and thermophilic activities and leading to the production of carbon dioxide, water, minerals and stabilized organic matter. In this research, comparing between windrow and pit co-composting methods was studied in the city of Damghan, Iran. Waste proportioning was done based on C/N ratio (about 25:1 and moisture content (about 55%. Mixed wastes were located in windrow and pit with natural aeration tunnel. Sufficient oxygen supply was provided in the piles of compostable materials in two systems through frequent turning of the piles in 7 d intervals during the first month. Temperature reached to maximum level in 10-15 d and then depleted (days: 20-25. It reached to the safety level (about 60˚C based on U.S.EPA and WHO recommendations. Finally, compost was produced with pH=7.7, dark brown color and 30- 35% moisture content. N, P, K, organic matter and organic carbon were measured by standard methods. Results were compared with WHO and U.S.EPA recommendations showing suitable conditions Also it was indicated that pit method was better for maintaining temperature, nitrogen, organic C and organic matter.

  7. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, Ana M.; Cartagena, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste's wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems. PMID:25003139

  8. Evaluation of heavy metals in the process of composting organic waste of coca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to evaluate the total concentrations of the heavy metals in waste compost samples from coca leaf. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium; they were categorized into Class A, for the four treatments according to the classifications established by Moreno & Moral (2008.

  9. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  10. Effect of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and kinetic parameters of pig manure-derived solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Vaibhav; Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh; Wang, Quan; Kumar, Jitendra; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Meijing; Bhaskar, Thallada; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the influence of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition kinetics of pig manure-derived solid wastes was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Wheat straw, biochar, zeolite, and wood vinegar were added to pig manure during composting. The composting was done in the 130 L PVC reactors with 100 L effective volume for 50 days. The activation energy of pyrolysis of samples before and after composting was calculated using Friedman's method, while the pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation. It was observed that composting decreased the volatile content of all the samples. The additives when added together in pig manure lead to a reduction in the activation energy of decomposition, advocating the presence of simpler compounds in the compost material in comparison with the complex feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of organic waste compost on the crop productivity and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astover, Alar; Toomsoo, Avo; Teesalu, Triin; Rossner, Helis; Kriipsalu, Mait

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable use of fertilizers is important for maintaining balanced nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystem, soil quality and crop productivity. Considering the high costs and energy demand of mineral fertilizers, it is increasingly important to use more alternative nutrient sources such composts. Nutrient release from organic fertilizers is slower compared to mineral fertilizers and thus their effects need to be evaluated over longer time periods. There is lack of knowledge on the residual effects of organic fertilizers, especially in Nordic climatic conditions. Residual effect of organic fertilizers is in most cases studied with animal manures, but even rare are studies with non-manure based composts. The aim of current study was to evaluate first year direct effect and residual effect of waste compost on the crop productivity and selected soil parameters. Crop rotation field experiment to reveal direct effect of compost to the spring barley yield and residual effect to potato and spring wheat yield was conducted in Tartu, Estonia on pseodopodzolic soil with low humus concentration (food and green waste, and category III animal by-products; and composted in aerated covered static piles for 6 weeks and after that matured in open windows for minimum six months. Compost was applied to soil with ploughing in autumn before spring barley growing season (in years 2012-2014). Compost was applied in three norms according to total N (200, 275 and 350 kg/ha). In addition there was unfertilized control plot and all experimental variants were in three replication with plot size 50 m2. First year effect of compost increased barley yield by 40-50%, first year residual effect resulted in increase of potato yield by 19-30% and second year residual effect to wheat yield was in range from 8 to 17%. First year residual effect to the potato yield was significant (F=8.9; pstatistically non-significant (F=3.2; p=0.07). Residual effect of compost is decreasing year-by-year as expected. In

  12. Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-12-24

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

  13. Nitrogen losses and chemical parameters during co-composting of solid wastes and liquid pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; de la Varga, D; Plana, R; Soto, M

    2017-07-04

    The aim of this research was to study nitrogen losses during the treatment of the liquid fraction (LF) of pig manure by co-composting and to establish the best conditions for compost production with higher nitrogen and low heavy metal contents. Windrows were constituted with the solid fraction (SF) of pig manure, different organic waste (SF of pig manure, sawdust and grape bagasse) as co-substrate and Populus spp. wood chips as bulking material and watered intensely with the LF. Results show that nitrogen losses ranged from 30% to 66% of initial nitrogen and were mainly governed by substrate to bulking mass ratio and liquid fraction to substrate (LF/S) ratio, and only secondarily by operational parameters. Nitrogen losses decreased from 55-65% at low LF/S ratios (1.7-1.9 m 3 /t total solids (TS)) to 30-39% at high LF/S ratios (4.4-4.7 m 3 /t TS). Therefore, integrating the LF in the composting process at high LF/S ratios favoured nitrogen recovery and conservation. Nitrogen in the fine fraction (ranging from 27% to 48% of initial nitrogen) was governed by operational parameters, namely pH and temperature. Final compost showed low content in most heavy metals, but Zn was higher than the limits for compost use in agriculture. Zn content in the obtained compost varied from 1863 to 3269 mg/kg dm, depending on several factors. The options for obtaining better quality composts from the LF of pig manure are selecting co-substrates with low heavy metal content and using them instead of the SF of pig manure.

  14. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers. PMID:24368426

  15. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  16. Composting of cotton wastes; Compostaje de residuos de algodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobao, M.M.; Tejada, M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J.L.

    1997-12-31

    In this article a study on the composting process of residuals of cotton gin is presented crushed and not crushed, previous. The analysis of correlation gotten for each one of the treatments reveals that although common correlations between the parameters studied for both treatment exist, they are presented a great number of correlations between this parameters for the treatment of cotton crushed residuals. (Author) 11 refs.

  17. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The content, behaviour and significance of heavy metals in composted waste materials is important from two potentially conflicting aspects of environmental legislation in terms of: (a) defining end-of-waste criteria and increasing recycling of composted residuals on land and (b) protecting soil quality by preventing contamination. This review examines the effects of heavy metals in compost and amended soil as a basis for achieving a practical and sustainable balance between these different policy objectives, with particular emphasis on agricultural application. All types of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contain more heavy metals than the background concentrations present in soil and will increase their contents in amended soil. Total concentrations of heavy metals in source-segregated and greenwaste compost are typically below UK PAS100 limits and mechanical segregated material can also comply with the metal limits in UK PAS100, although this is likely to be more challenging. Zinc and Pb are numerically the elements present in the largest amounts in MSW-compost. Lead is the most limiting element to use of mechanically-segregated compost in domestic gardens, but concentrations are typically below risk-based thresholds that protect human health. Composted residuals derived from MSW and greenwaste have a high affinity for binding heavy metals. There is general consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals, and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil. Lead is the most strongly bound element and Ni the weakest, with Zn, Cu and Cd showing intermediate sorption characteristics. The strong metal sorption properties of compost produced from MSW or sewage sludge have important benefits for the remediation of metal contaminated industrial and urban soils. Compost and sewage sludge

  18. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; He, Chao; You, Shijie; Liu, Weijie; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun; Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transformation of swine, cow and chicken manures during composting was compared. • Evolution of organics was analyzed by element analysis, FTIR, "1"3C NMR and Py/GC/MS. • Microbial utilization capacity on various substrates in the manures was evaluated. • Spatial difference of degradation rate inside the manure particle was investigated. - Abstract: The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, "1"3C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.

  19. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ke, E-mail: hitwk@sina.com [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); He, Chao [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); You, Shijie, E-mail: sjyou@hit.edu.cn [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Liu, Weijie [School of Life Science, The Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Medicinal Plant of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Transformation of swine, cow and chicken manures during composting was compared. • Evolution of organics was analyzed by element analysis, FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR and Py/GC/MS. • Microbial utilization capacity on various substrates in the manures was evaluated. • Spatial difference of degradation rate inside the manure particle was investigated. - Abstract: The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.

  20. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  1. Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

    2013-10-15

    Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Claire [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Longhurst, Philip [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.j.longhurst@cranfield.ac.uk; Pollard, Simon [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Smith, Richard [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Jefferson, Bruce [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Gronow, Jan [Environment Agency, Science Group - Waste and Remediation, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, West Midlands, B92 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590 kg/m{sup 3} and 740 kg/m{sup 3}). Gas samples were taken from the inlet, outlet and at varying column depths and examined using a combination of sensory analysis (olfactometry) and a novel analytical method (Transportable Selected Ion Flow Tube - TSIFT). Results for the trials using landfill gas showed a 69% odour reduction (OU/m{sup 3}) through the column for compost with a bulk density of 590 kg/m{sup 3}, and a reduction of 97% using compost with a bulk density of 740 kg/m{sup 3}. TSIFT analysis showed an overall decrease in the concentration of terpenes, and sulphurous compounds in the outlet gas from the column for both bulk densities. No significant trend could be identified for the concentrations at different depths within the column. Results show the ability of compost to reduce landfill odours under differing conditions. The inconclusive data provided by TSIFT analysis may be due to the analysis of compounds that are not contributing to odour, and thus highlights the potential for synergetic effects and the importance of sensory measurement when examining odorous emissions. - Practical measures to improve landfill odour control are investigated.

  3. Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Claire; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Smith, Richard; Jefferson, Bruce; Gronow, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590 kg/m 3 and 740 kg/m 3 ). Gas samples were taken from the inlet, outlet and at varying column depths and examined using a combination of sensory analysis (olfactometry) and a novel analytical method (Transportable Selected Ion Flow Tube - TSIFT). Results for the trials using landfill gas showed a 69% odour reduction (OU/m 3 ) through the column for compost with a bulk density of 590 kg/m 3 , and a reduction of 97% using compost with a bulk density of 740 kg/m 3 . TSIFT analysis showed an overall decrease in the concentration of terpenes, and sulphurous compounds in the outlet gas from the column for both bulk densities. No significant trend could be identified for the concentrations at different depths within the column. Results show the ability of compost to reduce landfill odours under differing conditions. The inconclusive data provided by TSIFT analysis may be due to the analysis of compounds that are not contributing to odour, and thus highlights the potential for synergetic effects and the importance of sensory measurement when examining odorous emissions. - Practical measures to improve landfill odour control are investigated

  4. Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed-fish waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera-Vives, Marta; López-Fabal, Adolfo; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Ribeiro, Henrique M

    2015-12-01

    Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first-order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N were mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant available) with the higher rate. C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by the effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Innovative biocatalytic production of soil substrate from green waste compost as a sustainable peat substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamias, Georgios; Roulia, Maria; Kapsimali, Ioanna; Chassapis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a new simple and quick eco-friendly method is discussed to handle effectively the green wastes and produce a sustainable peat substitute of high quality on the large scale. Principal physicochemical parameters, i.e., temperature, moisture, specific weight, pH, electrical conductivity and, also, microorganisms, organic matter, humic substances, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon, C/N ratio, ash, metal content and phytotoxicity, were monitored systematically. Humic substances content values were interrelated to both C/N ratio and pH values and, similarly, bulk density, TOC, TKN, C/N, GI, ash and organic matter were found interconnected to each other. A novel biocatalyst, extremely rich in soil microorganisms, prepared from compost extracts and peaty lignite, accelerated the biotransformation. Zeolite was also employed. The compost does not demonstrate any phytotoxicity throughout the entire biotransformation process and has increased humic substances content. Both humic substances content and germination index can be employed as maturation indices of the compost. Addition of compost, processed for 60 days only, in cultivations of grass plants led to a significant increase in the stem mass and root size, annotating the significant contribution of the compost to both growth and germination. The product obtained is comparable to peat humus, useful as peat substitute and can be classified as a first class soil conditioner suitable for organic farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  7. Evaluation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emission Decrease Through Waste Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinan Pitaratae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic waste disposal under anaerobic conditions emits Methane, which causes increased global warming. This study attempts to find the emission factor in windrow waste composting systems from two sizes of gathered organic waste piles. Designed to compare two groups of composting piles, one pile consisted of 500 kilograms of waste originating from local authorities while the other amounted to 250 kilograms of waste collected from households. With six piles of each type, aeration was done by manual turning and emissions were sampled in closed flux chambers and analyzed by gas chromatographs. A control experiment, modeling landfill sites, was set up in a one x one x one meter hole. Results from the experiment showed that emission ratios from the 500 kg was 1.3613 x 10-3 g CO2-eq kg-1 wet waste, and 1.3427 x 10-3 g CO2-eq kg-1 wet waste from the 250 kg experiment. The 500 kg experiment decreased emissions by 0.059185 g CO2-eq kg-1 wet waste and the 250 kg experiment, emissions decreased by 0.059206 g CO2-eq kg-1 wet waste when compared to the control group. In summary, pile size has no effect on emission ratios. Statistical testing found no significance difference between emissions from the 500 kg compared with the 250 kg. This study tells us that massive landfill or waste composting is difference effect.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2016, Page: 44-55

  8. Effects of long-term application of municipal solid waste compost on speciation and availability of heavy metals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Achiba, W.; Lakdar, A.; Verloo, M. G.; Gabteni, N.; Jedidi, N.; Gallali, T.

    2009-01-01

    The application of municipal solid waste compost in agriculture provides a valuable source of plant nutrients and soil fertility. Nevertheless, heavy metals accumulation may be a problem. A seven-year field study was carried out to investigate the effects of farmyard manure (40 and 120 t/ha) and municipal solid waste compost (40, 80 and 120 t/ha) application on the total content, speciation and availability of heavy metals in a calcareous Tunisian soil without vegetation. (Author)

  9. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Albacete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste’s wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems.

  10. Addition of seaweed and bentonite accelerates the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-11-01

    Green waste (GW) is an important recyclable resource, and composting is an effective technology for the recycling of organic solid waste, including GW. This study investigated the changes in physical and chemical characteristics during the two-stage composting of GW with or without addition of seaweed (SW, Ulva ohnoi) (at 0, 35, and 55%) and bentonite (BT) (at 0.0, 2.5%, and 4.5%). During the bio-oxidative phase, the combined addition of SW and BT improved the physicochemical conditions, increased the respiration rate and enzyme activities, and decreased ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions. The combination of SW and BT also enhanced the quality of the final compost in terms of water-holding capacity, porosity, particle-size distribution, water soluble organic carbon/organic nitrogen ratio, humification, nutrient content, and phytotoxicity. The best quality compost, which matured in only 21days, was obtained with 35% SW and 4.5% BT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste: Effects on nitrogen loss, greenhouse gas emissions and compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed that split addition of the nitrogen-rich substrate reduced nitrogen losses by 9% when sawdust was used and 20% when coffee husks were used as the bulking agent. Depending on the bulking agent used, split addition increased cumulative N 2 O emissions by 400-600% compared to single addition. In contrast, single addition increased methane emissions by up to 50% compared to split addition of the substrate. Hence, the timing of the addition of the N-rich substrate had only a marginal effect on total non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. Split addition of the N-rich substrate resulted in compost that was just as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as single addition. These findings therefore show that split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate could be an option for increasing the fertilising value of municipal waste compost without having a significant effect on total greenhouse gas emissions or compost stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of irrigation and winery waste compost rates in nitrate leaching in vulnerable zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Maria Isabel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Ribas, Francisco; Jesús Cabello, Maria; Arce, Augusto; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The winery industry is widespread in Spain (3,610,000 tonnes of wine in 2010 (FAO, 2010)), and generates wastes characterized by a high content of organic matter, a notable content in macronutrients and low heavy-metals. These organic wastes could be used for agricultural purposes after a correct stabilization process (e.g. composting).The addition of these organic wastes requires a correct management, especially on semiarid cropped areas of central Spain where environmental degradation of water supplies with high N loads is observed. An integrated optimization of both applied compost dose and amount of irrigation is important to ensure optimum yields and minimum nitrate leaching losses. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the application of winery waste compost as fertilizer in a melon crop cultivated with different drip irrigation rates. The field experiment was carried out in Ciudad Real, designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. Beside the control treatment (D0), three doses of compost were applied: 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T/ha(D3).Irrigation treatments consisted of applying a 100% ETc and an excess irrigation of 120% ETc. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with 0.6 m depth and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Drainage and nitrate concentration on the soil solution were measured weekly to determine N leached during the crop period. Crop yield was also followed by harvesting plots when a significant number of fruits were fully matured. A comparison between nitrate leached and crop production among different treatments and irrigation rates are presented. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  14. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    contents increased in BC10 treatment, while the K contents were similar in all treatments as well as C/N ratio (around 15). The organic matter content was BC10>BC5>BC0 and the dissolved organic C content was lower than 8.3 g kg-1 for all piles confirming the maturity of compost. The germination test showed a non-toxic effect of all amendments in the species assayed obtaining a germination index between 55% and 80.7% indicating maturity of the amendments evaluated. Our results indicated that the combined use of agricultural wastes and biochar by mean of a co-composting process is a suitable option for generating good quality amendments for improving soil condition and optimizing nutrient cycling at farm scale. Financial support for this research was provided by the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research through FONDECYT 11140508 Project

  15. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  16. THE COMPOST – A METHOD TO RESTORE THE ORGANIC WASTE PRODUCTS IN THE NATURAL CIRCUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Nicoleta VIERU

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Half of the quantity of waste products produced by the households is made of foodremainders, vegetable and garden remainders and more of 50% of waste products are organicand they arrive in waste products storehouses, in cesspools or are burned, causing animportant pollution. As an alternative to those, we can transform the organic material througha set of microbial, biochemical, chemical and physical processes into a valuable material witha humus appearance, named compost. To obtain a quality compost we need to lead thecompost process, in accordance with the dimension, the humidity, the structure and thecomposition of residual materials, that these to be fast and efficient available to the microorganisms,making up an ideal substratum rich in nutrients for their development. Thedecomposition agents (bacterium, fungous, mites, Collembola, wooden lice, worms,diplopoda need the azote to build the cells and some food remainders, ripped grass and greenleaves. The chips of wood, the dry leaves and the sawdust are rich in carbon and theyconstitute another energy source for the decomposition agents. The azote sources aredesignated as the „green” elements, and the carbon sources are the „brown” ones. In a pile ofcompost is efficient to maintain a balance between the „brown” elements (carbon and the„green” ones (azote – in percent of 30:1 to offer the decomposition agents a balancednourishment and this thing can be acquired through the alternation of layers of brown andgreen elements. The production of compost in schools can be a way to determine the entireschool community to work together for helping the environment. This means the naturalrecirculation of resources, community education over the benefits of the compost, the changeof the cultural attitude over the garbage in a way that brings benefits to the society, thereduction of the alimentary remainders quantity from the school canteen, the implication ofthe students in extra

  17. Penicillium pedernalense sp. nov., isolated from whiteleg shrimp heads waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laich, Federico; Andrade, Jacinto

    2016-11-01

    Novel Penicillium-like strains were isolated during the characterization of the mycobiota community dynamics associated with shrimp waste composting. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial β-tubulin (BenA) gene and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences revealed that the novel strains were members of section Lanata-Divaricata and were closely related to Penicillium infrabuccalum DAOMC 250537T. On the basis of morphological and physiological characterization, and phylogenetic analysis, a novel Penicillium species, Penicillium pedernalense sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is F01-11T (=CBS 140770T=CECT 20949T), which was isolated from whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) heads waste compost in the Pedernales region (Manabí province, Ecuador).

