WorldWideScience

Sample records for brassica oleracea roots

  1. Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.; Stuiver, C.Elisabeth E.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.,) to gaseous H2S resulted in a decreased sulfate uptake by the roots. At 0.2 mu l l(-1) H2S, a level sufficient to meet the sulfur need of plants for growth, the sulfate uptake was maximally decreased by 50% after 3 or 4 days of exposure. Higher levels up

  2. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  3. The Genetics of Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. oleracea crops encompass a family of vegetables that are among the most important in the world. The most commonly grown vegetables in this family include common cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Cabbage is the most widely produced of the three, cauliflower is less than cabbage, and broccoli i...

  4. MALDI-TOF characterization of hGH1 produced by hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica grown in an airlift with mesh bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Edgar García; Ramírez, Emma Gloria Ramos; Gúzman, Octavio Gómez; Calva, Graciano Calva; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Expression systems based on plant cells, tissue, and organ cultures have been investigated as an alternative for production of human therapeutic proteins in bioreactors. In this work, hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) were established in an airlift with mesh bioreactor to produce isoform 1 of the human growth hormone (hGH1) as a model therapeutic protein. The hGH1 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA1105.1 binary vector to induce hairy roots in hypocotyls of broccoli plantlets via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Most of the infected plantlets (90%) developed hairy roots when inoculated before the appearance of true leaves, and keeping the emerging roots attached to hypocotyl explants during transfer to solid Schenk and Hildebrandt medium. The incorporation of the cDNA into the hairy root genome was confirmed by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. The expression and structure of the transgenic hGH1 was assessed by ELISA, western blot, and MALDITOF-MS analysis of the purified protein extracted from the biomass of hairy roots cultivated in bioreactor for 24 days. Production of hGH1 was 5.1 ± 0.42 µg/g dry weight (DW) for flask cultures, and 7.8 ± 0.3 µg/g DW for bioreactor, with productivity of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 1.5 ± 0.06 µg/g DW*days, respectively, indicating that the production of hGH1 was not affected by the growth rate, but might be affected by the culture system. These results demonstrate that hairy root cultures of broccoli have potential as an alternative expression system for production of hGH1, and might also be useful for production of other therapeutic proteins. PMID:24124083

  5. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  6. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  7. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  8. Atmospheric NH3 as plant nutrient: A case study with Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrient-sufficient and nitrate- or sulfate-deprived plants of Brassica oleracea L. were exposed to 4 μl l-1 NH3 (2.8 mg m-3), and effects on biomass production and allocation, N-compounds and root morphology investigated. Nitrate-deprived plants were able to transfer to atmospheric NH3 as nitrogen source, but biomass allocation in favor of the root was not changed by exposure to NH3. NH3 reduced the difference in total root length between nitrate-sufficient and nitrate-deprived plants, and increased the specific root length in the latter. The internal N status, therefore, might be involved in controlling root length in B. oleracea. Root surface area, volume and diameter were unaffected by both nitrate deprivation and NH3 exposure. In sulfate-deprived plants an inhibitory effect of NH3 on root morphological parameters was observed. These plants, therefore, might be more susceptible to atmospheric NH3 than nitrate-deprived plants. The relevance of the present data under field conditions is discussed. - Atmospheric NH3 can serve as sole N source for Brassica oleracea, but does not change root biomass allocation in nitrate-deprived plants

  9. Reduction of duplication in a Brassica oleracea germplasm collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Boukema, I.W.; Visser, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the number of accessions in the Brassica oleracea collection of the Centre for Genetic Resources The Netherlands (CGN) groups of accessions were bulked. Accessions in a group were selections from the same landrace or old variety, and were chosen, with the help of crop experts, on the basis

  10. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  11. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, S; Torp, A M; Holme, Inger;

    2007-01-01

     Fifty-nine Brassica oleracea cultivars, belonging to five botanical varieties, were evaluated for microsatellite (SSR) polymorphisms using 11 database sequence derived primer pairs. The cultivars represented 12 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), ten Brussels sprouts (B. o. var. gemmifera...... vegetable brassicas....

  12. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  13. Pengaruh pemupukan terhadap akumulasi timbal pada kubis (Brassica oleracea L.) dan sawi putih (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silviana, Ernita

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals accumulation in growing plant is influenced by the soil composition, water, air and planting sites, fertilization and crop types. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) are plants that is able to absorb toxic metals. This study aimed to determine the effect of dosage of NPK fertilizer and organic fertilizer on metal lead accumulation in cabbage and chinese cabbage. This research was carried out in plastic house in Simpang Tiga Redelong highlands...

  14. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Acephala).

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fernandes; Ferreres, F.; Oliveira, J; Valentão, P.; Pereira, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica group are the most commonly grown and consumed worldwide. Food plants with apparent cancer and cardiovascular di sease-preventing properties include several varieties of Brassica oleraceae. The majority of the herbivorous insect species are specialized feeders, for which the behavioral decision to accept a plant as food or oviposition substrate is mainly related with sensory information. Pieris insects (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores...

  15. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  16. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  17. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  18. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  19. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  20. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  1. Neglected Landraces of Collard (Brassica oleracea L.) from the Carolinas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common garden crop grown in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina (United States) is the non-heading, leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. known as collard (B. oleracea Acephala Group). Predominantly a fall and winter vegetable in this region, collard is often the only green pl...

  2. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  3. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea ge...

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Broccoli is widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer and also treats other neural disorders. The therapeutic potential of broccoli has been explained under its role in cancer, diabetes and other diseases. In the treatment of cancer, most of the constituents or the phytochemicals of broccoli such as brassinin, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol etc. have been proved to be effectively beneficial. Even selenium plays a very important role in cancer prevention. The antioxidant activity of broccoli is induced by other phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, glucoraphin and sulforaphane. Sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts also has the potential to cure neural disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. It is also used to bring about cure in asthma and diabetic patients. Flavonoids have the effect of reducing the risk of diabetes. Therefore sulforaphane is widely used to treat various diseases and disorders.

  5. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage ‘Wintessa’, and the wild B. oleracea accession Winspit was analysed for GSL production and used for biofumigation experiments on the beneficial soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida (springtail) and...

  6. Application of in vitro pollination of opened ovaries to obtain Brassica oleracea L. × B. rapa L. hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of experiments concerning: (1) interspecific hybridization of Brassica oleracea × Brassica rapa via application of in vitro placental pollination and (2) embryological analysis of the process of resynthesis of Brassica napus. In order to overcome certain stigma/style barriers, B. rapa pollen was placed in vitro on an opened B. oleracea ovary (with style removed). Pollinated ovaries were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After 24-d culture, the develo...

  7. Comparative sequence analysis for Brassica oleracea with similar sequences in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Dan; Gao, Muqiang; Li, Genyi; Quiros, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We sequenced five BAC clones of Brassica oleracea doubled haploid ‘Early Big' broccoli containing major genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, and comparatively analyzed them with similar sequences in A. thaliana and B. rapa. Additionally, we included in the analysis published sequences from three other B. oleracea BAC clones and a contig of this species corresponding to segments in A. thaliana chromosomes IV and V. A total of 2,946 kb of B. oleracea, 1,069 kb of B. rapa sequence and 2...

  8. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez; Helber Enrique Balaguera-López; Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.); mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, tre...

  9. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  10. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  11. Perennial kales: collection rationalization and genetic relatedness to other Brassica oleracea crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Bas, N.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial kale is a rare leafy vegetable and forage crop that is mainly vegetatively propagated and therefore expensive to conserve ex situ. A genebank collection of 47 perennial kales and 34 reference samples from the main Brassica oleracea crop types were characterized with seven microsatellite ma

  12. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  13. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  14. Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds to induce resistance against Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Michta, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Boer, de W.J.; Davelaar, E.; Stevens, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds having a low risk profile (LRP) were evaluated for their potential to induce resistance in cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) against Peronospora parasitica, causal organism of downy mildew. The selection of 34 LRP compounds comprised micronutrients, o

  15. Interaction between atmospheric hydrogen sulfide deposition and pedospheric sulfate nutrition in Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, LJ; Westerman, S; Stuiver, CEE; Weidner, W; Stulen, I.; Grill, D

    2002-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is able to utilize H2S as sulfur source for growth and it can replace pedospheric sulfate as sulfur source. The foliage forms an active sink for atmospheric H2S, which is directly metabolized into cysteine and subsequently into other organic sulfur compounds. H2S exposure result

  16. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  17. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were cr

  18. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  19. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  20. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  1. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  2. Functional alleles of the flowering time regulator FRIGIDA in the Brassica oleracea genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Judith A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants adopt different reproductive strategies as an adaptation to growth in a range of climates. In Arabidopsis thaliana FRIGIDA (FRI confers a vernalization requirement and thus winter annual habit by increasing the expression of the MADS box transcriptional repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC. Variation at FRI plays a major role in A. thaliana life history strategy, as independent loss-of-function alleles that result in a rapid-cycling habit in different accessions, appear to have evolved many times. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize orthologues of FRI in Brassica oleracea. Results We describe the characterization of FRI from Brassica oleracea and identify the two B. oleracea FRI orthologues (BolC.FRI.a and BolC.FRI.b. These show extensive amino acid conservation in the central and C-terminal regions to FRI from other Brassicaceae, including A. thaliana, but have a diverged N-terminus. The genes map to two of the three regions of B. oleracea chromosomes syntenic to part of A. thaliana chromosome 5 suggesting that one of the FRI copies has been lost since the ancient triplication event that formed the B. oleracea genome. This genomic position is not syntenic with FRI in A. thaliana and comparative analysis revealed a recombination event within the A. thaliana FRI promoter. This relocated A. thaliana FRI to chromosome 4, very close to the nucleolar organizer region, leaving a fragment of FRI in the syntenic location on A. thaliana chromosome 5. Our data show this rearrangement occurred after the divergence from A. lyrata. We explored the allelic variation at BolC.FRI.a within cultivated B. oleracea germplasm and identified two major alleles, which appear equally functional both to each other and A. thaliana FRI, when expressed as fusions in A. thaliana. Conclusions We identify the two Brassica oleracea FRI genes, one of which we show through A. thaliana complementation experiments is functional, and show

  3. Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibition of Pipeline Steel Using Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    N. C. Ngobiri; E.E. Oguzie; Y. Li; L. Liu; Oforka, N. C.; O. Akaranta

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition capacity of Brassica oleracea (BO) extract on the corrosion of pipeline steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 was evaluated using electrochemical techniques. The results showed an excellent inhibition efficiency which increased with initial increase in extract concentration and temperature to a point and decreased with further increase in BO extract concentration and temperature. Mixed inhibition behaviour was proposed for the action of BO. The unique behaviour of BO was attributed to the organ...

  4. Analysis of protein transport in the Brassica oleracea vasculature reveals protein-specific destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Chenxing; Anstead, James; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the vascular transport properties of exogenously applied proteins to Brassica oleracea plants and compared their delivery to various aerial parts of the plant with carboxy fluorescein (CF) dye. We identified unique properties for each protein. Alexafluor-tagged bovine serum albumin (Alexa-BSA) and Alexafluor-tagged Histone H1 (Alexa-Histone) moved slower than CF dye throughout the plant. Interestingly, Alexa-Histone was retained in the phloem and phloem parenchyma while Alexa-...

  5. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Kandil; Nadia Gal

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield qu...

  6. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mao-Sen Liu; Miau-Hwa Ko; Hui-Chun Li; Shwu-Jene Tsai; Ying-Mi Lai; You-Ming Chang; Min-Tze Wu; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also prelim...

  7. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also prelimin...

  8. Differential resistance to Peronospora parasitica and Albugo candida in Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie, D.; Cogan, N.; Astley, D.; Crute, I.R.; Boukema, I.W.; Santos, M.; Bahcevandziev, K.; Silva-Dias, J.; Monteiro, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 22 accessions of Brassica oleracea were screened for their responses at the seedling stage to twelve isolates of the fungal pathogen Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew), and 14 accessions were screened for their responses at the seedling stage to nine isolates of Albugo candida (white blister). The results suggested that classic gene-for-gene interactions operate in the P. parasitica pathosystem whereas in the A. candida pathosystem the results could be explained either by a gen...

  9. Identification of genomic regions involved in resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from wild Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jiaqin; Ding, Yijuan; Lu, Kun; Wei, Dayong; Liu, Yao; Disi, Joseph Onwusemu; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao; Liu, Shengyi; McKay, John; Qian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The lack of resistant source has greatly restrained resistance breeding of rapeseed (Brassica napus, AACC) against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum which causes severe yield losses in rapeseed production all over the world. Recently, several wild Brassica oleracea accessions (CC) with high level of resistance have been identified (Mei et al. in Euphytica 177:393-400, 2011), bringing a new hope to improve Sclerotinia resistance of rapeseed. To map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Sclerotinia resistance from wild B. oleracea, an F2 population consisting of 149 genotypes, with several clones of each genotypes, was developed from one F1 individual derived from the cross between a resistant accession of wild B. oleracea (B. incana) and a susceptible accession of cultivated B. oleracea var. alboglabra. The F2 population was evaluated for Sclerotinia reaction in 2009 and 2010 under controlled condition. Significant differences among genotypes and high heritability for leaf and stem reaction indicated that genetic components accounted for a large portion of the phenotypic variance. A total of 12 QTL for leaf resistance and six QTL for stem resistance were identified in 2 years, each explaining 2.2-28.4 % of the phenotypic variation. The combined effect of alleles from wild B. oleracea reduced the relative susceptibility by 22.5 % in leaves and 15 % in stems on average over 2 years. A 12.8-cM genetic region on chromosome C09 of B. oleracea consisting of two major QTL intervals for both leaf and stem resistance was assigned into a 2.7-Mb genomic region on chromosome A09 of B. rapa, harboring about 30 putative resistance-related genes. Significant negative corrections were found between flowering time and relative susceptibility of leaf and stem. The association of flowering time with Sclerotinia resistance is discussed. PMID:23096003

  10. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  11. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhang; Tongjin Liu; Xixiang Li; Mengmeng Duan; Jinglei Wang; Yang Qiu; Haiping Wang; Jiangping Song; Di Shen

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization...

  12. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  13. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  14. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  15. Plant Male Sterility Induced by Anti-Gene CYP86MFin Brassica oleracea var. Italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An anti-gene CYP86MF was introduced into hypocotyls of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica Plenck) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transgenic plants were obtained by kanamycin selection. The results of PCR, Southern blot and Northern blot indicated that the anti-CYP86MF has been integrated into chromosome of the transgenic plant.And also, plants with hypogenetic stamina or ungerminated pollen were observed. The transgenic male sterility plant could fructify via artificial pollination with normal pollen. Thus it was proved that the pistil of male sterility plant was normally developed, and the sterility originated from anti-CYP86MF.

  16. Effect of Botanical Insecticide of Macleya cordata on Physiology and Biochemistry of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effect of Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata in the Brassica oleracea L. investigated, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were determined. The results showed that under the stress of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata at the same concentration, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly lower than those with Cyhalothrin (p<0.05 except the proline content has not significant differences between Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata with a dosage of 50×. The degree of damage with Cyhalothrin is greater than that of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata.

  17. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Yi; Arif Hasan Khan Robin; Kiwoung Yang; Jong-In Park; Jong-Goo Kang; Tae-Jin Yang; Ill-Sup Nou

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among t...

  18. EFFECTS OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT AND METALAXYL TREATMENT ON THE YIELD OF SOME FORAGE BRASSICA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Aziz; KOCH, D.W.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Three forage Brassica species were evaluated for their growth and adaptability to the Rocky Mountain region. Brassicas were grown in fields infested with a Phytophthora disease previoıısly observed on kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) Metalaxyl treatmıent did not affect Brassica yields signifıcantly. Although pest problems were detected, Brassica crops tolerated low temperatures and produced excellent yields ( up to 9.90 Mg/ha). The Phytophthora isolates from Brassica, which were identif...

  19. Phenolic acid contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC.) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayaz, F. A.; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S.; Karaoglu, S.A.; Grúz, Jiří; Valentová, K.; Ulrichová, J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2008), s. 19-25. ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Black cabbage * Kale * Brassica oleraceae var. acephala Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.696, year: 2008

  20. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. PMID:27543253

  1. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  2. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  3. Meristem identity gene expression during curd proliferation and flower initiation in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Denise V; Björkman, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of reproductive development in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis DC) and broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) is unusual in that most enlargement occurs while development is arrested at a distinct stage. Cauliflower and broccoli curds are composed of inflorescence meristems and flower buds, respectively. To determine whether this arrest is maintained by altered expression of the genes that specify these steps in Arabidopsis, the expression of each copy of their homologues (MADS-box genes BoAP1-a, BoAP1-c, BoCAL, BoFUL-a, BoFUL-b, BoFUL-c, and BoFUL-d; and non-MADS-box genes BoLFY, AP2, UFO, and BoTFL1) and the cauliflower curd-specific genes CCE1 and BoREM1 were measured simultaneously in heads that were arrested at different developmental stages by varying temperature, but had a common genotype. Transcript abundance of BoFUL paralogues and BoLFY was highest at the cauliflower stage of arrest, consistent with these genes initiating inflorescence meristems. The expression of other genes was the same regardless of the developmental stage of arrest. The expected models can therefore be excluded, wherein maintenance of arrest at the inflorescence meristem is a consequence of suppression of BoCAL, BoAP1-a, or BoLFY, or failure to suppress BoTFL1. Floral primordia and floral buds were normal in boap1-a boap1-c bocal triple mutants; therefore, other meristem identity genes can specify floral initiation (A-function) in B. oleracea. BoTFL1, a strong repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis, did not suppress the formation of the floral primordium in B. oleracea. Initiation of floral primordia and enlargement of floral buds in broccoli and cauliflower is not controlled solely by homologues of the genes that do so in Arabidopsis. PMID:18332227

  4. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and...

  5. Variation of five major glucosinolate genes in Brassica rapa in relation to Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Qiu, D.; Quiros, F.

    2010-07-01

    Glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates are important secondary metabolites in the Brassica cea that has biological activity, such as cancer protecting and bio fumigant properties. The putative ortho logs of five major genes in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, Bra.GSELONG.a, Bra.GSALK.a, Bra.CYP83B1, Bra.SUR1.a and Bra.ST5.a, were cloned from both cDNA and genomic DNA from different subspecies of Brassica rapa. Inter species comparative analysis disclosed high conservation of exon number and size for GS-Elong, GS-Alk, GS-CYP83B1 and GS-ST5a among B. rapa, B. oleracea and A. thaliana. Splice site mutations caused the differences observed for exon numbers and sizes in GS-SUR1 among the three species. However, the exonic sequences were highly conserved for this gene. There were not major differences of intronic sizes among the three species for these genes, except for intron 1 for GS-Elong in two subspecies of B. rapa. The cloning of the putative ortho logs of all these major genes involved in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway of B. rapa and sequence analysis provide a useful base for their genetic manipulation and functional analysis. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. PMID:26031705

  7. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  8. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  9. Effect of Deinococcus radiodurans on uptake of 134Cs by Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinococcus radiodurans was inoculated into the soil which was spiked with 134Cs to investigate its effect on chemical speciation of 134Cs. The relationship between chemical speciation of 134Cs and its absorbtion capacity by cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in the presence of D. radiodurans was also investigated. The results showed that an increase of 28.64%-38.17 % in content of 134Cs in residual phase was observed with presence of D. radiodurans in comparison with the aseptic control. The amounts of radiocesium uptaken by cabbage were about 12100Bq/g under aseptic conditions, however, which were about 8500Bq/g with the presence of D. radiodurans. The proportion of 134Cs taken up by cabbage decreased about 29% in comparison with the aseptic control. The chemical speciation could be influenced by D. radiodurans so that its uptake by plants could be reduced. (authors)

  10. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  11. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  12. Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci abundance on Brassica oleracea var. acephala Abundância de Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae e Thrips tabaci em Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala is attacked by whitefly Bemisia tabaci, aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci. One of the main reasons for extensive insecticide application is the lack of information about factors that control insect population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, organic compound leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, sunlight and median temperature on the abundance of whitefly, aphid, and thrips in kale genotype "Talo Roxo". The beating tray method, direct counting and magnifying lens were used to estimate the number of these pests, predators and parasitoids. Median temperature, sunlight and relative humidity correlated to the amount of leaf nonacosane, which in turn was associated with aphids population increase. A tendency in the reduction of aphids and thrips populations with increase in total rainfall was observed. The whitefly can be a harmful pest in kale producing regions of higher temperature and smaller rainfall. In regions which present moderate temperature, where there is a high incidence of aphids, genotype with low leaf wax content should be chosen. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp., can control agents of the aphids population in kale.A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, é atacada por mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci, pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae e tripes Thrips tabaci. Uma das principais razões para o uso intensivo de inseticidas é a falta de informação sobre os fatores que controlam a população de insetos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre predadores e parasitóides, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, pluviosidade total, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na abundância da mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em couve genótipo Talo Roxo. Foi usado o método da batida em bandeja

  13. Identification of a novel MLPK homologous gene MLPKn1 and its expression analysis in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiguo; Shi, Songmei; Liu, Yudong; Pu, Quanming; Liu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Liquan

    2016-09-01

    M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A. thaliana SRKb-SCRb plants has remained unknown. Here, in addition to the reported MLPKf1/2, we identified the new MLPKf1 homologous gene MLPKn1 from B. oleracea. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 shared nucleotide sequence identity as high as 84.3 %, and the most striking difference consisted in two fragment insertions in BoMLPKn1. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 had a similar gene structure; both their deduced amino acid sequences contained a typical plant myristoylation consensus sequence and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. BoMLPKn1 was widely expressed in petal, sepal, anther, stigma and leaf. Genome-wide survey revealed that the B. oleracea genome contained three MLPK homologous genes: BoMLPKf1/2, BoMLPKn1 and Bol008343n. The B. rapa genome also contained three MLPK homologous genes, BrMLPKf1/2, BraMLPKn1 and Bra040929. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BoMLPKf1/2 and BrMLPKf1/2 were phylogenetically more distant from AtAPK1A than Bol008343n, Bra040929, BraMLPKn1 and BoMLPKn1, Synteny analysis revealed that the B. oleracea chromosomal region containing BoMLPKn1 displayed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B, whereas the B. rapa chromosomal region containing BraMLPKn1 showed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B. Together, these results revealed that BoMLPKn1/BraMLPKn1, and not the formerly reported BoMLPKf1/2 (BrMLPKf1/2), was the orthologous genes of AtAPK1B, and no ortholog of Bo

  14. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83. ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  15. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  16. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  17. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  18. Evaluation on physical properties of irradiated cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. var. acephala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brassica family is well known all over the world, and among their species, the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is the most consumed in Brazil, as an ingredient of salads and also usual in preparation of a typical Brazilian dish called feijoada. Food irradiation is a world wide spread technology used to improve the quality of vegetables extending the shelf-life and reducing microorganisms present in leafs. Color is the first sensorial aspect realized by consumers, being an important factor of refuse. The objective of this paper was to analyze the color of irradiated cabbage treated by electron beam from a linear accelerator at different radiation doses. The cabbage samples were irradiated at IPEN-CNEN/SP in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA, 1.5 MeV, 25 mA) at doses of 1.0 - 1.5 kGy and also a control sample. Statistical analysis was done to compare the efficacy of different radiation doses. Slight differences in color measurement were observed in the irradiated samples, although the quality of cabbage was maintained until the 7th day of storage. (author)

  19. Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of Brassica oleracea seeds as an indicator of seed maturity and seed quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jalink H.; Frandas A.; Schoor R. van der; Bino J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of seeds is proposed as a non-invasive method for the determination of maturity and quality of seeds. In this study cabbage seeds (Brassica oleracea) were sorted individually based on the chlorophyll fluorescence signals into four subsamples labeled with respect to their chlorophyll fluorescence signal (low, medium, high and very high). The results show that the magnitude of the chlorophyll fluorescence signal was inversely related to the quality of the s...