  18. Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

    2014-05-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored

  19. Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Saran

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Organic compost from biomass residues constitutes a viable alternative for partial or total replacement of mineral fertilizers for growing vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of compost on the water quality of a stream used mainly for irrigation of agricultural crops cultivated in nearby soil that has been treated with organic compost produced by carcasses, animal and vegetable waste for the last ten years. We sampled water biannually for two years, 2013 and 2014, from five locations along the stream. Physical variables and some chemical variables were analyzed. We also analyzed the total number of coliforms (Escherichia coli. Bacterial populations were compared by carbon substrate consumption. Total phosphorus contents in the samples from 2014 exceeded 0.1 mg L-1. The concentrations of other chemical species analyzed and the results for the physical variables were in accordance with the expected values compared with national and international water quality standards. The environment showed differential carbon source consumption and a high diversity of microorganisms, but our results did not show any evidence that the applied compost is changing the microbial population or its metabolic activity. This study shows that the use of the organic compost in agricultural areas seen does not negatively influence the quality of surface water in the study area. These results are important because the process of composting animal and vegetable waste and the use of compost obtained can be an alternative sustainable for adequate destination of these wastes.

  20. Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  1. Sewage sludges compost and organic fraction urban solid waste from selective collection; Compostaje de lodos de depuradora y FORSU procedente de recogida selectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, A.; Diaz, M. M.; Mohedo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The organic fraction of urban solid waste (FORSU) from selective collection has been analysed to make a good quality compost for soils an agricultural use. Different mixtures of FORSU, sludge from the municipal water treatment plant, and pruning garden has been composted in turned windrow. The composting process and the obtained refined compost were characterised. The results on evolution of pH, conductivity, C/N relation, P, metals,-organic matter and recovery yield were related. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  3. Influence of lime and struvite on microbial community succession and odour emission during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Lau, Sam S S; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2018-01-01

    Lime addition as well as formation of struvite through the addition of magnesium and phosphorus salts provide good pH buffering and may reduce odour emission. This study investigated the odour emission during food waste composting under the influence of lime addition, and struvite formation. Composting was performed in 20-L reactors for 56days using artificial food waste mixed with sawdust at 1.2:1 (w/w dry basis). VFA was one of the most important odours during food waste composting. However, during thermophilic phase, ammonia is responsible for max odour index in the exhaust gas. Trapping ammonia through struvite formation significantly reduced the maximum odour unit of ammonia from 3.0×10 4 to 1.8×10 4 . The generation and accumulation of acetic acid and butyric acid led to the acidic conditions. The addition of phosphate salts in treatment with struvite formation improved the variation of total bacteria, which in turn increased the organic decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior of selected organic pollutants in municipal waste during the mechanical-biological progress of composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahosch, W.

    1998-06-01

    Municipal waste was investigated during the mechanical-biological process of composting. Waste from Burgenland is treated mechanically and biologically to reduce organic matter in the material and to keep gas building potential low before deposition. Samples were taken and analyzed during a period of 80 days. The parameters: temperature, dry-weight, glow loss, ammonium, nitrate and phenolic substances were measured to follow the composting process. It was found that the process was almost finished after a period of 40 days in which the material was breathed intensively. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated phenols decreased slightly. It was not clear whether this was due to microbiological activity or blowing-out effects. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found to be stable during composting. The concentrations were considered as high. Hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzodioxines were formed during the first 10 days. The increase of octachlorinated dibenzodioxin was threefold. Other dioxines and furanes remained unchanged. Finally it was found out that mechanical-biological waste treatment is insufficient in order to reduce organic pollutants effectively. (author)

  5. Composting of domestic wastes: development and optimization of reactor continuous; Compostaje domestico : desarrollo y optimizacion de un reactor en continuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rad, C.; Gonzalez-Carcedo, S.; Revenga, J. M.; Bustillo-Nunez, J. M.; Marcos-Naveira, L. A. [Universidad de Burgos (Spain); Monje, J. C.; Bustillo-Iglesias, A.

    2002-07-01

    In this work, a mixture of the organic fraction of a domestic waste and wooden chips has been composted using an in vessel composting apparatus with forced aeration and a continuous compost collection system. After three months with a daily addition of a fixed organic charge,temperature and moisture control, five samples of compost were collected and tested in their chemical and biological characteristics. Odour production and low temperatures and moisture contents during the process,high saline concentration and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the final product are the main disadvantages of this experience. Although, a good C/N ratio, neutral pH and high levels of nutrients (N and P) in the compost have been achieved,the parameters controlling the process must be improved. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Variability in physical contamination assessment of source segregated biodegradable municipal waste derived composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Thygesen, Helene H; Aspray, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Physical contaminants (glass, metal, plastic and 'other') and stones were isolated and categorised from three finished commercial composts derived from source segregated biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). A subset of the identified physical contaminant fragments were subsequently reintroduced into the cleaned compost samples and sent to three commercial laboratories for testing in an inter-laboratory trial using the current PAS100:2011 method (AfOR MT PC&S). The trial showed that the 'other' category caused difficulty for all three laboratories with under reporting, particularly of the most common 'other' contaminants (paper and cardboard) and, over-reporting of non-man-made fragments. One laboratory underreported metal contaminant fragments (spiked as silver foil) in three samples. Glass, plastic and stones were variably underreported due to miss-classification or over reported due to contamination with compost (organic) fragments. The results are discussed in the context of global physical contaminant test methods and compost quality assurance schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical evaluation of post-consumption food waste composting employing thermophilic bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Lai, Ka Man; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2017-12-01

    Effect of single-function (oil degrading) and multi-functional bacterial consortium with zeolite as additive for post-consumption food waste (PCFW) composting was investigated through assessing the oil content reduction in a computer controlled 20-L composter. Three treatments of PCFWs combined with 10% zeolite were developed: Treatment-2 and Treatment-3 were inoculated with multi-functional (BC-1) and oil degrading bacterial consortium (BC-2), respectively, while T-1 was without bacterial inoculation and served as control. Results revealed that BC-2 inoculated treatment (T-3) was superior to control treatment and marginally better than T-2 in terms of oil degradation. The reduction of oil content was >97.8% in T-3 and 92.27% in T-2, while total organic matter degradation was marginally higher in T-2 (42.95%) than T-3 (41.67%). Other parameters of compost maturity including germination test indicated that T-2 was marginally better than T-3 and significantly enhanced the oily PCFW decomposition and shortened the composting period by 20days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility study of green wastes composting with digested and dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composting as a waste management technology is becoming more widespread. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and to find the most effective composting process for the ratio of green waste, digested and dewatered sludge from Chonibieh wastewater treatment plant in the west region of Ahvaz. Methods: The composting time was 23 days and the evaluated parameters in this period of the study were organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, moisture content and pH. The C/N ratio was maintained at 30 with weight:weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (digested and dewatered sludge to green waste. Results: It was observed that vessel R3 produced higher quality of compost with final total nitrogen (1.28%, final total phosphorus (0.71%, final total organic carbon (TOC (25.78% and C/N (20.65% within the 23 days of composting. While vessel R1 produced higher final total nitrogen and total phosphorus with lower amount of total coliform indicating suitable quality of composting. Therefore, the results showed that the characteristics of dewatered sludge mixed with green waste proportion of green waste significantly influenced the compost quality and process dynamics. The results also showed that the quality of final products in all the conditions was in agreement with Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. However, the moisture content ratios were lower than the mentioned guidelines. With regards to microbial quality, all three ratios were in agreement with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Iranian guidelines. Conclusion: It is suggested that the final product of composting can be safely used in farmland and green space.

  9. Enhanced fertilization effect of a compost obtained from mixed herbs waste inoculated with novel strains of mesophilic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Snežana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed medicinal plant waste was composted with addition of novel bacterial strains belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Paenybacillus, Bacillus and Hymenobacter. The composting was followed by assessment of chemical and biological parameters including C/N ratio, loss of organic matter, phosphorous and potassium content as well as CO2 generation and dehydrogenase activity during 164 days. The selected mesophilic bacterial starters had a potential to significantly reduce the period of mixed herb waste decomposition, from about 6 months to about 2.5 months. Based on the seed germination index of four plants (Fagopirum esculentum, Thymus vulgaris, Cynara scolimus and Lavandula officinalis the germination and radial root growth of the investigated plants was improved by the inoculated compost. The germination index of all tested species on the mature inoculated composts was in average 60% higher compared to the control compost. The research indicates that the mesophilic starter addition into the herbs waste can contribute to the speed of waste decomposition and lead to the improvement of biofertilization effect of the obtained compost. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31035

  10. A systematic review on the composting of green waste: Feedstock quality and optimization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Torres, M; Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Dominguez, I; Komilis, D; Sánchez, A

    2018-04-27

    Green waste (GW) is an important fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The composting of lignocellulosic GW is challenging due to its low decomposition rate. Recently, an increasing number of studies that include strategies to optimize GW composting appeared in the literature. This literature review focuses on the physicochemical quality of GW and on the effect of strategies used to improve the process and product quality. A systematic search was carried out, using keywords, and 447 papers published between 2002 and 2018 were identified. After a screening process, 41 papers addressing feedstock quality and 32 papers on optimization strategies were selected to be reviewed and analyzed in detail. The GW composition is highly variable due to the diversity of the source materials, the type of vegetation, and climatic conditions. This variability limits a strict categorization of the GW physicochemical characteristics. However, this research established that the predominant features of GW are a C/N ratio higher than 25, a deficit in important nutrients, namely nitrogen (0.5-1.5% db), phosphorous (0.1-0.2% db) and potassium (0.4-0.8% db) and a high content of recalcitrant organic compounds (e.g. lignin). The promising strategies to improve composting of GW were: i) GW particle size reduction (e.g. shredding and separation of GW fractions); ii) addition of energy amendments (e.g. non-refined sugar, phosphate rock, food waste, volatile ashes), bulking materials (e.g. biocarbon, wood chips), or microbial inoculum (e.g. fungal consortia); and iii) variations in operating parameters (aeration, temperature, and two-phase composting). These alternatives have successfully led to the reduction of process length and have managed to transform recalcitrant substances to a high-quality end-product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  12. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  13. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil

  14. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. COMPOSTING AS A WAY TO CONVERT CELLULOSIC BIOMASS AND ORGANIC WASTE INTO HIGH-VALUE SOIL AMENDMENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived cellulosic materials play a critical role when organic wastes are composted to produce a beneficial amendment for topsoil. This review article considers publications dealing with the science of composting, emphasizing ways in which the cellulosic and lignin components of the composted material influence both the process and the product. Cellulose has been described as a main source of energy to drive the biological transformations and the consequent temperature rise and chemical changes that are associated with composting. Lignin can be viewed as a main starting material for the formation of humus, the recalcitrant organic matter that provides the water-holding, ion exchange, and bulking capabilities that can contribute greatly to soil health and productivity. Lignocellulosic materials also contribute to air permeability, bulking, and water retention during the composting process. Critical variables for successful composting include the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, the nature of the cellulosic component, particle size, bed size and format, moisture, pH, aeration, temperature, and time. Composting can help to address solid waste problems and provides a sustainable way to enhance soil fertility.

  16. Solid-state fermentation and composting as alternatives to treat hair waste: A life-cycle assessment comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Eva; Komilis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production. Detailed data on hair waste composting and on SSF protease production are gathered from previous studies performed by our research group and from a literature survey. Background inventory data are mainly based on Ecoinvent version 3 from software SimaPro® 8. The main aim of this study was to identify which process results in the highest environmental impact. The SSF process was found to have lower environmental impacts than composting, due to the fact that the enzyme use in the dehairing process prevents the use of chemicals traditionally used in the dehairing process. This permits to reformulate an industrial process from the classical approach of waste management to a novel alternative based on circular economy.

  17. Identification of locally available structural material as co-substrate for organic waste composting in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C; Heldt, N

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the lack in structural strength while composting certain kinds of organic wastes, 11 co-substrates were tested that are generally locally available in rural areas of northern Tamil Nadu, India. In addition to the classical composting parameters such as carbon/nitrogen ratio, moisture content, dry matter and organic dry matter, a compression test was conducted to evaluate the structural strength and the suitability as bulking agent for composting processes. Additionally, with respect to the climatic conditions in India, the water holding capacity was also evaluated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

    2010-11-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chuanbin; Wang Rusong; Zhang Yishan

    2010-01-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD 5 concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36 weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  20. Experimenting with Different Bulking Agents in an Aerobic Food Waste Composter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chann, S.

    2016-12-01

    With one third of Hong Kong's solid wastage being food scraps, reducing food waste has become crucial. The ISF Academy, a Hong Kong private school, had an A900 Rocket Food Composter installed in 2013, hoping to reduce its carbon footprint. The 27 metric tons of food wastage produced annually by the school is put through an aerobic process and the wastage is converted into humus. The composter has a capacity of 1750 litres of food and it produces humus every 14 days. The base of the humus consists of a bulking agent and food waste (2:1). A bulking agent is a carbon based material used to absorb moisture and odors, add structure and air and eliminate bugs from humus. This study contains comparative data on a few of the listed bulking agents: Hemp, Kenaf, rapeseed oil straw, miscanthus and shredded cardboard. The aim of this study is to determine an alternative reliable, affordable and suitable bulking agent to wood shavings: the current agent used. The humus produced must pass regulations for "general agricultural use" as it is used for experiential learning and gardening with primary school students. Over 500 children are participating in the school's plantation project, producing legumes for the school cafeteria. ISF pioneers and sets an example for other Hong Kong schools, showing that a composting and plantation scheme, not only proves to have environmental benefits but also educational uses.

  1. Properties of slate mining wastes incubated with grape marc compost under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2009-02-01

    The effect of the addition of spent grape marc compost (GMC) and vermicompost (GMV) as amendments to slate mining wastes was evaluated in a laboratory incubation experiment. Mixtures of slate processing fines (SPF), with three doses of each amendment (4%, 8% and 16% compost, dry weight), plus a control were incubated at 25 degrees C in the laboratory for 90 days. The changes in the chemical and biological properties of the mixtures (pH, total C, total N, inorganic N, available nutrients, microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity) were investigated during the incubation period, and once it was finished, the phytotoxicity of the mixtures was determined by the germination of Lolium multiflorum Lam. seeds. The addition of the amendments significantly increased the nutrient concentrations of the SPF and enhanced biological activity by increasing microbial biomass and enzymatic activity. Results improved with higher doses; within the composts, GMV showed a better performance than GMC. These results prove the suitability of grape marc-derived amendments for the biochemical amelioration of mining wastes, and highlight the benefits of organic amendment in restoration projects.

  2. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis to monitor the co-composting process of olive oil mill wastes and organic household refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Barje , F.; Amir , S.; Winterton , Peter; Pinelli , Eric; Merlina , Georges; Cegarra , J.; Revel , Jean-Claude; Hafidi , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The co-composting of olive oil mill wastes and household refuse was followed for 5 months. During the thermophilic phase of composting, the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) count, showed a significant rise with a slight regression of fungal biomass. In the same way, phospholipid fatty acids PLFAs common in bacteria, showed a significant increase of hydroxyl and branched PLFAs. The evaluation of the ratio of octadecenoic PLFAs to stearic acid (C18:1/C18:0) revealed ...

  3. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  4. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Asagi; Keisuke Minamide; Toru Uno; Masanori Saito; Toyoaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N) content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’) and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC) and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF), we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potat...

  5. Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: Part 2, nitrogen dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia, A. de; Mallard, P.; Teglia, C.; Marin, A.; Le Pape, C.; Launay, M.; Benoist, J.C.; Petiot, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to compare household waste, separated pig solids, food waste, pig slaughterhouse sludge and green algae regarding processes ruling nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three composting simulations were performed in parallel in three similar reactors (300 L), each one under a constant aeration rate. The aeration flows applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the compost were characterized through the measurements of their contents in dry matter, total carbon, Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate. Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate were measured in leachates and in condensates too. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions were monitored in continue. The cumulated emissions in ammonia and in nitrous oxide were given for each waste and at each aeration rate. The paper focused on process of ammonification and on transformations and transfer of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The parameters of nitrous oxide emissions were not investigated. The removal rate of total Kjeldahl nitrogen was shown being closely tied to the ammonification rate. Ammonification was modelled thanks to the calculation of the ratio of biodegradable carbon to organic nitrogen content of the biodegradable fraction. The wastes were shown to differ significantly regarding their ammonification ability. Nitrogen balances were calculated by subtracting nitrogen losses from nitrogen removed from material. Defaults in nitrogen balances were assumed to correspond to conversion of nitrate even nitrite into molecular nitrogen and then to the previous conversion by nitrification of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The pool of total ammoniacal nitrogen, i.e. total ammoniacal nitrogen initially contained in waste plus total ammoniacal nitrogen released by ammonification, was calculated for each experiment. Then, this pool was used as the referring amount in the calculation of the rates of accumulation, stripping and

  6. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  7. Converting City Waste into compost pilot Nairobi (LNV-BO-10-006-115) : report phase one: inventory and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirai, P.; Gachugi, J.; Scheinberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    The ‘Converting City Waste in Compost Project’ is being implemented in an effort to explore options for the development of a viable system of collecting, processing, distribution and marketing of valorized organic city waste material, for application in urban and peri-urban agriculture within East

  8. Biomass ash reutilisation as an additive in the composting process of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquer, Carla; Cappai, Giovanna; De Gioannis, Giorgia; Muntoni, Aldo; Piredda, Martina; Spiga, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In this work the effects of selected types of biomass ash on the composting process and final product quality were studied by conducting a 96-day long experiment where the source separated organic fraction of municipal waste, mixed with wood prunings that served as bulking agent, was added with 0%, 2%, 4% and 8% wt/wt of biomass ash. The evolution over time of the main process parameters was observed, and the final composts were characterised. On the basis of the results, both the composting process and the quality of the final product were improved by ash addition. Enhanced volatile solids reduction and biological stability (up to 32% and 52%, respectively, as compared to the unamended product) were attained when ash was added, since ash favored the aerobic degradation by acting asa physical conditioner. In the final products, higher humification of organic matter (expressed in terms of the humification index, that was 2.25 times higher in the most-enriched compost than in the unamended one) and total Ca, K, Mg and P content were observed when ash was used. The latter aspect may influence the composts marketability positively, particularly with regards to potassium and phosphorus. The heavy metals content, that is regarded as the main environmental disadvantage when using ash asa composting additive, did not negatively affect the final composts quality. However, some other controversial effects of ash, related to the moisture and temperature values attained during the process, pH (8.8-9.2 as compared to 8.2 of the unamended compost) and electrical conductivity levels (up to 53% higher as compared to the unamended compost) in the final composts, were also observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Saveliev, Anatoly; Grigoryeva, Tatiana; Boulygina, Eugenia; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Composting is viewed as one of the primary methods to treat organic wastes. Co-composting may improve the efficiency of this treatment by establishing the most suitable conditions for decomposers than those present in the individual wastes. Given that bacteria and fungi are the driving agents of composting, information about the composition of their communities and dynamics during composting may improve reproducibility, performance and quality of the final compost as well as help to evaluate the potential human health risk and the choice of the most appropriate application procedure. In this study, the co-composting of mixtures containing two similar components (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sawdust polluted by oil) and one discriminate component (sewage sludges of different origin) were investigated. Bacterial and fungal community successions in the two mixtures were analyzed during the composting process by determining the change in their structural dynamics using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing methods in a lab experiment for a period of 270 days. During the initial composting stage, the number of 16S bacterial copies was (3.0±0.2) x 106 and (0.4±0.0) x 107 g-1, and the Rhodospiralles and Lactobacialles orders dominated. Fungal communities had (2.9±0.0) x105 and (6.1±0.2) x105 ITS copies g-1, and the Saccharomycetales order dominated. At the end of the thermophilic stage on the 30th day of composting, bacterial and fungal communities underwent significant changes: dominants changed and their relative abundance decreased. Typical compost residents included Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae and Bacterioidetes for bacteria and Microascaceae, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Agaricomycetes for fungi. During the later composting stages, the dominating taxa of both bacterial and fungal communities remained, while their relative abundance decreased. In accordance with the change in the dominating OTUs, it was concluded that the