  20. Bottom-up and top-down herbivore regulation mediated by glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    OpenAIRE

    Santolamazza Carbone, Serena; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Cartea González, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative differences in plant defence metabolites, such as glucosinolates, may directly affect herbivore preference and performance, and indirectly affect natural enemy pressure. By assessing insect abundance and leaf damage rate, we studied the responses of insect herbivores to six genotypes of Brassica oleracea var. acephala, selected from the same cultivar for having high or low foliar content of sinigrin, glucoiberin and glucobrassicin. We also investigated whether the natural parasit...

  1. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia...

  2. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  3. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  4. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of

  5. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329

  6. An enzymatic activity isolated from Brassica oleracea specific for UV-irradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of a breakdown in the ozone layer, an increase in the amount of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation can be expected. Organisms have evolved mechanisms to repair numerous types of DNA damages. While these DNA repair systems have been well characterized in bacteria and to a lesser extent in mammalian cells, surprisingly little is known about repair of potentially harmful DNA lesions in plants. An enzyme that recognizes and incises UV irradiated DNA has been partially purified from the leaf tissue of Brassica oleracea. Glycosylase-produced base loss sites were detected by a nitrocellulose filter-binding assay using UV-irradiated PM2 viral DNA as the substrate. The optimal temperature for maximal enzyme activity is 47C with a pH optimum between 7.0 and 7.5. In addition, the endonuclease is active in both Tris and phosphate buffers, although it is stimulated by phosphate concentrations up to 25 mM. Currently, a number of synthetic polynucleotides as well as DNAs of defined sequence are being employed as substrates to determine the nature of the UV-induced lesion and the precise mechanism of action of the enzyme

  7. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  8. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Sen Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica, with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, “Green King”. Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  9. Living mulch strategy for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. production in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Canali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable agricultural systems, intercropping using living mulches (LM provides many beneficial ecosystem services. The objective of these two-year field experiments was to study the suitability of different LM options of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. var. anglona for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. cultivation in two sites under Mediterranean conditions. In central Italy (Experiment 1 contemporary and delayed (to crop sowings of LM were compared with a no-cover crop treatment, contrasting two local cauliflower cultivars and a F1 Hybrid. In southern Italy (Experiment 2 the sustainability of systems combining LM (anticipated and contemporary sowing compared with no-cover and organic fertilisation strategies was assessed. The aboveground biomasses dry weights of cauliflower crop (heads and residues, burr medic and weeds were separately determined. Results suggested that in Experiment 1 the LM was not able to smother weeds establishment and growth, as a consequence of early sowing, while cauliflower yield was reduced. Moreover, the genotypes behaviour was greatly influenced by the LM sowing times. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the agronomic practices applied, climatic conditions notably influenced cauliflower cultivation and also reduced the mean yield. Therefore, the recorded differences between the two experimental sites highlighted the need to tailor the LM strategies to the different environmental conditions.

  10. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  11. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  12. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  13. Karyotyping of Brassica oleracea L.based on rDNA and Cot-1 DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taixia; WU Chunhong; HUANG Jinyong; WEI Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    To explore an effective and reliable karyotyping method in Brassica crop plants,Cot-1 DNA was isolated from Brassica oleracea genome,labeled as probe with Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,in situ hybridized to mitotic spreads,and where specific fluorescent bands showed on each chromosome pair.25S and 5S rDNA were labeled as probes with DIG-Nick Translation Mix kit and Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,respectively,in situ hybridized to mitotic preparations,where 25S rDNA could be detected on two chromosome pairs and 5S rDNA on only one.Cot-1 DNA contains rDNA and chromosome sites identity between Cot-1 DNA and 25S rDNA was determined by dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization.All these showed that the karyotyping technique based on a combination of rDNA and Cot-1 DNA chromosome landmarks is superior to all but one.A more exact karyotype ofB.oleracea has been analyzed based on a combination of rDNA sites,Cot-1 DNA fluorescent bands,chromosome lengths and arm ratios.

  14. Assessing the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se ...

  15. Impact of atmospheric sulfur deposition on sulfur metabolism in plants : H2S as sulfur source for sulfur deprived Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Rubinigg, M.; Westerman, S.; Grill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. was rather insensitive to atmospheric H2S: growth was only negatively affected at greater than or equal to 0.4 mu l l(-1). Shoots formed a sink for H2S and the uptake rate showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The H2S uptake rate was high in c

  16. Analysis of F1 hybrid and BC1 monosomic alien addition line plants from Brassica oleracea × Sinapis alba by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenhui; ZHANG Sufeng; LI Jun; WANG Lijun; CHEN Bo; FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LUO Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Sterile and semi-fertile F1 plants were obtained by intergeneric sexual hybridization between paternal Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (genome CC, 2n=18) and maternal Sinapis alba (genome SS, 2n=24), BC1 plants were obtained by backcrossing between paternal B. oleracea and maternal semi-fertile F1 plants. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) combined with dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (dcFISH) showed that sterile F1 plants contained 21 chromosomes consisting of one B. oleracea chromosome set and one S.alba chromosome set, belonging to expected hybrids,and semi-fertile F1 plants contained 30 chromosomes consisting of two B. oleracea chromosome sets and one S. alba chromosome set. It is obvious that the semi-fertile F1 plants belong to unexpected hybrids.1 -3 trivalents were detected at meiotic metaphase I of semi-fertile F1 pollen mother cells (PMCs). Different separation ratios of S chromosomes were detected at anaphase I. A monosomic alien addition line(MAAL) was identified by GISH-dcFISH from BC1plants; it contained 19 chromosomes consisting of 18 C chromosomes and 1 S chromosome. At meiotic metaphase I, 9 divalents from B. oleracea and one univalent from S. alba could be detected. Sometimes,one putative C-S trivalent could also be detected.The achievement of B. oleracea-S, alba monosomic alien addition lines lays a foundation for gene introgression, location and cloning.

  17. Lentinan promotes the root of Brassica CampestrisL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of lentinan on Brassica campestris L (rape. Spraying on the leaves of lentinan B. campestris L. at 0.05×10-6 g ml-1 concentration significantly promoted the root elongation (P<0.05. The results for the first time showed that lentinan could prolongate roots as a new plant hormone.

  18. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  19. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  20. Cloning and sequence analysis of a mutation-type cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anhe CHEN; Jiana LI; Yourong CHAI; Rui WANG; Jun LU

    2008-01-01

    A 2431-bp full-length cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene, BoC4H, was cloned from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. It contains 2 introns. Its mRNA is 1715 bp, encoding a deduced 481-amino-acid polypeptide with wide homologies to C4Hs from other plants. It possesses cytochrome P450 conserved domains and motifs such as the haem-iron binding motif, the E-R-R triad, the T-con-taining binding pocket motif and the hinge motif neces-sary for optimal orientation of the enzyme. It also has most of the canonical C4H/CYP73A5-featured sub-strate-recognition sites (SRSs) and active site residues. However, owing to a single-base deletion at C2242 and subsequent frame shift within the 3' coding region as com-pared with C4H genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants, BoC4H shows a 36-aa deletion/variation at its C-terminus and the SRS6 motif together with active site residues therein are absent. Thus BoC4H may be of no function or low activity. BoC4H is a membrane protein and is probably associated with the endoplasmic reticu-lure. Its secondary structure is dominated by alpha helices and random coils. The Swiss-Model could not predict its tertiary structure. B. oleracea contains a C4H gene family with at least 5 members.

  1. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  2. Isolation of a Second S-Locus-Related Cdna from Brassica Oleracea: Genetic Relationships between the S Locus and Two Related Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, D. C.; Chen, C. H.; Tantikanjana, T.; Esch, J. J.; Nasrallah, J B

    1991-01-01

    Self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus. Isolation and subsequent characterization of the S-locus-glycoprotein (SLG) gene, which encodes the S-locus-specific glycoprotein (SLSG), has revealed the presence of a self-incompatibility multigene family. One of these S-locus-related genes, SLR1, has been shown to be expressed. In this study we present the isolation and preliminary characterization of a second expressed S-locus-related sequence, SLR2...

  3. Respon Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Kailan (Brassica oleraceae L.) Pada Pemberian Pupuk Anorganik Dan Berbagai Dosis Pupuk Organik Cair Paitan (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Posma

    2015-01-01

    POSMA SINAGA :The Application of anorganic fertilizer and some dossages of Liquid Organic Fertilizer of paitan (Tithonia diversifolia) on the Growth and Yield of Mustard (Brassica oleraceae L.), supervised by dan MEIRIANI and YAYA HASANAH. Generally, paitan is not used, known as weeds and just used as animal feed and it rest just become waste. Paitan has potential as the nutrition adder for plant. Therefore, the application of liquid organic fertilizer from paitan is hoped can increase t...

  4. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanol Bunga Brokoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Terhadap Nilai Sun Protection Factor Krim Tabir Surya Kombinasi Avobenzone dan Oktil Metoksisinamat Secara in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatulliza, Nova

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sunscreen is a cosmetic preparation, that is used on the surface of skin that works by absorbing, scattering or reflecting UV light. Broccoli flowers contain flavonoids which can absorb UV rays and have a high antioxidant activity. Purpose: To determine the formulation of ethanol extract of broccoli flowers, physical stability, the effect of ethanol extract concentration of broccoli flowers (Brassica oleracea L.) on sun protection factor (SPF) value of avobenzone and octyl methoxy...

  5. Origin,Classification and Evolution of Brassica oleracea L%简述甘蓝类植物的起源及分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 王超

    2006-01-01

    甘蓝起源于地中海沿岸的一种一年生杂草(Brassica oleracea var.oleracea),也有人认为它起源于地中海地区的4种野生近缘种的复合体.甘蓝种可分为6个变种,也有人认为甘蓝种可分为7个变种.野生甘蓝变种(Brassica oleracea var.oleracea)首先进化成4个羽衣甘蓝类型,其中"不分枝类型"又进一步进化成结球甘蓝和孢子甘蓝."分枝类型"又进一步进化成花椰菜和青花菜."髓状茎类型"进化成球茎甘蓝.而"高茎类型"进化成现在栽培的牧草.

  6. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  7. Diseases affecting Brassica crops in Northwestern of Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Three Brassica species (Brassica napus L., B. oleracea L. and B. rapa L.) are grown in Galicia, (Northwestern of Spain). This area presents especially suitable climatic and soil conditions (cool-weather, deep, well drained, fertile, and sandy loam soils) for cruciferous crops growing and is by far the larger producer and consumer of brassica crops in Spain. They are utilized mainly as leaf or root vegetable crops (turnip, turnip greens, cabbage, kale, and leaf rape). Diseases caused by bac...

  8. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  9. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  10. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs. PMID:26205053

  11. Interaction between non-homologous portuguese isolates of Albugo candida and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Lurdes; Dias, João Silva

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of five non-homologous portuguese isolates of A. candida (four isolated from B. rapa – Ac506, Ac508, Ac509 and Ac510, and one from Raphanus sativus) in forty B. oleracea accessions from different geographic origins was evaluated at the cotyledonar stage. Some accessions presented susceptibility to the non-homologous isolates of B. rapa, mainly head cabbage ‘Large Blood Red’ and savoy cabbage ‘Brusselse Winter’. These accessions exhibited mean levels of infection higher than 20...

  12. Molecular Cloning, Expression Pattern and Genotypic Effects on Glucoraphanin Biosynthetic Related Genes in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucoraphanin is a plant secondary metabolite that is involved in plant defense and imparts health-promoting properties to cruciferous vegetables. In this study, three genes involved in glucoraphanin metabolism, branched-chain aminotransferase 4 (BCAT4, methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 (MAM1 and dihomomethionine N-hydroxylase (CYP79F1, were cloned from Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis identified these genes and confirmed the evolutionary status of Chinese kale. The transcript levels of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were higher in cotyledon, leaf and stem compared with flower and silique. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed throughout leaf development with lower transcript levels during the younger stages. Glucoraphanin content varied extensively among different varieties, which ranged from 0.25 to 2.73 µmol·g−1 DW (dry weight. Expression levels of BCAT4 and MAM1 were high at vegetative–reproductive transition phase, while CYP79F1 was expressed high at reproductive phase. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed significantly high in genotypes with high glucoraphanin content. All the results provided a better understanding of the roles of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 in the glucoraphanin biosynthesis of Chinese kale.

  13. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants. PMID:26721234

  14. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  16. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  17. In-depth analysis of internal control genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X G; Zhao, Z Q; Yu, H F; Wang, J S; Zheng, C F; Gu, H H

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a versatile technique for the analysis of gene expression. The selection of stable reference genes is essential for the application of this technique. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is a commonly consumed vegetable that is rich in vitamin, calcium, and iron. Thus far, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on the validation of suitable reference genes for the data normalization of qRT-PCR in cauliflower. In the present study, we analyzed 12 candidate housekeeping genes in cauliflower subjected to different abiotic stresses, hormone treatment conditions, and accessions. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the expression stability of these genes. ACT2 and TIP41 were selected as suitable reference genes across all experimental samples in this study. When different accessions were compared, ACT2 and UNK3 were found to be the most suitable reference genes. In the hormone and abiotic stress treatments, ACT2, TIP41, and UNK2 were the most stably expressed. Our study also provided guidelines for selecting the best reference genes under various experimental conditions. PMID:27525844

  18. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  19. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  20. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dongqin Tang; Hongmei Qian; Lingxia Zhao; Danfeng Huang; Kexuan Tang

    2005-12-01

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transgenic status and transgene expression of the transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern hybridization and semi-quantitative one step RT-PCR analysis respectively. Subsequently, the growth status under water stress, and physiological responses to water stress of transgenic tobacco were studied. The results showed that the transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under water stress condition compared to the untransformed control plants. In physiological assessment of water tolerance, transgenic plants showed more dry matter accumulation and maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content along with increasing levels of water stress than the untransformed control plants. This study shows that BoRS1 is a candidate gene in the engineering of crops for enhanced water stress tolerance.

  1. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  2. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02-12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02-12 genome sequence. PMID:26622061

  3. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02–12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02–12 genome sequence. PMID:26622061

  4. Reactions to cadmium stress in a cadmium-tolerant variety of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.): is cadmium tolerance necessarily desirable in food crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, Neel; Collins, Damian; Holford, Paul; Milham, Paul J; Conroy, Jann P

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative, chronic toxicant in humans for which the main exposure pathway is via plant foods. Cadmium-tolerant plants may be used to create healthier food products, provided that the tolerance is associated with the exclusion of Cd from the edible portion of the plant. An earlier study identified the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) variety, Pluto, as relatively Cd tolerant. We exposed the roots of intact, 4-week-old seedlings of Pluto to Cd (control ∼1 mg L(-1) treatment 500 μg L(-1)) for 4 weeks in flowing nutrient solutions and observed plant responses. Exposure began when leaf 3 started to emerge, plants were harvested after 4 weeks of Cd exposure and the high Cd treatment affected all measured parameters. The elongation rate of leaves 4-8, but not the duration of elongation was reduced; consequently, individual leaf area was also reduced (P stems and leaves were unaffected (P > 0.1). Phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) were present in the roots even at the lowest Cd concentration in the nutrient medium, i.e. ∼1 μg Cd L(-1), which would not be considered contaminated if it were a soil solution. The Cd concentration in these roots was unexpectedly high (5 mg kg(-1) DW) and the molar ratio of -SH (in PCs plus GSH) to Cd was large (>100:1). In these control plants, the Cd concentration in the leaves was 1.1 mg kg(-1) DW, and PCs were undetectable. For the high Cd treatment, the concentration of Cd in roots exceeded 680 mg kg(-1) DW and the molar -SH to Cd ratio fell to ∼1.5:1. For these plants, Cd flooded into the leaves (107 mg kg(-1) DW) where it probably induced synthesis of PCs, and the molar -SH to Cd ratio was ∼3:1. Nonetheless, this was insufficient to sequester all the Cd, as evidenced by the toxic effects on photosynthesis and growth noted above. Lastly, Cd accumulation in the leaves was associated with lowered concentrations of some trace elements, such as Zn, a combination of traits that is highly undesirable in food

  5. Use of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) in the stabilization of bone mass after menopause Uso do suco das folhas da couve (Brassica oleracea var acephala), na estabilização da massa óssea pós-menopausa

    OpenAIRE

    João V. Pereira; Hosana B. Santos; Maria F. Agra; Diego N. Guedes; João Modesto-Filho

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of cabbage leaves, Brassica oleracea var acephala (Cruciferae family) to stabilize bone mass in 13 menopausal women. The mature leaves were used after removal of the midrib and petiole and taken as a juice and given to the patient once a day for 24 months. Densitometric exams were performed every six months. The measurement points were the Trocanter and Ward's triangle. According to the results found, the use of cabbage leaf juice results in bone mass stabilization...

  6. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loza-Muller, L.; Rodriguez-Corona, U.; Sobol, Margaryta; Rodriguez-Zapata, L.C.; Hozák, Pavel; Castano, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov 6 (2015). ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MPO FR-TI3/588; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : histones * methylation * RNA polymerase I * Brassica * phosphoinositide Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  7. The influence of NO3- and NH4+ on the sites of nitrogen assimilation of F1 hybrid cauliflower (Brassica oleracea. L. botrytis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sites of Nitrogen assimilation of Fl hybrid cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) grown in vermiculite: pearlite on either NO3 or NH4 nutrition was investigated using 15 N techniques. Labelling studies using 15NO3 Or 15NH4 alone to follow a time course of 15 NO3 or 15NH4 incorporated into amino compounds in Fl hybrid cauliflower was conducted over periods of up to 24 hours. The 15N enrichment of amino compounds in various plant parts was measured using GC-MS and isotopic abundance mass spectrometry techniques. In roots of 15NH4-N fed plant, the 15N label rapidly appears in glutamate at high enrichment within 30 minutes and increased substantially up to 6 hours after feeding. The labelled glutamate appears to decrease slowly after 6 hours. In leaves, the glutamate shows much lower labelling within 30 minutes than in the roots and became slowly enriched 6 hours after feeding. Labelled glutamate was only detected in the curd 6 hours later. This may indicate that in NH4-N fed plants, most NH4 is assimilated in the roots and translocated as amino acids to the leaves and curd. In contrast to 15NO3-N fed plant, both the roots and leaves showed significant label in glutamate within 30 minutes and subsequently increased in labelled enrichment over the time period of 6 hours. The leaves contained higher labelled glutamate than the roots. The labelled glutamate in the leaves decreased significantly at 24 hours after feeding. Label was incorporated in glutamate at low level in the curd after 2 hours and became highly enriched at 6 and 24 hours after feeding. Thus in NO3-N fed plants, NO3 reduction and assimilation occurred both in root and leaf which mainly occur in the leaf. Therefore differences in the response of plant growth to NO3- and NH4+ nutrition observed in other studies could be due to the fact that NO3 is primarily assimilated in the leaf whereas NH4 is root based. No significant labelling was found in serine in both roots of 15NH4-N and 15NO3 -fed plants after 30

  8. Interacção entre isolamentos portugueses não homólogos de Albugo candida e de Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Lurdes; Dias, João Silva

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se o nível cotiledonar o potencia l de infecção de cinco isolamentos portugueses de A. candida (quatro colhidos em Brassica rapa - Ac50G, Ac508, Ae509 e Ac5 1 O, e um em Raphanus sativus - Ac513) em 40 amostras de B. oleracea de diferentes proveniências geográficas. Algumas amostras mostraram-se susceptíveis aos isolamentos não homólogos de B. rapa, nomeadamente a Couve repolho (Large Blood Red) e a Couve lombarda "Brusselse Winter". Estas amostras apresentaram nívei...

  9. Gene conversion as a mechanism for divergence of a chloroplast tRNA gene inserted in the mitochondrial genome of Brassica oleracea.

    OpenAIRE

    Dron, M; Hartmann, C; Rode, A.; Sevignac, M

    1985-01-01

    We have characterized a 1.7 kb sequence, containing a tRNA Leu2 gene shared by the ct and mt genomes of Brassica oleracea. The two sequences are completely homologous except in two short regions where two distinct gene conversion events have occurred between two sets of direct repeats leading to the insertion of 5 bp in the T loop of the mt copy of the ct gene. This is the first evidence that gene conversion represents the initial evolutionary step in inactivation of transferred ct genes in t...

  10. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  11. Optical properties of the epidermis of leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) after enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of the epidermis of two crops grown in Nordic countries, leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), were investigated after exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in a glasshouse. Enhanced UV-B radiation was given to cabbage and leek during the growth period. A significant increase in extractable UV-absorbing pigments was found in the epidermis of UV-irradiated leek compared to control plants, whereas no such difference was found in the epidermis of cabbage. The pigments produced had absorption maxima at approximately 340 nm and were most likely flavonoids

  12. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are associated with eutrophication of rivers and lakes [2], soil erosion [3], among others. The organic agriculture is an alternative for the use of additives, which aims to enhance the efficient use of nonrenewable natural resources, and utilization of renewable natural resources and biological processes aligned to biodiversity, the environment, economic development and quality of human life [4]. The use of homeopathy for the cultivation of plants is into the organic agriculture. Homeopathic medicines can lead to greater plant growth, the elimination of pests and soil enrichment, without presenting environmental impacts, or damage to the consumer or for the handler. Aim: The objective of this study is to find on the homeopathic medicine an alternative method for the use of fertilizers in order to increase the germination of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica. Methodology: Seeds of broccoli will be treated with homeopathic medicines for phosphorus and gibberelic acid in the following method and scale 6cH, 30cH and 200cH, according with the 3rd edition of the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. These seeds will be cultured on Petri dishes in a MS medium. The dilution and the agitation water on the same high dilutions above, are used as a growth control, in the same way, gibberelic acid, a hormone, widely used commercially as a fertilizer, is also used as control. The applications will be made six days a week. It will be conducted a seedlings count

  13. Crossability among Variant Types of Brassica oleracea%不同类型甘蓝的可交配性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一娟; 魏大勇; 刘瑶; 梅家琴; 钱伟

    2013-01-01

    Brassica oleracea includes variant wild type, which is important resources for improving cultivated types of B. oleracea. During the long evolution, reproductive isolations were formed among variant type of B. oleracea at certain degree. In the present study,35 lines from seven wild and eight cultivated types were randomly crossed with others in order to investigate the crossability in B. oleracea. Significant differences for crossability were detected among crosses, and biological type, cross direction, and genetic difference which were found to affect the crossability significance. The results suggested that the crossability of combinations with wild type as female was higher than those with wild type as male in the crosses between wild and cultivated types of B. oleracea.%野生甘蓝是改良栽培甘蓝的重要资源,在漫长进化中,部分野生甘蓝类型间,以及与栽培甘蓝间杂交存在一定的生殖障碍.本研究选用8个栽培变种和7个野生类型品种,共35份甘蓝材料进行随机杂交,不同类型甘蓝的可交配性存在显著差异,甘蓝间的遗传差异、杂交方向以及生活习性等因素对甘蓝类植物可交配性存在显著影响.研究数据表明,以野生甘蓝为母本可以显著提高与栽培甘蓝杂交的效率.

  14. Inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, B; Johnson Née Payne, K A; Arkhipov, A; Maksimenko, A; Gaschak, S; Meacham, M C; Crout, N J M; White, P J; Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R

    2016-05-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium enter the human food chain primarily via soil-plant transfer. However, uptake of these radionuclides can differ significantly within species (between cultivars). The aim of this study was to assess inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in a leafy crop species, Brassica oleracea. This study comprised four independent experiments: two pot experiments in a controlled environment artificially contaminated with radiocaesium, and two field experiments in an area contaminated with radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Radiocaesium concentration ratios varied 35-fold among 27 cultivars grown in pots in a controlled environment. These 27 cultivars were then grown with a further 44 and 43 other cultivars in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the field-grown cultivars radiocaesium concentration ratios varied by up to 35-fold and radiostrontium concentration ratios varied by up to 23-fold. In three of these experiments (one pot experiment, two field experiments) one out of the 27 cultivars was found to have a consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratio than the other cultivars. The two field experiments showed that, five out of the 66 cultivars common to both experiments had consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratios, and two cultivars had consistently lower radiostrontium concentration ratios. One cultivar had consistently lower radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentration ratios. The identification of cultivars that have consistently lower radiocaesium and/or radiostrontium concentration ratios suggests that cultivar selection or substitution may be an effective remediation strategy in radiologically contaminated areas. Future research should focus on plant species that are known to be the largest contributors to human dose. PMID:26945429

  15. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  16. Modification of Leaf Glucosinolate Contents in Brassica oleracea by Divergent Selection and Effect on Expression of Genes Controlling Glucosinolate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Cartea, María E

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the content of secondary metabolites opens the possibility of obtaining vegetables enriched in these compounds related to plant defense and human health. We report the first results of a divergent selection for glucosinolate (GSL) content of the three major GSL in leaves: sinigrin (SIN), glucoiberin (GIB), and glucobrassicin (GBS) in order to develop six kale genotypes (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with high (HSIN, HIGIB, HGBS) and low (LSIN, LGIB, LGBS) content. The aims were to determine if the three divergent selections were successful in leaves, how each divergent selection affected the content of the same GSLs in flower buds and seeds and to determine which genes would be involved in the modification of the content of the three GSL studied. The content of SIN and GIB after three cycles of divergent selection increased 52.5% and 77.68%, and decreased 51.9% and 45.33%, respectively. The divergent selection for GBS content was only successful and significant for decreasing the concentration, with a reduction of 39.04%. Mass selection is an efficient way of modifying the concentration of individual GSLs. Divergent selections realized in leaves had a side effect in the GSL contents of flower buds and seeds due to the novo synthesis in these organs and/or translocation from leaves. The results obtained suggest that modification in the SIN and GIB concentration by selection is related to the GSL-ALK locus. We suggest that this locus could be related with the indirect response found in the GBS concentration. Meantime, variations in the CYP81F2 gene expression could be the responsible of the variations in GBS content. The genotypes obtained in this study can be used as valuable materials for undertaking basic studies about the biological effects of the major GSLs present in kales. PMID:27471510

  17. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  18. The role of BoFLC2 in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Stephen; Brown, Philip H; Hecht, Valérie; Driessen, Ronald G; Weller, James L

    2015-01-01

    In agricultural species that are sexually propagated or whose marketable organ is a reproductive structure, management of the flowering process is critical. Inflorescence development in cauliflower is particularly complex, presenting unique challenges for those seeking to predict and manage flowering time. In this study, an integrated physiological and molecular approach was used to clarify the environmental control of cauliflower reproductive development at the molecular level. A functional allele of BoFLC2 was identified for the first time in an annual brassica, along with an allele disrupted by a frameshift mutation (boflc2). In a segregating F₂ population derived from a cross between late-flowering (BoFLC2) and early-flowering (boflc2) lines, this gene behaved in a dosage-dependent manner and accounted for up to 65% of flowering time variation. Transcription of BoFLC genes was reduced by vernalization, with the floral integrator BoFT responding inversely. Overall expression of BoFT was significantly higher in early-flowering boflc2 lines, supporting the idea that BoFLC2 plays a key role in maintaining the vegetative state. A homologue of Arabidopsis VIN3 was isolated for the first time in a brassica crop species and was up-regulated by two days of vernalization, in contrast to findings in Arabidopsis where prolonged exposure to cold was required to elicit up-regulation. The correlations observed between gene expression and flowering time in controlled-environment experiments were validated with gene expression analyses of cauliflowers grown outdoors under 'natural' vernalizing conditions, indicating potential for transcript levels of flowering genes to form the basis of predictive assays for curd initiation and flowering time. PMID:25355864

  19. Comparative study of the effects of laser photobiomodulation and extract of Brassica oleracea on skin wounds in wistar rats: A histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Pinto, Marcus Vinicius de Mello

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a photobiomodulation laser and Brassica oleracea on tissue morphology in skin wounds. The parameters analyzed were type I and III collagen fibers, and thickness and surface density of the epithelial tissue, as well as how quickly the wound closed. Five skin wounds 12mm in diameter were made on the backs of the animals, which were randomized into four groups (8 animals each). Saline Group: 0.9% saline solution; Ointment Group (extract of Cabbage, B. oleracea, 10% lanolin); Balsam Group (10% glycolic extract of B. oleracea emulsion oil); L60 Group (laser GaAsAl 60J/cm(2)). The applications were made daily during a 20-day treatment, and every 4 days tissue from different wounds was removed. The reduction in the size of the wounds on the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th days was significantly greater in the treated groups compared to the control group. At all the time points analyzed, there was a greater proportion of collagen in the Balsam and L60 groups (p<0.05). There was also a greater proliferation of epithelial cells in the L60 and Balsam groups after 20 days of treatment (p<0.05). The healing extract and laser 60j/cm(2) exerted a great effect on collagen proliferation in stimulating scar tissue maturation. PMID:23968696

  20. 甘蓝LFY基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LFYZQ from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤青林; 王志敏; 任雪松; 宋明; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from bolting stem apex of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata L. ) cultivar ZQ and LFYzQ gene fragments were cloned by RT-PCR respectively with 2 pairs of primers. LFYzQ of DNA and cDNA sequence fragments assembly were respectively 2 560 bp and 1 239 bp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by BLAST on line indicated that homology of LFYzQ was up to 91% between Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., up to 87 % between it and Arabidopsis thaliana, up to 86 % between it and Brassicajuncea Coss., and up to 87 % between it and Raphanus sativus L. Analysis of gene structure by DNAstar indicated that LFYzQ including 3 extrons ( 452, 394, 393 bp )which totally coded 412 amino acids and 2 introns ( 514, 807 bp )which were unanimous with nucleotide splicing rules of GT-AG. Analysis of amino acids among LFYzQ and other 12 kinds of Brassicaceae LFY on line were divided into 2 classes: class Ⅰ with 3 plants ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Jonopsidium acaule ) and class Ⅱ with other 10 plants. Molecular relativity quality of LFYzQ was 46 kD. LFYzQ was an unstable and hydrophobic protein with 4 kinds of active sites: N-myristoylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site, Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation site and Amidation site.%以甘蓝ZQ启动抽薹的茎尖为材料,分别提取DNA和RNA,以两对引物扩增并序列拼接得到甘蓝LFYZQ基因DNA序列和cDNA完整编码区,长度分别为2 560、1 239 bp,与花椰菜、拟南芥、芥菜和萝卜同源性分别达到91%、87%、86%、87%.该基因含有3个外显子(452、394、393 bp)和2个内含子(514、807 bp),共编码412个氨基酸,内含子剪接位点均符合经典GT-AG法则.将LFYZQ与网上公布的12种十字花科植物LFY氨基酸序列按分子进化分成两类:甘蓝LFYZQ与花椰菜以及Jonopsidium属植物Jonopsidium acaule这3个分为一类;其余10种植物分

  1. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  2. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and conce...

  3. A comparative study on the polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of different solvent extracts of Brassica oleracea vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Amit; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates. Investigation was undertaken to optimise the best solvents among 60% ethanol, acetone and methanol for the extraction of polyphenols from Brassica vegetables. Furthermore, different properties such as antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Results showed that a 60% methanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content which was 23.6, 20.4 and 18.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE...

  4. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  5. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these c

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  7. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertiliser on Growth and Yield of Brassica Oleraceae var. Acephala D.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale (Brassica oleraceae var. Acephala D.C.) cultivar, collard green was planted in the field between October 1997 and March 1998 in the experimental plots at Maseno University college in Western Kenya. The experiment was set up to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser on growth and yield of kale. The kale seedlings were first raised in a nursery and transplanted 8 weeks after sowing. The treatments included farm yard manure (150 kg N.ha-1, 8kgP.ha-1), Tithonia Diversifolia (Tithonia) Leaf biomass incorporated in combination with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (150kgN.ha-1 and 30kgP.ha-1), TSithonia leaf biomass incorporated, DAP in combination with Urea, DAP in combination with calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) at the rate of 150kgP.ha-1 and the control. Non-destructive measurements on plant height, leaf number and stem thickness were taken regularly commencing 6 weeks after transplanting. Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given area and leaf number per plant. Both organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser significantly increased growth and leaf yield of kale. In all parameters measured farm yard manure gave the best response. Tithonia leaf biomass incorporated in the soil either on its own or in combination with DAP gave leaf yields comparable increasing, organic sources which are locally available to the farmer can be alternative sources of fertiliser without compromising the yields

  8. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  9. Antiamnesic Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Leaves on Amyloid Beta (Aβ)1-42-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Guo, Tian Jiao; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-05-01

    To examine the antiamnesic effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves, we performed in vitro and in vivo tests on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. The chloroform fraction from broccoli leaves (CBL) showed a remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect and an inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ameliorating effect of CBL on Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment was evaluated by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results indicated improving cognitive function in the CBL group. After the behavioral tests, antioxidant effects were detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and inhibition against AChE was also presented in the brain. Finally, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (oxo-DHODE) and trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (THODE) as main compounds were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight ultraperformance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF UPLC-MS) analysis. Therefore, our studies suggest that CBL could be used as a natural resource for ameliorating Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment. PMID:27079470

  10. Jasmonic acid-induced volatiles of Brassica oleracea attract parasitoids: effects of time and dose, and comparison with induction by herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Posthumus, Maarten A; Mumm, Roland; Mueller, Martin J; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Caterpillar feeding induces direct and indirect defences in brassicaceous plants. This study focused on the role of the octadecanoid pathway in induced indirect defence in Brassica oleracea. The effect of induction by exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) on the responses of Brussels sprouts plants and on host-location behaviour of associated parasitoid wasps was studied. Feeding by the biting-chewing herbivores Pieris rapae and Plutella xylostella resulted in significantly increased endogenous levels of JA, a central component in the octadecanoid signalling pathway that mediates induced plant defence. The levels of the intermediate 12-oxophyto-dienoic acid (OPDA) were significantly induced only after P. rapae feeding. Three species of parasitoid wasps, Cotesia glomerata, C. rubecula, and Diadegma semiclausum, differing in host range and host specificity, were tested for their behavioural responses to volatiles from herbivore-induced, JA-induced, and non-induced plants. All three species were attracted to volatiles from JA-induced plants compared with control plants; however, they preferred volatiles from herbivore-induced plants over volatiles from JA-induced plants. Attraction of C. glomerata depended on both timing and dose of JA application. JA-induced plants produced larger quantities of volatiles than herbivore-induced and control plants, indicating that not only quantity, but also quality of the volatile blend is important in the host-location behaviour of the wasps. PMID:19451186

  11. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  12. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  13. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  14. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF A NUMBER OF INTRODUCED BROCCOLI CULTIVARS (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. IN BATUR VILLAGE, KINTAMANI DISTRICT, BANGLI REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family. Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity. Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’, ‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control. Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar. This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level. Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest.

  15. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  16. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and concentration. Furthermore, the higher concentration had a stronger inhibitory effect on seed germination whereas in some cases the lower concentration showed a stimulatory effect. Hence, it is suggested that Portulaca oleracea seeds has strong allelopathic potential and might be use for biological control of weeds.

  17. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli)

    OpenAIRE

    Berenice García Reyes; María del Carmen Montes Horcasitas; Emma Gloria Ramos Ramírez; Armando Ariza Castolo; Josefina Pérez Vargas; Octavio Gómez Guzmán; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli) para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del corresp...

  18. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of complex seed and root traits in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Aysha

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oilseed crop. Its oil is used for human consumption, as green fuel (biodiesel), and in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The cake and meal, residues of oil pressing and extraction, are used as valuable components for feeding animals. Seed metabolism and root traits are two important components of seed quality and yield, respectively, in B. napus. Both are controlled by complex genetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to develop and us...

  19. Immobilization of Brassica oleracea Chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1 and Candida rugosa Lipase (CRL in Magnetic Alginate Beads: An Enzymatic Evaluation in the Corresponding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes have a wide variety of applications in diverse biotechnological fields, and the immobilization of enzymes plays a key role in academic research or industrialization due to the stabilization and recyclability it confers. In this study, we immobilized the Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1 or Candida rugosa lipase (CRL in magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-loaded alginate composite beads. The catalytic activity and specific activity of the BoCLH1 and CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads were evaluated. Results show that the activity of immobilized BoCLH1 in magnetic alginate composite beads (3.36 ± 0.469 U/g gel was higher than that of immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (2.96 ± 0.264 U/g gel. In addition, the specific activity of BoCLH1 beads (10.90 ± 1.521 U/mg protein was higher than that immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (8.52 ± 0.758 U/mg protein. In contrast, the immobilized CRL in magnetic alginate composite beads exhibited a lower enzyme activity (11.81 ± 0.618 than CRL immobilized in alginate beads (94.83 ± 7.929, and the specific activity of immobilized CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads (1.99 ± 0.104 was lower than immobilized lipase in alginate beads (15.01 ± 1.255. A study of the degradation of magnetic alginate composite beads immersed in acidic solution (pH 3 shows that the magnetic alginate composite beads remain intact in acidic solution for at least 6 h, indicating the maintenance of the enzyme catalytic effect in low-pH environment. Finally, the enzyme immobilized magnetic alginate composite beads could be collected by an external magnet and reused for at least six cycles.

  20. Changes in proximate composition, biochemical and antioxidant attributes broccoli (brassica oleracea l.) in relation to foliar application of selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of selected plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the proximate composition, biochemical and antioxidants attributes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) leaves. Different concentrations of exogenously applied PGRs such as humic acid (HA), cytokinin (CK), gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA3+CK exhibited variable effect on the tested parameters. The foliar spray with HA (0.6 percentage), GA3+CK (20+20 ppm), GA3 (20 ppm) and CK (40 ppm) increased the contents of moisture, ash, crude fiber and crude protein in broccoli leaves. With few exceptions, the antioxidant capacity of broccoli leaves, in terms of estimation of total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, was also improved due to foliar spray of PGRs. The results showed that maximum contents of total chlorophyll (1.98 mg/g FW), protein (7.09 mg/g FW), and proline (0.62 μg/g FW) were exhibited by GA3+CK (10+10 ppm), GA3 (20 ppm) and GA3+CK (20+20 ppm) treated samples, respectively. Meanwhile, GA3+CK (10+10 ppm) was found to be the most effective growth promoter in lowering melondialdehyde (MDA) content (0.89 micro M/g FW) of broccoli leaves. In conclusion, it can be revealed that optimized foliar spray of selected PGRs, and especially of HA and mixture of GA3 and CK, is practically applicable towards improving biochemical and antioxidant attributes of broccoli leaves with potential nutritional benefits. (author)

  1. Expresión de la hormona de crecimiento humano en cultivos de raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar García López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido al crecimiento de la población humana mundial, las compañías farmacéuticas enfrentan una creciente demanda de proteínas terapéuticas, como anticuerpos, enzimas y hormonas; no obstante, las instalaciones y tecnologías existentes, como los cultivos de células animales y bacterianos pueden no resultar suficientes para cubrir esa demanda. Una alternativa es la utilización de la biotecnología vegetal para producir proteínas heterólogas. En este trabajo se presentan resultados del estudio de cultivos de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var. italica (Brócoli para producir la hormona de crecimiento humano (hGH1. Doce cepas de raíces transformadas fueron comparadas por sus productividades de hGH1. La proteína hGH1 se determinó por inmunoensayo. La productividad entre las cepas fue variable, resultados atribuidos a la transformación genética del tejido. Dos cepas, BRGHE18 (0.514 ± 0.015 ¿g hGH/g*d y BRGH17 (0.443 ± 0.011 ¿g hGH/g*d, mostraron la más alta productividad y estadísticamente diferentes de las demás cepas. La expresión de la proteína hGH1 en cultivos de raíces transformadas de Brócoli fue exitosa. Además, la variabilidad en la producción de hGH1 entre las diferentes cepas ofrece la posibilidad de seleccionar cepas con alta productividad y evaluar esta técnica de la biotecnología vegetal como una alternativa de producción de esta proteína humana.

  2. Uptake and localisation of lead in the root system of Brassica juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and distribution of Pb sequestered by hydroponically grown (14 days growth) Brassica juncea (3 days exposure; Pb activities 3.2, 32 and 217 μM) was investigated. Lead uptake was restricted largely to root tissue. Examination using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed substantial and predominantly intracellular uptake at the root tip. Endocytosis of Pb at the plasma membrane was not observed. A membrane transport protein may therefore be involved. In contrast, endocytosis of Pb into a subset of vacuoles was observed, resulting in the formation of dense Pb aggregates. Sparse and predominantly extracellular uptake occurred at some distance from the root tip. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the Pb concentration was greater in root tips. Heavy metal rhizofiltration using B. juncea might therefore be improved by breeding plants with profusely branching roots. Uptake enhancement using genetic engineering techniques would benefit from investigation of plasma membrane transport mechanisms. - The sites of Pb sequestration within the root system of hydroponically grown Brassica juncea were identified

  3. Potential for rhizofiltration of uranium using hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor were developed by genetic transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The stable, transformed root systems demonstrated a high growth rate of 1.5-3. g/g dry weight/day in Murashige and Skoog medium. In the present study, hairy root system was used for removal of uranium from the solution of concentration up to 5000 μM. The results indicated that the hairy roots could remove uranium from the aqueous solution within a short period of incubation. B. juncea could take up 20-23% of uranium from the solution containing up to 5000 μM, when calculated on g/g dry weight basis. C. amaranticolor showed a slow and steady trend in taking up uranium, with 13 uptake from the solution of 5000 μM concentration. Root growth was not affected up to 500 μM of uranium nitrate over a period of 10 days

  4. Production and Metabolism of Indole Acetic Acid in Root Nodules and Symbiont (Rhizobium undicola Isolated from Root Nodule of Aquatic Medicinal Legume Neptunia oleracea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Kumar Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid is a phytohormone which plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to shed some light on the production of IAA in roots, nodules, and symbionts of an aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea and its possible role in nodular symbiosis. The symbiont (N37 was isolated from nodules of this plant and identified as Rhizobium undicola based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence homology, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. The root nodules were found to contain more IAA and tryptophan than root; however, no detectable amount of IAA was found in root. The IAA metabolizing enzymes IAA oxidase, IAA peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and polyphenol oxidase (E.C.1.14.18.1 were higher in root than nodule but total phenol and IAA content were reversed. The strain N37 was found to produce copious amount of IAA in YEM broth medium with tryptophan and reached its stationary phase at 20 h. An enrichment of the medium with mannitol, ammonium sulphate, B12, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was found to promote the IAA production. The presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes and IAA production with PGPR traits including ACC deaminase activity of the symbionts was essential for plant microbe interaction and nodule function.