  10. Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Galitskaya

    Full Text Available Composting is viewed as one of the primary methods to treat organic wastes. Co-composting may improve the efficiency of this treatment by establishing the most suitable conditions for decomposers than those present in the individual wastes. Given that bacteria and fungi are the driving agents of composting, information about the composition of their communities and dynamics during composting may improve reproducibility, performance and quality of the final compost as well as help to evaluate the potential human health risk and the choice of the most appropriate application procedure. In this study, the co-composting of mixtures containing two similar components (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sawdust polluted by oil and one discriminate component (sewage sludges of different origin were investigated. Bacterial and fungal community successions in the two mixtures were analyzed during the composting process by determining the change in their structural dynamics using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing methods in a lab experiment for a period of 270 days. During the initial composting stage, the number of 16S bacterial copies was (3.0±0.2 x 106 and (0.4±0.0 x 107 g-1, and the Rhodospiralles and Lactobacialles orders dominated. Fungal communities had (2.9±0.0 x105 and (6.1±0.2 x105 ITS copies g-1, and the Saccharomycetales order dominated. At the end of the thermophilic stage on the 30th day of composting, bacterial and fungal communities underwent significant changes: dominants changed and their relative abundance decreased. Typical compost residents included Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae and Bacterioidetes for bacteria and Microascaceae, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Agaricomycetes for fungi. During the later composting stages, the dominating taxa of both bacterial and fungal communities remained, while their relative abundance decreased. In accordance with the change in the dominating OTUs, it was

  11. Recycling of wastes from fish beneficiation by composting: chemical characteristics of the compost and efficiency of their humic acids in stimulating the growth of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Jader Galba; de Carvalho, Caroline Moreira; Zandonadi, Daniel Basilio; Sodré, Fernando Fabriz; Mol, Alan Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Aline Lima; Navarro, Rodrigo Diana

    2017-11-23

    Waste from the beneficiation of fish was composted with crushed grass aiming to characterize their chemical composition and investigate the possibility of the use of the final compost as source of humic acids (HA) able to stimulate the growth of lettuce. Compost presented pH value, C/N ratio, and electrical conductivity that allow its use as an organic fertilizer. The element content was present in the following order of abundance in the compost: P > Ca > N > Mg > K > Fe > Zn > Mn > Mo > Cu, and the humus composition was similar to that observed in others kind of organic residues composted. The high content of oxygen pointed out a high level of oxidation of HA, in line with the predominance of phenolic acidity in the functional groups. The 13 C-NMR spectra showed marked resonances due to the presence of lipids and other materials resistant to degradation as methoxy substituent and N-alkyl groups. A concentration of 20 mg L -1 HA increased significantly both dry and wet root matter in lettuce but the CO 2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and number of lateral roots of the plants were not affected. However, increases of 64% in the water-use efficiency was observed due to the HA addition, probably related to the root morphology alteration which resulted in 1.6-fold increase of lateral root average length and due to the higher H + extrusion activity. Reuse of residues from the fish beneficiation activity by composting may represent a safe tool to increase the value of recycled organic residues and generate HA with potential use as plant growth stimulants.

  12. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO2 - Based assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-01-01

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO 2 -balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Studies concerning recycling by composting organic waste in Tg-Mureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling organic waste has become a matter of utmost importance for overall healthiness of the Earth, its volume largely interacting with the economic development. The problem tends to become a vital matter of survival for an entire society. In this context, recovery, recycling, physical-chemical treatment, composting or incineration are methods of waste processing, commonly used in most countries of the world. These measures are intended to both environmental protection and rational use and economically efficient. Based on the data regarding the municipal waste generated in Mures County, in previous years, and in Tg-Mures city, in 2007 were calculated the quantities expected to generate by the year 2038. Also, concerning the cleaning recovery it is proposed the pile composting method, being, from our point of view, more Beneficial in the area. In conclusion, at county level but at city level too, there is still working to do, primarily in terms of awareness, not only the population but also the relevant, local bodies, of what means the cleaning recovery of the municipal waste.

  14. Co-composting of vegetable wastes and carton: Effect of carton composition and parameter variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawoteea, Soonita Anjeena; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of carton in the composting process of mixed vegetable wastes using an experimental composter of capacity 80L. Three different mixes were set-up (Mixes 1, 2 and 3) which consisted of vegetable wastes, 2.0kg paper and bulking agents, vegetable wastes, 1.5kg carton and bulking agents, vegetable wastes, 4.5kg carton and bulking agents, respectively. Temperature evolution, pH trends, moisture levels, respiration rates, percentage volatile solids and electrical conductivity were monitored for a period of 50days. The system remained under thermophilic conditions for a very short period due to the small size of the reactor. The three mixes did not exceed a temperature of 55°C, where sanitization takes place by the destruction of pathogens. The highest peak of CO 2 evolution was observed in Mix 2 indicating that maximum microbial degradation took place in that mix. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Physico-chemical analysis of tannery solid waste and structural characterization of its isolated humic acids after composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Soumia; Benlboukht, Fatima; Cancian, Nadia; Winterton, Peter; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2008-12-30

    In Marrakech, solid by-products from tanneries are highly polluting, generating large amounts of nitrogenous and organic matter. In the present study composting is tested as a cost-effective method for waste management to overcome many of the environmental hazards and produce a stable, rich material for soil fertilization. Two composting trials were conducted after neutralization by ammonia or lime. The aim of the neutralization was to avoid the antimicrobial effects of the acidity in the tannery waste, thus ensuring correct composting. Different techniques such as elemental analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy were applied to analyse humic acids isolated from raw and composted materials, and to monitor the process of tannery waste composting, and the stability and maturity of the final product according to the means of neutralization. Comparison of data showed similar behaviour in both trials, but the composting process appeared to be more complete following neutralization with lime. The C, H and N content decreased, while the O increased. The FTIR and 13C NMR spectra show the decrease of aliphatic compounds demonstrated by the reduction of absorbance around 2922cm(-1) and of the resonance in the C-alkyl area around 0-55ppm. The humic acids newly formed during composting were richer in the O-N alkyl and oxidized aromatic structures that increased almost twofold on composting after neutralization with lime. The first principal component axis PC1 (54%) separated C-aliphatic, C-carboxylic and other less stable and less polycondensed compounds such as polyphenols from the more polycondensed O-N alkyl and oxidized C-aromatic compounds.

  16. Evaluation and Analysis of Cotton Bedding as a Bulking Agent in an Aerobic Food Waste Composting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Food wastage is a prominent issue in Hong Kong that should be addressed. Here at The Independent Schools Foundation Academy, we are continuously looking for ways to improve, including that of food waste. In 2013 the school installed an A900 Rocket Food Composter, in hopes of reducing carbon footprint. Since the installation, the school has tested various elements of the food composter to further improve upon it to make it increasingly more sustainable and effective. These improvements vary from the revamping of the odour control system, increasing the nitrogen content and the installation of an improved grease trap. The school composts the food waste through combining a variety of substances together: coffee, compost, food waste, and a bulking agent - which will be tested in this study. Recently, the school has changed the compost bulking agent from wood shavings and cardboard to cotton bedding - a side product of the production of UK passports. In this study, I will evaluate the effectiveness of cotton bedding as a bulking agent in an aerobic composting system, focusing primarily on three points: a) microbial activity - the identification of cellulose digesting bacteria and the associated kinetics, b) the soil gas composition - the data shall be collected through the use of the Gasmet DX 4015, and c) the chemical analysis of the compost - specifically the amount of aluminum in the compost and whether or not it is significant enough to discredit cotton bedding as an effective bulking agent. The the analysis of cotton bedding using these three specifications will allow ISF Academy to evaluate the overall effectiveness of cotton bedding as a bulking agent.

  17. The relative isotopic abundance (δ13C, δ15N) during composting of agricultural wastes in relation to compost quality and feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Magalhães, Alberto M T; Souza, Paulo O; Chalk, Phillip M; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2018-05-01

    Variations in the relative isotopic abundance of C and N (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) were measured during the composting of different agricultural wastes using bench-scale bioreactors. Different mixtures of agricultural wastes (horse bedding manure + legume residues; dairy manure + jatropha mill cake; dairy manure + sugarcane residues; dairy manure alone) were used for aerobic-thermophilic composting. No significant differences were found between the δ 13 C values of the feedstock and the final compost, except for dairy manure + sugarcane residues (from initial ratio of -13.6 ± 0.2 ‰ to final ratio of -14.4 ± 0.2 ‰). δ 15 N values increased significantly in composts of horse bedding manure + legumes residues (from initial ratio of +5.9 ± 0.1 ‰ to final ratio of +8.2 ± 0.5 ‰) and dairy manure + jatropha mill cake (from initial ratio of +9.5 ± 0.2 ‰ to final ratio of +12.8 ± 0.7 ‰) and was related to the total N loss (mass balance). δ 13 C can be used to differentiate composts from different feedstock (e.g. C 3 or C 4 sources). The quantitative relationship between N loss and δ 15 N variation should be determined.

  18. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  19. Urban waste compost: Effects on physical, chemical, and biochemical soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusquiani, P.L.; Gigliotti, G.; Businelli, D. [Istituto di Chimica Agraria dell`Universita, Perugia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    A long-term field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the additions of urban waste compost on the physical and chemical properties and enzymatic activities in a calcareous soil (Fluventic Xerochrept). Total Porosity (pores >50 pm measured on thin soil sections from undisturbed samples by image analysis) was greater in the plots treated with compost than the control plots due to a larger amount of elongated pores. In the amended plots total and humified organic C, Pb, Cu, and Zn showed a significant increase compared with nonamended plots. Enzymatic activities (L-asparaginase, arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and alkaline phosphomonoesterase) were significantly enhanced by the compost addition thus indicating no inhibiting influence of the heavy metals present. The increased levels of the arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly correlated with total porosity: the first three with pores ranging from 50 to 1000 {mu}m, mainly with pores 50 to 200 {mu}m in size and phosphomonoesterase only with pores whose size was <500 {mu}m. L-asparaginase activity was not correlated with porosity. Only arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, and phosphodiesterase were negatively correlated with bulk density. 44 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  1. Emission of greenhouse gases from home aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion and vermicomposting of household wastes in Brisbane (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu C; Sinha, Rajiv K; Weijin Wang

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three different home waste treatment methods in Brisbane, Australia. Gas samples were taken monthly from 34 backyard composting bins from January to April 2009. Averaged over the study period, the aerobic composting bins released lower amounts of CH(4) (2.2 mg m(- 2) h(-1)) than the anaerobic digestion bins (9.5 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and the vermicomposting bins (4.8 mg m(-2) h( -1)). The vermicomposting bins had lower N(2)O emission rates (1.2 mg m(-2) h(- 1)) than the others (1.5-1.6 mg m(-2) h( -1)). Total GHG emissions including both N(2)O and CH(4) were 463, 504 and 694 mg CO(2)-e m(- 2) h(-1) for vermicomposting, aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion, respectively, with N(2)O contributing >80% in the total budget. The GHG emissions varied substantially with time and were regulated by temperature, moisture content and the waste properties, indicating the potential to mitigate GHG emission through proper management of the composting systems. In comparison with other mainstream municipal waste management options including centralized composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, landfilling and incineration, home composting has the potential to reduce GHG emissions through both lower on-site emissions and the minimal need for transportation and processing. On account of the lower cost, the present results suggest that home composting provides an effective and feasible supplementary waste management method to a centralized facility in particular for cities with lower population density such as the Australian cities.

  2. Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Degraded land that is historically contaminated from different sources of industrial waste provides an opportunity for conversion to bioenergy fuel production and also to increase sequestration of carbon in soil through organic amendments. In pot experiments, As mobility was investigated in three different brownfield soils amended with green waste compost (GWC, 30% v/v) or biochar (BC, 20% v/v), planted with Miscanthus. Using GWC improved crop yield but had little effect on foliar As uptake, although the proportion of As transferred from roots to foliage differed considerably between the three soils. It also increased dissolved carbon concentrations in soil pore water that influenced Fe and As mobility. Effects of BC were less pronounced, but the impacts of both amendments on SOC, Fe, P and pH are likely to be critical in the context of As leaching to ground water. Growing Miscanthus had no measurable effect on As mobility. - Green waste compost enhances water-soluble iron, phosphorus and carbon, increasing arsenic mobility in soil pore water.

  3. Assessment of co-composting process with high load of an inorganic industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Reis, Marco S; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the co-composting of an inorganic industrial waste (eggshell - ES) in very high levels (up to 60% w/w). Since composting is a process in which solid, liquid and gaseous phases interact in a very complex way, there is a need to shed light on statistical tools that can unravel the main relationships structuring the variability associated to this process. In this study, PCA and data visualisation were used with that purpose. The co-composting tests were designed with increasing quantities of ES (0, 10, 20, 30 and 60%ES w/w) mixed with industrial potato peel and rice husks. Principal component analysis showed that physical properties like free air space, bulk density and moisture are the most relevant variables for explaining the variability due to ES content. On the other hand, variability in time dynamics is mostly driven by some chemical and phytoxicological parameters, such as organic matter decay and nitrate content. Higher ES incorporation (60% ES) enhanced the initial biological activity of the mixture, but the higher bulk density and lower water holding capacity had a negative effect on the aerobic biological activity as the process evolved. Nevertheless, pathogen-killing temperatures (>70°C for 11h) were attained. All the final products obtained after 90days were stable and non-phytotoxic. This work proved that valorisation of high amounts of eggshell by co-composting is feasible, but prone to be influenced by the physical properties of the mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) organic fraction. Energy and CO2 balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Benedetti, B.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comparison between different technologies for the treatment of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology constitutes the basic approach of the work, as reference international method of analysis, and allows to compare the energy and CO 2 balances taking into account the fractions deriving from renewable resources or from fossils resources. Results obtained show a significant advantage of the anaerobic treatment of MSW if compared with composting technology: obviously this conclusion refers only to an environmental point of view [it

  5. Chemical properties and hydrolytic enzyme activities for the characterisation of two-phase olive mill wastes composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, M L; Mondini, C; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A

    2008-07-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated during the extraction of olive oil by the two-phase centrifugation system. Among all the available disposal options, composting is gaining interest as a sustainable strategy to recycle TPOMW for agricultural purposes. The quality of compost for agronomical use depends on the degree of organic matter stabilization, but despite several studies on the topic, there is not a single method available which alone can give a certain indication of compost stability. In addition, information on the biological and biochemical properties, including the enzymatic activity (EA) of compost, is rare. The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of some enzymatic activities (beta-glucosidase, arylsulphatase, acid-phosphatase, alkaline-phosphatase, urease and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA)) as parameters to evaluate organic matter stability during the composting of TPOMW. These enzymatic indices were also compared to conventional stability indices. For this purpose two composting piles were prepared by mixing TPOMW with sheep manure and grape stalks in different proportions, with forced aeration and occasional turnings. The composting of TPOMW followed the common pattern reported previously for this kind of material with a reduction of 40-50% of organic matter, a gradual increase in pH, disappearance of phytotoxicity and formation of humic-like C. All EA increased during composting except acid-phosphatase. Significant correlations were found between EA and some important conventional stability indices indicating that EA can be a simple and reliable tool to determine the degree of stability of TPOMW composts.

  6. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers.

  7. Effect of addition of organic waste on reduction of Escherichia coli during cattle feces composting under high-moisture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajima, Dai; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Haga, Kiyonori

    2006-09-01

    To ensure Escherichia coli reduction during cattle feces composting, co-composting with a variety of organic wastes was examined. A mixture of dairy cattle feces and shredded rice straw (control) was blended with organic wastes (tofu residue, rice bran, rapeseed meal, dried chicken feces, raw chicken feces, or garbage), and composted using a bench-scale composter under the high-moisture condition (78%). The addition of organic waste except chicken feces brought about maximum temperatures of more than 55 degrees C and significantly reduced the number of E. coli from 10(6) to below 10(2)CFU/g-wet after seven days composting, while in the control treatment, E. coli survived at the same level as that of raw feces. Enhancements of the thermophilic phase and E. coli reduction were related to the initial amount of easily digestible carbon in mass determined as BOD. BOD value more than 166.2 mg O2/DMg brought about significant E. coli reduction.

  8. Performance of in-vessel composting of food waste in the presence of coal ash and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Chun-Jiang; Huang, Guo-He; Yao, Yao; Sun, Wei; An, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The amendments of CA and UA could facilitate the composting performance. ► The overall performance is a sum of different events with different mechanisms. ► The added CA and UA might lead to higher pH during the composting. ► The process is correlated with the variations of microbial activity and C/N ratio. ► The presence of CA and UA has significant influence on composting of food waste. - Abstract: Massive quantities of food waste often coexist with other agroindustrial and industrial waste, which might contain coal ash (CA) and uric acid (UA). This study investigated the influence of CA and UA on the composting of food waste in the in-vessel system. The patterns of food waste composting were compared among various combinations. The results showed that the temperature level was enhanced in the presence of CA and UA during the first 8 days. The significant drop in pH was observed in the treatment without any amendment. But the presence of CA could alleviate the drop of pH. More intensive organic mass reduction took place in the treatments with amended CA and UA in the first half of process. The O 2 uptake rate in the reactor with CA and UA was higher than that with only CA in the early stage. Both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were present throughout the composting period. The populations of both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were influenced when amended with CA and UA. The decreasing trend in C/N ratio was shown in all the reactors, while a relatively lower C/N ratio was obtained in the series with both CA and UA.

  9. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R; Sousa, J P; Canhoto, C

    2008-11-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6ton/ha or 12ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and growth tests showed that application of composts were beneficial for both plants. Composts did not affect earthworm's mass increase or reproduction, but the highest sludge amendment revealed negative effects on both parameters. Only the amendment of composts at the highest dose originated an impairment of springtails reproductive output. We suggest that bioassays using different test species may be an additional tool to evaluate effects of amendment of organic wastes in soil. Biological tests are sensitive to pollutants at low concentrations and to interactions undetected by routine chemical analysis.

  10. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  11. Environmental and economic analysis of an in-vessel food waste composting system at Kean University in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Horowitz, Naomi; Casey, Maeve; Jones, Kimmera

    2017-01-01

    A composting system provides many benefits towards achieving sustainability such as, replacing fertilizer use, increasing the quantity of produce sold, and diverting organic wastes from landfills. This study delves into the many benefits a composting system provided by utilizing an established composting system at Kean University (KU) in New Jersey, as a scale project to examine the composters' environmental and economic impacts. The results from the study showed that composting food wastes in an in-vessel composter when compared to typical disposal means by landfilling, had lower impacts in the categories of fossil fuel, GHG emissions, eutrophication, smog formation and respiratory effects; whereas, its had higher impacts in ozone depletion, acidification human health impacts, and ecotoxicity. The environmental impacts were mainly raised from the manufacturing of the composter and the electricity use for operation. Applying compost to the garden can replace fertilizers and also lock carbon and nutrients in soil, which reduced all of the environmental impact categories examined. In particular, the plant growth and use stage reduced up to 80% of respiratory effects in the life cycle of food waste composting. A cost-benefit analysis showed that the composting system could generate a profit of $13,200 a year by selling vegetables grown with compost to the student cafeteria at Kean and to local communities. When educational and environmental benefits were included in the analysis, the revenue increased to $23,550. The results suggest that in-vessel composting and the subsequent usage of a vegetable garden should be utilized by Universities or food markets that generate intensive food wastes across the U.S. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreove...