  5. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  6. 西兰花CYP83A1基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of CYP83A1 Gene from Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳理惠; 李勇; 孔稳稳; 李晶

    2015-01-01

    To further research the related genes involved in 4-methylsulfinybutyl-glucosinolate biosynthesis in Brassica oleracea var. italica, the key synthetase CYP83A1gene was cloned and analyzed by bioinformatics. The sequence of CYP83A1 from the previous data of broccoli transcriptome sequencing and the sequences of CYP83A1 in seven other plants(Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica napus and the Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinesis et.al)which obtained from GenBank were alignmented with each other using NCBI blaster, and we confirmed that the homologically conserved region of CYP83A1 gene in Brassica oleracea var. italica(BoCYP83A1). Using RT-PCR method, the CDS region of BoCYP83A1 was obtained. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the CDS region of BoCYP83A1 was 1 509 bp long which encoded a predicated a protein contains 502 amino acids. Protein analysis showed that BoCYP83A1 molecular weight was 57.47 kD, theoretical pI was 7.1 and contained two span membrane structures, and the BoCYP83A1 does not have signal peptide sequences, while possessed a P450 functional domains. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acids indicated that BoCYP83A1 had 98%similarity with Brassica napus and the Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinesis. The gene registration number of Brassica oleracea var. italica CYP83A1 gene is KM111290.%为深入研究西兰花4-甲基亚磺酰丁基芥子油苷的合成代谢途径,对关键合成酶基因CYP83A1进行了克隆与生物信息学分析。根据前期西兰花转录组测序工作中获得的序列数据,同时参照GenBank数据库中拟南芥、小白菜和油菜等7种植物的CYP83A1基因CDS序列与西兰花进行比对,确定西兰花CYP83A1基因(BoCYP83A1)的CDS序列。采用RT-PCR技术对其进行了克隆,获得BoCYP83A1基因的CDS区序列,其全长为1509 bp,编码502个氨基酸。预测该蛋白质的分子量为57.47 kD,理论等电点为7.1,包含2个跨膜结构域,且整个序列中不含信号

  7. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: →B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. → High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). → Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. → Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. → This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H2O2 in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  8. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  9. Evidence of root zone hypoxia in Brassica rapa L. grown in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, S. C.; Porterfield, D. M.; Briarty, L. G.; Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted aboard the U.S. space shuttle and the Mir space station to evaluate microgravity-induced root zone hypoxia in rapid-cycling Brassica (Brassica rapa L.), using both root and foliar indicators of low-oxygen stress to the root zone. Root systems from two groups of plants 15 and 30 d after planting, grown in a phenolic foam nutrient delivery system on the shuttle (STS-87), were harvested and fixed for microscopy or frozen for enzyme assays immediately postflight or following a ground-based control. Activities of fermentative enzymes were measured as indicators of root zone hypoxia and metabolism. Following 16 d of microgravity, ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) activity was increased in the spaceflight roots 47% and 475% in the 15-d-old and 30-d-old plants, respectively, relative to the ground control. Cytochemical localization showed ADH activity in only the root tips of the space-grown plants. Shoots from plants that were grown from seed in flight in a particulate medium on the Mir station were harvested at 13 d after planting and quick-frozen and stored in flight in a gaseous nitrogen freezer or chemically fixed in flight for subsequent microscopy. When compared to material from a high-fidelity ground control, concentrations of shoot sucrose and total soluble carbohydrate were significantly greater in the spaceflight treatment according to enzymatic carbohydrate analysis. Stereological analysis of micrographs of sections from leaf and cotyledon tissue fixed in flight and compared with ground controls indicated no changes in the volume of protoplast, cell wall, and intercellular space in parenchyma cells. Within the protoplasm, the volume occupied by starch was threefold higher in the spaceflight than in the ground control, with a concomitant decrease in vacuolar volume in the spaceflight treatment. Both induction of fermentative enzyme activity in roots and accumulation of carbohydrates in foliage have been repeatedly shown to occur

  10. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  11. 榨菜和紫甘蓝种间周缘嵌合体有性生殖特性研究%Reproductive Characteristics of Periclinal Chimera of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪云; 王海燕; 韩晓红; 陈利萍

    2011-01-01

    对榨菜(Brassica juncea)和紫甘蓝(Brassica oleracea)种间周缘嵌合体TCC(LⅠ -LⅡ-LⅢ=T-C-C,LⅠ为茎尖分生组织层最外层;LⅡ为中间层;LⅢ为最内层.T表示榨菜,C表示紫甘蓝)的有性发育、生殖器官和生殖特性等进行研究.结果发现,TCC嵌合体的花蕾和花瓣的大小介于榨菜和紫甘蓝之间,而花序形态,雄蕊、雌蕊的长度以及花粉粒的大小等性状在很大程度上与紫甘蓝接近,花瓣的颜色和香气则与榨菜相同.这些研究结果说明花器官的有些性状由茎尖分生组织的LⅠ决定(花色、香气),而有些性状很大程度上决定于内部细胞层LⅡ和/或LⅢ(雌雄蕊大小、花粉粒),还有些性状则是由LⅠ和LⅡ共同决定(花瓣大小).此外,对TCC嵌合体进行蕾期自交、杂交的结果显示TCC嵌合体可以产生果实且坐果率正常,但角果发育到一定大小即停止生长且不能产生种子.产生这一结果的原因可能是TCC嵌合体的花粉粒(来自LⅡ)与雌蕊的的柱头表皮(来自LⅠ)相互识别有障碍,亦或是受精卵发育受阻导致.%The characteristics of TCC (LⅠ-LⅡ-LⅢ , LⅠ -the outmost layer of shoot apical meristem; LⅡ-the middle layer; LⅢ -the innermost layer. T=Tuber mustard, C=Red cabbage) chimera reproductive organs and crossing were determined. It was noted that the length and width of flower buds and petals of TCC chimeras were intermediate between those of red cabbage and tuber mustard, and that the inflorescence and the size of pistils, stamens and pollens were more similar with red cabbage, while the pedal color and flavor were same with tuber mustard. This result indicated that some characters were determined by both LⅠ and L Ⅱ layers, while other characters were determined by LⅠ or LⅡ layer. In addition, TCC chimeras were artificially pollinated with the pollens of TCC chimera, red cabbage and tuber mustard. The capsule setting frequency of TCC chimera was close

  12. Nitrogen Use Efficiency Is Mediated by Vacuolar Nitrate Sequestration Capacity in Roots of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Liang; Song, Hai-Xing; Liao, Qiong; Yu, Yin; Jian, Shao-Fen; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-Min; Tian, Chang; Zeng, Jing; Guan, Chun-Yun; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crop plants is an important breeding target to reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers, with substantial benefits to farmers and the environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), allocation of more NO3 (-) to shoots was associated with higher NUE; however, the commonality of this process across plant species have not been sufficiently studied. Two Brassica napus genotypes were identified with high and low NUE. We found that activities of V-ATPase and V-PPase, the two tonoplast proton-pumps, were significantly lower in roots of the high-NUE genotype (Xiangyou15) than in the low-NUE genotype (814); and consequently, less vacuolar NO3 (-) was retained in roots of Xiangyou15. Moreover, NO3 (-) concentration in xylem sap, [(15)N] shoot:root (S:R) and [NO3 (-)] S:R ratios were significantly higher in Xiangyou15. BnNRT1.5 expression was higher in roots of Xiangyou15 compared with 814, while BnNRT1.8 expression was lower. In both B. napus treated with proton pump inhibitors or Arabidopsis mutants impaired in proton pump activity, vacuolar sequestration capacity (VSC) of NO3 (-) in roots substantially decreased. Expression of NRT1.5 was up-regulated, but NRT1.8 was down-regulated, driving greater NO3 (-) long-distance transport from roots to shoots. NUE in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in proton pumps was also significantly higher than in the wild type col-0. Taken together, these data suggest that decrease in VSC of NO3 (-) in roots will enhance transport to shoot and essentially contribute to higher NUE by promoting NO3 (-) allocation to aerial parts, likely through coordinated regulation of NRT1.5 and NRT1.8. PMID:26757990

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Brassica rapa Roots After Reorientation and Clinorotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Seedlings align their growth axes parallel to the gravity vector. Any growth adjustment affects genes. We examined these changes in Brassica rapa roots that were reoriented and clinorotated. Gene expression levels related to the actin cytoskeleton (ACT7 and ADK1) and auxin transport (IAA5, PIN1, PIN3, AGR1, ARG1) were assessed in roots grown for 42 hours and then either reoriented to 90° for 15 min, 1, 2 and 3 hours or clinorotated vertically or horizontally for 42 hrs at 2 rpm. After these treatments, roots from 20 seedlings were divided into three sections, the root tip, elongation zone, and maturation zone. The samples from corresponding treatments were combined for RNA extraction, reverse transcription and analysis by quantitative PCR. The results show that gene expression changes in response to duration of reorientation and orientation during clinorotation. All genes, except PIN1 and AGR1 were upregulated in the tip after 2 hours of reorientation. Expression of genes also varied between the root sections except for PIN1, which was uniformly expressed. ADK1 was the only gene that showed consistent down-regulation in all three root regions in vertically and horizontally clinorotated roots (ca 30% of controls). In contrast, ADK1 was upregulated (more than 150 fold) in the tip of roots that were reoriented for 2 hours but little upregulation after one hour (less than 2 fold compared to controls). Our results indicate that gene expression during the gravitropic response changes over time with the tip region being the most dynamic tissue in the root. The large upregulation of ADK1 at 2 h after reorientation may be related to the persistence of the gravitropic response. Because of the variability of the expression profiles, analyses that are based on the entire root miss tissue specific changes in gene expression. Differences in gene expression after vertical and horizontal clinorotation indicates that the graviresponse system is sensitive not just to the magnitude

  15. Pengaruh Waktu Aplikasi Dan Pemberian Berbagai Dosis Kompos Azolla (Azolla spp.) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Kailan (Brassica oleraceae Var. Acephala DC.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Andi Pasaribu

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh waktu aplikasi dan pemberian berbagai dosis kompos Azolla (Azolla spp.) terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman kailan (Brasisca oleraceae Var. Acephala DC.). Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan/areal percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, dari bulan Juli 2008 sampai September 2008. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Fa...

  16. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration. PMID:26945480

  17. Effects of fixation protocol and gravistimulation on cytoskeletal organization in Brassica rapa roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2012-07-01

    In preparation for a flight experiment we have studied the optimization of the staining protocols for microtubules and actin filaments in Brassica rapa seedlings. Microtubules (MT) were stained with monoclonal antibody (mAb) YOL 1/34. F-actin (FA) staining was achieved with C4 mAb antibody. Fixative prepared more than three weeks before use produces specimens that stained poorly. Storage in fixative for more than four weeks resulted in noticeably poorer staining. Staining was best in cortical cells but more difficult and less consistent in cap cells, especially for FA. In addition, the quality of staining of root cap cells was dependent on the age of the formaldehyde. The organization of the MTs corresponded with previously published descriptions; FA was prominent in the stele with thick and numerous parallel bundles; cortical cells showed less dense and less directional organization of mostly thinner filaments. FA organization was determined by tissue rather than by differential elongation. The organization of MTs in cortical cells of curving roots was uniformly circular and perpendicular to the long cell axis despite different cell length. The effect of clinorotation around the horizontal axis and centrifugation on the cytoskeletal organization was inconsistent. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366–64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366-64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development. PMID:27594860

  20. The wild and the grown – remarks on Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer K. et al.

    2013-01-01

    Brassica is a genus of the Cruciferae (Brassicaceae). The wild races are concentrated in the Mediterranean area with one species in CE Africa (Brassica somaliensis Hedge et A. Miller) and several weedy races reaching E Asia. Amphidiploid evolution is characteristic for the genus. The diploid species Brassica nigra (L.) Koch (n = 8), Brassica rapa L. emend. Metzg. (n = 10, syn.: B. campestris L.) and Brassica oleracea L. (n = 9) all show a rich variation under domestication. From the natura...

  1. Structural changes in the main root of brassica rapa l. seedlings under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Y.

    In order to understand the level of the influence of gravity upon root growth and development the complex investigations has to be carried out. The aim of our work was the research of formation of root growth zones in altered gravity. With this purpose the root anatomy of 6-day old Brassica rapa L. seedlings grown on the Hogland's medium at illumination 12000 luxes and temperature 24-25°C on a slowly rotating horizontal clinostat and at 1 g was investigated using light microscopy. It has been shown that clinorotation causes a decrease of the length of root growth zones: meristematic zone - on 38 %, transition zone (distal elongation zone) - on 50 %, and elongation zone - on 64 %. The greatest differences between control and clinostat variants are revealed in the length of both the layers of periblem in the meristematic zone and epidermis in the distal elongation zone. The reliable difference between cell sizes of the all investigated zones in the control and experiment was not found. Only in a cortex of transition zone was marked the decreasing of cell length on 16 % in subepidermal layer and on 20 % in the other layer of a cortex. In the same time, the reduction of cell number in protoderm on 41 % and in the both periblem outer layer on 50 % and the inner layer on 47 % of the meristematic zone was revealed. The lack of significant difference in sizes of meristematic cells along with the simultaneous decrease of cell number allowed us to conclude that proliferation activity of meristem is depressed under clinorotation. The information about the most gravisensitive processes and strategies of adaptation to microgravity is a basis of our understanding of plants' growth and development under the long-term influence of this factor in space flight. Thus, the obtained results are the addition to our knowledge in root development in the absence of gravity but further investigations are going on and still more are required. Electron microscopic examinations are the next

  2. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice García Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del correspondiente gen humano fue transfectado a Brocoli via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 con el vector pCAMBIA1105.1. La transformación del tejido de raíces fue confirmada por PCR, reacciones de restricción y ensayos de B-glucuronidasa. Resultados y Discusión: La presencia del cDNA correspondiente a preproinsulina y proinsulina fue B-glucuronidasa positiva para varias de las líneas. Aunque el rendimiento fue variable, cinco líneas mostraron valores apropiados con potencial para ser usadas como modelo de estudio en la producción en biorreactores.

  3. Substitution of Vermicompost for Peat as Brassica oleracea L. and Cu-curbita pepo L. Seedling Substrates%蚯蚓堆肥替代草炭作为甘蓝和西葫芦育苗基质研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 孙向阳; 龚小强; 魏乐

    2015-01-01

    为减少无土栽培对草炭资源的依赖和提高有机废弃物的再利用率,以草炭、绿化废弃物、蘑菇渣为原材料,通过使用品氏草炭( ck)、绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥( T1)、蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥( T2)、草炭+绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥(T3)、草炭+蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥(T4)、草炭+绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥+蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥(T5)6种基质来培育甘蓝和西葫芦幼苗,探讨有机废弃物蚯蚓堆肥替代草炭作为甘蓝和西葫芦育苗基质的可行性。通过对甘蓝和西葫芦株高、根长、叶片数、鲜重、干重、茎直径6项生长指标进行测定与分析,得出结论:处理T1、T3、T4、T5均可替代草炭作为甘蓝育苗基质,处理T1和T3可替代草炭作为西葫芦育苗基质。%In order to reduce dependence of soilless culture of flowers on peat and increase recycling rate of organic waste, we made a study to assess the feasibility of replacing peat with organic waste vermicompost as seedling growing media. By using peat, green waste and mushroom residue as raw materials, we utilized six kinds of seedling growing media, including peat (ck), vermicompost of green waste (T1), vermicompost of mushroom residue (T2), peat + vermicompost of green waste ( T3) , peat +vermicompost of mushroom residue ( T4) , peat +vermicompost of green waste +ver⁃micompost of mushroom residue ( T5 ) to cultivate Brassica oleracea L. and Cucurbita pepo L.. Through measuring and analyzing six growth indexes including plant height, root length, leaf num⁃ber, total fresh weight, total dry weight and stem diameter, we conclude that T1, T3, T4 and T5 can replace peat as seedling growing substrates for Brassica oleracea L., and that T1 and T3 can re⁃place peat as seedling growing substrates for Cucurbita pepo L.

  4. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE EMBALAGENS NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E COMPOSIÇÃO GASOSA DE BRÓCOLIS (Brassica oleracea L. var Itálica) ORGÂNICOS MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADOS E ARMAZENADOS SOB REFRIGERAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. PADULA; B. A. M. CARCIOFI; C. E. DANNENHAUER; G. B. STRINGARI; Monteiro, A R

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes tipos de embalagens na vida útil de brócolis (Brassica oleracea) orgânicos minimamente processados e armazenados sob refrigeração. As amostras foram selecionadas e higienizadas, centrifugadas e acondicionados em embalagens de polipropileno (PP), câmara de acrílico hermeticamente selada e com canais ab...

  5. Construction of eSRK Chimeras and Interaction between eSRK Chimeras and SCRs from Brassica oleracea L.%甘蓝eSRK重组体的构建及其与SCR的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦静宜; 高启国; 任雪松; 王小佳; 李成琼; 宋明

    2012-01-01

    SRK与SCR是甘蓝自交不亲和雌雄性决定因子,两者间相互作具有单倍型特异性.为了探讨HVⅠ/Ⅱ区域在SRK单倍型特异性及其与SCR互作中的作用,采用重组技术构建甘蓝不同单倍型eSRK (SRKE与SRKF)间的重组体eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2和eSRKE-3,用酵母双杂交系统3检测各eSRK重组体与SCR之间的相互作用.结果表明:SCRE能与eSRKE作用,而不能与eSRKF作用,说明eSRKE、eSRKF属于不同单倍型;SCRE与重组体eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2、eSRKE-3均不发生作用,HVⅠ和HVⅡ区域内差异的氨基酸位点共同参与了与SCR的作用;SCRF不能与eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2、eSRKE-3作用,替换HVⅠ/Ⅱ区域后并不能改变SRK的单倍型.%Self-incompatibility in Brassica is mediated by allele-specific interactions between stigma-expressed 5-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and pollen coat-localized 5-locus cysteinerich (SCR) ligands encoded by the 5-locus haplotype. To identify amino acid fragments within the SRK extracellular domain (eSRK) that are required for ligand-selective activation, we constructed chi-meric eSRK between two 5-locus haplotypes in Brassica oleracea, and identified the interaction between eSRK chimeras and SCRs by yeast two-hybrid system. The results showed that SRKE (not chimera) could interact with SCRE, and SRKF could interact with SCRF. All of eSRK chimeras could not interact with SCRs. The hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, were essential for specificity in the SRK-SCR interaction. However, eSRK chimeras could not interact with SCRp, although they contained hypervariable regions come from eSRKp, which should be related with the overall sequence or 3D conformation of the segments determining SI specificity.

  6. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on yield and quality of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea, L. Efeito da adubagem com o nitrogénio e enxofre ao rédito e à qualidade das couves-rábanos (Brassica oleracea, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Losák

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse pot experiment with kohlrabi, variety Luna, we explored the joint effect of N (0.6 g N per pot = 6 kg of soil and S in the soil (25-35-45 mg kg-1 of S on yields, on N, S and NO3- content in tubers and leaves, and on alterations in the amino acids concentration in the tubers. S fertilisation had no effect on tuber yields. The ranges of N content in tubers and leaves were narrow (between 1.42-1.48 % N and 1.21-1.35 % N, respectively and the effect of S fertilisation was insignificant. S concentration in the tubers ranged between 0.59 and 0.64 % S. S fertilisation had a more pronounced effect on the S concentration in leaf tissues where it increased from 0.50 to 0.58 or to 0.76 % S under the applied dose. The NO3- content was higher in tubers than in leaves. Increasing the S level in the soil significantly reduced NO3- concentrations in the tubers by 42.2-53.6 % and in the leaves by 8.8-21.7 %. Increasing the S content in the soil reduced the concentration of cysteine + methionine by 16-28 %. The values of valine, tyrosine, aspartic acid and serine were constant. In the S0, S1, and S2 treatments the levels of threonine, isoleucine, leucine, arginine, the sum of essential amino acids and alanine decreased from 37 to 9 %. The histidine concentration increased with increasing S fertilisation. S fertilisation of kohlrabi can be recommended to stabilize the yield and reduce the undesirable NO3- contained in the parts used for consumption.Deficiência aguda de S no solo tem sido observada na Europa desde os anos 1980. O couve-rábano é uma das plantas com maior exigência nesse nutriente e sua interação com o N é frequentemente relatada na literatura. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação visando testar o efeito da aplicação de S, na presença de N, na produção e qualidade de couve-rábano (Brassica oleracea, L., variedade Lua. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos contendo 6 kg de solo, aos quais foram aplicados 0

  7. Cloning and Molecular Identification of A Fatty Acid Desaturase 2 Gene in a and C Genome of Brassica Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei CHEN; Sang SHUANG; Song CHEN; Feng CHEN; Qi PENG

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase 2 (fad2) gene was proven to be a major locus for high oleic acid (C18:1). Brassica napus is an amphidiploid species originating from a spontaneous hybridization of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. B. napus contains multiple copies in genome for most of the genes, including fad2 genes. The research cloned nine fad2 genes from 3 varieties of B. rapa and 3 varieties of B. oleracea, respectively. Alignment of the nine fad2 sequences from B. rapa and B. oleracea detect-ed 6 single nucleotide polymorphic sites, which resulted in 6 amino-acid substitutions. The nucleotide substitutions at position 743 bp in the fad2-A gene and position 947 bp in the fad2-C gene were used as 3’ end of al ele-specific primers. In use of the al-lele-specific primers to amplify fad2 gene, we could identify if the fad2 gene originated from A genome or C genome. Besides, the research found that fad2 genes in C genome are more conserved in evolutionary process than those in A genome. The fad2 expression data reported in this study revealed that fad2-A from B. rapa was not only expressed in siliques same as fad2-C from B. oleracea, but also expressed in a high level in stems. Not even the less, fad2 gene from B. napus was expressed higher in roots and flowers. Al these results provided evidences that fad2, though it was expressed differently in B. rapa and B. oleracea, but it was regulated by the same approach in B. napus.

  8. Effect of devernalization on the transition from vegetative to prefloral phase of the broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. 'Fiesta' shoot meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and histological changes which occur in the cold-induced apical meristem of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica cv. ‘Fiesta’ during transition from the vegetative to the generative phase have been demonstrated in our previous investigations. Now, a light microscopic study on the micromorphological parameters of the tunica and corpus of the meristem was undertaken to ascertain their association with devernalisation. Changes in the apex of broccoli seedlings grown for 26 days at 24oC, succeeded by 35 days of cold treatment (16oC - vernalization followed by 14 days of warm treatment (24oC - devernalization, were studied and described. Microscopic analysis according to the new method of slide preparation showed cytohistological zonation and the spatial distribution of cells in the central and peripheral zones of the broccoli shoot meristem more precisely than possible hitherto. Comparison between subsequent stages of meristem reorganization after devernalization revealed variation in the structure of the apex during its transition to the evocation phase of flowering. The results of measurements show that the tunica width changes irregularly, increasing from its minimum value (112.39±5.78 μm through the medium one to the maximum values (260.32±2.50, to decrease again, while its height increased and decreased sinusoidally from its minimum value (21.52±4.30μm to the maximum one (76.98±7.44μm and then decreasing again to the minimum value (21.52±4.30. The stratification of the tunica as well as its width and height revealed relatively low variation within the analyzed time. These structural traits correlated with cold/warm treatments may be further utilized in the broccoli breeding programme against developmental disturbances.

  9. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of the...

  10. The Arabidopsis thaliana CLAVATA3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION 26 (CLE26) peptide is able to alter root architecture of Solanum lycopersicum and Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    Optimal development of root architecture is vital to the structure and nutrient absorption capabilities of any plant. We recently demonstrated that AtCLE26 regulates A. thaliana root architecture development, possibly by altering auxin distribution to the root apical meristem via inhibition of protophloem development. In addition, we showed that AtCLE26 application is able to induce a root architectural change in the monocots Brachypodium distachyon and Triticum aestivum. Here, we showed that application of the synthetic AtCLE26 peptide similarly affects other important agricultural species, such as Brassica napus and Solanum lycopersicum. PMID:26669515

  11. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  12. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Ayub M O; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  13. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayub M O Oduor

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium. Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America.

  14. Identification of Zinc Deficiency-Responsive MicroRNAs in Brassica juncea Roots by Small RNA Sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Dong-qing; ZHANG Yuan; MA Jin-hu; LI Yu-long; and XU Jin

    2013-01-01

    The importance of zinc (Zn) as a micronutrient essential for plant growth and development is becoming increasingly apparent. Much of the world’s soil is Zn-deficient, and soil-based Zn deficiency is often accompanied by Zn deficiency in human populations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of plant gene expression at the level of translation. Many miRNAs involved in the modulation of heavy metal toxicity responses in plants have been identiifed;however, the role of miRNAs in the plant Zn deifciency response is almost completely unknown. Using high-throughput Solexa sequencing, we identiifed several miRNAs that respond to Zn deifciency in Brassica juncea roots. At least 21 conserved candidate miRNA families, and 101 individual members within those families, were identiifed in both the control and the Zn-deifcient B. juncea roots. Among this, 15 miRNAs from 9 miRNA families were differentially expressed in the control and Zn-deifcient plants. Of the 15 differentially expressed miRNAs, 13 were up-regulated in the Zn-deifcient B. juncea roots, and only two, miR399b and miR845a, were down-regulated. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that these miRNAs were involved in modulating phytohormone response, plant growth and development, and abiotic stress responses in B. juncea roots. These data help to lay the foundation for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of the plant Zn deifciency response and its impact on plant growth and development.

  15. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  16. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, Timothy M., E-mail: tvadas@umbc.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ahner, Beth A., E-mail: baa7@cornell.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  17. Hill Reaction, Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content in Non-Sugar-Producing (Turnip, Brassica rapa L.) and Sugar-Producing (Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L.) Root Crop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Khan, M. Nasir; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted at the Botany Department, A.M.U., Aligarh, on 2 root crop plants, viz. turnip (Brassica rapa L.), non-sugar-producing and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sugar-producing, to compare their physiological activity (Hill activity, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content). The seeds of each plant were sown in 20 pots (80% soil + 20% FYM) separately. Two samplings were done at 125 and 140 days (after sowing). Hill activity was measured spectrophotometrically using DCPI...