  13. Feasibility of Using Phytoextraction to Remediate a Compost-Based Soil Contaminated with Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Michele A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse and in-situ field experiments were used to determine the potential for phytoextraction to remediate soil contaminated with Cd from municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge (SS) compost application at a Peterborough (Canada) site. For the greenhouse experiment, one native (Chenopodium album) and three naturalized (Poa compressa, Brassica juncea, Helianthus annuus) plant species were planted in soil containing no detectable Cd (phytoextraction is therefore not feasible at this site. Though low Cd bioavailability has negative implications for Cd phytoextraction from MSW/SS compost-based soils, it may limit receptor exposure to Cd sufficiently to eliminate the potential for risk at this site.

  14. Differences in the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during composting of two types of household bio-waste collected in four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Ales; Szakova, Jirina; Ochecova, Pavla

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during 3 different compost aeration rates of household bio-waste, originating in urban settlement (U-bio-waste) and family house buildings (F-bio-waste). The first two weeks, when the thermophilic composting phase became, the highest decline of exchangeable content was recorded. After 12 weeks of composting, lower exchangeable content was found in the case of U-bio-waste composts than F-bio-waste composts, despite higher loss of fresh mass. The order of fractions in both final composts was as follows: residual>oxidizable>reducible>exchangeable. The exchangeable portion of total content in final composts decreased in this order: Zn (17%), Cd (11%), Pb (4%) and Cu (3%). Regarding the low exchangeable content of heavy metals and high-quality organic matter, these types of composts could be used not only as fertilizer, but for remediation of metals contaminated land. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  16. Monitoring the performances of a real scale municipal solid waste composting and a biodrying facility using respiration activity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Alexandros; Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Mavrakis, Nikitas; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Objective of the work was to monitor two full-scale commingled municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical and biological pretreatment (MBT) facilities in Greece, namely a biodrying and a composting facility. Monitoring data from a 1.5-year sampling period is presented, whilst microbial respiration indices were used to monitor the decomposition process and the stability status of the wastes in both facilities during the process. Results showed that in the composting facility, the organic matter reduced by 35 % after 8 weeks of combined composting/curing. Material exiting the biocells had a moisture content of less than 30 % (wb) indicating a moisture limitation during the active composting process. The static respiration indexes indicated that some stabilization occurred during the process, but the final material could not be characterized as stable compost. In the biodrying facility, the initial and final moisture contents were 50 % and less than 20 % wb, respectively, and the biodrying index was equal to 4.1 indicating effective biodrying. Lower heating values at the inlet and outlet were approximately 5.5 and 10 MJ/wet kg, respectively. The organic matter was reduced by 20 % during the process and specifically from a range of 63-77 % dw (inlet) to a range of 61-70 % dw. A significant respiration activity reduction was observed for some of the biodrying samples. A statistically significant correlation among all three respiration activity indices was recorded, with the two oxygen related activity indices (CRI7 and SRI24) observing the highest correlation.

  17. A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the livestock waste compost of Hong Kong, PR China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Q.Y.C.; Chan, A.H.M.; Ma, S.W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Composting is one of the waste disposal methods adopted for disposal of livestock waste in Hong Kong. The composting livestock waste normally undergoes 6-8 weeks fermentation, followed by 16-20 weeks maturation. The matured compost is sold as soil conditioner in the local market. In 2006, feedstock material and a time-series of compost samples were collected throughout the fermentation and maturation process from the Sha Ling Composting Plant in the New Territories. The feedstock material and compost samples were analyzed for contents of three unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. dioxins/furans, dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs. These POPs are unintentionally produced by-products of chemical industrial processes and combustion processes. Selected heavy metals were also analyzed, which served as conservative tracers to determine potential mass loss during the composting process. Levels of contamination by these POPs were found to be low in the matured compost for sale. The mean concentrations (lower-upper bound) of total dioxins/furans, total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs were 2.01-2.05 ng I-TEQ/kg dw, 0.04-0.05 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dw and 1.55-1.55 μg/kg dw, respectively. Progressively elevated levels of these POPs were observed in the compost samples during the fermentation process. Analysis of the congener profiles revealed that the heptaCDD and octaCDD were the main contributors to the observed increase in dioxin/furan content. The possible sources of dioxins/furans in the compost were discussed. The study results established a local dioxins/furans emission factor specific to the trade and provided a better estimate of the annual dioxins/furans emission for the livestock waste composting activity in Hong Kong

  18. Metal releases from a municipal solid waste incineration air pollution control residue mixed with compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Persson, K M

    2008-08-01

    The influence of 10 wt.% mature compost was tested on the heavy metal leachate emissions from a calcium-rich municipal solid waste incineration air pollution control residue (MSWI APC). Apart from elongated columns (500 and 1250 mm), an otherwise norm compliant European percolation test setup was used. More than 99% of the metals Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni were left in the APC residue after leaching to a liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 10. Apparent short-term effects of elevated leachate DOC concentrations on heavy metal releases were not detected. Zn and Pb leachate concentrations were one order of magnitude lower for L/S 5 and 10 from the pure APC residue column, which suggests a possible long-term effect of compost on the release of these elements. Prolonging the contact time between the pore water and the material resulted in elevated leachate concentrations at L/S 0.1 to L/S 1 by a factor of 2. Only Cr and Pb concentrations were at their maxima in the first leachates at L/S 0.1. Equilibrium speciation modelling with the PHREEQC code suggested portlandite (Ca(OH)2) to control Ca solubility and pH.

  19. Insects associated with the composting process of solid urban waste separated at the source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Estela Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcosaprophagous macroinvertebrates (earthworms, termites and a number of Diptera larvae enhance changes in the physical and chemical properties of organic matter during degradation and stabilization processes in composting, causing a decrease in the molecular weights of compounds. This activity makes these organisms excellent recyclers of organic matter. This article evaluates the succession of insects associated with the decomposition of solid urban waste separated at the source. The study was carried out in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A total of 11,732 individuals were determined, belonging to the classes Insecta and Arachnida. Species of three orders of Insecta were identified, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Diptera corresponding to 98.5% of the total, was the most abundant and diverse group, with 16 families (Calliphoridae, Drosophilidae, Psychodidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Milichiidae, Ulidiidae, Scatopsidae, Sepsidae, Sphaeroceridae, Heleomyzidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae, Phoridae, Tephritidae and Curtonotidae followed by Coleoptera with five families (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae, Hydrophilidae and Phalacaridae. Three stages were observed during the composting process, allowing species associated with each stage to be identified. Other species were also present throughout the whole process. In terms of number of species, Diptera was the most important group observed, particularly Ornidia obesa, considered a highly invasive species, and Hermetia illuscens, both reported as beneficial for decomposition of organic matter.

  20. Evaluation of microbial dynamics during post-consumption food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Jiao; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Kumar, Sunil; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of bacterial consortium to boost the microbial population and enzyme activities during post-consumption food waste (PCFWs) composting. Three treatments of PCFWs mixed with saw dust and 10% zeolite (dry weight basis) was design, where treatments T-2 and T-3 were applied with two distinctive bacterial consortium, respectively, while T-1 was served as control. The results showed that total aerobic proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulolytic, oil degrading and total aerobic bacteria populations were significantly higher in treatment T2 and T3 than T1. Consequently, the selected hydrolytic enzymes were also higher in T2 and T3 than T1, whose apparently gave the interesting information about rate of decomposition and end product stability. Furthermore, T2 and T3 showed significant correlations between the enzymatic activities and microbial population with other physico-chemical parameters. Based on germination assays and CO 2 -C evolution rate, T2 and T3 were considered phytotoxic free and highly stable final compost on day 56. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrahigh performance composting of sludge from food industry-comparative study of fermentation in sawdust and paper mixing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.; Masanori, M.; Mizuho, M.; Hiroe, K.; Shahjahan, M.M.; Tohru, H.; Hori, H.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded to develop an ultra high performance composting system for food industrial sludge by employing paper mixing method. Sludge was mixed with cut pieces (3 x 12 mm) of waste paper, like newspapers, in the range of 10-20 % (w/w) in an electric mixer to enhance the porosity and reduce water content of the mass. We followed conventional way of sawdust mixing as control. The mixture was subjected to aeration at room temperature with an electric blower at 86 L/min/m/sup 2/ bottom area of bio-reactor. The composting process completed in 10 days, in contrast to the conventional cases where it takes 60 to 90 days to complete composting, thereby reducing the time course 6 to 9 fold. Chemical analyses of the compost showed concentration nitrogen (N) 5.0%, phosphorus (P) 4.9% and potassium (K) 0.6% while all heavy metal contents were below the standard required level. The compost showed pH 7.1, EC 5.6 and C/N ratio 8. We analyzed for nitrogen release into the soil and efficacy on the germination and growth of Brassica Tapa L. the compost showed markedly good effect on the growth of the plantlets. The present study demonstrated that the paper-mixed composting method is highly efficient and energy saving. In addition, this method can lead to design a reactor which is compact but with very high capacity to convert municipal organic waste to compost. (author)

  2. Utilización de azufre micronizado en la corrección del pH de compost de residuos de poda Correction of the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barbaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los compost actualmente son muy utilizados como componentes de sustratos, aunque en algunos casos presentan pH alcalinos y causan problemas nutricionales. Por ello se recomienda hacer una corrección previa a su utilización o luego de elaborar el sustrato. Algunas alternativas para bajar el pH es mezclando el compost con materiales ácidos o mediante la adición de azufre, sulfato ferroso u otros compuestos azufrados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue corregir el pH de un compost de residuos de poda con azufre micronizado y hallar la dosis adecuada para el pH deseado. Se conformaron siete tratamientos, incorporando al compost de poda diferentes dosis de azufre micronizado: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 y 8 g/litro. Al compost de cada tratamiento se le midió el pH semanalmente y una vez estabilizados se analizó la conductividad eléctrica, concentración de nitrato, calcio, magnesio, potasio y sodio. Para un pH entre 5,3 y 6,2 se necesitaron 2 a 3 g de azufre/litro. El pH del compost disminuyó con el incremento de la dosis de azufre, y la CE aumentó. El azufre micronizado es una alternativa viable para corregir el pH del compost de restos de poda a los valores deseados.Nowadays, composts are widely used for incorporation into substrates and in some cases they present alkaline pH, causing nutritional problems. Therefore, it is suggested that a correction should be made prior to its use or after its preparation. Some alternatives to decrease pH values are mixing compost with acid materials or adding sulphur, ferrous sulphate or other sulphur compounds. The aim of this work was to correct the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur and find the appropriate dose for the desired pH. Seven treatments were performed incorporating different doses of micronized sulphur: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 g per liter of compost. Compost pH was measured weekly in each treatment. Once stabilized, electrical conductivity and concentration of nitrate, calcium, magnesium

  3. Waste prevention and management in territories, Report of contributions - Composting and/or methanization: which project for your territory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaud, Denis; Michel, Julia; Gaillard, Nathalie; Monteux, Fabienne; Tardy, Marc; Nathanael, Frere; Onno, Jean Marc; Thauvin, Philippe; Menou, Jean-Yves; Grappe, Denis; Winkelmuller, Serge; Tronc, Jean-Sebastien; Micone, Philippe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Couturier, Christian; Joly, Yves; Thevenin, Nicolas; Cheverry, Marc; Labeyrie, Pierre; Meunier, Melaine; Pouech, Philippe; Proix, Roger; Ramos, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Contributions of this colloquium addressed the following topics related to composting and methanization practices: proximity management (experiments in collective housing and in specific premises, autonomous effluent methanization for heat production, farm-based methanization) centralised management (experiments of waste processing, pollutions and working conditions), sector economy and quality, and how to choose solutions for organic waste management on a territory. The document also proposes a set of opinions published by the ADEME on mechanical-biological processing of domestic wastes, on the methanization of domestic and industrial wastes, and on agricultural methanization

  4. Assessing biochar and compost from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste on nutrient availability and plant growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regkouzas, Panagiotis; Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is determined by types of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Inorganic compounds, such as N, P, K and Ca, retained in biochar could be released and become available to plants. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of biochar and compost addition, derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes at two different pyrolysis temperatures 3000C (BC300) and 6000C (BC600), on phosphorus availability and plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in an alkaline loam soil. This type of soil is widely available in Greece, leading us to investigate ways to increase its fertility. A 39 d growth period of lettuce was studied in a greenhouse in triplicate. Treatments comprised of control soils (no addition of biochar or compost), soils treated only with compost (5%) or biochar (5%), and combinations of biochar (5%) plus compost (5%). No fertilization was added to any of the treatments. One biomass cut was obtained. Plant shoot yield and height were determined along with elemental concentration (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu) and uptake of shoots. Results showed that BC300 combined with compost significantly increased P uptake of lettuce. On the other hand, BC600 plus compost, along with the two biochar-only treatments, significantly decreased Ca and Mg uptake of lettuce. N, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu uptakes were not affected by the application of biochar, compost or the combined treatments. Despite the significant increase of P uptake, plant height and shoot yield were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments.

  5. Impact of anti-acidification microbial consortium on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Dongming; Xia, Xunfeng; Pan, Hongwei; Xi, Beidou

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of anti-acidification microbial consortium (AAMC), which act synergistically for rapid bioconversion of organic acids on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes in the course of food waste (FW) composting by metaproteomics. AAMC was inoculated to the composting mass and compared with treatment with alkaline compounds and the control without any amendment. Inoculating AAMC could effectively accelerate carbohydrate degradation process and improve composting efficiency. Carbohydrate metabolic network profiles showed the inoculation with AAMC could increase significantly the types of enzymes catalysing the degradation of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Furthermore, AAMC inoculum could increase not only diversities of microbes producing key enzymes in metabolism pathways of acetic and propionic acids, but also the amounts of these key enzymes. The increase of diversities of microbes could disperse the pressure from acidic adversity on microorganisms which were capable to degrade acetic and propionic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of tricarboxylic acid cycle regulator on carbon retention and organic component transformation during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zhao, Yue; Gao, Xintong; Wu, Junqiu; Zhou, Haixuan; Tang, Pengfei; Wei, Qingbin; Wei, Zimin

    2018-05-01

    Composting is an environment friendly method to recycling organic waste. However, with the increasing concern about greenhouse gases generated in global atmosphere, it is significant to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study analyzes tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle regulators on the effect of reducing CO 2 emission, and the relationship among organic component (OC) degradation and transformation and microorganism during composting. The results showed that adding adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) could enhance the transformation of OC and increase the diversity of microorganism community. Malonic acid (MA) as a competitive inhibitor could decrease the emission of CO 2 by inhibiting the TCA cycle. A structural equation model was established to explore effects of different OC and microorganism on humic acid (HA) concentration during composting. Furthermore, added MA provided an environmental benefit in reducing the greenhouse gas emission for manufacture sustainable products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction and Demolition Rubble for Use in Quarry Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on Lebanon and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. This research aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots). The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia and Zea mays (Corn). Results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis were conducted. The samples were tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. No contamination has been reported and an abundance of macronutrients and micronutrients was documented for the soil and compost. High alkalinity is due to the presence of concrete and the high percentage of Calcium Carbonate in Lebanese soils. Accordingly, the most adequate mixes for planting are treatments A (2:1:1) and B (1:0:1) and they should be pursued for a pilot scale study to test their potential use in quarry rehabilitation and

  8. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  9. Spectroscopic, thermogravimetric and structural characterization analyses for comparing Municipal Solid Waste composts and vermicomposts stability and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana; Rago, Yogeshwari Pooja; Joyram, Hashita; Raghoo, Pravesh; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This is the first-ever study of its kind for an extensive assessment and comparison of maturity indexes between compost and vermicompost that have been derived from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and structural characterization (scanning electron microscope: SEM) were recorded. FT-IR spectra showed an increase in conversion of polysaccharides species and aliphatic methylene groups in vermicompost compared to compost as depicted from the variation of the intensity of the peaks. TG curves of final vermicompost showed a much lower mass loss when compared to compost, indicating higher stability in feedstock. SEM micrographs of the vermicompost reflected strong fragmentation of material than composts which revealed the extent of intra-structural degradation of MSW. These findings elucidate on a clear comparison between composts and vermicomposts in terms of maturity indexes for soil enhancement and in agriculture as organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage co-composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cow dung (CD) (at 0%, 20%, and 35%) and/or spent coffee grounds (SCGs) (at 0%, 30%, and 45%) as amendments in the two-stage co-composting of green waste (GW); the percentages refer to grams of amendment per 100g of GW based on dry weights. The combined addition of CD and SCGs improved the conditions during co-composting and the quality of the compost product in terms of composting temperature; particle-size distribution; mechanical properties; nitrogen changes; low-molecular weight compounds; humic substances; the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; enzyme activities; the contents of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium; and the toxicity to germinating seeds. The combined addition of 20% CD and 45% SCGs to GW resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product and did so in only 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  12. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  13. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  14. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg −1 wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and −0.9 to 28 mPE Mg −1 ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

  15. Comparison of mass balance, energy consumption and cost of composting facilities for different types of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance, energy consumption and cost are basic pieces of information necessary for selecting a waste management technology. In this study, composting facilities that treat different types of organic waste were studied by questionnaire survey and via a chemical analysis of material collected at the facilities. The mass balance was calculated on a dry weight basis because the moisture content of organic waste was very high. Even though the ratio of bulking material to total input varied in the range 0-65% on a dry basis, the carbon and ash content, carbon/nitrogen ratio, heavy metal content and inorganic nutrients in the compost were clearly influenced by the different characteristics of the input waste. The use of bulking material was not correlated with ash or elemental content in the compost. The operating costs were categorised into two groups. There was some economy of scale for wages and maintenance cost, but the costs for electricity and fuel were proportional to the amount of waste. Differences in operating costs can be explained by differences in the process characteristics.

  16. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Compost from Food Waste: Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar Series titled Compost from Food Waste:Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

  17. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  18. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic

  19. The Effect of Compost and the Ripe Fruit Waste of Fig on some Physical Properties of Surface Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra dianat maharluei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In arid and semi-arid soils, low organic matter is one of the barriers to achieving optimal performance. The soils with more organic matter have a better structure and are more resistant to erosive factors such as water and wind. Soil organic matter has a particular importance and has significant impact on the stability of soil aggregates, the extension of plant root system, carbon and water cycles and soil resistance to erosion. This substance acts as a cementing agent and plays an important role in soil flocculation and formation of resistant aggregates.Also, the addition of organic matter to the soil increases soil porosity and decreases soil bulk density. Materials and Methods: In this research, the effect of the two types of organic matter (compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig on some soil physical properties was studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, including the four levels of compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig (0, 1, 2 and 4 by weight % and three soil types (loamy sand, loam and silty clay loam with three replications was carried out. The soil samples were collected from the three territories of Fars Province: loamy sand soil from Shiraz, loamy soil from Maharlu and Silty clay loam soil from Zarghan area. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve. The physical properties including the bulk density, particle density, porosity, moisture content and soil crust strength was measured. In this research, the soil texture by hydrometer method, Electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract by electrical conductivity meter, saturated paste pH by pH meter, seedling emergence test, soil crust strength by a pocket penetrometer (HUMBOLDT MFG.CO. bulk density by cylindrical sample and particle density by pycnometer method were measured. The fig fruit treatments were prepared by thoroughly mixing the dried powder of ripe fig fruit passed through a 2 mm sieve (with

  20. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  1. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  2. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, Y; Meyer, A H; Mulidzi, A R; Shange, P L; Nchu, F

    2017-01-01

    Waste management in winery and distillery industries faces numerous disposal challenges as large volumes of both liquid and solid waste by-products are generated yearly during cellar practices. Composting has been suggested as a feasible option to beneficiate solid organic waste. This incentivized the quest for efficient composting protocols to be put in place. The objective of this study was to experiment with different composting strategies for spent winery solid waste. Compost materials consisting of chopped pruning grape stalks, skins, seed and spent wine filter material consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic expend ingredients were mixed in compost heaps. The filter material component varied (in percentage) among five treatments: T1 (40%) lined, T2 (20%) lined, T3 (0%) lined, T4 (40%) ground material, lined and T5 (40%) unlined. Composting was allowed to proceed under open field conditions over 12months, from autumn to summer. Indicators such as temperature, moisture, enzyme activities, microbial counts, pH, and C/N ratio, were recorded. Generally, season (df=3, 16, Pwinery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Asagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’ and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF, we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potatoes were cultivated in 2008 and 2009 in an Andosol field treated with AC, conventional food waste compost (FWC, poultry manure compost (PMC, cattle manure compost (CMC, IF, or no fertilizer (NF. AC, but not the other treatments, delayed the emergence of potatoes, and suppressed the emergence of weeds, but it did not inhibit potato growth during the late growth stage or yield. Potato N uptake and tuber yield with AC were significantly higher than those with NF and similar to those with FWC, PMC, and IF. The N uptake efficiencies (ratio of difference between N uptake in the treatment and the control to added N for AC (10.4–12.7% in 2008 and 2009 were similar to those for FWC and PMC (10.2–13.1%, higher than those for CMC (–1.3 to 6.3%, but significantly lower than those for IF (30.2–42.3%. Our findings indicate that AC has an N supply capacity similar to those of FWC and PMC and additionally suppresses the emergence and growth of weeds.

  4. Composting on Mars or the Moon: II. Temperature feedback control with top-wise introduction of waste material and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, M. S.; Hogan, J. A.; Sager, J. C.; Cowan, R. M.; Strom, P. F.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Whereas Earth-based composting reactors that effectively control the process are batch operations with bottom-to-top airflow, in extraterrestrial application both the fresh waste and the air need to be introduced from above. Stabilized compost and used air would exit below. This materials flow pattern permits the addition of waste whenever generated, obviating the need for multiple reactors, and the incorporation of a commode in the lid. Top loading in turn dictates top-down aeration, so that the most actively decomposing material (greatest need for heat removal and O2 replenishment) is first encountered. This novel material and aeration pattern was tested in conjunction with temperature feedback process control. Reactor characteristics were: working, volume, 0.15 m3; charge, 2 kg dry biomass per day (comparable to a 3-4 person self-sufficient bioregenerative habitat); retention time, 7 days. Judging from temperature profile, O2 level, air usage, pressure head loss, moisture, and odor, the system was effectively controlled over a 35-day period. Dry matter disappearance averaged 25% (10-42%). The compost product was substantially, though not completely, stabilized. This demonstrates the compatibility of top-wise introduction of waste and air with temperature feedback process control.

  5. Long-term simulations of water and isoproturon dynamics in a heterogeneous soil receiving different urban waste composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Romić, Davor; Benoit, Pierre; Houot, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Implementing various compost amendments and tillage practices has a large influence on soil structure and can create heterogeneities at the plot/field scale. While tillage affects soil physical properties, compost application influences also chemical properties like pesticide sorption and degradation. A long-term field experiment called "QualiAgro" (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), conducted since 1998 aims at characterizing the agronomic value of urban waste composts and their environmental impacts. A modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D for the 2004-2010 period to confront the effects of two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage in terms of water and isoproturon dynamics in soil. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots and compared to a control plot without any compost addition (CONT). Two wick lysimeters, 5 TDR probes, and 7 tensiometers were installed per plot to monitor water and isoproturon dynamics. In the ploughed layer, four zones with differing soil structure were identified: compacted clods (Δ), non-compacted soil (Γ), interfurrows (IF), and the plough pan (PP). These different soil structural zones were implemented into HYDRUS-2D according to field observation and using measured soil hydraulic properties. Lysimeter data showed (2004 -2010 period) that the CONT plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). HYDRUS-2D was able to describe cumulative water outflow after calibration of soil hydraulic properties, for the whole 2004-2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. Isoproturon leaching showed had the largest cumulative value in the CONT plot (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leachings were measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate

  6. Effects of the feeding ratio of food waste on fed-batch aerobic composting and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Pan, Songqing; Zhang, Zhaoji; Lin, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of the community structure. The communities sampled at the thermophilic phases had high similarity and relatively low diversity, while species diversity increased in the maturity phase. This study was devoted to optimizing the fed-batch composting process and assessing bacterial communities, both of which were supplied as a reference for practical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of different techniques of composting and their stability evaluation in municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.K.; Khan, R.A.; Nadeem, A.; Hussnain, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial differences in the physical and chemical characteristics related to maturity of composted organic matter are strongly influenced by composting methods. For evaluation of compost maturity three locally fabricated composters (aerobic, mixed type, anaerobic) processes were examined at seven days interval up to 91 days by loading MSW along with bulking agent. Gradual changes in physico chemical characteristics (temperature, pH, moisture, CEC, humification) related to stability and maturity of compost were studied and compared. Increase in ammonia nitrogen level due to rise in temperature was maximum in aerobic process. Substantial increase in CEC in aerobic process was earlier which leads to establish the optimal degree of maturity as compared to other processes. FA and HI decrease rapidly as composting progressed. Optimal level in stability and maturity parameters like C:N, HA, DH and HR were attained earlier in aerobic process as compared to mixed type and anaerobic processes due to continuous aeration. The parameters (HR, DH, FA, HA), which indicate the compost stability were correlated among themselves. The parameters defining maturity such as CEC, ammonia nitrate and C:N ratio were also related to above mention parameters. The compost from the aerobic process provided good humus and micro nutrients. Result from this study will assist in method optimization and quality of the compost product. (author)

  8. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  9. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  10. Enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes in soil receiving composts derived from swine manure, yard wastes, or food wastes, and evidence for multiyear persistence of swine Clostridium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Drury, Craig F; Reynolds, W Daniel; Topp, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The impact of amendment with swine manure compost (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared with untreated control soil, all 3 amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to 4 years postapplication. The abundance of several gene targets was much higher in soil amended with SMC than in soil receiving either YWC or FWC. The gene target ermB remained higher in the SMC treatment for a decade postapplication. Clostridia were significantly more abundant in the SMC-amended soil throughout the decade following application. Eight percent of Clostridium spp. isolates from the SMC treatment carried ermB. Overall, addition of organic amendments to soils has the potential to increase the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. Amendments of fecal origin, such as SMC, will in addition entrain bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Environmentally recalcitrant clostridia, and the antibiotic resistance genes that they carry, will persist for many years under field conditions following the application of SMC.

  11. The efficiency of home composting programmes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Soto, M

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of home composting programmes and the quality of the produced compost was evaluated in eight rural areas carrying out home composting programmes (up to 880 composting bins) for all household biowaste including meat and fish leftovers. Efficiency was analysed in terms of reduction of organic waste collected by the municipal services. An efficiency of 77% on average was obtained, corresponding to a composting rate of 126kg/person·year of biowaste (or 380kg/composter·year). Compost quality was determined for a total of 90 composting bins. The operation of composting bins by users was successful, as indicated by a low C/N ratio (10-15), low inappropriate materials (or physical contaminant materials, mean of 0.27±0.44% dry matter), low heavy metal content (94% of samples met required standards for agricultural use) and high nutrient content (2.1% N, 0.6% P, 2.5% K, 0.7% Mg and 3.7% Ca on average, dry matter). The high moisture (above 70% in 48% of the samples) did not compromise the compost quality. Results of this study show that home composting of household organic waste including meat and fish leftovers is a feasible practice. Home composting helps individuals and families to reduce the amount of household waste at the same time gaining a fertiliser material (compost) of excellent quality for gardens or vegetable plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  13. Compost, fertilizer, and biogas production from human and farm wastes in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M G; Stainforth, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    This translation is divided into six parts: (1) The Practices and Management of Excreta and Farm Waste Composting, (2) Treatment of Livestock Manure and Human Waste for Reuse, (3) The Two-Partition Three-Tank Hygienic Toilet, (4) Construction of the Fixed Top Fully Enclosed Biogas Plant, (5) Research Results on the Effectiveness of Excreta Treatment in Biogas Plants, and (6) Biogas Production and Reuse from Farm and Human Wastes. A detailed description of the design and construction of fixed top, enclosed, three-stage biogas plants as well as the preparation of the building materials and accessories such as safety valves and gauges, biogas stores and lamps is presented. Safety precautions, examination procedures for water and gas leaks, the procedure of filling the plant, and proper treatment of the sludge and sediment are discussed. The results obtained on the effectiveness of these plants in settling out parasite eggs, in destroying hookworms and ascarid eggs and in totally eliminating schistosome flukes from the fecal liquid are described. It was also determined that the environment in the biogas plant greatly reduced the E. coli index, totally eliminated the Shigella bacillus and spirochetes in 30 hours and the typhoid B bacillus in 44 days. The use of a three-stage septic tank, which includes a biogas plant, in connection with pigpens and toilets is discussed. Particular attention is given to the location, size, structure and construction of the biogas tank. Descriptions of a safety pressure gauge and earthen-ware stoves and lamps operating on biogas are given.

  14. Production of valuable humified substrate by meansco-composting of source-collected vegetable and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varallo, G.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) Coal-ash Utilization Research Centre has been more and more interested in developing suitable procedures in order to recycle residues from coal combustion in electric power generating stations for use in agricultural and forestry activities. Particular attention is currently being given to the production of humified substrates by means of co-composting mixtures of green waste and fly ash. The transformation process involves a reduction in the waste quantities destined for dumping, a decrease in environmental pollution and the recycling of nutrients which avoid or reduce the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and humid biotopes such as peat mosses

  15. Effect of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on yield and heavy metal accumulation in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste (MSw compost and sewage sludge (SS on yield and concentration of heavy metals in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L. an experiment with MSW compost at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (C0, C15 and C30 and sewage sludge at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (S0, S15 and S30 in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Results showed that MSW compost and SS had significant effects on plant dry matter. Increasing the amounts of SS increased dry matter of plant. But increasing MSW compost from 15 to 30 t.ha-1 was decreased in dry matter. The Effect of MSW compost and SS on concentration of heavy metals (Ni and Pb in plant except Cd was significant. Addition of MSW compost and sewage sludge increased availability of Pb, Ni and Cd in soil. But effect of MSW compost and sewage sludge on Cd availability was not significant. Results showed that the amounts of Ni exceed the standard limits in dry matter. Therefore in use of organic wastes for medicinal plants we should be careful..

  16. Temperature and final characteristics of composting process of the Municipal solid wastes; Evolucion de la temperatura y caracteristicas finales del co-compostaje de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, O.; Leon, J.J. de; Revilla, J.; Dobao, M.M.; Ruiz, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Agricola y Edafologia, Universidad de Cordoba, cordoba (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    In this paper it has been studied the evolution of temperature in two depth of three piles during the composting process using the organic matter of the Municipal Solid Waste from Cordoba (Spain) from the selective harvest. The cited mixtures were composed of organic matter (<50 mm), sludge from the water treatment plant, pruning garden and bark of pine (bunking). Almost it has been obtained the yield of the composting piles and the agronomic quality of the compost obtained. The mixture organic matter <50 mm+pruning arden+bunking (M.P.B.) shoved the best index. (Author) 15 refs.

  17. A novel kinetic modeling method for the stabilization phase of the composting process for biodegradation of solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Reza; Ghazanfari Moghaddam, Ahmad; Sarcheshmehpour, Mehdi; Mortezapour, Hamid

    2017-12-01

    Biomass degradation kinetics of the composting process for kitchen waste, pruned elm tree branches and sheep manure were studied to model changes in volatile solids (VS) over time. Three experimental reactors containing raw mixtures with a carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 27:1 and a moisture content of 65% were prepared. During the composting process two of the reactors used forced air and the third used natural aeration. The composting stabilization phases in all reactors were completed in 30 days. During this period, composting indexes such as temperature, moisture content and VS changes were recorded. Elementary reactions were used for kinetics modeling of the degradation process. Results showed that the numerical values of rate constant ( k) for zero-order ranged from 0.86 to 1.03 VS×day -1 , for first-order models it ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 day -1 , for second-order the range was from 1.36×10 -5 to 1.78×10 -5 VS -1 ×day -1 and for n-order the rate constant ranged from 0.031 to 0.095 VS (1-n) ×day -1 . The resulting models were validated by comparing statistical parameters. Evaluation of the models showed that, in the aerated reactors, the n-order models (less than 1) successfully estimated the VS changes. In the non-aeration reactor, for the second-order model good agreement was achieved between the simulated and actual quantities of VS. Also, half-life time provided a useful criterion for the estimation of expected time for completion of different phases of composting.

  18. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    -rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed...

  19. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.u [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: nickandeileenlepp@hotmail.co [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  20. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  1. Bacillus niabensis sp. nov., isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Bong; Go, Seung-Joo; Lee, Gil-Bok

    2007-08-01

    A group of five bacilli, designated strains 4T12, 4T19(T), 5M45, 5M53 and 5T52, isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation, were examined. These strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, spore-forming rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus, showing the highest levels of similarity (approx. 96.6-96.9 %) with respect to Bacillus herbersteinensis DSM 16534(T). The values for DNA-DNA hybridization (approx. 85-96 %) among these five strains revealed that they belong to the same species. The major menaquinone present was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (approx. 24.5-33.9 %) and C(16 : 0) (approx. 15.1-34.1 %). The DNA G+C contents were 37.7-40.9 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and comparative genomic analyses, the five isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus niabensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 4T19(T) (=KACC 11279(T) =DSM 17723(T)).

  2. Novel multifunctional plant growth-promoting bacteria in co-compost of palm oil industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Furuya, Yoshihide; Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Previously, a unique co-compost produced by composting empty fruit bunch with anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent, which contributed to establishing a zero-emission industry in Malaysia. Little was known about the bacterial functions during the composting process and fertilization capacity of this co-compost. We isolated 100 strains from the co-compost on 7 types of enumeration media and screened 25 strains using in vitro tests for 12 traits, grouping them according to three functions: plant growth promoting (fixation of nitrogen; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and silicate; production of 3-indoleacetic acid, ammonia, and siderophore), biocontrolling (production of chitinase and anti-Ganoderma activity), and composting (degradation of lignin, xylan, and cellulose). Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 25 strains with strong or multi-functional traits were found belong to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Kosakonia. Furthermore, several strains of Citrobacter sedlakii exhibited a plant growth-stimulation in vivo komatsuna plant cultivation test. In addition, we isolated several multifunctional strains; Bacillus tequilensis CE4 (biocontrolling and composting), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens B3 (plant growth promoting and biocontrolling), and C. sedlakii CESi7 (plant growth promoting and composting). Some bacteria in the co-compost play significant roles during the composting process and plant cultivation after fertilization, and some multifunctional strains have potential for use in accelerating the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass, protecting against Ganoderma boninense infection, and increasing the yield of palm oil. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of biochar on heavy metals and microbial community during composting of river sediment with agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoning; Liu, Yao; Li, Yuanping; Wu, Yanxin; Chen, Yanrong; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate influence of biochar addition on physico-chemical process, heavy metals transformation and bacterial community diversity during composting of sediment with agricultural wastes. Simultaneously, the relationships between those parameters including heavy metals and bacterial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results show that the extraction efficiency of DTPA extractable heavy metals decreased in both piles, and reduced more in pile with biochar addition about 0.1-2.96%. Biochar addition dramatically influenced the bacterial community structure during the composting process. Moreover, the bacterial community composition was significantly correlated with C/N ratio, water soluble carbon (WSC), and organic matter (OM) (Pheavy metals contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Composting system for waste treatment coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators in the Experimental Center Kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composting process waste coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators (yogurt, whey and yeast. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The values in N are classified medium and high levels the quantities of P, K are classified as middle levels. The value obtained 7.9 pH, EC 12950 µS/cm and 61% organic matter belong to treatment T1. The decomposition time was a period of 105 days corresponds to treatment T3.

  6. Composting plant of vegetables wastes and sewage sludges in Castesdefells. Plant de compostaje de restos de poda y lodos de depuradora en Castelldefells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Castelldefells Municipality (Catalonia, Spain) has set up a recycling plant for vegetable wastes mixed with sewage sludge to obtain compost. The plant treats 48.000 m''3/y. of vegetable wastes, and receive 8.000 m''3/y. of sewage sludge. (Author)

  7. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  8. Characterization of isolated fractions of dissolved organic matter derived from municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao

    2018-04-14

    Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological composting of petroleum waste organics using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, M.J.; Xiu J, Qiu; Aprill, W.A.; Sims, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in biological compost soil reactors was effective in enhancing the rates of Benzo(a)pyrene removal over that observed under natural soil conditions. In contaminated soil compost systems amended with fungal inoculum and primary substrate, maximum Benzo(a)pyrene removal rates of 0.31 mg B(a)p/kg compost material-day (0.25 mgB(a)p/kg soil-day) were observed while in unamended soil conditions, maximum removal rates of 0.13 mg B(a)p/kg soil-day were recorded. Additions of primary substrate without any fungal inoculum gave compound removal rates similar to soil only conditions (i.e., 14 mg B(a)p/kg soil-day). Differences in contaminant and radioactivity ( 14 C) removal rates indicated that Benzo(a)pyrene derived carbon was being incorporated into nonvolatile materials within the compost environment. Contaminated soil pH had a significant effect on Benzo(a)pyrene removal rates during composting treatment. With acid soils (pH-4.8), a maximum Benzo(a)pyrene removal rate of 0.11 mg B(a)p/kg compost material-day was determined compared to 0.31 mg B(a)p/kg compost material-day in alkaline (pH-8.0) soil. Oxygen availability appeared to be one of the most important process variables influencing both fungal growth and Benzo(a)pyrene removal. Periodic pulses of oxygen equivalent to a three volume turnover of reactor headspace every three days resulted in increasing the Benzo(a)pyrene removal rate from 0.31 mg B(a)p/kg compost material-day to 0.85 mg B(a)p/kg compost material day

  10. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    OpenAIRE

    Strom, P F

    1985-01-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incu...

  11. Control of spread of Augusta disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in tulip by composting residual waste of small bulbs, tunics, roots and soil debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, C.J.; Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the elimination of the infectious virus/fungus complex of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV; cause of Augusta disease in tulip) and Olpidium brassicae in different soil types and residual waste material of soil debris, small tulip bulbs, roots and tunics by temperature treatments of

  12. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendli, Rahel C.; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Kupper, Thomas; Mayer, Jochen; Stadelmann, Franz X.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Composting and digestion are important waste management strategies. However, the resulting products can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we followed the concentration changes of PCBs and PAHs during composting and digestion on field-scale for the first time. Concentrations of low-chlorinated PCBs increased during composting (about 30%), whereas a slight decrease was observed for the higher chlorinated congeners (about 10%). Enantiomeric fractions of atropisomeric PCBs were essentially racemic and stable over time. Levels of low-molecular-weight PAHs declined during composting (50-90% reduction), whereas high-molecular-weight compounds were stable. The PCBs and PAHs concentrations did not seem to vary during digestion. Source apportionment by applying characteristic PAH ratios and molecular markers in input material did not give any clear results. Some of these parameters changed considerably during composting. Hence, their diagnostic potential for finished compost must be questioned. - During field-scale composting, low molecular weight PCBs and PAHs increased and decreased, respectively, whereas high molecular weight compounds remained stable

  13. Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, Sarah M.; Dalal, Ram C.; Harper, Stephen M.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N ( 14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N 2 O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N 2 O/m 2 , and 11 mg/N 2 O/m 2 from the control + N. The N 2 O emission decreased with GWC addition (P 2 O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N 2 O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N 2 O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N 2 O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N 2 O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N 2 O, an important greenhouse gas.

  14. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BENCH-SCALE COMPOST TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil bound contamination presents a significant set of problems to those attempting to remediate the soil. Bioremediation has received considerable attention, as a potential answer to the obvious remediation needs. Composting technology represents a promising means to use indigen...