  18. Identification and evolutionary genomics of novel LTR retrotransposons in Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROZ, FAISAL; NOREEN, SHUMAILA; HESLOP-HARRISON, JOHN SEYMOUR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining. The Copia superfamily was dominant (206 elements) over Gypsy (56), with estimated intact copies of ~1596 Copia and 540 Gypsy and ~7540 Copia and 780 Gypsy from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea whole genomes, respectively. Canonical...

  19. 羽衣甘蓝DH群体遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Doubled Haploid Population in Ornamental Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴希刚; 包满珠

    2013-01-01

    46 DH lines and 41 DH lines from two DH (doubled haploid) populations derived from micro-spore culture of ' Red Nagoya' and P3 genotype (F1 of Q2704 × Q4606) in Brassica oleracea var. acephala were selected for genetic diversity analysis by ISSR with nine polymorphic primers. The 81. 73% and 79. 31% of total amplified loci, for 104 and 87 polymorphic loci whose length ranged from 100 to 2 000 bp, were detected among two DH populations respectively. The effective numbers of alleles per amplified locus of the two DH populations were 1.225 3 and 1.468 9, respectively. The average values of the allelic polymorphism information content of the two DH populations were 0.258 9 and 0.409 4, respectively. Cluster analysis based on the ISSR showed that the ranges of the similar coefficients among 46 DH lines derived from ' Red Nagoya' and 41 DH lines derived from P3 were 0. 61 -0. 97 and 0. 56 -0. 91 respectively. The former population could be classified into five groups at 0. 78 , and the latter population could be classified into five groups at 0. 75. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of the DH populations derived from microspore culture was very diverse , the genetic diversity of the DH populations from different genotypes showed distinct difference.%由羽衣甘蓝基因型“名古屋-红”和基因型P3(Q2704×Q4606的F1代)通过小孢子培养获得的2个DH群体中分别抽取46个DH系和41个DH系作为试验材料,利用ISSR标记分别对2个DH群体进行遗传多样性分析.9个ISSR引物分别扩增出104和87个多态性位点,其中多态性位点各占总扩增位点的81.73%和79.31%,大小在100 ~2 000 bp;每个位点的有效等位基因数分别为1.225 3和1.468 9;平均多样性指数PIC分别为0.258 9和0.4094.对ISSR结果进行聚类分析,2个DH群体各DH系间相似系数范围分别为0.61 ~0.97和0.56 ~0.91,在相似性系数为0.78处可将46个“名古屋-红”的DH系分成5组,在相似性系数0.75

  20. Comprehensive analysis of the Brassica juncea root proteome in response to cadmium exposure by complementary proteomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sophie; Berla, Bertram M; Sheffield, Jeanne; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Jez, Joseph M; Hicks, Leslie M

    2009-05-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is known to both accumulate and tolerate high levels of heavy metals from polluted soils. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the effect of cadmium (Cd) treatment on B. juncea roots, two quantitative proteomics approaches--fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and multiplexed isobaric tagging technology (iTRAQ)--were implemented. Several proteins involved in sulfur assimilation, redox homeostasis, and xenobiotic detoxification were found to be up-regulated. Multiple proteins involved in protein synthesis and processing were down-regulated. While the two proteomics approaches identified different sets of proteins, the proteins identified in both datasets are involved in similar biological processes. We show that 2-D DIGE and iTRAQ results are complementary, that the data obtained independently using the two techniques validate one another, and that the quality of iTRAQ results depends on both the number of biological replicates and the number of sample injections. This study determined the involvement of enzymes such as peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase and 2-nitropropane dioxygenase in alternatives redox-regulation mechanisms, as well as O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione-conjugate membrane transporter, as essential players in the Cd hyperaccumation and tolerance of B. juncea. PMID:19343712

  1. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  2. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-01-01

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features. PMID:26681030

  3. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  4. Root uptake of 137Cs from sedimentation sludge-amended soils by Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root uptake of 137Cs from sedimentation sludge-amended soils by Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was studied. The sludge was mixed to an initial soil mixture of Akadamatsuchi, Kurotsuchi and muck to produce three kinds of soils: 0S soil (sludge:initial soil mixture= 0L:5L), 0.5S soil (0.5L:4.5L), and 1.5S soil (1.5L:3.5L). Komatsuna was grown for 33 days on those soil mixtures. Plant height above ground was similar during cultivation period among three kinds of soils. Fresh weights of Komatsuna at harvest increased in order of the 0S, the 1.5S, and the 0.5S soil sample. These results mean no growth suppression effect of the sludge on Komatsuna under our experimental conditions. Activities of 137Cs in Komatsuna at harvest were 1.89 Bq/kg-dry for the 0S sample, 153 Bq/kg-dry for the 0.5S sample, and 400 Bq/kg-dry for the 1.5S sample. The activities of radiocaesium (134Cs+137Cs) per unit wet weight for all the samples were below 100 Bq/kg, which is the new standard limit for general foods by Japanese guidelines. The soil-plant transfer factor of 137Cs was 0.1 for both the 0.5S and the 1.5S soil samples when the transfer parameters were given for dry weight. Similarly, the transfer factor was 0.007 on a wet weight basis. The transfer factor value for the sludge was within the range of the values reported in the previous report for leafy vegetable, which were investigated before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (author)

  5. Construction of Brassica A and C genome-based ordered pan-transcriptomes for use in rapeseed genomic research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhesi He; Feng Cheng; Yi Li,; Xiaowu Wang; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Boulos Chalhoub; Shengyi Liu; Ian Bancroft

    2015-01-01

    This data article reports the establishment of the first pan-transcriptome resources for the Brassica A and C genomes. These were developed using existing coding DNA sequence (CDS) gene models from the now-published Brassica oleracea TO1000 and Brassica napus Darmor-bzh genome sequence assemblies representing the chromosomes of these species, along with preliminary CDS models from an updated Brassica rapa Chiifu genome sequence assembly. The B. rapa genome sequence scaffolds required splittin...

  6. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  7. Biochemical characterization of laccase from hairy root culture of Brassica juncea L. and role of redox mediators to enhance its potential for the decolorization of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telke, Amar A; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Desai, Neetin S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-12-01

    In vitro transgenic hairy root cultures provide a rapid system for physiological, biochemical studies and screening of plants for their phytoremediation potential. The hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L. showed 92% decolorization of Methyl orange within 4 days. Out of the different redox mediators that were used to achieve enhanced decolorization, 2, 2'-Azinobis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) was found to be the most efficient. Laccase activity of 4.5 U mg(-1) of protein was observed in hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L., after the decolorization of Methyl orange. Intracellular laccase produced by B. juncea root cultures grown in MS basal medium was purified up to 2.0 fold with 6.62 U mg(-1) specific activity using anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 148 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme efficiently oxidized ABTS which was also required for oxidation of the other tested substrates. The pH and temperature optimum for laccase activity were 4.0 and 40°C, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable up to 50°C and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-6.0. Laccase activity was strongly inhibited by sodium azide, EDTA, dithiothreitol and L: -cysteine. The purified enzyme decolorized various textile dyes in the presence of ABTS as an efficient redox mediator. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the enzymatic process involved in phytoremediation of textile dyes by using hairy roots. PMID:21735196

  8. Impact of silicon on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) root traits by regulating growth parameters, cellular antioxidants and stress modulators under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Chandana; Khan, Ehasanullah; Panthri, Medha; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Gupta, Meetu

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is an emerging pollutant causing inhibition in growth and development of plants resulting into phytotoxicity. On the other hand, silicon (Si) has been suggested as a modulator in abiotic and biotic stresses that, enhances plant's physiological adaptations in response to several stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, we used roots of hydroponically grown 14 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea var. Varuna treated with 150 μM As, 1.5 mM Si and both in combination for 96 h duration. Application of Si modulated the effect of As by improving morphological traits of root along with the development of both primary and lateral roots. Changes observed in root traits showed positive correlation with As induced cell death, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular superoxide radicals (O2(-)). Addition of 1.5 mM Si during As stress increased accumulation of As in roots. Mineral nutrient analysis was done using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique and positively correlated with increased cysteine, proline, MDA, H2O2 and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX). The results obtained from the above biochemical approaches support the protective and active role of Si in the regulation of As stress through the changes in root developmental process. PMID:27038600

  9. Characterization of bacterial communities associated with Brassica napus L. growing on a Zn-contaminated soil and their effects on root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán, Blanca; Croes, Sarah; Weyens, Nele; Lobo, M Carmen; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and plants can enhance biomass production and metal tolerance of the host plants. This work aimed at isolating and characterizing the cultivable bacterial community associated with Brassica napus growing on a Zn-contaminated site, for selecting cultivable PGPB that might enhance biomass production and metal tolerance of energy crops. The effects of some of these bacterial strains on root growth of B. napus exposed to increasing Zn and Cd concentrations were assessed. A total of 426 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated from the soil, the rhizosphere, and the roots and stems of B. napus. The diversity of the isolated bacterial populations was similar in rhizosphere and roots, but lower in soil and stem compartments. Burkoholderia, Alcaligenes, Agrococcus, Polaromonas, Stenotrophomonas, Serratia, Microbacterium, and Caulobacter were found as root endophytes exclusively. The inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas sp. strains 228 and 256, and Serratia sp. strain 246 facilitated the root development of B. napus at 1,000 µM Zn. Arthrobacter sp. strain 222, Serratia sp. strain 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 228 and 262 increased the root length at 300 µM Cd. PMID:27159736

  10. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy and 15 other Brassica vegatables

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip...

  11. Ring spot disease of brassica crops: resistance and epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, van den, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ring spot disease of brassica crops is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella brassicicola . The disease can cause severe qualitative and quantitative losses, depending on the initial inoculum, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility of the cultivar.A greenhouse screening method for resistance to ring spot in Brassica oleracea was developed. Young plants were screened by using mycelial inoculum enriched with 3% sucrose. Resistance was expressed both in cotyl...

  12. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Amoah Stephen; Perez Amandine; Girin Thomas; Baker David; Stephenson Pauline; King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa) and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea). Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for c...

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fat...

  14. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Eduardo A.S.; Saavedra, Maria J; Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho; Conceição Fernandes; Bennett, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total fla...

  15. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  16. [Polyphase character of the dependence of Brassica napus germ root and hypocotyl growth on zeatin and thidiazuron concentrations with view of applicability to biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, G I; Babosha, A V

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances are considered as a potential component of plant cultivation technologies for biological life support systems. In spacelight, plant reactions to growth-regulating agents may be changed by the specific stress factors such as microgravity, radiation, and trace admixtures in cabin air. Complex character of the concentration dependence of PAS efficiency and consequent variability generate a need to optimize plant growth regulating technologies in order to stabilize the wanted effect. Pattern of the concentration dependence of zeatin and tidiazurone effects on roots and hypocotyls growth was analyzed in rape germs. 24-hour Brassica napus germs grown in the dark in thermostat at 24 degrees C were transferred to Petri dishes with solutions of cytokinins under study for continued incubation under the same conditions for the next 24 hours. Roots and hypocotyls were measured. Zeatin concentration curve for roots was multiphase and, in addition to the general trend towards greater inhibition with increase of phyto-hormone concentration and had clearly defined minimum and maximum. The dependence of root growth inhibition on tidiazurone concentration also was not monotonic and had a distinct similarity with the zeatin curve. Gradual increase of tidiazurone concentration used in combination with zeatin brought about a predictable gradual twist of the zeatin curve; however, in most of the instances no additive cytokinin effect was observed. A supposition can be made that PAS interaction with the phytohormone regulation system may be a factor in variability of activity of these substances. PMID:20799663

  17. Identification, evolution, and expression partitioning of miRNAs in allopolyploid Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Enhui; Zou, Jun; Hubertus Behrens, Falk; Chen, Li; Ye, Chuyu; Dai, Shutao; Li, Ruiyan; Ni, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Qiu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weidi; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Chalhoub, Boulos; Bancroft, Ian; Meng, Jinling; Cai, Daguang; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-12-01

    The recently published genome of Brassica napus offers for the first time the opportunity to gain insights into the genomic organization and the evolution of miRNAs in oilseed rape. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries from two B. napus cultivars (Tapidor and Ningyou7) and their four double-haploid lines were sequenced, employing the newly sequenced B. napus genome, together with genomes of its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. A total of 645 miRNAs including 280 conserved and 365 novel miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis revealed a high level of genomic conservation of MIRNAs (75.9%) between the subgenomes of B. napus and its two progenitors' genomes, and MIRNA lost/gain events (133) occurred in B. napus after its speciation. Furthermore, significant partitioning of miRNA expressions between the two subgenomes in B. napus was detected. The data of degradome sequencing, miRNA-mediated cleavage, and expression analyses support specific interactions between miRNAs and their targets in the modulation of diverse physiological processes in roots and leaves, as well as in biosynthesis of, for example, glucosinolates and lipids in oilseed rape. These data provide a first genome-wide view on the origin, evolution, and genomic organization of B. napus MIRNAs. PMID:26357884

  18. Survival of embryo irradiated with gamma rays by embryo culture in Brassica pekinensis Rupr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on the survival rates and embryonic development of Brassica pekinensis RUPR. (Varieties; Kashin, Kohai 65 nichi and kairyochitose) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to seek ways of increasing the survival rates of embryos such as B.oleracea obtained through embryo culture techniques after irradiation doses affecting seed fertility and germination, for the purpose of increasing mutation rates. Embryos at different developmental stages ranging from the globular to the early heart stages were irradiated with 20 KR of gamma rays at the daily rate 0L 20 KR or 10 KR (Fig.1 and Table 1). The embryos were excised from ovules 4 to 10 days after irradiation and cultured on White's medium. The shooting and rooting rates on the 34th day of culture were higher at the dose of 10 KR/day than 20 KR/day and were lower when the materials were irradiated at the young embryonic stage (Table 3). Varietal differences in the shooting and rooting rates were also observed. The irradiated embryos survived mainly in the state of callus. It was concluded that the embryo culture technique was successful when applied to irradiated embryos excised at the young embryonic stage and that the technique affected B.pekinensis less than B.oleracea

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Partial cDNA of Male Determinant Factor of Self-incompatibility from Six Brassica oleracea L.%六种甘蓝自交不亲和雄性决定因子部分cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兵; 朱利泉; 薛丽琰; 孙海燕; 张贺翠; 余浩; 杨昆; 王小佳

    2012-01-01

    Many flowering plants possess a self-incompatibility system to prevent inbreeding. In Brassica oleracea, self-incompatibility is genetically controlled by S-locus cysteine rich protein (SCR) and S-locus receptor kinase (SRK). The SCR is the determinant of pollen S-haplotype specificity. In order to compare the structure of the gene and molecular characterization of the protein among the allelic SCRs, the nested PCR primers were designed on the basis of the conserved amino acids in the signal peptide's cleavage site and the ploy A of mRNA. Here we cloned partial cDNA sequence of SCR from six Brassica oleracea L. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of SCR in D3, El, 240, Al, Nl and Gl were 319, 311, 290, 288, 385 and 377 bp, respectively, which all encompassed 3'UTR. Their coding regions predicted a protein of 58, 58, 58, 58, 58 and 55 amino acids, respectively. The protein sequences were identical between SCR-D3 and SCR3. SCR-El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El also had the same sequences, and they were all identical to the SCR7. The SCR of Gl was a new S haplotype gene. Although SCR -El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El were the same S haplotype, their 3'UTR were different. For example, the length, the polyadenylation signal and the adenine nucleotide's content were different among them. Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis indicated that there were some differences in the secondary structure and the 3-dimentional structure of the six SCRs, suggesting that the interactions of SCR with SRK required strict complementary space. All SCRs had potential phosphorylation sites, but no glycosylation sites. It showed that the phosphorylation of SCR might play roles in signal transduction of self-incompatibility. Furthermore, the amino acid residues interacting with SRK were situated on the surface of the SCR molecule, and most of these amino acid residues were basic amino acid. So, we suggested that the process of SCR interacting with SRK required the participation of the

  20. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species

    OpenAIRE

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea,...

  1. Regulation of the major vacuolar Ca²⁺ transporter genes, by intercellular Ca²⁺ concentration and abiotic stresses, in tip-burn resistant Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Inkyu; Lee, Zee-Won; Kim, Suk Weon; Baek, Namkwon; Park, Hong-Seok; Park, Sang Un; Kwon, Seokyoon; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant macronutrient that has unique structural and signaling roles related to tip-burn disorder in Brassica spp. crops. For two types of cabbage inbred lines, tip-burn susceptible and resistant, we measured and compared major macronutrient cations, including Ca(2+), in leaves. In both lines, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+), accumulated more in leaf base than in leaf apex. Ca(2+) and K(+) were >2 times more abundant in the tip-burn resistant line, while Na(+) was higher in the susceptible line. Ca(2+) differences between the two lines resulted from differential accumulation of calcium into cell vacuoles. We profiled major vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters, in both cabbage lines, by growth time and intercellular Ca(2+) concentration. Expression pattern of several Ca(2+) transporter genes differed between tip-burn susceptible and resistant lines by growth time points. We also identified promoter regions of the major Ca(2+) vacuole transporter genes, CAX1, ACA4, and ACA11, which displayed hormonal, light and defense-related cis-acting regulatory elements. Finally, transporter genes in the two cabbage lines responded differently to abiotic stresses, demonstrating diversity in gene regulation among orthologous genes. PMID:23138186

  2. The wild and the grown – remarks on Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer K. et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica is a genus of the Cruciferae (Brassicaceae. The wild races are concentrated in the Mediterranean area with one species in CE Africa (Brassica somaliensis Hedge et A. Miller and several weedy races reaching E Asia. Amphidiploid evolution is characteristic for the genus. The diploid species Brassica nigra (L. Koch (n = 8, Brassica rapa L. emend. Metzg. (n = 10, syn.: B. campestris L. and Brassica oleracea L. (n = 9 all show a rich variation under domestication. From the naturally occurring amphidiploids Brassica juncea (L. Czern. (n = 18, Brassica napus L. emend. Metzg. (n = 19 and the rare Brassica carinata A. Braun (n = 17 also some vegetable races have developed. The man-made Brassica ×harmsiana O.E. Schulz (Brassica oleracea × Brassica rapa, n = 29, n = 39, or similar hybrids, serve also for the development of new vegetables. Brassica tournefortii Gouan (n = 10 from another Brassica-cytodeme, different from the Brassica rapa group, is occasionally grown as a vegetable in India. Brassica has developed two hotspots under cultivation, in the Mediterranean area and in E Asia. Cultivation by man has changed the different Brassica species in a characteristic way. The large amount of morphologic variation, which exceeded in many cases variations occurring in distinct wild species, has been observed by the classical botanists by adding these variations to their natural species by using Greek letters. Later taxonomists used the category botanical variety (var.. In this way impressive systems have been established, e.g. for Brassica oleracea. Later on, the other species followed. The variation from E Asia, particularly in the species Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea, was much later included into the investigations, simply because of lacking information. However, this material was included, in the last one hundred years, in classifications according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN (McNeill et al. 2006. An overview is

  3. The control of club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) on cabbage seedlings with trifluralin and napropamid herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    J. Robak; A. Dobrzański

    2015-01-01

    The herbicides Treflan EC 2 (24% trifluralin) and Devrinol 50 (50% napropamid) applied separately decreased efficiently the incidence of club-root on cabbage seedlings in pot experiments. If these herbicides were applied together with the fungicide Bavistin {50% carbendazim) the control of the disease was in some cases more efficient, as compared with Bavistin used alone. The higher the organic matter content in the soil, the lower the phytotoxicity and dub-root controlling activity of herbic...

  4. Activation of embryo during rape (Brassica napus L. seed germination. I. Structure of embryo and organization of root apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezcysław Kuraś

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Structure of the mature rape embryo was examined on longitudirna microtome sections, and1, its developmental interpretation is given, based on the author's own studies and literature data. The boundaries between the epicotyl, hypocotyl and radicle are recognized and identified with the limits between the proembryo segments. The radicle Structure and root apical meristem organization are described. In the dermatogen and periblem cell patterns four segments are distinguished, separated successively from the initial cells. Their position is recognized as almost the same on both sides of the root axis and in different embryos. The easily discernible limits between the dermatogen sectors are to be utilized as reference points in studies on the root apical meristem activation and growth during rape seed germination.

  5. The control of club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. on cabbage seedlings with trifluralin and napropamid herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Robak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The herbicides Treflan EC 2 (24% trifluralin and Devrinol 50 (50% napropamid applied separately decreased efficiently the incidence of club-root on cabbage seedlings in pot experiments. If these herbicides were applied together with the fungicide Bavistin {50% carbendazim the control of the disease was in some cases more efficient, as compared with Bavistin used alone. The higher the organic matter content in the soil, the lower the phytotoxicity and dub-root controlling activity of herbicides. Thus, on peat soil the 'herbicides could be applied in much higher rates than on pseudopodsolic soil.

  6. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  7. Growth and ion distribution of NaCl-stressed Brassica oleracea var. capita-ta seedlings%NaCl胁迫对结球甘蓝幼苗生长及体内离子分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾闽峰; 王乃顶; 王伟义; 费月跃; 彭亚明; 王军; 王神云; 李建斌

    2015-01-01

    以结球甘蓝为研究材料,采用水培的方式,研究了不同浓度的NaCl对结球甘蓝幼苗生长和体内钠离子( Na+)、钾离子( K+)、钙离子( Ca2+)、镁离子( Mg2+)分布的影响。结果表明:随着NaCl浓度的升高,根、茎、叶和整株的生物量呈下降的趋势,根冠比在各处理间差异均不显著。随着NaCl浓度的增加,结球甘蓝幼苗各器官中的Na+含量不断增加,而K+、Ca2+、Mg2+呈下降的趋势,所有NaCl胁迫处理的结球甘蓝K+/Na+、Ca2+/Na+和Mg2+/Na+值均低于对照,且均随着NaCl浓度的升高而下降。在NaCl胁迫下,茎部对Na+和K+的累积较高,而叶中则主要积累Ca2+和Mg2+。%Effects of NaCl stress on the growth and Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ distribution in cabbage seedlings were studied in greenhouse by hydroponics experiments. The roots, stems, leaves and whole plant biomass showed declining re-sponses to NaCl concentration increase, but no consistent effect on root and shoot ratio. With the increase of NaCl concen-tration, Na+ contents in various organs of cabbage seedlings continued to increase, while K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ concentrations presented a downward trend. K+ and Na+, Ca2+ and Na+ and Mg2+and Na+ ratios were significantly lower than control, and decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration. Under NaCl stress, Na+ and K+ were mainly accumulated in the stem, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ were primarily accumulated in the leaves.

  8. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA AFTER INFECTION OF PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeplata Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassicaceae family include worldwide commercially grown crops. Experiments on this crop were conducted during the year 2011 in Vidhania and Jaisinghpura of Jaipur district Rajasthan, India. The aim of this study is to find out primary metabolites like chlorophyll, sugar starch protein total phenol of cauliflower. Levels of plant metabolites are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Growth factors such as light, temperature, humidity, type of soil, application of fertilizers, damage caused by microorganisms and insects, stress induced by UV radiation, heavy metals and pesticides all alter metabolite composition of plants. Different types of pests’ cause changes in plant metabolite production. The results revealed the evidence of different infestation of cabbage by common herbivores. In this review we report primary metabolites of the cabbage along with the quantification after the pests’ effect.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of Brassica oleracea L.by SSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SSR analysis on genetic diversity of 30 samples was carried out. Five primers selected from 36 primers were used to amplify 30 samples in this experiment, PCR products were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and photographed. The results of SSR were analyzed by UPGMA clustering. The results showed that a total of 21 gene alleles were detected by 5 SSR primers. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 4.2.PIC range was 0.257-0.921, with an average of 0.543. The average coefficient of genetic similarity of SSR markers among materials was 0.432. Some of cabbage cultivars in the experiment were divided into four groups except cultivars which come from Japan.

  10. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica head initiation under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two–year study on the influence of temperature on broccoli head initiation was carried out at the ''Marcelin'' experimental station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences. In each year of the study, plants were planted in the field at four dates. The evaluation of the developmental phase of the broccoli shoot apex was based on the analysis of microscope slides. The date of head initiation was assumed as the day on which the first of the examined apices were found to be at the early generative phase. The plant characteristics (number of leaves, leaf area and stem diameter on the date of initiation were also determined. Variation in length of the period from planting to head initiation was found both between dates of planting and between experimental years. The shortest period from planting to initiation was when the plants were planted in April and June (17-18 days in the first year and the longest one for planting in April in the first year of the study (29 days. The length of the period from planting to head initiation depended on mean daily air temperature. The higher the temperature was, the shorter was the period.

  11. Contamination of Chinese Cabbage Soil with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Woo Soh; Kyung-Sook Han; Seong-Chan Lee; Jung-Sup Lee

    2013-01-01

    This research was performed to establish basic technology for Chinese cabbage clubroot chemical control by investigating the soil contamination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in major producing regions of fall Chinese cabbage. PCR primers were developed to detect P. brassicae, a causal agent of Chinese cabbage club-root that generally occurs in Cruciferae family. A primer set, PbbtgF761 and PbbtgR961, specifically amplified a 245 bp fragment from P. brassicae only. At places well kno...

  12. Growth stimulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by root exudates of Brassicaceae plants: role of degraded compounds of indole glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ren Sen; Mallik, Azim U; Setliff, Ed

    2003-06-01

    Brassicaceae plants are nonmycorrhizal. They were found to inhibit VA mycorrhizal infection in their host plants. We tested if they can influence growth of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. When roots and leaves of Brassicaceae plants and ECM fungi were cultured together in the same petri dishes, the root exudates of turnip (Brassica rapa), swede (B. napobrassica), cabbage (B. oleracea, var. capitata), broccoli (B. oleracea, var. italica Plenck), kohlrobi (B. caulorapa Pasq.), mustard (B. juncea), radish (Raphanus sativus), and choy (B. napus) significantly stimulated hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Root exudates of turnip and cabbage stimulated hyphal growth of Pisolithus tinctorius and two isolates of P. involutus. Colony area of P. involutus was increased by 452 and 414%, respectively, in the presence of turnip and cabbage germinants. Root exudates of turnip increased the biomass of P. involutus and P. tinctorius by 256 and 122% and cabbage by 220 and 82%, respectively. The stimulatory effect was not affected by autoclaving the root exudates. Root exudates had chemical reactions with glutathione and lysine, which resulted in a reduction of the growth stimulation of ECM fungi. Myrosinase enhanced further the stimulatory effects of turnip on the ECM colony diameter growth by 23%. Autoclaved roots and leaves of turnip did not stimulate fungal growth, but mechanically ground roots and leaves of turnip stimulated growth of P. involutus by 147 and 135%, respectively. After desulfuration with aryl sulphatuse, the glucosinolates (GLSs) in turnip roots and leaves were identified by HPLC. The major ones were indole GLSs. Prominent compounds identified were 1-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS and4-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS. The finding provides an opportunity to field test the use of Brassicaceae plants in enhancing ectomycorrhizal formation in conifers by interplanting conifers with Brassicaceae plants in forest tree nursery and agroforestry systems

  13. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koeslin-Findeklee, F.; Becker, M. A.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 13 (2015), s. 3669-3681. ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Brassica napus * cytokinins * genotypic differences * leaf senescence * nitrogen efficiency * nitrogen starvation * reciprocal grafting * stay-green Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  15. Mobilization and Acquisition of Sparingly Soluble P-Sources by Brassica Cultivars under P-Starved Environment Ⅱ. Rhizospheric pH changes, Redesigned Root Architecture and Pi-Uptake Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

    2009-01-01

    Non-mycorrhizal Brassica does not produce specialized root structures such as cluster or dauciform roots but is an effective user of P compared with other crops. In addition to P-uptake, utilization and remobilization activity, acquisition of orthophosphate (Pi) from extracellular sparingly P-sources or unavailable bound P-forms can be enhanced by biochemical rescue mechanisms such copious H~+-efflux and/or carboxylates exudation into rhizosphere by roots via plasmalemma H~+ ATPase and anion channels triggered by P-starvation. To visualize the dissolution of sparingly soluble Ca-phosphate (Ca-P), newly formed Ca-P was suspended in agar containing other essential nutrients. With NH_4~+ applied as the N source, the precipitate dissolved in the root vicinity can be ascribed to rhizosphere acidification, whereas no dissolution occurred with nitrate nutrition. To observe in situ rhizospheric pH changes, images were recorded after embedding the roots in agar containing bromocresol purple as a pH indicator. P-tolerant cultivar showed a greater decrease in pH than the sensitive cultivar in the culture media (the appearance of typical patterns of various colors of pH indicator in the root vicinity), and at stress P-level this acidification was more prominent. In experiment 2, low P-tolerant class-Ⅰ cultivars (Oscar and Con-Ⅱ) showed a greater decrease in solution media pH than low P-sensitive class-Ⅱ (Gold Rush and RL-18) cultivars, and P-contents of the cultivars was inversely related to decrease in culture media pH. To elucidate P-stressinduced remodeling and redesigning in a root architectural system, cultivars were grown in rhizoboxes in experiment 3.The elongation rates of primary roots increased as P-supply increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of primary roots decreased. The length of the lateral roots and topological index values increased when cultivars were exposed to a P-stress environment. To elucidate Pi-uptake kinetics, parameters

  16. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. PMID:27181942

  17. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  18. Conservation of the microstructure of genome segments in Brassica napus and its diploid relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Debashis; van den Boogaart, Tom; O'Neill, Carmel M; Hynes, Llewelyn; Bent, Elisabeth; Macpherson, Lee; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Bancroft, Ian

    2004-12-01

    The cultivated Brassica species are the group of crops most closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). They represent models for the application in crops of genomic information gained in Arabidopsis and provide an opportunity for the investigation of polyploid genome formation and evolution. The scientific literature contains contradictory evidence for the dynamics of the evolution of polyploid genomes. We aimed at overcoming the inherent complexity of Brassica genomes and clarify the effects of polyploidy on the evolution of genome microstructure in specific segments of the genome. To do this, we have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from genomic DNA of B. rapa subspecies trilocularis (JBr) and B. napus var Tapidor (JBnB) to supplement an existing BAC library from B. oleracea. These allowed us to analyse both recent polyploidization (under 10,000 years in B. napus) and more ancient polyploidization events (ca. 20 Myr for B. rapa and B. oleracea relative to Arabidopsis), with an analysis of the events occurring on an intermediate time scale (over the ca. 4 Myr since the divergence of the B. rapa and B. oleracea lineages). Using the Arabidopsis genome sequence and clones from the JBr library, we have analysed aspects of gene conservation and microsynteny between six regions of the genome of B. rapa with the homoeologous regions of the genomes of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis. Extensive divergence of gene content was observed between the B. rapa paralogous segments and their homoeologous segments within the genome of Arabidopsis. A pattern of interspersed gene loss was identified that is similar, but not identical, to that observed in B. oleracea. The conserved genes show highly conserved collinearity with their orthologues across genomes, but a small number of species-specific rearrangements were identified. Thus the evolution of genome microstructure is an ongoing process. Brassica napus is a recently formed polyploid resulting

  19. Colonization of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by GFP-tagged verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soilborne fungus, Verticillium dahliae, causes wilt in a wide range of hosts, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The interaction between a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged V. dahliae strain and spinach was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The roots of spinach seedlings...

  20. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  1. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  2. QTL Mapping of Leafy Heads by Genome Resequencing in the RIL Population of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; ZHONG, WEILI; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using...

  3. Especificidade de hospedeiro nas interações Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brássicas Host specificity in interaction Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel-Wruck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Face às escassas informações acerca da variabilidade patogênica de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar a especificidade patogênica de trinta e três isolados do patógeno, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do exterior, a oito espécies de brássicas, através de inoculação por meio de injeção da suspensão bacteriana nas folhas. Desse total, 12 isolados foram obtidos de couve-comum (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nove de repolho (B. oleracea var. capitata, cinco de couve-flor (B. oleracea var. botrytis, dois de canola (B. napus, um de brócolos (B. oleracea var. italica, um de couve-chinesa (B. chinensis, um de couve-rábano (B. oleracea var. gongylodes e dois de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. A avaliação da patogenicidade dos isolados da bactéria, frente aos hospedeiros em estudo, demonstrou que 14 deles não apresentaram especificidade, originando sintomas em todas as diferentes plantas inoculadas. Os 19 isolados restantes, entretanto, apresentaram relativo grau de especificidade, não causando doença em uma ou mais das plantas inoculadas.Considering the lack of information in literature about the pathogenic variability of Brazilian isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a study was carried out to determine the pathogenic specificity of 33 isolates of this bacterium originated from several regions of Brazil and overseas to eight different Brassica species, through inoculation by means of injection of the bacterial suspension in leaves. From these isolates, 12 were obtained from collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nine from cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata, five from cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis, two from canola (B. napus, one from broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica, one from Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis, one from kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes and two from radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogenicity of the bacterium

  4. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  5. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis reveals the evolutionary rearrangement mechanism in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Liu, G; Zhao, N; Chen, S; Liu, D; Ma, W; Hu, Z; Zhang, M

    2016-05-01

    The genus Brassica has many species that are important for oil, vegetable and other food products. Three mitochondrial genome types (mitotype) originated from its common ancestor. In this paper, a B. nigra mitochondrial main circle genome with 232,407 bp was generated through de novo assembly. Synteny analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea had a better syntenic relationship than B. nigra. Principal components analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree indicated maternal ancestors of three allotetraploid species in Us triangle of Brassica. Diversified mitotypes were found in allotetraploid B. napus, in which napus-type B. napus was derived from B. oleracea, while polima-type B. napus was inherited from B. rapa. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of napus-type B. napus was closer to botrytis-type than capitata-type B. oleracea. The sub-stoichiometric shifting of several mitochondrial genes suggested that mitochondrial genome rearrangement underwent evolutionary selection during domestication and/or plant breeding. Our findings clarify the role of diploid species in the maternal origin of allotetraploid species in Brassica and suggest the possibility of breeding selection of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27079962

  6. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

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    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  7. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L.), Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.), Kereviz (Apium graveolens L.) ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altıniğne, Nejat; Gönül, Meral

    1988-01-01

    Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum), enginar (C. scolymus), kereviz (A. graveolens) ve lahana (B. oleraceae) sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.   ...

  8. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  9. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  10. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  11. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: xfsheng604@sohu.com; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  12. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant) distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on kale

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Cividanes; Durvalina M. Mathias dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi...

  13. Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiyong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa, ole (B. oleracea, jun (B. juncea, and car (B. carinata and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap. The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation.

  14. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

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    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  15. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots. PMID:27095454

  16. A complex recombination pattern in the genome of allotetraploid Brassica napus as revealed by a high-density genetic map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqin Cai

    Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a crucial role in plant evolution. Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC, the most important oil crop in the Brassica genus, is an allotetraploid that originated through natural doubling of chromosomes after the hybridization of its progenitor species, B. rapa (2n = 20, AA and B. oleracea (2n = 18, CC. A better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between B. napus and B. rapa, B. oleracea, as well as Arabidopsis, which has a common ancestor with these three species, will provide valuable information about the generation and evolution of allopolyploidy. Based on a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of B. napus with Arabidopsis and its progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea. Based on the collinear relationship of B. rapa and B. oleracea in the B. napus genetic map, the B. napus genome was found to consist of 70.1% of the skeleton components of the chromosomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea, with 17.7% of sequences derived from reciprocal translocation between homoeologous chromosomes between the A- and C-genome and 3.6% of sequences derived from reciprocal translocation between non-homologous chromosomes at both intra- and inter-genomic levels. The current study thus provides insights into the formation and evolution of the allotetraploid B. napus genome, which will allow for more accurate transfer of genomic information from B. rapa, B. oleracea and Arabidopsis to B. napus.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cabbage Brassica oleracea Brassica_oleracea_L.png Brassica_oleracea_NL.png Brassica_oleracea_S.png Brassica..._oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica...+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  18. Preliminary study of Tl and Cd uptake in the heavy metal accumulating Brassica napus using the Debrecen proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high biomass producing crop plants, Brassica juncea L. and Brassica napus are very promising plant species for phytoremediation. The aim of further research is to help a better understanding of the transport mechanism within roots and roots to shoots of heavy metals, and to find out their distribution and translocation among different cell types in the root of these species. The distribution and concentration of major and trace elements was determined along the roots of Cd and Tl treated as well as control plants of Brassica napus on the ATOMKI proton microprobe. (R.P.)

  19. Identification of expressed genes during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection of Chinese cabbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to......Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing is...... impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...

  20. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures. PMID:26593487

  1. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  2. Ectopic expression of the Brassica SHOOTMERISTEMLESS attenuates the deleterious effects of the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA on somatic embryo number and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) is a useful compound for investigating the role of auxin flow during plant growth and development. In Arabidopsis lines, applications of TIBA during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis inhibit embryo development and induce the differentiation of the meristematic cells of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), leading to the fusion of the cotyledons. These abnormalities were associated to changes in the expression levels of auxin transporter genes (PINs) and endogenous distribution of IAA. Treatments of TIBA caused a rapid accumulation of IAA within the epidermal and cortical root cells of the explants (bent-cotyledon zygotic embryos), as well as in the apical and sub-apical cells of the callus generated by the surface of the cotyledons of the explants. Within the callus only a few cells acquired meristematic characteristics, and this was associated to low expression levels of genes involved in embryogenic cell fate acquisition, such as WUSCHEL (WUS), LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 and 2. All these deleterious effects were attenuated when TIBA was administered to lines over-expressing SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) isolated from Brassica oleracea (Bo), B. napus (Bn), and B. rapa (Br). Of interest, TIBA-treated explants of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing the Brassica STM were able to produce a large number of embryogenic cells and somatic embryos which exhibited a normal morphology and two distinct cotyledons. A proposed reason for this behaviour was ascribed to the ability of the transformed tissue to retain a normal distribution of auxin in the presence of TIBA. Proper localization of auxin might be required for the normal expression of several genes needed for the acquisition of embryogenic competence and formation of somatic embryos. PMID:21421384

  3. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  4. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. PMID:26589635

  5. Brassicas limited in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Mr P

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.

  6. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  7. Boro, nitrogenio concentraçao de inóculo de pH na expressao da doença causada por Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Schuta, Lucimeris Ruaro

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A hérnia das cruciferas (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron.) é a mais importante doença que incide sobre as variedades de Brassica oleracea L. representadas pelo repolho, couve-flor, brócolis, mostarda, couve-chinesa e rúcula. A calagem para elevar o pH dos solos é a medida recomendada mais aceita pelos produtores, contudo, nem sempre esta medida, é suficiente para impedir ou reduzir o ataque do patógeno nos solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba. O que sugere, que outros fatores poss...

  8. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  9. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism. PMID:18469930

  10. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  11. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷酸和翻译成蛋白质序列比对分析,发现序列的覆盖度与相似度均达到较高的水平。%This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica

  12. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, etc. It found that the similarity of sequence coverage have reached a higher level.%采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷

  13. Root isolations of Metarhizium spp. from crops reflect diversity in the soil and indicate no plant specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt M; Enkerli, Jürg; Widmer, Franco; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Kristensen, Hanne L; Bidochka, Michael J; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-11-01

    Metarhizium spp. have recently been shown to be associated with the roots of different plants. Here we evaluated which Metarhizium species were associated with roots of oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), common crop plants in Denmark. Thirty-six root samples from each of the three crops were collected within an area of approximately 3ha. The roots were rinsed with sterile water, homogenized and the homogenate plated onto selective media. A subset of 126 Metarhizium isolates were identified to species by sequencing of the 5' end of the gene translation elongation factor 1-alpha and characterized by simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of 14 different loci. Metarhizium brunneum was the most common species isolated from plant roots (84.1% of all isolates), while M. robertsii (11.1%) and M. majus (4.8%) comprised the remainder. The SSR analysis revealed that six multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were present among the M. brunneum and M. robertsii isolates, respectively. A single MLG of M. brunneum represented 66.7%, 79.1% and 79.2% of the total isolates obtained from oat, rye and cabbage, respectively. The isolation of Metarhizium spp. and their MLGs from roots revealed a comparable community composition as previously reported from the same agroecosystem when insect baiting of soil samples was used as isolating technique. No specific MLG association with a certain crop was found. This study highlights the diversity of Metarhizium spp. found in the rhizosphere of different crops within a single agroecosystem and suggests that plants either recruit fungal associates from the surrounding soil environment or even govern the composition of Metarhizium populations. PMID:26407950

  14. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  16. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  17. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  18. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  19. Microarray expression analysis of the main inflorescence in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    Full Text Available The effect of the number of pods on the main inflorescence (NPMI on seed yield in Brassica napus plants grown at high density is a topic of great economic and scientific interest. Here, we sought to identify patterns of gene expression that determine the NPMI during inflorescence differentiation. We monitored gene expression profiles in the main inflorescence of two B. napus F6 RIL pools, each composed of nine lines with a low or high NPMI, and their parental lines, Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11 and 73290, using a Brassica 90K elements oligonucleotide array. We identified 4,805 genes that were differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold-change between the low- and high-NPMI samples. Of these, 82.8% had been annotated and 17.2% shared no significant homology with any known genes. About 31 enriched GO clusters were identified amongst the differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including those involved in hormone responses, development regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Furthermore, 92.8% of the DEGs mapped to chromosomes that originated from B. rapa and B. oleracea, and 1.6% of the DEGs co-localized with two QTL intervals (PMI10 and PMI11 known to be associated with the NPMI. Overexpression of BnTPI, which co-localized with PMI10, in Arabidopsis suggested that this gene increases the NPMI. This study provides insight into the molecular factors underlying inflorescence architecture, NPMI determination and, consequently, seed yield in B. napus.

  20. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  1. Monitoring the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Space Flight: Interspecific Variation in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures Induced by Different Root Zone Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Patterson, Mark T.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used extensively as a tool to indicate stress to the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. A rise in fluorescence has been attributed to the blockage of photosystem II photochemistry, and patterns of fluorescence decay (quenching) from dark adapted leaves can be related to specific photochemical and non-photochemical deexcitation pathways of light trapped by the photosynthetic apparatus and thus result in characteristically different fluorescence signatures. Four distantly related plant species, Hypocharis radicata (Asteraceae), Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), Spinacea oleracea (Chenopodiaceae) and Triticum aestivum (Poaceae), were grown hydroponically for three weeks before the initiation of three different root zone stresses (10 mM Cu, 100 mM NaCl and nitrogen deficient nutrition). After 10 days, characteristic fluorescence signatures for each stress could be noted although the degree varied between species. Fast kinetics analysis showed a reduction in plastoquinone pool size for copper and nitrogen stress for all species but a more species specific result with NaCl stress. Photochemical quenching kinetics varied between species and stress treatments from no quenching in S. oleracea in copper treatments to increased photochemical quenching in NaCl treatments. Non-photochemical quenching kinetics demonstrated a distinct pattern between stresses for all species. Copper treatments characteristically exhibited a shallow, flat non-photochemical quenching profile suggesting a general blockage of electron transport whereas NaCl treatments exhibited a slow rising profile that suggested damage to thylakoid acidification kinetics and nitrogen deficiency exhibited a fast rising and declining profile that suggested an altered state 1-state 2 transition regulated by the phosphorylation of LHCII. These results demonstrate characteristic fluorescence signatures for specific plant stresses that may be applied to different, unrelated plant

  2. Seed germination, root elongation, root-tip mitosis, and micronucleus induction of five crop plants exposed to chromium in fluvo-aquic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing-; Liu, Guan-Nan; Xue, Wei; Fu, Wen-Jun; Liang, Bao-Cui; Liu, Xin-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxic effects of chromium (Cr) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and corn (Zea mays), and identify the sensitive plant species and appropriate bioassays for potential use in phytotoxicity assessment of Cr in soil. Results showed that seed germination might not be a sensitive assay for assessing Cr toxicity because at most of the Cr levels there were no toxic effects. Root elongation was more sensitive to Cr than seed germination. The lowest concentration of adverse effect (LOAEC) of lettuce was 20 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil, and that of the other 4 species was 50 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil. The mitotic index fluctuated with increasing Cr concentration, thus it was insufficient to assess toxicity of Cr in soil. However, micronucleus assay showed that 5 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil caused a significant increase in micronucleus frequency in cabbage, cucumber, and lettuce. For wheat and corn, however, the LOAEC was 20 and 50 mg/Cr/kg(-1) soil, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of Cr accumulation showed that lettuce significantly accumulated Cr for all the tested concentrations. However, corn and wheat significantly accumulated Cr only with the highest tested dose. This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of Cr on root growth. It can be concluded that root elongation and micronucleus assay are good indicators to assess the phytotoxicity of Cr in soil. Lettuce is the most sensitive species for indicating the toxicity of Cr in soil. PMID:24318542

  3. 青花菜C3H型锌指蛋白基因 BoCCCH2的克隆与表达%Cloning and expression of a C3H-type zinc finger protein gene BoCCCH2 from Brassica oleracea var . italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 刘青娥; 章燕如; 祝琦; 龚秀; 俞可可; 周秀倩