  15. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  16. Mathematical model for carbon dioxide evolution from the thermophilic composting of synthetic food wastes made of dog food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.I.; Tsai, J.J.; Wu, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of the aeration and the agitation on the composting process of synthetic food wastes made of dog food were studied in a laboratory-scale reactor. Two major peaks of CO 2 evolution rate were observed. Each peak represented an independent stage of composting associated with the activities of thermophilic bacteria. CO 2 evolutions known to correlate well with microbial activities and reactor temperatures were fitted successfully to a modified Gompertz equation, which incorporated three biokinetic parameters, namely, CO 2 evolution potential, specific CO 2 evolution rate, and lag phase time. No parameters that describe the impact of operating variables are involved. The model is only valid for the specified experimental conditions and may look different with others. The effects of operating parameters such as aeration and agitation were studied statistically with multivariate regression technique. Contour plots were constructed using regression equations for the examination of the dependence of CO 2 evolution potentials on aeration and agitation. In the first stage, a maximum CO 2 evolution potential was found when the aeration rate and the agitation parameter were set at 1.75 l/kg solids-min and 0.35, respectively. In the second stage, a maximum existed when the aeration rate and the agitation parameter were set at 1.8 l/kg solids-min and 0.5, respectively. The methods presented here can also be applied for the optimization of large-scale composting facilities that are operated differently and take longer time

  17. Evolution of organic matter during composting of different organic wastes assessed by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricasole, P.; Provenzano, M.R.; Hatcher, P.G.; Senesi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of organic matter (OM) during composting of different mixtures of various organic wastes was assessed by means of chemical analyses and CPMAS 13 C NMR spectroscopy measured during composting. The trends of temperatures and C/N ratios supported the correct evolution of the processes. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectra of all composting substrates indicated a reduction in carbohydrates and an increase in aromatic, phenolic, carboxylic and carbonylic C which suggested a preference by microorganisms for easily degradable C molecules. The presence of hardly degradable pine needles in one of the substrates accounted for the lowest increase in alkyl C and the lowest reduction in carbohydrates and carboxyl C as opposite to another substrate characterized by the presence of a highly degradable material such as spent yeast from beer production, which showed the highest increase of the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio. The highest increase of COOH deriving by the oxidative degradation of cellulose was shown by a substrate composed by about 50% of plant residues. The smallest increases in alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and in polysaccharides were associated to the degradation of proteins and lipids which are major components of sewage sludge. Results obtained were related to the different composition of fresh organic substrates and provided evidence of different OM evolution patterns as a function of the initial substrate composition.

  18. Characterization of Explosives Processing Waste Decomposition Due to Composting. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    first was a group of static compost piles with 7, 10, 20, 30, and 40 volume percent of explosives-contaminated lagoon soil. The main variable thus was...piles and day 44 for the mechanical composters) venus the 100% contaminated soil which was removed from the lagoon for treatment. Percentage decreases...would become integrated into the soil by plants, soil bacteria and fungi, micro- and macroinvertebrates (e.g., arthropods, earthworms) and small

  19. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  20. The effect of urban waste compost applied in a vineyard, olive grove and orange grove on soil proprieties in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Bono, Giuseppe; Guaitoli, Fabio; Pasciuta, Giuseppe; Santoro, Antonino

    2013-04-01

    The application to soil of compost produced from urban wastes not only could improve the soil properties but also could be a solution for disposal of large quantities of different refuses. Knowledge on compost characteristic, soil properties as well as on mineral crop nutrition are important to proper management of fertilization with compost and to understanding the impact on C and N dynamics in field. We present the results of soil physical and chemical changes after the application of urban waste compost in three different orchards (vineyard, olive grove, and orange grove) in Mediterranean environment (Sicily). The compost was applied on November 2010 and samples were collected 1 month after application for two years. Soil pH, carbon content, weight of soil aggregate fractions, nitrate content were examined during the trial, comparing with adjacent no fertilized plot. The application of compost caused a decrease in soil organic carbon stock of 14% and 28% after two years in vineyard and orange grove, respectively, while a significant increase under olive grove was registered. Nitrate monitoring showed for all crops high content of Nitrate for most of the year that involved SOC stock depletion. This was not observed in olive grove, where soil received further C input thanks to soil management with cover crop. In two years of observations there were no significant change in soil physic properties.

  1. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes.

  2. Substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost in watermelon seedling production combined with fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papamichalaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in reusing organic residues as substrate medium in nurseries has increased worldwide as peat availability has been reduced over time. In this study, the effect of fertigation and/or a partial substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC on the emergence, growth, and nutrition of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. seedlings were tested. The MSWC extracts (MSWC:water at 10-1 and 10-2 dilutions maintained seedling germination. Under nursery conditions, six media prepared from commercial peat and MSWC were further assessed in conjunction with nutrient application as basic fertilizer (BF or hydro fertilizer (HF. Adding MSWC to the substrate inhibited seed emergence and mean germination time, whereas fertigation maintained seed emergence in 15% MSWC but decreased in 45% MSWC. Adding 45% MSWC reduced seedling height, leaf number, and fresh weight. The HF increased fresh weight (up to 44% and growth in seedlings cultivated in 15% MSWC. Leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased (up to 2.6-fold in MSWC-based (< 45% MSWC substrates, but no differences were observed in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoid content, and leaf fluorescence. The HF reduced chlorophyll a and total carotenoids, but increased chlorophyll b content. The K, N, and Na content increased (ranging from 2- to 5-fold when adding MSWC, whereas P content did not differ. Fertigation benefits seedling nutritive status. Low content (15% to 30% of MSWC may act as an alternative substitute for peat with more positive effects if minerals are provided through HF.

  3. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  4. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  5. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  6. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aerobic composting potential and quality of Source Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SSMSW) was studied using four different treatments for over 80 days. Four different types of treatments using different inoculums were used for the composting of source separated municipal solid waste. The phytotoxicity tests of the ...

  7. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  8. The Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Compost Properties Produced in Sanandaj City with a View of Improving the Soil Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the use of municipal solid waste (MSW compost in agriculture as a soil conditioner is increasing day by day because of its positive effects on biological, physical, and chemical soil properties. However, some of the composts because of contamination with heavy metals and other impurities can have deleterious effects on groundwater quality, agricultural environment, food chain, plant growth and activity of soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potential of two types of municipal solid waste composts with processing time between 4 to 8 years (type A and between1 to 4 years (type B produced in Sanandaj city with the aim of using it as an organic fertilizer. Materials and Methods: Sanadaj city, the center of Kurdistan province, with a population of about 335,000 is located in the west of Iran. The current solid waste generation from the city is about 320 t/day, which are not separated at source of generation. About 200 t of the total produced wastes are composted using an open windrows system at the Sanandaj MSW Composting Plant, which is located in 10 km of Sanadaj-Kamiaran road and the rest are disposed at the landfill site. The compost manufactured by the composting plant has been collected around it in two different locations. The first belonges to the product of 2004-2008 (type A and the second belonges to the product of 2009-2013 (type B. Till now, due to lack of quality information associated with these products, they have remained unused. Therefore, in this study, we sampled 3 samples composed of six subsamples (each containing 2 kg from the products in March 2013. The samples were analyzed to determine the physical properties (including undesirable impurities, initial moisture content, particle size distribution, particle density, bulk density (ρb, porosity, and maximum water holding capacity, and the

  9. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly

  10. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...... these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in compost engineering and for establishing and running a successful composting facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the compost product. Use in agriculture is described in Chapter 9.10 and the use of compost in soil amendment...

  11. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources; El compostaje como tecnologIa para el tratamiento de residuos: compostaje de bagazo de sorgo dulce con diferentes fuentes nitrogenadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J; Carrasco, J E; Negro, M J

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources; El compostaje como tecnologia para el tratamiento de residuos: compostaje de bagazo de sorgo dulce con diferentes fuentes nitrogenadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J; Carrasco, J E; Negro, M J

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to study aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the proteic synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, in industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37 degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing stillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO{sub 3} as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources.

  13. Quantifying the effects of green waste compost application, water content and nitrogen fertilization on nitrous oxide emissions in 10 agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xia; Silva, Lucas C R; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Ning; Horwath, William R

    2013-01-01

    Common management practices, such as the application of green waste compost, soil moisture manipulation, and nitrogen fertilization, affect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from agricultural soils. To expand our understanding of how soils interact with these controls, we studied their effects in 10 agricultural soils. Application of compost slightly increased NO emissions in soils with low initial levels of inorganic N and low background emission. For soils in which compost caused a decrease in emission, this decrease was larger than any of the observed increases in the other soils. The five most important factors driving emission across all soils, in order of increasing importance, were native dissolved organic carbon (DOC), treatment-induced change in DOC, native inorganic N, change in pH, and soil iron (Fe). Notable was the prominence of Fe as a regulator of NO emission. In general, compost is a viable amendment, considering the agronomic benefits it provides against the risk of producing a small increase in NO emissions. However, if soil properties and conditions are taken into account, management can recognize the potential effect of compost and thereby reduce NO emissions from susceptible soils, particularly by avoiding application of compost under wet conditions and together with ammonium fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Effect of Iron Oxides (Ordinary and Nano and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC Coated Sulfur on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Plant Iron Concentration and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mazaherinia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effects of ordinary iron oxide (0.02-0.06 mm and nano iron oxide (25-250 nm and five levels of both iron oxides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 %w/w and two levels of sulfurous granular compost (MSW (0 and 2% w/w on plant height, spike length, grain weight per spike, total plant dry matter weight and thousands grain weight of wheat. The experimental factors were combined in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Results showed that nano iron oxide was superior over ordinary iron oxide in all parameters studied. Fe concentration, spike length, plant height, grain weight per spike, total plant dry weight and thousands grain weight showed increasing trend per increase in both of iron oxides levels. Also, all parameters studied in sulfurous granular compost (MSW treatment were superior over granular compost without sulfurous (MSW. This increase in all parameters were significantly higher when urban solid waste compost coated with sulfur coupled with nano iron oxide compared to urban sulfurous granular compost (MSW along with ordinary iron oxide. Keywords: Sulfurous granular compost (MSW, Nano and ordinary iron oxides, Wheat

  15. Compostagem de resíduos sólidos de frigorífico Composting of slaughterhouse solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica S. S. de M. Costa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da compostagem ser uma alternativa viável e eficiente no tratamento de resíduos agroindustriais, objetivou-se avaliá-la em resíduos provenientes do abate de bovinos e suínos. Confeccionaram-se 12 leiras de compostagem utilizando-se resíduos de frigorífico, palha de trigo e serragem de madeira. O processo foi avaliado pelo monitoramento diário da temperatura, observação da ocorrência de parâmetros indesejáveis (presença de odores desagradáveis e/ou amoniacais, formação de chorume e presença de moscas e larvas e pela capacidade de reciclagem de nutrientes. Os parâmetros indesejáveis foram observados, em média, nos primeiros cinco dias após a confecção das leiras; as temperaturas se elevaram, atingindo picos acima de 70 ºC; quanto à composição química do composto, esta apresentou teores relevantes de macro e micronutrientes demonstrando alto potencial de reciclagem. Recomenda-se a utilização de piso impermeável e estrutura de cobertura durante a compostagem. A freqüência de revolvimentos adotada (15 dias após a confecção da leira, seguida de revolvimentos semanais foi adequada. A melhor relação de peso encontrada foi de 7,2 kg de resíduos para cada kg de palha e 16,6 kg de resíduos para cada kg de serragem.Composting has been a viable and efficient alternative treatment to agroindustrial waste. This experiment was installed with the objective of analyzing the process of composting for slaughterhouse waste. Twelve piles of composting were prepared, using slaughterhouse waste, wheat straw and wood sawdust. The process was evaluated by daily temperature monitoring, observations of the occurrence of undesirable parameters (bad smell and/or ammoniacal smell, grease formation and presence of grubs and flies, as well as the capacity of recycling nutrients. The undesirable parameters were observed, on average, for the first five days after pile building; the temperatures increased, reaching 70 º

  16. Ozone aeration impact on the maturation phase in the process of green waste composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliniak Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents work results on optimization of stabilization phase in the biomass composting process. In these studies, it was examined the influence of two doses of ozone (10 and 20 mgO3·dm-3 in the air used for aeration of stabilization. The results showed the ability to reduce compost maturation time by more than 50%. Application of these ozone doses resulted in a reduction of organic matter content in the stabilizer by 30 to 60%, while reduction of moisture in the material by 20%.

  17. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  18. Home composting versus industrial composting: influence of composting system on compost quality with focus on compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Gabarrell, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    Stability is one of the most important properties of compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This property is essential for the application of compost to land to avoid further field degradation and emissions of odors, among others. In this study, a massive characterization of compost samples from both home producers and industrial facilities is presented. Results are analyzed in terms of chemical and respiration characterizations, the latter representing the stability of the compost. Results are also analyzed in terms of statistical validation. The main conclusion from this work is that home composting, when properly conducted, can achieve excellent levels of stability, whereas industrial compost produced in the studied facilities can also present a high stability, although an important dispersion is found in these composts. The study also highlights the importance of respiration techniques to have a reliable characterization of compost quality, while the chemical characterization does not provide enough information to have a complete picture of a compost sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Composting of urban solid wastes and agricultural wastes: the influence on the temperature and oxygen levels; Compostaje conjunto de la fraccion organica de residuos munipales (FORM) y residuos vegetales triturados: influencia sobre la temperatura y los niveles de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Castro, S.; Perz Losada, C.; Soliva Torrento, M.

    1998-07-01

    The Superior School of Agriculture of Barcelona states in this paper that the compost of urban solid waste improvement is better if they are mixed with wastes of prune vegetables. This mixture improves the oxygen load and the temperatures that are reached. (Author) 26 refs.

  20. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  1. Sludge composting of waste water treatment plant. Compost plant of Vila-Seca (Tarragona); Compostaje de lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas residuales. Planta de compostaje de Vila- Seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marza Brillas, J.

    1995-12-01

    Composting is a very effective process in waste treatment. Very good results are obtained in mass and volume loss, moisture reduction, organic matter establization as well as making possible agricultural uses for the final product. Some parameters as nutrients (C/N ratio), pH, temperature and oxygen content are pointed as the most important for the process. Some composting systems are mentioned but finally tunnel system is shown as the best. Its great advantage is that measurements from main parameters are given continuously to the control computer, so process optimization is done at the moment. The Vila-Seca sludge composting plant is described. This plant can treat 30.000 tones/year from three water treatment plants. The expected 50% on organic matter reduction and 70% on dry matter content has been achieved after only 3 months since its starting up. Finally, in september 1995 will start the construction of another sludge composting plant were the same technology, belonging to GICOM and represented by G.T.R. in Spain, will be installed.

  2. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  3. Composting and comerzialization of compost from organic wastes in Vitoria- Gasteiz (Spain); Estrategia de compostaje y comercializacion de compost de la fraccion organica de RSU para Vitoria-Gastez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Franco, R.; Cebrian Otsoa, M.

    1997-12-31

    In the experience of the selective recovery in Vitoria-Gasteiz, were obtained a seria of conclusions about the best way to made the composting of the MSM`s organic part, alone or mixed with water treatment sludges, in addition to the possible actions in order to commercialize the obtained compost. (Author)

  4. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; Parchaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Part project 1. Methods and concepts of biological waste composting. Comparison - evaluation - recommendations; Teilbericht 1. Verfahren und Konzepte der Bioabfallkompostierung. Vergleich - Bewertung - Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Helm, M.; Schoen, H. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Topics of this article are: composting of biological wastes; techniques, operation modes, regional concepts, engineering, hygienical, ecological, economical aspects. (SR) gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das uebergeordnete Ziel des Weihenstephaner Verbundvorhabens bestand darin, fachliche Grundlagen und Entscheidungshilfen fuer den Bereich der Kompostierung und der Verwertung von biogenen Reststoffen, insbesondere der getrennt erfassten organischen Abfaelle aus den Haushaltungen (Bioabfall), zu schaffen. In diesem Rahmen sollen sowohl verschiedene Verfahren und Techniken der Kompostierung als auch regionale Konzepte hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer, hygienischer, oekologischer, oekonomischer und die Entsorgungssicherheit betreffender Aspekte untersucht und bewertet werden. (orig./SR)

  7. Part project 1. Methods and concepts of biological waste composting. Comparison - evaluation - recommendations; Teilbericht 1. Verfahren und Konzepte der Bioabfallkompostierung. Vergleich - Bewertung - Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A; Helm, M; Schoen, H [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Topics of this article are: composting of biological wastes; techniques, operation modes, regional concepts, engineering, hygienical, ecological, economical aspects. (SR) gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das uebergeordnete Ziel des Weihenstephaner Verbundvorhabens bestand darin, fachliche Grundlagen und Entscheidungshilfen fuer den Bereich der Kompostierung und der Verwertung von biogenen Reststoffen, insbesondere der getrennt erfassten organischen Abfaelle aus den Haushaltungen (Bioabfall), zu schaffen. In diesem Rahmen sollen sowohl verschiedene Verfahren und Techniken der Kompostierung als auch regionale Konzepte hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer, hygienischer, oekologischer, oekonomischer und die Entsorgungssicherheit betreffender Aspekte untersucht und bewertet werden. (orig./SR)

  8. Case Study of Survey of Occasional Application of Vinasse in Compost Production in Different Phases (during Production and after Producing Compost, at Waste Resumption Complex of Aradkooh in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recycling organic wastes has vital roles in sustainable agriculture, reducing pollutants in the environment, and nutrient enrichment of soils. Compost is the product of recycling organic waste through anaerobic treatment, which can be a good alternative.Again the use of chemical fertilizers is inappropriate. Vinasse is brown material and it is a product of industrial production of alcohol from molasses. Vinasse, a by-product of ethanol production from molasses, is a highstrength effluent with a high content of organics, mainly organic acids, reducing substances, cultured matter and glycerol. The wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of potassium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions, a high content of suspended solids, a high CoD (Chemical oxygen Demand level and a high temperature at the moment of generation.Vinasse can be used as a supplement for enhancing compost fertilizer quality, because it has plenty of organic matter and minerals. This research was done with the purpose of surveying application of vinasse in different levels on indices of compost producing (temperature, microbial population, nitrogen, carbon, the ratio C/N, nitrate, pH and EC and producing time in different phases (during the production and after compost production for 5 months in the waste resumption complex of Aradkooh in Tehran. Materials and Methods: The method used for compost production from solid waste material was ventilating the fixed mass. In this research, the volume of ventilation was 0.6 lit air for 1 lit waste material in a minute.Four different treatments (each three replicates were applied to the compost:C0 without vinasse (control, C1, C2 and C3, respectively 10, 20 and 30 ml vinasse per kg waste material. The following factors were measured during each phase: Total-N was measured by the Kjeldahl method and organic carbon was measured by the Walkley-Black method. Thermometers were used for temperature monitoring at different

  9. Evaluation of Composting for Reducing Volume of Solid Waste on Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Reduce SW on Contingency Bases, 23 May 2012, E2S2 5 National Def nse Cent rgy and Environment • An excellent soil amendment that adds stable organics...and nutrients to improve the soil • Natural fertilizer and valuable humus that promotes weed and erosion control, protects plant roots...National Def nse Cent rgy and Environment CompTainers HotRot System Rocket® Composter DTE ENVIRO -DRUM EcoPOD Ag-Bag Technology National Defense

  10. A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference model in food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Zeng Guangming; Qin Xiaosheng; Sun Xueling

    2009-01-01

    A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference (SMI) model was developed through introducing stepwise-cluster analysis (SCA) into composting process modeling to tackle the nonlinear relationships among state variables and microbial activities. The essence of SCA is to form a classification tree based on a series of cutting or mergence processes according to given statistical criteria. Eight runs of designed experiments in bench-scale reactors in a laboratory were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results indicated that SMI could help establish a statistical relationship between state variables and composting microbial characteristics, where discrete and nonlinear complexities exist. Significance levels of cutting/merging were provided such that the accuracies of the developed forecasting trees were controllable. Through an attempted definition of input effects on the output in SMI, the effects of the state variables on thermophilic bacteria were ranged in a descending order as: Time (day) > moisture content (%) > ash content (%, dry) > Lower Temperature (deg. C) > pH > NH 4 + -N (mg/Kg, dry) > Total N (%, dry) > Total C (%, dry); the effects on mesophilic bacteria were ordered as: Time > Upper Temperature (deg. C) > Total N > moisture content > NH 4 + -N > Total C > pH. This study made the first attempt in applying SCA to mapping the nonlinear and discrete relationships in composting processes.