    2016-01-01

    , translation , repair , metabolism and signaling . According to the number and order of cysteine and histidine residues , zinc finger proteins were classified into several different types , such as C2H2 , C2C2 , C2C2C2 , C2HC and C3H . For example , C3H‐type ones contain one to six typical motifs with three cysteine residues and one histidine residue . However , their functions are little known , and no gene has been reported in broccoli . In this study , a C3H‐type zinc finger protein gene BoCCCH2 was isolated from broccoli , and later the expression patterns in different organs as well as leaves infected by H . parasitica and B . cinerea were studied . Results indicated that BoCCCH2 contained no intron , and the full length of coding sequence was 1 740 bp encoding 579 amino acids . The deduced protein sequence contained two ANK domains and two CCCH zinc finger structures , respectively , and the CCCH zinc finger types were C —X8 —C—X5 —C—X3 —H and C—X5 —C—X4 —C—X3 — H . Reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction results showed that the BoCCCH2 was expressed in roots , leaves , stalks , young siliques , flower buds and flowers , with highest level in roots . Expression levels increased when challenged by both H . parasitica and B . cinerea . When infected by H . parasitica , expression levels increased after 24 h , and decreased after 72 h , while infected by B . cinerea , the highest level was detected after 6 h , and slowed down in 12 h . Homologous sequences were downloaded from NCBI ( National Center for Biotechnology Information) website , including Citrus sinensis , Gossypium raimondii , Populus trichocarpa , Ricinus communis , Prunus persica , P . mume , Malus domestica , Fragaria vesca , Phaseolus vulgaris , Glycine soja , B . rapa, Camelinasativa , Capsella rubella , Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema salsugineum . Phylogenetic analysis results revealed that BoCCCH2 was grouped with homogeneous sequences from other Cruciferae plants

  4. A newly-developed community microarray resource for transcriptome profiling in Brassica species enables the confirmation of Brassica-specific expressed sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurban Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassica species include an important group of crops and provide opportunities for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. They are related to Arabidopsis thaliana, for which the first complete plant genome sequence was obtained and their genomes show extensive, although imperfect, conserved synteny with that of A. thaliana. A large number of EST sequences, derived from a range of different Brassica species, are available in the public database, but no public microarray resource has so far been developed for these species. Results We assembled unigenes using ~800,000 EST sequences, mainly from three species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The assembly was conducted with the aim of co-assembling ESTs of orthologous genes (including homoeologous pairs of genes in B. napus from each of the A and C genomes, but resolving assemblies of paralogous, or paleo-homoeologous, genes (i.e. the genes related by the ancestral genome triplication observed in diploid Brassica species. 90,864 unique sequence assemblies were developed. These were incorporated into the BAC sequence annotation for the Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project, enabling the identification of cognate genomic sequences for a proportion of them. A 60-mer oligo microarray comprising 94,558 probes was developed using the unigene sequences. Gene expression was analysed in reciprocal resynthesised B. napus lines and the B. oleracea and B. rapa lines used to produce them. The analysis showed that significant expression could consistently be detected in leaf tissue for 35,386 unigenes. Expression was detected across all four genotypes for 27,355 unigenes, genome-specific expression patterns were observed for 7,851 unigenes and 180 unigenes displayed other classes of expression pattern. Principal component analysis (PCA clearly resolved the individual microarray datasets for B. rapa, B. oleracea and resynthesised B. napus. Quantitative differences in

  5. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  6. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  7. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (gst) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed gst variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed gst variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O3 flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  8. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Op de Beeck, M., E-mail: maarten.opdebeeck@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk (Belgium); De Bock, M., E-mail: maarten.debock@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Molecular Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Campus Groenenborger, Department of Biology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vandermeiren, K., E-mail: kavan@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Temmerman, L. de, E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Ceulemans, R., E-mail: reinhart.ceulemans@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (g{sub st}) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed g{sub st} variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed g{sub st} variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O{sub 3} flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  9. TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 genes from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, evolution, and differential involvement in yellow seed trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, You-Rong; Lei, Bo; Huang, Hua-Lei; Li, Jia-Na; Yin, Jia-Ming; Tang, Zhang-Lin; Wang, Rui; Chen, Li

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dissection of the Brassica yellow seed trait has been the subject of intense investigation. Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 (AtTT12) encodes a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter involved in seed coat pigmentation. Two, one, and one full-length TT12 genes were isolated from B. napus, B. oleracea, and B. rapa, respectively, and Southern hybridization confirmed these gene numbers, implying loss of some of the triplicated TT12 genes in Brassica. BnTT12-1, BnTT12-2, BoTT12, and BrTT12 are 2,714, 3,062, 4,760, and 2,716 bp, with the longest mRNAs of 1,749, 1,711, 1,739, and 1,752 bp, respectively. All genes contained alternative transcriptional start and polyadenylation sites. BrTT12 and BoTT12 are the progenitors of BnTT12-1 and BnTT12-2, respectively, validating B. napus as an amphidiploid. All Brassica TT12 proteins displayed high levels of identity (>99%) to each other and to AtTT12 (>92%). Brassica TT12 genes resembled AtTT12 in such basic features as MatE/NorM CDs, subcellular localization, transmembrane helices, and phosphorylation sites. Plant TT12 orthologs differ from other MATE proteins by two specific motifs. Like AtTT12, all Brassica TT12 genes are most highly expressed in developing seeds. However, a range of organ specificity was observed with BnTT12 genes being less organ-specific. TT12 expression is absent in B. rapa yellow-seeded line 06K124, but not downregulated in B. oleracea yellow-seeded line 06K165. In B. napus yellow-seeded line L2, BnTT12-2 expression is absent, whereas BnTT12-1 is expressed normally. Among Brassica species, TT12 genes are differentially related to the yellow seed trait. The molecular basis for the yellow seed trait, in Brassica, and the theoretical and practical implications of the highly variable intron 1 of these TT12 genes are discussed. PMID:19018571

  10. Biochar impact on physiological and biochemical attributes of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. in nickel contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Younis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Disastrous effect of nickel on spinach was discussed by number of authors but the effect of amendments like biochar with nickel on Spinacea oleraceaL. is not still discussed by any author of the world because biochar was used as soil amendments which play a vital role in reducing mobilization and uptake of nickel by spinach plants.  As nickel contaminated plants are very harmful for the consumption by living organisms. Nickel can be gathered in agronomic soils by anthropogenic actions such as Ni-Cd batteries. In this study, the growth, physiological, photosynthetic and biochemical responses of Spinacia oleracea grown in Ni-spiked soil (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg Ni/Kg soil at three levels of cotton-sticks-derived biochar “CSB” (0, 3 and 5 % were evaluated.  The results exposed significant decrease in growth, photosynthetic, physiological, and biochemical traits of S. oleracea when grown in Ni-polluted soil. However, this decrease was less pronounced in CSB amended soil.  A steady rise in the MDA (0.66 µg/g to 2.08 µg g-1, ascorbic acid (1.24 mg/g to 1.57 mg/gand sugar concentrations (1.73 mg/g to 2.16 mg/gwas observed with increased concentration of Ni.  The increasing percentages of CSB from 3 % to 5 % decreased Ni concentrations in root and shoot of experimental plant.  Higher production of chlorophyll, amino acids and protein with CSB amendment looked like alleviation in Ni toxicity.  Therefore, it is concluded that, Ni toxicity and availability to the plants can be reduced by CSB amendments.

  11. The effect of mulch and fertilizers on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italica oxidants and antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husain Jasim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factorial field experiments was conducted during 2012/2013 growth season to study the effect of soil mulch (mulch and without mulch and some fertilizers (control, sulfur, organic and high potash fertilizer on H2O2 content and the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione (GSH oxidative enzymes of broccoli leaves and flowers. The results showed that using mulch, fertilizer treatment and the interaction between mulch and high potash treatment led to a significant increase in CAT and SOD activity. Furthermore, high potash and sulfur supplementation caused a significant increase in broccoli antioxidants both in leaves and flowers respectively. We conclude that mulch and high potash treatment led to increase plant tolerance to salt stress by increasing antioxidant mechanisms.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and ...

  13. Red cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) as a new source of high-thermostable peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea, M I; Pellicer, J A; Serrano-Martínez, A; López-Miranda, S; Lucas-Abellán, C; Núñez-Delicado, E

    2012-10-24

    Soluble and membrane-bound peroxidases (PODs) were extracted from red cabbage using Triton X-114. Optimum activity was obtained at pH 4.0 for both enzymes, and both were inactivated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The K(M) and V(m) values for H(2)O(2) were found to be 0.98 mM and 8.1 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD and 0.82 mM and 6.1 μM/min, respectively, for membrane-bound POD. When the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) concentration was increased, maintaining a steady concentration of H(2)O(2), the activity was inhibited at the highest ABTS concentrations in soluble POD. Ascorbic acid was found to be the most active modulator of POD activity. The effect of cyclodextrins was also studied, and the complexation constant between ABTS and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HP-β-CDs) was calculated (K(c) = 312 M(-1)). Membrane-bound POD is more thermostable than soluble POD, losing >90% of relative activity after 5 min of incubation at 76.6 and 30.2 °C, respectively. PMID:23013444

  14. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campetris affecting Brassica oleracea in northwestern Spain: race identification and search for resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2010-01-01

    Trabajo presentado al 9th Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology y al 6th Congress of the Sociedad Portuguesa de Fitopatologia celebrados en Evora (Portugal) del 15 al 18 de Noviembre de 2010.

  15. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  16. Comportamiento al impacto de gotas sobre hojas de repollo morado (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Pizarro, Ricardo; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio Lira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Debido a su importancia en varias aplicaciones industriales, el impacto de gotas sobre superficies sólidas ha sido bastante estudiado. Sin embargo, las investigaciones en impactos de gotas sobre superficies de vegetales son muy escasas. En este trabajo se determina el comportamiento del impacto de gotas en superficies de repollo morado y se evalúa la influencia de la viscosidad y la tensión superficial. El comportamiento frente al impacto de los fluidos evaluados sobre la superficie de repoll...

  17. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  18. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  19. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R. E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with these differences, in field experiments with natural infestation in 2005 and 2006. One factor affecting the amount of thrips damage was the timing of the development of the head. In an experiment wit...

  20. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  1. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3kGy). Even though irradiation affected microbial load, it showed no significant differences (p≤0.05) in phytochemical content such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity in the irradiated cut cabbage. Panelists' scores for colour, texture and aroma from sensory evaluation showed significant differences (p>0.05) in irradiated cut cabbage samples. (au)

  2. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  3. High-throughput polymorphism detection and genotyping in Brassica napus using next-generation RAD sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bus Anja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping. Results More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category. Conclusions Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus.

  4. Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea Grown in a Controlled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Alia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metal toxicity on the shoot and root lengths, total protein, fiber characteristics, moisture content and nutrient composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea was evaluated. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and treated with different concentrations (mg/kg of lead (Pb; 300, 400 and 500, cadmium (Cd; 0.5, 1 and 1.5 and zinc (Zn; 250, 500, and 700 as well as mixtures of Cd and Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500, Cd and Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700, and Pb and Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/700. Soil contaminated by long-term irrigation with wastewater containing heavy metals was simulated. An increase in concentrations of heavy metals both individually and as mixtures significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the growth parameters and nutrient contents of S. oleracea. The uptake patterns of heavy metals in mixtures showed antagonistic impacts on each other. The toxicities of the mixtures Cd and Pb, Cd and Zn as well as Pb and Zn were higher than those observed in separate heavy metal applications but less than their additive sums. The toxicity caused by individual heavy metals was the highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. The highest toxicity was observed in plants grown in soil contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  5. Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Grown in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Naz; Sardar, Khan; Said, Muhammad; Salma, Khalid; Sadia, Alam; Sadaf, Siddique; Toqeer, Ahmed; Miklas, Scholz

    2015-01-01

    The impact of heavy metal toxicity on the shoot and root lengths, total protein, fiber characteristics, moisture content and nutrient composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was evaluated. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and treated with different concentrations (mg/kg) of lead (Pb; 300, 400 and 500), cadmium (Cd; 0.5, 1 and 1.5) and zinc (Zn; 250, 500, and 700) as well as mixtures of Cd and Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500), Cd and Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700), and Pb and Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/700). Soil contaminated by long-term irrigation with wastewater containing heavy metals was simulated. An increase in concentrations of heavy metals both individually and as mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the growth parameters and nutrient contents of S. oleracea. The uptake patterns of heavy metals in mixtures showed antagonistic impacts on each other. The toxicities of the mixtures Cd and Pb, Cd and Zn as well as Pb and Zn were higher than those observed in separate heavy metal applications but less than their additive sums. The toxicity caused by individual heavy metals was the highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. The highest toxicity was observed in plants grown in soil contaminated by Cd and Pb. PMID:26133131

  6. Effect of Water Extract Originated from Different Part of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) on Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza PIRZAD; Mousa JAMALI; Mohammad Amin ZAREH; Fahime SHOKRANI

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate probable allelopathic effect of water extract originated from different parts of russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) on growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at greenhouse condition in 2011. Treatments were water extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent) obtained from different part of russian knapweed (aerial part, flower and root). Results showed the signif...

  7. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-01-01

    Spinacia oleracea (spinach) of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The resu...

  8. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Mithila, J.; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A h...

  9. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  10. Effects of Brassica Rapa Root Juice on Human Normal Hepatic Cell Line L-02 and Human Hepatoma Cell Line Smmc-7721%芜菁汁对正常肝细胞及肝癌细胞株的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓薇

    2003-01-01

    @@ 许多研究表明,某些蔬菜特别是十字花科蔬菜对致突变的活性有抑制作用[1,2].流行病学和动物资料表明,花椰菜、甘蓝、花菜等十字花科蔬菜具有肿瘤化学预防作用[3].芜菁(Brassica rapa Linn)属十字花科芸苔属蔬菜,其块根肥大、扁圆如盘,俗称盘菜.盘菜为温州特产,其块根肉质,洁白,脆嫩,营养丰富,颇受消费者喜爱.研究表明,温州产芜菁块根汁及叶汁对60Co-γ引起的辐射损伤均具有明显的防护和修复效应[4, 5];对环磷酰胺引起的突变有明显的抑制作用[6].本研究观察芜菁块根汁对L-02细胞与SMMC-7721细胞生长的影响,以探讨芜菁块根汁对肝癌细胞的作用.

  11. 油菜细胞质雄性不育系根和叶mtDNA的提取%Extracting mtDNA from Roots and Leaves of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Systems in Rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彦涛; 徐虹; 胡选萍; 冯塔; 郭蔼光; 李殿荣

    2010-01-01

    本研究以甘蓝型油菜(Brassica,napus)细胞质雄性不育系PolA及其保持系PolB、陕2A及其保持系陕2B 幼苗为材料,分别提取其根和叶线粒体DNA(mtDNA),并对所提取的油菜mtDNA进行检测.结果表明,在同等条件下幼根所提取的mtDNA平均含量为3250 ng/g FW,约为幼叶所提取mtDNA含量的6.5倍,而且所提取的mtDNA纯度较高;琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测结果也显示,油菜幼根所提mtDNA较幼叶所提mtDNA有更为清晰的条带.另外,油菜线粒体基因的PCR扩增结果显示,油菜幼根所提mtDNA扩增条带的重复性和稳定性也优于幼叶所提mtDNA.因此,用油菜幼根提取mtDNA是一条较好的途径.

  12. Identification, duplication, evolution and expression analyses of caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Mingzhe; Wang, Lili; Li, Zhuowei; Taylor, David C; Li, Zhixi; Zhang, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Caleosins are a class of Ca(2+) binding proteins that appear to be ubiquitous in plants. Some of the main proteins embedded in the lipid monolayer of lipid droplets, caleosins, play critical roles in the degradation of storage lipids during germination and in lipid trafficking. Some of them have been shown to have histidine-dependent peroxygenase activity, which is believed to participate in stress responses in Arabidopsis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, caleosins have been examined extensively. However, little is known on a genome-wide scale about these proteins in other members of the Brassicaceae. In this study, 51 caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis lyrata were investigated and analyzed in silico. Among them, 31 caleosins, including 7 in A. lyrata, 11 in Brassica oleracea and 13 in Brassica napus, are herein identified for the first time. Segmental duplication was the main form of gene expansion. Alignment, motif and phylogenetic analyses showed that Brassica caleosins belong to either the H-family or the L-family with different motif structures and physicochemical properties. Our findings strongly suggest that L-caleosins are evolved from H-caleosins. Predicted phosphorylation sites were differentially conserved in H-caleosin and L-caleosins, respectively. 'RY-repeat' elements and phytohormone-related cis-elements were identified in different caleosins, which suggest diverse physiological functions. Gene structure analysis indicated that most caleosins (38 out of 44) contained six exons and five introns and their intron phases were highly conserved. Structurally integrated caleosins, such as BrCLO3-3 and BrCLO4-2, showed high expression levels and may have important roles. Some caleosins, such as BrCLO2 and BoCLO8-2, lost motifs of the calcium binding domain, proline knot, potential phosphorylation sites and haem-binding sites. Combined with their low expression, it is suggested that these caleosins may have lost function. PMID:26786939

  13. Effects of partial replacing NO3--N with amino acid on yield, quality and root secretion of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L. )%氨基酸部分替代硝态氮对小白菜产量、品质及根际分泌物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小闯; 吴良欢; 陈贤友; 韩科峰

    2012-01-01

    Effects of partial (20%) replacing NO3--N with Gly, Glu and mixed amino acids in the nutrient solution on biomass, quality and root secretion of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L. ) were studied under the partial sterile hydroponics cultivation. Compared to the single nitrate treatment, the 20% partial replacing NO3--N with amino acids could significantly reduce biomass with decreasing of nitrate and soluble starch content in the edible part of pakchoi after 24 day' s treatment. The nitrate and soluble starch contents in the treatment of 20% replacing of NO3--N by Glu are lowest at 1490. 8 mg/kg and 1.77 mg/g, while the contents of soluble protein, soluble sugar, free amino acid and total N in leaves and roots are improved. The treatments of partial replacing NO3--N could change the root morphology structure and root activity, and the contents of NH4+ -N, free amino acids, total organicC, total N and soluble protein are also significantly increased in the treatments of 20% Gly and 20% of mixed amino acid replacing NO~-N. Compared to the treatment of single nitrate, the ratios of organic nitrogen to total nitrogen in the root secretions are increased by 5.6%, 11.2% and 12. 8% in the treatments of 20% Gly, 20% Glu and 20% of mixed amino acids replacing NO3 -N, respectively. Therefore, partial replacement of NO3 by amino acids could improve the quality of pakchoi, there is a negative relationship between the biomass of pakchoiand the root secretion (0. 7 〈 r 〈0. 83 ,P 〈0. 05 ), and the types of amino acid could significantly affect biomass, root morphology structure and the amount of root secretion.%采用局部无菌水培方法,研究了氨基酸部分替代硝态氮对小白菜产量、品质及根际分泌物的影响。结果表明,与单一硝态氮处理相比,20%氨基酸部分替代硝态氮处理小白菜产量下降,硝酸盐及可溶性淀粉含量也显著降低,其中以20%谷氨酸(Glu)处理最低,分别为1490.8 mg/kg、1.77 mg/g

  14. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. PMID:25146293

  15. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  16. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YuHua; XIAO Ling; WU Gang; LU ChangMing

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhongshuan No. 9 with Iow erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at position 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An Avrll cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with Avrll confirmed that the FAE1genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by Avrll cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and between the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  17. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhong- shuan No. 9 with low erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1 genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1 sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at po- sition 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An AvrII cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with AvrII confirmed that the FAE1 genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by AvrII cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and be- tween the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  18. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  19. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase from Spinacea oleracea: purification and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellocco, E.; Di Salvo, C.; Lagana, G.; Galtieri, A.; Ficarra, S.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Leuzzi, U.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2002), s. 533-538. ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ornithine carbomoyltransferase * Spinacea oleracea Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  20. Growth response and ionic relation in two brassica species under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glasshouse study of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea showed that the growth and the ionic parameters of both the species were significantly (p < 0.0 I) affected due to water stress. Shoot length of both the species decreased consistently with decrease in solute potential (PSI) in the root medium. Relative growth rate and dry mass was higher in B. juncea than B. campestris but leaf area was less. Concentrations of K Ca/sup 2/ P and S generally decreased with gradual increase in water stress B. campestris was more susceptible to water stress than B juncea. (author)

  1. Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Fowke, Jay H.; Morrow, Jason D.; Motley, Saundra; Bostick, Roberd M.; Ness, Reid M.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkersDietary item or component studied: Brassica Vegetable (BV)Pathways studied: urinary F2-isoprostane levels (F2-iP)Study type: humansStudy design: cross-sectional studyStudy size: 20 healthy subjectsTissue/biological material/sample size: urineMode of exposure (acute, chronic, root of exposure): dietaryImpact on pathway (including dose-response): Brassica consumption increased from 2 grams/day (g/d) during the Baseline or M+F intervention periods...

  2. Genes encoding the alpha-carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Guo, Huan; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-05-01

    Heteromeric acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, is a multi-enzyme complex consisting of biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase (alpha-CT and beta-CT). In the present study, four genes encoding alpha-CT were cloned from Brassica napus, and two were cloned from each of the two parental species, B. rapa and B. oleracea. Comparative and cluster analyses indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups. The major divergence between group-1 and group-2 occurred in the second intron. Group-2 alpha-CT genes represented the ancestral form in the genus Brassica. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 12.96-17.78 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to that reported for the paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species (13-17 MYA). Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in leaves. To better understand the regulation and evolution of alpha-CT genes, promoter regions from two sets of orthologous gene copies from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea were cloned and compared. The function of the promoter of gene Bnalpha-CT-1-1 in group-1 and gene Bnalpha-CT-2-1 in group-2 was examined by assaying beta-glucuronidase activity in transgenic A. thaliana. Our results will be helpful in elucidating the evolution and regulation of ACCase in oilseed rape. PMID:20616867

  3. Differential regulation of gene products in newly synthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids is not related to protein function nor subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valot Benoît

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allopolyploidy is a preeminent process in plant evolution that results from the merger of distinct genomes in a common nucleus via inter-specific hybridization. Allopolyploid formation is usually related to genome-wide structural and functional changes though the underlying mechanisms operating during this "genomic shock" still remain poorly known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modifications occurring at the proteomic level following an allopolyploidization event and to determine whether these changes are related to functional properties of the proteins. In a previous report, we applied comparative proteomics to synthetic amphiploids of Brassica napus and to its diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Although several hundred polypeptides displayed additivity (i.e. mid-parent values in the amphiploids, many of them showed non-additivity. Here, we report the in silico functional characterization of the "non-additive" proteins (the ones with a non-additive pattern of regulation in synthetic B. napus. Results The complete set of non-additive proteins (335 in the stem and 205 in the root, as well as a subset of additive polypeptides (200 per organ, was identified by mass spectrometry. Several protein isoforms were found, and most of them (~55% displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the amphiploids, i.e. isoforms of the same protein showing both up-regulation and down-regulation in the synthetic B. napus compared to the mid-parent value. Components of protein complexes were identified of which ~50% also displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the allotetraploids. In silico functional categorization of the identified proteins was carried out, and showed that neither functional category nor metabolic pathway were systematically affected by non-additivity in the synthetic amphiploids. In addition, no subcellular compartment was found to be over- or under

  4. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Jian Wu; Xiaowu Wang

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica olera...