  11. The use of a biodegradable chelator for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals by Festuca arundinacea from municipal solid waste compost and associated heavy metal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2013-02-01

    In a column experiment with horizontal permeable barriers, the effects of a biodegradable chelator-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on the uptake of heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) compost by Festuca arundinacea and metal leaching were investigated. The use of NTA was effective in increasing Cu, Pb, and Zn uptakes in shoots of two crops of F. arundinacea. In columns with barriers and treated with 20 mmol NTA per kg MSW compost, metal uptakes by the first and second crop of F. arundinacea were, respectively, 3.8 and 4.0 times for Pb, and 1.8 and 1.7 times for Zn greater with the added NTA than without it. Though NTA application mobilized metals, it caused only slight leaching of metals from MSW compost. Permeable barriers positioned between compost and soil effectively reduced metal leaching. NTA-assisted phytoextraction by turfgrass with permeable barriers to cleanup heavy metal contaminated MSW compost should be environmentally safe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  13. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  14. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-05-01

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of composting techniques on microbial succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the pit. Good quality compost was obtained in 5 weeks when PACT was used. Conventional pit method lasted over several weeks. Key Words: Municipal wastes; passive aeration; pit composting; temperature; microbial succession. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  16. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts couldńt be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil

  17. Physico-chemistry characteristics of compost from urban solid wastes in Valencia (Spain); Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de los composts de residuos solidos urbanos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiach, M. R.; Canet, R.; Pomares, F.; Tarazona, F.; Chaves, C.; Ferrer, E.

    2004-07-01

    For nearly twenty years samples of MSW compost produced in the Valencia region. have been analysed in our laboratories. Their main characteristics are summarised and discussed in this article, which reveals their compliance with current regulations, but also the problems which may arise if stricter requirements are eventually applied by the European Commission. (Author)

  18. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO 3 , Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effect of different levels of municipal waste compost and maternal corm weight on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Gholizade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different municipal waste compost levels of and maternal corm weights on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1 and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g. The traits included the number of flower, fresh weight of flower, stigma and fresh weight of corm with scale, weight and diameter replacement and number of buds. The results showed that the effect of municipal waste compost was significant on total weight corm with scale, diameter of center corm and replacement corm, weight of fresh flower and stigma. The highest corm weight and number of replacement corms were obtained for treatment 10 t. ha-1 compost (21.33 g. plant -1 and 2.33 number, respectively, while the control had the lowest values (with 16.4 g. plant -1 and 1.66 number. The effect of mother corm weight was significant on the vegetative characteristics of saffron. The highest corm weight with scale, diameter of replacement, flower yield and fresh weight of flower and stigma were observed for 8.1-12 g. The most fresh  and dry weight of stigma (0.31 and 0.11 g. m -1, respectively were observed from treatment  mother corm weight 8.1-12 g, while the lowest values (0.06 and 0.03 g. m -1 were 0.1- 4g.  Interaction between municipal waste compost and corm weight had a significant effect on the weight of fresh flower, sepal, stigma and the number of lateral buds and the highest fresh weight of flower (9.36 g. m-2 and stigma (0.41 g. m-2 were observed for treatment 10 t. ha-1 and 8.1-12g. Generally, the findings of the current study revealed that the use of municipal waste compost (10 t. ha-1 and large mother corms (8/1-12 g

  20. Co-composting of municipal solid waste mixed with matured sewage sludge: The relationship between N2O emissions and denitrifying gene abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rongxing; Sun, Yingjie; Li, Weihua; Ma, Qiang; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Aerobic composting is an alternative measure to the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, it produces nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a highly potent greenhouse via microbial nitrification and denitrification. In this study, the effects of matured sewage sludge (MSS) amendment on N 2 O emissions and the inter-relationships between N 2 O emissions and the abundance of denitrifying bacteria were investigated during aerobic composting of MSW. The results demonstrated that MSW composting with MSS amendments (C1, and C2, with a MSW to MSS ratio of 2:1 and 4:1, (v/v), respectively) significantly increased N 2 O emissions during the initial stage, yet contributed to the mitigation of N 2 O emissions during the cooling and maturation stage. MSS amended composting emitted a total of 18.4%-25.7% less N 2 O than the control treatment without MSS amendment (CK). Matured sewage sludge amendment also significantly altered the abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The quantification of denitrifying functional genes revealed that the N 2 O emission rate had a significant positive correlation with the abundance of the nirS, nirK genes in both treatments with MSS amendment. The nosZ/(nirS + nirK) ratio could be a good indicator for predicting N 2 O emissions. The higher N 2 O emission rate during the initial stage of composting mixed with MSS was characterized by lower nosZ/(nirS + nirK) ratios, compared to CK treatment. Higher ratios of nosZ/(nirS + nirK) were measured during the cooling and maturation stage in treatments with MSS which resulted in a reduction of the N 2 O emissions. These results demonstrated that MSS amendment could be a valid strategy for mitigating N 2 O emissions during MSW composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The substitution of mineral fertilizers by compost from household waste in Cameroon: economic analysis with a partial equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaza Folefack, Achille Jean

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of substitution between compost and mineral fertilizer in order to assess the impact on the foreign exchange savings in Cameroon of increasing the use of compost. In this regard, a partial equilibrium model was built up and used as a tool for policy simulations. The review of existing literature already suggests that, the compost commercial value i.e. value of substitution (33,740 FCFA tonne(-1)) is higher compared to the compost real price (30,000 FCFA tonne(-1)), proving that it could be profitable to substitute the mineral fertilizer by compost. Further results from the scenarios used in the modelling exercise show that, increasing the compost availability is the most favourable policy for the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost. This policy helps to save about 18.55% of the annual imported mineral fertilizer quantity and thus to avoid approximately 8.47% of the yearly total import expenditure in Cameroon. The policy of decreasing the transport rate of compost in regions that are far from the city is also favourable to the substitution. Therefore, in order to encourage the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost, programmes of popularization of compost should be highlighted and be among the top priorities in the agricultural policy of the Cameroon government.

  2. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste constituents. The results ...

  3. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus. M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics. (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste.

  4. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Sciences, Environmental Science Program, P.O.Box:1176, Addis ... practices of solid waste management of the city. ..... Basic Principles for composting of ... (http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/natu.

  5. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  6. Controlled composting of waste wood contaminated with PAH; Untersuchungen zur gesteuerten Rotte von mit polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) kontaminiertem Altholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbricht, H.

    2002-07-01

    The author investigated the potential and limits of microbial pollutant degradation in PAH-polluted waste wood by composting. The conditions in which autochthonic micro-organisms are able to decomposite the PAH contained in wood by solid phase fermentation were investigated. The focus was on phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene, all of which are used as protective materials (disinfestants) for wood. The results were verified on contaminated waste wood, including an analytical investigations of decomposition of PAH of the EPA catalogue. Boundary conditions for achieving high rates of PAH decomposition were investigated. [German] Generelles Ziel der Arbeit war die Untersuchung der Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen des mikrobiellen Schadstoffabbaus in PAK-belastetem Altholz durch Kompostierung und die Pruefung auf Anwendbarkeit der Erkenntnisse in technischen Verfahren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde untersucht, unter welchen Bedingungen die autochthonen Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, an das Holz gebundene PAK durch Feststofffermentation abzubauen. Als Schwerpunkt wurde zunaechst der Abbau der im zum Holzschutz verwendetem Teeroel vorkommenden PAK Phenanthren, Anthracen und Pyren untersucht. Eine Verifizierung der Ergebnisse erfolgte mit real kontaminiertem Altholz, dabei wurde der Abbau der PAK der EPA-Liste analytisch verfolgt. Es sollten geeignete Randbedingungen gefunden werden, um im Festphasensystem hohe Abbauraten der PAK zu erreichen. (orig.)

  7. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on phosphorus dynamics and the bacterial community during composting of sugarcane industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Bonilla, German A; Lopes, Cintia M; Durrer, Ademir; Alves, Paulo R L; Passaglia, Nicolle; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2017-07-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large quantity of residues, such as filter cake and ashes, which are sometimes composted prior to their amendment in soil. However, important issues still have to be addressed on this subject, such as the description of bacterial succession that occurs throughout the composting process and the possibilities of using phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) during the process to improve phosphorus (P) availability in the compost end product. Consequently, this study evaluated the bacterial diversity and P dynamics during the composting process when inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSBR12 and Bacillus sp. BACBR01. To characterize the bacterial community structure during composting, and to compare PSB-inoculated compost with non-inoculated compost, partial sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and sequential P fractionation were used. The data indicated that members of the order Lactobacillales prevailed in the early stages of composting for up to 30 days, mostly due to initial changes in pH and the C/N ratio. This dominant bacterial group was then slowly replaced by Bacillales during a composting process of up to 60 days. In addition, inoculation of PSB reduced the levels of Ca-bound P by 21% and increased the labile organic P fraction. In PSB-inoculated compost, Ca-P compound solubilization occurred concomitantly with an increase of the genus Bacillus. The bacterial succession and the final community is described in compost from sugarcane residues and the possible use of these inoculants to improve P availability in the final compost is validated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerobic composting of distilled grain waste eluted from a Chinese spirit-making process: The effects of initial pH adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Peng; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    Aerobic composting of distilled grain waste (DGW) at different initial pH values adjusted by CaO addition was investigated. Three pH-adjusted treatments with initial pH values of 4 (R1), 5 (R2) and 6 (R3) and a control treatment (R0) with a pH value of 3.5 were conducted simultaneously. The results showed that R0 had an unsuccessful start-up of composting. However, the pH-adjusted treatments produced remarkable results, with a relatively high initial pH being beneficial for the start-up. Within 65days of composting, the degradation of volatile solids (VS) and the physicochemical properties of R2 and R3 displayed similar tendencies, and both produced a mature end-product, while R1 exhibited a lower VS degradation rate, and some of its physicochemical properties indicated the end-product was immature. Quantitative PCR analysis of ammonia oxidizers indicated that the occurrence of nitrification during the composting of DGW could be attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mojab Ghasrodashti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in order to study the influence of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen rate on grain quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions during growing season of 2008-2009. The experiment was arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications. Main plot included five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N.ha-1 and sub plots included four levels of municipal solid waste compost (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. The Results showed that the highest fresh ear and grain yield resulted from application of 200 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 compost. The grain quality analysis showed that nitrogen had significant effect on grain nitrogen percent and had not significant effect on grain phosphorus and nitrogen content. Also, compost had significant effect on grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent but had no significant effect on grain potassium percent. Soil analysis results showed that effect of compost on organic matter, EC and pH and interactions between nitrogen and compost were significant only on soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus percent. Nitrogen had no significant effect only on soil nitrogen percent. Also, the results showed that optimum amount of grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent were gained by using 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost and optimum amount of grain potassium percent was achieved by using 30 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost. Application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost consequences to optimum amount of soil nitrogen and potassium was gained and optimum amount of soil phosphorus was gained in 150 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments. In general, to achieve the optimum growth of this crop in similar soils, application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments could

  11. Composting or Thermal valorisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutgen, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    It is shown how thermal valorisation of organic wastes it is much more promising, from the economical and environmental points of view, than composting. Obviously, it implies that the incineration should be done under very controlled conditions. With examples taken from Europe. The author argues for this affirmation

  12. Isolation and characterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-anaerobic thermophilic bacteria strains from waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Svenson, Charles J; Nakasugi, Kenlee; Leong, Caine T C; Bowman, John P; Chen, Betty; Glenn, Dianne R; Neilan, Brett A; Rogers, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    In a search for potential ethanologens, waste compost was screened for ethanol-tolerant thermophilic microorganisms. Two thermophilic bacterial strains, M5EXG and M10EXG, with tolerance of 5 and 10% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, were isolated. Both isolates are facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods that are capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources including arabinose, galactose, mannose, glucose and xylose and produce low amounts of ethanol, acetate and lactate. Growth of both isolates was observed in fully defined minimal media within the temperature range 50-80 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that both isolates clustered with members of subgroup 5 of the genus Bacillus. G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness of M5EXG and M10EXG revealed that they are strains belonging to Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. However, physiological and biochemical differences were evident when isolates M5EXG and M10EXG were compared with G. thermoglucosidasius type strain (DSM 2542(T)). The new thermophilic, ethanol-tolerant strains of G. thermoglucosidasius may be candidates for ethanol production at elevated temperatures.

  13. O processo da compostagem e seu potencial na reciclagem de resíduos orgânicos | The process of composting and its potential in the recycling of organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Rodrigues Santos Costa

    2016-04-01

    Proper treatment of solid waste is an environmental problem today, because when improperly disposed are harmful to ecosystems and human health. Composting is a form of recycling waste, especially organic ones. The objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical study on the composting technique and identify the advantages of this process in the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Composting is the process of biological decomposition and stabilization of organic substrates through the action of various microorganisms. It has the advantage of producing in the end a fertilizer compound and promotes treatment of the organic fraction, which is the most urban waste, reducing the amount directed to landfills, increasing the useful life of these.

  14. Improving quality of composted biowaste to enhance disease suppressiveness of compost-amended, peat-based potting mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Blok, W.J.; Curci, F.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biowaste can be converted into compost by composting or by a combination of anaerobic digestion and composting. Currently, waste management systems are primarily focused on the increase of the turnover rate of waste streams whereas optimisation of product quality receives less attention. This

  15. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  16. Compost: Brown gold or toxic trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effects of Compost on Mycelia Growth and Fructification, Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fries) singer on lingocellulosic waste. Long composted substrate formulations of sawdust (86%) + rice bran (10%) + cassava peel (4%) supported the longest mycelia growth and density. Long composted also produced larger fruitbodies and ...

  18. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  19. Use of Urban composts for the regeneration of a burnt Mediterranean soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellier, A.; Baldy, V.; Ballini, C.; Houot, S.; Francou, C.

    2009-07-01

    In Mediterranean region, forest fires are a major problem towards the desertification of the environment. Use of composts is considered as a solution for soil and vegetation rehabilitation. In this study, we determined the effects of three urban composts and their mode of application (laid at the soil surface or buried) on soil restoration after fire: municipal wastes compost (MWC), sewage sludge and green wastes compost (SSC) and, green wastes compost (GWC). (Author)

  20. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  1. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcollar (Spain): The effect of soil amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J.; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcollar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH -1 , respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. - Although organic amendments improved soil conditions and plant growth, the phytoextraction capacity of Brassica juncea (cv. Z1) is too low for efficient soil remediation

  2. Trash to Treasure: NREL's High-Solids Digester Converts Wastes to Biogas and Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This article describes a pilot high-solids digester (HSD) plant for use in : American Samoa. The American Samoa is highly dependent on imported fuel. At : the same time, the local tuna canneries produce large amounts of waste : materials. The HSD pro...

  3. Fractionation characterization and speciation of heavy metals in composts and compost and compost-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwegbue, C. M.A.; Emuh, F.N.; Isirimah, N.O.; Egun, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation and chemical extraction. Chemical extraction schemes are most frequently used approach to fractionate trace metals in soils, sewage sludge and composts. Several variations exist in the sequential extraction procedures. These variations include reagent types, strength, volume and extraction time. A main drawback shared by all sequential extraction schemes is that the procedures themselves are complex and time consuming. This setback has been overcome by the use of ultrasound accelerated extraction which reduce the extraction time for the entire extraction steps to about 90 minutes allowing composting process to be monitored more frequently which help to provide detailed understanding of the partitioning behaviour of heavy metals. Inspite of the variability the sequential extraction schemes, they all aimed at correlating each fraction with the mobility and plant availability of each metal. Several studies have shown that phase association of heavy metal in composts include water-soluble, exchangeable, precipitated as discrete phases, co-precipitate in metal oxides and adsorbed or complexed by organic ligands and residual forms. The phase association and solubility of metals changes over composting time thereby altering metal availability. It is apparent that the positive effects of resulting from compost application far outweigh the negative effect, but more research is needed on a wide range of municipal solid waste compost with more precise determination of the fate of municipal solid waste compost applied trace metals in the environment. (author)

  4. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Investigating the efficiency of co-composting and vermicomposting of vinasse with the mixture of cow manure wastes, bagasse, and natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Daneshpajou, Monavvar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Babaei, Ali Akbar

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation of ethanol as a product of sugarcane agro-industry causes the discharge of large amounts of a liquid waste called vinasse into the environment. In this study, co-composting followed by vermicomposting process of the mixtures of vinasse, cow manure, and chopped bagasse was performed for 60days using earthworms of Eisenia fetida species. The results showed that the trend of changes in C/N was decreasing. The pH of the final fertilizer was in alkaline range (8.1-8.4). The total potassium decreased during the process, ranging from 0.062 to 0.15%, while the total phosphorus increased and its values ranged from 0.06 to 0.10%. The germination index (GI) for all samples was 100%, while the cellular respiration maturity index wascompost. The results of this study indicate that the compost obtained from the co-composting-vermicomposting process could be used as a sound soil amendment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  7. Organic Waste Composts, a Serious Rare- Earth Source as Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; El-Bahi, S.M.; Abdel-Halieem, A.S.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis technique [DNNA] was applied for investigating rare-earth elements and some heavy metals content of some locally organic fertilizers namely cattle manure (CM) , dried sewage sludge [SS] , municipal solid waste [MSW] and mixture for a (SS+MSW). The γ-ray spectrum of each sample was investigated using a HPGe detector equipped with computer unit. Fourteen elements were determined. Some of them were confirmed by the γ-γ cascades using a HPGe-HPGe coincidence spectrometer. The concentration of these elements in each sample was measured in μg/g. Some of these elements may lead to undesirable environmental effects. The undiscriminating use of organic waste as organic fertilizers may result in the increase of toxic elements [Cr, Sc, Sb, Th, etc.) in soil environment which may transfer through food chain to human health

  8. Composting plant for pruning waste and sewage works sludge in Castelldefels (Barcelona, Spain). Planta de compostaje de restos de poda y lodos de depuradora en Castelldefels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The biological waste water treatment works in Castelldefels (Barcelona, spain) generates 8,000 m''3 of sludge per year. Triturated vegetable remains are added and the mixture left to ferment for 14 days in 8 tunnels measuring 4x4x10 m provided with forced ventilation by 10 ventilators with a capacity for 2,000 m''3/h. Annual production is 8,000 m''3 of compost and 14,000 m''3 of substrates and mould. Fermentation loss is 30%. Process time, including storage, is 100 days.

  9. Beneficial use of waste nuclear isotopes - 137Cs radiation treatment of municipal sludge and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remini, W.C.; Wahlquist, B.J.; Sivinsky, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    For the past several years, the Nuclear Research and Applications Division has been sponsoring, in cooperation with EPA, a program to develop the technology and investigate the potential of using gamma radiation to reduce pathogen levels in sewage sludge. The irradiation source would be cesium-137 which has been extracted from the reactor wastes and diverted to this use. It would be used in this irradiation process until its source strength had decayed to the point that it was no longer effective. At that point, it would be transferred for disposal. This sludge irradiation program is a part of a larger effort to develop beneficial uses of individual isotopes or combinations of isotopes contained in the reactor wastes. Such potential applications include strontium-90 for power generation in remote applications, extraction of platinum family metals to help alleviate demands on foreign supplies, and use of krypton-85 in self-luminous light sources. Sludge irradiation offers what appears to be near-term benefits and has received the major focus in this program. This summary report reviews the progress and current status in the sludge irradiation program. It reviews the background of the national sludge problem and describes how the irradiation process may be applied to this problem. The two major approaches, wet and dry irradiation, are described and their technical and economic potential is discussed. Finally, the status of on-going efforts to experimentally apply irradiation to sludges are summarized and a projected development plan is outlined. (Auth.)

  10. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  11. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  12. The presence of insect at composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudruňka, J.; Lyčková, B.; Kučerová, R.; Glogarová, V.; Závada, J.; Gibesová, B.; Takač, D.

    2017-10-01

    During composting biodegradable waste, microbic organisms reproduce massively, most of which belong to serious biopathogens which are able to penetrate various environmental layers. Their vector species include dipterous insect (Diptera) which reaches considerable amounts in composting plant premises as well as home composting units, mainly during summer months. Therefore measures must be taken to eliminate or reduce this unwanted phenomenon (sanitisation, disinfection). For evaluating obtained results, relative abundance calculation was chosen.

  13. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  14. The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana plants on the nutrient contents of banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Ilhan; Sen, Bahtiyar; Kaya, Zülküf

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the possible utilization of removed shoots and plant parts of banana as compost after fruit harvest were investigated. Three doses (15-30-45 kg plan(-1)) of the compost prepared from the clone of Dwarf Cavendish banana were compared with Farmyard manure (50 kg plant(-1), Mineral fertilizers (180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) and Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers (25 kg FM + 180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) which determined positive effects on the nutrient contents of banana leaves. The banana plants were grown under a heated glasshouse and in a soil with physical and chemical properties suitable for banana growing. The contents of N, P, K and Mg in compost and in farmyard manure were found to be similar. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of leaves in all applications except control, and Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu contents in all applications were determined between optimum levels of reference values. There were positive correlations among some nutrient contents of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics. Farmyard manure, Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers and 45 kg plant(-1) of compost increased the nutrient contents of banana leaves. According to obtained results, 45 kg plant(-1) of compost was determined more suitable in terms of economical production and organic farming than the other fertiliser types.

  15. Composted versus Raw Olive Mill Waste as Substrates for the Production of Medicinal Mushrooms: An Assessment of Selected Cultivation and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios I. Zervakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, “alperujo” is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota, that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120–135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20–40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium. Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  16. Composted versus raw olive mill waste as substrates for the production of medicinal mushrooms: an assessment of selected cultivation and quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Katsaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, "alperujo") is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota), that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120-135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea) and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20-40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium). Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  17. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  18. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  19. Poblaciones de hongos y actinomicetos presentes en el proceso de compostaje con base en bora (Eichhornia crassipes, residuos de café y de jardinería | Fungi and actinomycetes populations present in the composting process based on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, coffee and garden waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalys Rivas-Nichorzon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a bio-oxidative process involving numerous and varied microorganisms, whose population dynamics are influenced by the type of organic substrate used. In order to quantify fungal and actinomycetes populations and identifying fungi present during the composting process, three compost were developed with the inclusion of different organic materials, differing by the inclusion of fibrous substrates water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, coffee husks and garden waste. Three metal composters were used with dimensions: 62.5 x 77.5 x 75.0 cm. The statistical design was a randomized block with repeated measurements over time, with treatments from a 3x3 factorial arrangement, three types of compost, three evaluation times (20, 40 and 60 days and three repetitions. The values obtained were transformed to log10 and an analysis of variance was performed; means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungi count was elevated at the beginning and during the course of composting for compost based on garden waste and bora. The most frequent fungi species identified during the composting process were Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp. and Penicillium sp. Stocks of actinomycetes fell at the end of the composting process in all composts.

  20. Practical experience with biodegradable biomass waste bags in several different German composting plants; Praxiserfahrungen zum Abbau kompostierbarer Bioabfallsaecke auf verschiedenen Kompostierungsanlagen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziermann, Andreas; Schmidt, Bettina [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The study intended to find out how fast biodegradable biomass waste bags are degraded in practical conditions in composting and fermentation plants. The plants differ with regard to the processes employed; further, rotting times may be much shorter in practice than the twelve weeks requested by DIN EN 13432 and DIN EN 14995. For the study, plant types were selected that are practically relevant for biomass waste utilisation in Germany. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, herauszufinden, wie schnell kompostierbare Bioabfallsaecke unter Praxisbedingungen in verschiedenen Kompost- und Vergaerungsanlagentypen abgebaut werden. Zum einen bestehen teilweise grosse verfahrenstechnische Unterschiede zwischen den Anlagentypen, zum anderen sind die Rottezeiten in der Praxis zum Teil wesentlich kuerzer, als die in der DIN EN 13432 und DIN EN 14995 geforderten zwoelf Wochen. Fuer die Studie wurden Anlagentypen ausgewaehlt, die fuer die Verwertung von Bioabfaellen in Deutschland praxisrelevant sind. (orig.)

  1. Occupational hygiene of windrow composting. Aumakompostoinnin tyoehygienia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, K; Wihersaari, M [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Combustion and Thermal Engineering Lab.; Huvio, T; Lundstroem, Y [Helsingin kaupungin vesi- ja viemaerilaitos, Helsinki (Finland); Veijalainen, A [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-01-01

    The occupational air in windrow composting of digested sewage sludge, raw sludge and source separated biowaste was investigated for microbe, endotoxin and dust concentrations and for odour level during turning and sieving of composts. The normal parameters of composting were investigated at the same time. The composting of the source separated biowaste was so vigorous that the drying due to heat generation may have slowed the process. Composting of the digested and the raw sludge took place much more slowly. In all composts, the measured values for heavy metals stayed well below specified norms. The composts were hygienic: no Salmonella bacteria were found in a single sample. The formation of odorous compounds was measured in small composters: more such compounds were formed in the thermophile stage of biowaste composts than in the digested sludge composts. Among the gases that were released, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, e-pinene and limonene clearly exceeded the odour threashould. Endotoxins and dust concentrations in the occupational air were small. Total dust concentrations in the cabs of composting machines at times exceeded the eight-hour HTP concentration for organic dust. Especially in the occupational air of the biowaste and raw sludge composts, the concentrations of bacteria and fungi exceeded 10[sup 2]-10[sup 5] cfu/m[sup 3] during turning. This concentration level may cause respiratory ailments. The identified fungi included members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillum and Cladosporum, which are associated with allergies. The microbes and dust concentrations measured in this study of windrow composting are comparable to the findings of corresponding studies from other composting plants, landfills and waste treatment plants.

  2. Process of composting; Proceso de compostaje envital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, D.; Ibanez, E.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-12-31

    Update, the european region uses three methods for Municipal Solid Wastes treatment: landfilling, incineration with energy recovery and composting. This last one is being used more and more lately. This is because of the separated collection that makes easier to give an adequate treatment to the organic fraction of MSW, like composting. (Author)

  3. The effect of airflow rates and aeration mode on the respiration activity of four organic wastes: Implications on the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Laura; Komilis, Dimitrios; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the airflow and of the aeration mode on the composting process of non-urban organic wastes that are found in large quantities worldwide, namely: (i) a fresh, non-digested, sewage sludge (FSS), (ii) an anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS), (iii) cow manure (CM) and (iv) pig sludge (PS). This assessment was done using respirometric indices. Two aeration modes were tested, namely: (a) a constant air flowrate set at three different initial fixed airflow rates, and (b) an oxygen uptake rate (OUR)-controlled airflow rate. The four wastes displayed the same behaviour namely a limited biological activity at low aeration, while, beyond a threshold value, the increase of the airflow did not significantly increase the dynamic respiration indices (DRI 1 max , DRI 24 max and AT 4 ). The threshold airflow rate varied among wastes and ranged from 42NL air kg -1 DMh -1 for CM and from 67 to 77NL air kg -1 DMh -1 for FSS, ADSS and PS. Comparing the two aeration modes tested (constant air flow, OUR controlled air flow), no statistically significant differences were calculated between the respiration activity indices obtained at those two aeration modes. The results can be considered representative for urban and non-urban organic wastes and establish a general procedure to measure the respiration activity without limitations by airflow. This will permit other researchers to provide consistent results during the measurement of the respiration activity. Results indicate that high airflows are not required to establish the maximum respiration activity. This can result in energy savings and the prevention of off-gas treatment problems due to the excessive aeration rate in full scale composting plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composting Technology and the Impact of Compost on Soil Biochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-aziz, Reda Abdel Thaher; Al-Barakh, Fahad bin Nasser

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming is one of several approaches to sustainable agriculture. Properly managed, organic farming reduces or eliminates environmental pollution and helps conserve water and soil on the farm. Organic farming systems require significantly greater amounts of organic fertilizers input than conventional systems. Because of the shortage of organic fertilizers in arid areas, composting is a way to transform waste materials left over from agricultural production and processing into a useful resource. Mature compost is an excellent organic fertilizer and soil amendment. The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste material into farm resources makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as to enhance soil fertility and soil health, thereby increasing agricultural productivity, improving soil biodiversity, reducing ecological risks and improving the environment. Aerobic composting of some agricultural wastes (peanut, wheat straw and palm tree wastes) was carried out to raise its fertilizing value compared with widely used organic fertilizer, farmyard manure. The influence of composted and non-composted agricultural wastes on the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) in sandy soil, as well as the uptake of these elements by corn plants, was also studied. Results indicated a rapid degradation of palm tree and wheat straw wastes as compared with peanut wastes. The composting process raised the fertilizing value of agricultural wastes as indicated by increase in nutritional availability. The application of the composted wastes as organic fertilizers to sandy soil increased the content of available N, P and K. Results showed that the application of different composted organic materials increased the dry weight and NPK uptake by corn plants. (author)

  5. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation.

  6. Use of compost for the restoration of mine wastes and mine soils; Utilizacion de materiales compostados en la rehabilitacion potencial de espacios afectados por residuos mineros y suelos de mina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradelo, R.

    2013-09-01

    One of the main limitations for the successful restoration of the environmental damages produced by quarrying and mining activities is that mine waste and mine soils are largely devoid of organic matter. For this reason, amelioration with organic materials such as sewage sludge, manure or compost is gaining attention as a desirable strategy that may render good results in restoration. In this paper, recent experiences on the use of composted materials for the amelioration of mine wastes and mine soils are reviewed. The benefits obtained from the use of compost in restoration studies include improvement of the unfavourable physical, chemical and biological properties of mine waste and mine soils. The increase in the organic matter concentrations produces an improvement of the structure which leads to reduced bulk density and increased porosity, thus decreasing the risks of compaction, sealing and erosion. Correction of extreme pH is usually observed. N and P, two elements that are usually lacking in mine waste, are also added with compost in plant-available forms. The introduction of microbial populations leads to the reactivation of biogeochemical cycles which are essential for the long-term fertility and sustainability of new ecosystems. (Author)

  7. Municipal solid waste compost as a novel sorbent for antimony(V): adsorption and release trials at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquattro, Stefania; Garau, Giovanni; Lauro, Gian Paolo; Silvetti, Margherita; Deiana, Salvatore; Castaldi, Paola

    2018-02-01

    The ability of two municipal solid waste composts (MSW-Cs) to sorb antimony(V) in acidic conditions (pH 4.5) was investigated. Sorption isotherms and kinetics showed that both MSW-Cs could sorb antimony(V), even if in different amounts (~ 0.18 and 0.24 mmol g -1 of Sb(V) by MSW-C1 and MSW-C2, respectively). These differences were ascribed to the chemical composition of composts, as well as to the total acidity of their humic substances. The Sb(V) sorption by both MSW-Cs followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, while the sorption isotherms data fitted the Freundlich model better than the Langmuir one. The humic acids extracted from composts contributed to 4.26 and 8.24% of Sb(V) sorption by MSW-C1 and MSW-C2 respectively. SEM-EDX spectra of the MSW-C+Sb(V) systems showed a certain association of Ca(II) with Sb(V), while sequential extraction procedures indicated that more than 80% of the Sb(V) sorbed was strongly retained by MSW-Cs. On the other hand, treatment with oxalic acid at pH 4.5 favored the release of more than 98 and 65% of the Sb(V) sorbed by MSW-C1 and MSW-C2 respectively, supporting a possible role of calcium in Sb(V) retention. The results from this study suggest that MSW-Cs could be used as amendments for the in-situ immobilization of Sb(V) in acidic-polluted soils.

  8. Composting of empty fruit bunches in the tower composter - effect of air intake holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Husaini, T.; Trisakti, B.; Batubara, F.; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The process of composting empty fruit bunches (EFB) by mixing with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative utilization of solid waste generated from palm oil mill. This study aims to find composting techniques of EFB and to obtain degradation data of composting EFB by varying the air intake holes to produce good quality compost. Composting process was carried out by tearing the EFB into four shreds, then put into the tower composter while adding ALOF until it reached the optimum moisture content of 55 -65%. During the composting process, we maintained moisture content at optimum conditions by adding ALOF. Variations of air intake holes area to the outer surface area of the composter are 0/44.314; 72.39/44.314 and 144.78/44.314 (cm2/cm2). Composting is carried out for forty days, however, based on the result, compost began to mature on the 10th day. The results revealed that there was an influence of air intake holes to the composting process. The best degradation of EFB was obtained on the variation of air intake holes 72.39/44.314 (cm2/cm2), pH 8.1, moisture content 79.14%, water holding capacity 60%, electrical conductivity 4.725 dS/m and C/N ratio 20.97.

  9. Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... extractable humic acid carbon; CFA, extractable fulvic acid carbon; EC, electrical .... level of 80% recommended for vermicomposting but no worms ... composting of the wastes was then done in boxes measuring 1 x 1.

  10. Agricultural use of compost and vermicomposts from urban wastes: process, maturity and quality of products; Uso agricola de compost y vermicompost de basuras urbanas: procesos, madurez y calidad de los productos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogales, R.; Elvira, C.; Benitez, E.; Gallardo-Lara, F. [Departamento Agricola y Proteccion Vegetal, Estacion experimental del Zaidin, CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    In this fourth-part review, the authors discuss the positive and negative effects of the agricultural use of compost and vermicomposts from town refuse. This first part reviews the composting and vermicomposting processes, including the most important methods to evaluate the maturity of the end products.

  11. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... compost had greater effect in improving tomato productivity. A decade-long application of composts on loamy sand improved basic chemical and physical properties which were reflected in increased fruit yield in tomato. Since no negative effect of compost was observed, we suggest that sandy soils may serve...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...

  12. Nutritional analysis of some composted and non-composted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Key words: Wood ear mushrooms, fresh and composted agricultural wastes, wheat bran, Kenya. ... substrate, especially the C : N ratio which is attained by getting the right ... was excess water, sun drying was done followed by a squeeze test ..... dependent on free circulation of moisture and air in the.

  13. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gra...

  14. Het composteren van groente- en tuinafval in containers voor particulier gebruik = Composting of vegetable and garden waste in containers for household use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riem Vis, F.

    1985-01-01

    In three experiments composting in different types of containers was studied. No differences between the containers were observed. Seedling tests showwed that with up to 50 % compost added to a sandy soil growth was stimulated. In the case of a 100 % compost crop damage occurred. Verschillende typen

  15. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  16. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya eDe Gannes; Gaius eEudoxie; David H Dyer; William James Hickey

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the p...

  17. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  18. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Composting: a growth market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, D.; Guenther, H.; Komodromos, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper explains the current state of affairs in composting in Germany from the angles of licensing, engineering, the number and scale of existing and projected plants, the market for compost, and the prospective market for composting plants. (orig.) [de

  20. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  1. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: Co-composting versus incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R.; Nason, Mark A.; Williamson, Julie C.; Jones, Davey L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost. - Co-composting did not provide enhanced stabilization of trace elements over the conventional addition of compost to contaminated land

  4. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic

  5. Influence of Municipal Solid Waste Compost on Soil Properties and Plant Reestablishment in Peri-Urban Environments Efecto de la Aplicación de Compost de Residuos Sólidos Municipales sobre las Propiedades de los Suelos y el Establecimiento de Plantas en Ambientes Peri-Urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Civeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soils in urban areas often present characteristics that might submit these environments to erosion processes. Applying municipal solid wastes (MSW composts to soils have been suggested as a means to improve physical and chemical properties. A field experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted in a Typic Argiudoll from a degraded area in Buenos Aires City. The objective was to evaluate the effect of MSW compost application on soil properties, residue decomposition and Poa (Poa pratensis L. reestablishment. At the beginning of the trial, compost was prepared and applied in a bare soil on 0.25 m² square plots afterwards litterbags were incorporated and Poa was sown. Compost amounts were: 0 (control; 2 (low; 4 (medium and 7 kg m-2 (high on fresh matter basis. During the trial residue decomposition and aerial dry matter (DM: g treatment-1 were evaluated, at the end soil physical and chemical parameters were measured. Medium and high compost rates increased organic C, total N and extractable P. Addition of 2 kg m-2 affected soil organic C as well, but in a minor fee. Soil physical properties were improved after MSW compost addition. In medium and high doses, augmentations in organic matter reduced bulk densities and enhanced water infiltration. Aerial DM was significantly affected by treatments (p Los suelos de las áreas urbanas presentan características que pueden someter estos ambientes a procesos erosivos. La aplicación de composts de residuos sólidos urbanos (MSW a los suelos es una práctica que mejora sus propiedades. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del compost de MSW sobre las propiedades, la descomposición de residuos y el restablecimiento de la especie Poa (Poa pratensis L. en estos suelos. En un Argiudol típico degradado de la ciudad de Buenos Aires se realizó un ensayo con diseño completamente aleatorizado. Se preparó e incorporó compost en parcelas de 0,25 m² en las siguientes cantidades: 0

  6. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  7. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  8. Mineralização de carbono e de nitrogênio provenientes de composto de lixo urbano em argissolo Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos da mineralização do C e do N em solos que receberam aplicação de composto de lixo urbano são importantes para avaliar o comportamento desse resíduo no solo e dar subsídios para definir as doses adequadas às culturas, com vistas em atender à necessidade de N das plantas. Foram realizados dois experimentos em condições de laboratório com o objetivo de avaliar a mineralização de C e de N em um Argissolo textura média adubado com composto de lixo urbano. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com os tratamentos constituídos de cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano, equivalentes a 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 t ha-1. No segundo experimento, empregou-se esquema fatorial, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso e três repetições, combinando as mesmas cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano utilizadas no primeiro experimento e 11 tempos de incubação (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 e 126 dias. Os maiores aumentos de N-NO3- no solo foram obtidos até os 42 dias de incubação, independentemente da dose de composto de lixo aplicada, percebendo-se, a partir dos 70 dias, tendência de estabilização. A fração de mineralização de C-orgânico em C-CO2 menor do que 2 % em 168 dias indica que o composto de lixo urbano é material que contribui para aumentar os estoques de matéria orgânica do solo. Na ausência de adubação nitrogenada complementar, a fração de mineralização de N-orgânico de 12 % em 126 dias evidencia que o composto de lixo urbano apresenta potencial fertilizante de liberação lenta de N para as plantas.Studies about nitrogen and carbon mineralization in soils amended with urban waste compost are important to evaluate the reactions of this waste in soil and to define the best rates for crops. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an Ultisol fertilized with

  9. Agricultural use of compost and vermicomposts of municipal wastes: risk on soil and plants; U