  5. Disruption of a CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 gene converts flower colour from white to yellow in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yaqin; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-06-01

    In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower colour, with preferential expression in petals of white-flowered B. napus lines. Insertion of a CACTA-like transposable element 1 (TE1) into the coding region of BnaC3.CCD4 had disrupted its expression in yellow-flowered rapeseed lines. α-Ionone was identified as the major volatile apocarotenoid released from white petals but not from yellow petals. We speculate that BnaC3.CCD4 may use δ- and/or α-carotene as substrates. Four variations, including two CACTA-like TEs (alleles M1 and M4) and two insertion/deletions (INDELs, alleles M2 and M3), were identified in yellow-flowered Brassica oleracea lines. The two CACTA-like TEs were also identified in the coding region of BcaC3.CCD4 in Brassica carinata. However, the two INDELs were not detected in B. napus and B. carinata. We demonstrate that the insertions of TEs in BolC3.CCD4 predated the formation of the two allotetraploids. PMID:25690717

  6. Effects of an ultraviolet-visible rays translation film on growth of leaf or root vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new film that absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UV) and fluoresces red light was tested as a rain shelter for the cultivation of turnip (Brassica rapa L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.). The effect of this UV-visible ray translation film on various growth parameters (height, fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf sheath diameter) was compared with those under normal clear film, new UV-cut film, and used UV-cut film respectively. The transmissivity of UV was about 70% for the normal clear film, about 20% for the UV-visible ray translation film and used UV-cut film, and about 10% for the new UV-cut film. The transmissivity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was about 90% for the normal clear film and the new UV-cut film, and about 80% for the used UV-cut film, while the mean transmissivity of PAR was about 80% for the UV-visible ray translation film, with about 60% transmissivity of blue radiation and over 90% of red radiation. The UV-visible ray translation film did not promote the growth of turnip roots but did significantly promote the growth of spinaches and Welsh onions compared with the normal clear film. The UV-visible ray translation film cover promoted the growth of spinaches and Welsh onions to a similar or greater extent compared to the new UV-cut film and also to a greater extent compared to the used UV-cut film

  7. A Brassica exon array for whole-transcript gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Love

    Full Text Available Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3' exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E(-5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18, and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html.

  8. Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with Brassica parachinensis and Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with B. parachinensis or Zea mays plants in split pot (allow the solutes to pass but prevent the interaction of roots between compartments) experiments was evaluated. Plants were grown in split pots filled with soil spiked at 0, 3, 6, 12, 25 and 50 mg Cd/kg soil. Biomass and Cd uptake were detemined after 6 weeks, and rhizospheric soil solutions, extracted using soil probes, were analyzed for pH and water soluble Cd at weekly intervals. Cadmium treatments affected the biomass. Cadmium concentration in the shoots of B. napus was higher when cocropped with B. parachinensis and significantly higher with Z. mays; however, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the crop plants than B. napus. Concentration of Cd in B. napus was higher in shoots than in roots as revealed by shoot/root Cd quotient and was always >1; the quotient for B. parachinensis was ∼1 and that of Z. mays was <1, indicating the potential of Brassicaceae members to translocate the Cd to aboveground tissue. Results indicate the feasibility of cocropping method to clean the Cd contaminated soils.

  9. Assessment of FAE1 polymorphisms in three Brassica species using EcoTILLING and their association with differences in seed erucic acid contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaoming

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FAE1 (fatty acid elongase1 is the key gene in the control of erucic acid synthesis in seeds of Brassica species. Due to oil with low erucic acid (LEA content is essential for human health and not enough LEA resource could be available, thus new LEA genetic resources are being sought for Brassica breeding. EcoTILLING, a powerful genotyping method, can readily be used to identify polymorphisms in Brassica. Results Seven B. rapa, nine B. oleracea and 101 B. napus accessions were collected for identification of FAE1 polymorphisms. Three polymorphisms were detected in the two FAE1 paralogues of B. napus using EcoTILLING and were found to be strongly associated with differences in the erucic acid contents of seeds. In genomic FAE1 sequences obtained from seven B. rapa accessions, one SNP in the coding region was deduced to cause loss of gene function. Molecular evolution analysis of FAE1 homologues showed that the relationship between the Brassica A and C genomes is closer than that between the A/C genomes and Arabidopsis genome. Alignment of the coding sequences of these FAE1 homologues indicated that 18 SNPs differed between the A and C genomes and could be used as genome-specific markers in Brassica. Conclusion This study showed the applicability of EcoTILLING for detecting gene polymorphisms in Brassica. The association between B. napus FAE1 polymorphisms and the erucic acid contents of seeds may provide useful guidance for LEA breeding. The discovery of the LEA resource in B. rapa can be exploited in Brasscia cultivation.

  10. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  11. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops. PMID:26519408

  12. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  13. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA LINN. (PURSLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuri Vidyullatha Chowdhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea belongs to the family of Portulacaceae in the traditional system of medicine and consists of large number of various medicinal and pharmacological importances hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Portulaca oleracea consists of number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuronal, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This review helps to create an interest in Portulaca oleracea in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economic value.

  14. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA LINN. (PURSLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuri Vidyullatha Chowdhary; Anusha Meruva; Naresh K; Ranjith Kumar A. Elumalai

    2013-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea belongs to the family of Portulacaceae in the traditional system of medicine and consists of large number of various medicinal and pharmacological importances hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Portulaca oleracea consists of number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuronal, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This review helps to create an interest in Portulaca oleracea in developing new form...

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Brassica rapa Near-Isogenic Lines Carrying Clubroot-Resistant and -Susceptible Alleles in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Early Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Pang, Wenxing; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2) and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2) Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1875, and 2103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 h after inoculation (hai). Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins), PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection. PMID:26779217

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica rapa near-isogenic lines carrying clubroot-resistant and –susceptible alleles in response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during early infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2 and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2 Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1,875 and 2,103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 hours after inoculation (hai. Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins, PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection.

  17. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation ...

  18. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinacia oleracea (spinach of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Spinacia oleracea powder at 200mg and 400 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  19. Analysis of xylem sap proteins from Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giavalisco Patrick

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance transport in higher land plants is mediated by vascular bundles, consisting of phloem and xylem strands that interconnect all plant organs. While the phloem mainly allocates photoassimilates, the role of the xylem is the transport of water and inorganic nutrients from roots to all aerial plant parts. Only recently it was noticed that in addition to mineral salts, xylem sap contains organic nutrients and even proteins. Although these proteins might have important impact on the performance of above-ground organs, only a few of them have been identified so far and their physiological functions are still unclear. Results We used root-pressure xylem exudate, collected from cut Brassica napus stems, to extract total proteins. These protein preparations were then separated by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE. After individual tryptic digests of the most abundant coomassie-stained protein spots, partial peptide sequence information was deduced from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS fragmentation spectra and subsequently used for protein identifications by database searches. This approach resulted in the identification of 69 proteins. These identifications include different proteins potentially involved in defence-related reactions and cell wall metabolism. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive overview of the most abundant proteins present in xylem sap of Brassica napus. A number of 69 proteins could be identified from which many previously were not known to be localized to this compartment in any other plant species. Since Brassica napus, a close relative of the fully sequenced model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used as the experimental system, our results provide a large number of candidate proteins for directed molecular and biochemical analyses of the physiological functions of the xylem under different environmental and developmental conditions. This approach will allow exploiting

  20. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants

  1. Sample (S): SE25_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Satsuki Jouou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. ...capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  2. Sample (S): SE25_S06 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S06 Brassica oleracea var. capitata K7-705 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  3. Sample (S): SE25_S07 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S07 Brassica oleracea var. capitata T-767 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brass...ica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  4. Sample (S): SE25_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S03 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Satsukiou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  5. Sample (S): SE27_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field under normal film. ...

  6. Sample (S): SE25_S05 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S05 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  7. Sample (S): SE25_S10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S10 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanpachi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capit...ata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  8. Sample (S): SE25_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanroku Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field. ...

  9. Sample (S): SE27_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field. ...

  10. Sample (S): SE25_S09 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S09 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Teruyoshi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  11. Sample (S): SE27_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S03 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field under UV film. ...

  12. Sample (S): SE25_S08 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S08 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  13. Sample (S): SE26_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Seisyun Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions with 0t compost treatment. ...

  14. Sample (S): SE25_S04 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S04 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kinkei201gou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. c...apitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  15. Sample (S): SE26_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Seisyun Leaf Brassica oleracea var. cap...itata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions with 6t compost treatment. ...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PORTULACA OLERACEA

    OpenAIRE

    DHAVAL PATEL; N R Sheth; S.D.SANJA; BIRAJU PATEL

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea. The methanolic extract was evaluated by TLC and HPTLC fingerprint method. Anti-oxidant activity of methanolic extract was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power by FeCl3, nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity, super oxide scavenging activity by alkaline DMSO method.

  17. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri� plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  18. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Schreiner, M.; Krumbein, A.; Ciska, E.; Holst, B.; Rowland, I.; Schrijver, de R.; Hansen, M.; Gerhäuser, C.; Mithen, R.; Dekker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these veg

  19. Arsenic accumulation in Brassicaceae seedlings and its effects on growth and plant anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas-Silva, Larisse; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; de Araujo, João Marcos

    2016-02-01

    We wished to evaluate the effects of arsenic on the morphology and anatomy of Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus, Brassica juncea, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Brassica oleracea var. italica. Seeds were subjected to concentrations 0µM, 250µM, 350µM and 450µM arsenic in the form of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O) during 12 days. All species accumulated more arsenic in the roots than in the shoots, except for B. oleracea var. capitata. There was no difference of translocation factor between species and treatments. Growth decrease was observed in roots of B. oleracea and R. sativus, and in shoots of R. sativus and B. oleracea var. italica. All species presented anatomical alterations in the roots, such as: cell hypertrophy, protoplast retraction, cellular plasmolysis, and necrotic regions. B. juncea presented collapse and hypertrophy of cells from the leaf blade tissues. Quantitative anatomical analyses performed on the root and leaves of B. oleracea and B. juncea revealed that arsenic interfered on the root vascular cylinder diameter and on height of epidermal cells of the adaxial leaf surface of both species. We concluded that arsenic was absorbed from the culture medium and induced alterations both on root and shoot growth of the seedlings. Retention of arsenic within the root was responsible for major damage in this organ. PMID:26435391

  20. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions. PMID:26948011

  1. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  2. The suppressive effect of a commercial extract from Durvillaea potatorum and Ascophyllum nodosum on infection of broccoli by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Wite, D.; Mattner, S. W.; Porter, I. J.; Arioli, T.

    2015-01-01

    A sand solution technique demonstrated the capacity for a commercial seaweed extract from Durvillaea potatorum and Ascophyllum nodosum (Seasol Commercial®) to significantly suppress infection of broccoli by Plasmodiophora brassicae. In the primary stages of infection, the extract reduced the number of plasmodia formed in the root hairs by 55 %. Later, in the secondary stages of infection, the extract reduced plasmodia in the root cortical cells by up to 84 %. The suppression of infection was ...

  3. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  4. Salicylic acid and salicylic acid glucoside in xylem sap of Brassica napus infected with Verticillium longisporum

    OpenAIRE

    Ratzinger, Astrid; Riediger, Nadine; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Karlovsky, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and its glucoside (SAG) were detected in xylem sap of Brassica napus by HPLC–MS. Concentrations of SA and SAG in xylem sap from the root and hypocotyl of the plant, and in extracts of shoots above the hypocotyl, increased after infection with the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum. Both concentrations were correlated with disease severity assessed as the reduction in shoot length. Furthermore, SAG levels in shoot extracts were correlated with the amount of V. longi...

  5. Comparison of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Brassica juncea in soil and hydroponic cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Armas, Teresa; Pinto, Ana Paula; de Varennes, Amarilis; Mourato, Manuel Pedro; Martins, Luisa Louro; Gonçalves, Maria de Lurdes Simões; Mota, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims The objective of this study was to investigate the response of Brassica juncea in the presence of Cd, in hydroponic and soil experiments, and to conclude about common and divergent trends in both cultures. Methods We studied the effect of Cd on growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses in roots and shoots of B. juncea grown in soil and hydroponic cultures, using typical time-scales for each one. Major ROS-scavenging enzymes such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase a...

  6. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus.

  7. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Lu, Kun; Qu, Cunmin; Liang, Ying; Wang, Rui; Chai, Yourong; Li, Jiana

    2013-01-01

    Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat) is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea) were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus. PMID:23613820

  8. Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

  9. The Role of Primary and Secondary Infection in Host Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mary Ruth; Sharma, Kalpana; Gossen, Bruce D; Deora, Abhinandan; Feng, Jie; Hwang, Sheau-Fang

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT The disease cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae consists of a primary phase in root hairs followed by a secondary phase in the root cortex and adjacent tissues. However, the role of root hair infection in subsequent cortical infection and development of P. brassicae is not well understood. To examine the role of the primary and secondary stages separately, inoculation studies with resting spores (source of primary zoospores) and secondary zoospores of a virulent and avirulent pathotype were conducted on canola (Brassica napus). The size of secondary zoospores and number of nuclei were also examined. The zoospores were larger (≈9.6 to 14.4 μm) than in previous reports and all were uninucleate. Inoculation with secondary zoospores alone produced both primary and secondary infection, even with the avirulent pathotype. No symptoms developed from inoculation with avirulent primary zoospores but tiny, bead-shaped clubs developed from inoculation with avirulent secondary zoospores. Inoculation with virulent secondary zoospores alone resulted in lower disease severity than inoculation with virulent resting spores alone. The results indicate that recognition of infection by the host and initiation of a response (induction or suppression of resistance) occurs during primary infection, although recognition can also occur during cortical infection and development. PMID:24655290

  10. The Clubroot Pathogen (Plasmodiophora brassicae Influences Auxin Signaling to Regulate Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease, caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, affects cruciferous crops worldwide. It is characterized by root swellings as symptoms, which are dependent on the alteration of auxin and cytokinin metabolism. Here, we describe that two different classes of auxin receptors, the TIR family and the auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated upon gall formation. Mutations in the TIR family resulted in more susceptible reactions to the root pathogen. As target genes for the different pathways we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of selected transcriptional repressors (Aux/IAA and transcription factors (ARF. As the TIR pathway controls auxin homeostasis via the upregulation of some auxin conjugate synthetases (GH3, the expression of selected GH3 genes was also investigated, showing in most cases upregulation. A double gh3 mutant showed also slightly higher susceptibility to P. brassicae infection, while all tested single mutants did not show any alteration in the clubroot phenotype. As targets for the ABP1-induced cell elongation the effect of potassium channel blockers on clubroot formation was investigated. Treatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA resulted in less severe clubroot symptoms. This research provides evidence for the involvement of two auxin signaling pathways in Arabidopsis needed for the establishment of the root galls by P. brassicae.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dulcelena Ferreira; Vidal, Flávia Castello Branco; Santos, Debora; Costa, Maria Célia Pires; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, Maria; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malig...

  12. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    OpenAIRE

    Ledo Ana da Silva; Lameira Osmar Alves; Benbadis Abdellatif Kemaleddine; Menezes Ilmarina Campos de; Oliveira Maria do Socorro Padilha de; Medeiros Filho Sebastião

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primar...

  13. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  14. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes. PMID:26084520

  15. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaczmarek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP technique has been elaborated. The set of three primer pairs was designed using LAMP software. The detection was performed with the GspSSD polymerase, isolated from bacteria Geobacillus sp., with strand displacement activity. DNA extraction from clubbed roots obtained from farmers’ fields of oilseed rape infected by P. brassicae was done using a modified CTAB method. The reaction was performed for 60 min at 62oC. The visual detection was done using CFX96 Real Time PCR Detection System (BioRad or Gerie II Amplicatior (Optigen. The detection with LAMP proved its usefulness; it was easy, fast and accurate and independent of plant age. The detection limit was 5 spores per 1 µl of the spore suspension, so LAMP was less sensitive than quantitative PCR tests reported in the literature. However, the method is cheap and simple, so it is a good alternative, when it comes to practical use and the assessment of numerous samples.

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana dos frutos de Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus oleracea and Mauritia vinifera fruits

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. SILVEIRA; C.M. Pessanha; M.C.S. Lourenço; I. Neves Junior; F.S. Menezes; M.A.C. Kaplan

    2005-01-01

    As espécies pertencentes à família Palmae são muito interessantes do ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Neste trabalho, foram estudados os frutos de duas espécies da família Palmae, Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera. Essas palmeiras foram escolhidas por serem espécies brasileiras, abundantes em nosso país, utilizadas popularmente no tratamento de algumas doenças e ainda pouco estudadas. Foram realizados ensaios farmacológicos para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos...

  17. Soil pH and nutrient uptake in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in Northern Sweden. Multielement studies by means of plant and soil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Margareta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-07-01

    To reveal nutrient element deficiencies or imbalances limiting vegetable production in northern Sweden, multielement soil and plant analyses were performed in cauliflower and broccoli during the period 1989 to 1996. The pH range of the soils was 4.4-8. 1. The results were evaluated with the multivariate statistical methods PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Partial Least Squares Projection to Latent Structures). The major yield-limiting elements were Mg, B, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu. This was a result of high soil pH and large content of Ca in the soil. The reason for B deficiency was also low B content in the soil. Applications of green mulch increased yield on soils with a pH below 6.0. It also increased the uptake and concentration in the plants of B, Ba, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Se and Zn, and decreased the uptake and concentration of Al, Cs and Tl. The mineral fertilizer applied, NPK 11-5-18 micro, decreased soil pH. This has resulted in larger uptake and higher concentrations in the plants of Co and Mn, in comparison to where cattle manure was applied. This fertilizer strongly decreased uptake of Mo, as a result of both the acidifying effect and the large S content. Repeated applications of nitrate of lime in combination with the NPK 11-5-18 strongly increased the uptake of Cs by the plants. The results in this investigation, together with the literature reviews, strongly indicate that a relatively low soil pH (5.0-5.5) is favourable when organic fertilizers are used and that harmful effects of very low soil pH (<5.0), are ameliorated by organic materials but aggravated by mineral fertilizers. The main purpose of lime is to counteract the acidity and increased leaching created by mineral fertilizers. Because of the historical context in which the lime requirements were established, the dangers of acid soils appear to have been strongly overestimated.

  18. Distribution, Transportation and Cytolocalization of Neodymium in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏幼璋

    2001-01-01

    Observation with the transmission electronic microscopy shows that Nd can not enter into the cytoplasm of oilseed rape (brassica napus L.) in solution culture. It combines with the cell wall or amasses in the intercellular space. Nd accumulates in root tip after it enters into the plants, while only a small amount of Nd is transferred to the stem and leaf via apoplasm, and the leaf contains the least of Nd. Such observations are consistent with the analytical results of Nd distribution in rape tissues in soil culture experiment. It suggests that the physiological effects of Nd in plants might mainly function on plasmalemma of root system.

  19. Toxicity of zinc and copper to Brassica species: Implications for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The toxicity of Zn and Cu in three species from the genus Brassica was examined to determine if these plants showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate a site contaminated with these two heavy metals. Hydroponically grown 12-d-old plants of Brassica juncea, B. rapa, and B. napus were grown for an additional 14 d in the presence of either elevated Zn (6.5 mg L{sup {minus}1}), Cu (0.32 mg L{sup {minus}1}), or Zn+Cu to quantify the toxic effects of these metals on several different growth parameters. With few exceptions, both root and shoot dry weight for all three species decreased significantly in the presence of heavy metals. Cu inhibited lateral root elongation in B. rapa, B. napus, and, to a lesser extent, B. juncea, while Zn tended to decrease only lateral root diameter. Both metals reduced shoot Fe and Mn concentrations in all three Brassica spp. to levels associated with Fe and Mn deficiencies. These deficiencies, however, did not correlate with observed patterns of leaf chlorosis. Nonetheless, heavy metal-induced inhibition of Fe and Mn accumulation may have been a significant factor in reducing plant growth. In terms of heavy metal removal, the Brassica spp, were more effective at removing Zn from the nutrient solution than Cu. The extent of Zn and Cu removal was reduced in the presence of both metals, as compared to the single heavy metal treatments. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  2. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...

  3. Effect of Heavy Metal Ions and Carbohydrates on the Activity of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea Var. botrytis Myrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash, Om

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase is an enzyme of cruciferous vegetables, hydrolyse glucosinolates. The breakdown products are involved in plant defence against insect and also have anti-fungal property. Myrosinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from 5 days old germinated cauliflower seedlings having a specific activity of 12.71 units/mg proteins with 54.6 % recovery, using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Effect of some metal ions and carbohydrates on the activity of partially purified cauliflower myrosinase was studied. Sr+2 at 4 mM concentration exhibited marked activating effect on the activity up to 2.7 fold while Fe+2 significantly inhibited. However, Sn+2 and Ba+2 increased the activity to a certain extent and then suppressed. On the other hand, some metal ions [Fe+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Zn+2] strongly inhibited the activity even at lower concentrations. Several carbohydrates viz., glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and sorbitol even at comparatively higher concentrations had little detectable inhibitory effects. Activation kinetics of myrosinase in presence of Sn+2 and Sr+2 were studied between 0- 20min. The rate of reaction was almost constant till 15 min and then slight deactivation was recorded at various concentrations used.

  4. Radiation processing for enhancing shelf life and quality characteristics of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower samples were irradiated, stored at 4℃ for 21 days. The samples were analyzed for nutritional, physiochemical and sensory quality periodically at intervals of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. An irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy enhanced the microbial quality and extended shelf life by 7 days without significant losses in quality attributes. Non irradiated control samples showed the highest total bacterial counts (TBC) and yeast - mold count (YMC), around 5 log cfu g-1 respectively over the period of 21 days of storage, while in all irradiated samples TBC and YMC were maintained in the range of 1-2 log cfu g-1 till 21st days. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were significantly increased on irradiation (0.5 kGy) while no significant effect was noted in texture, total ascorbate content and flavonoid content. (author)

  5. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yi, Go-Eun; Laila, Rawnak; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye Ran; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA). The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062) and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation. PMID:27322230

  6. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  7. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29-6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  8. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1, la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilización  química,  y  la  totalidad  de  la fertilización  química.  Se  utilizó  un  diseño completamente al azar. La cachaza fue aplicada 20 días antes del  trasplante y en  la cosecha se evaluó el rendimiento, área foliar, masa fresca y masa seca. Con diferencias estadísticas, el mejor tratamiento fue la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1 cachaza y 50% del requerimiento de fertilización química, el cual  fue  responsable del mayor  rendimiento del cultivo, área  foliar, masa  fresca de cabeza, raíz y total, masa seca de cabeza, hojas y total. Con 0 ý 20 t·ha-1 de cachaza no hubo formación de  cabeza  en  las  plantas,  por  deficiencias  y excesos nutricionales,  respectivamente. Así,  la cachaza  fresca  en mezcla  con  el  fertilizante químico se convierte en una buena alternativa de fertilización del cultivo de repollo, lo cual, a la  vez,  permite darle  un  uso  adecuado  a  este material orgánico.

  9. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. PMID:26093223

  10. ADAPTABILITY, FERTILIZER EFFECT AND NUTRITION CONTENT OF VARIOUS BROCCOLI CULTIVAR (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUCED IN KOPANG, CENTRAL LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of eight introduced broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design ( RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B - 106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira; Adriana Menezes Salgueiro; Tayná Sequeira Valério; Marina das Neves Gomes; Isadora Simões Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are...

  12. Bedeutung von Ackerbohnendichtsaat und Horngries für den Ertrag bei Brokkoli (Brassica oleracea convar. Botrytis var. italica)

    OpenAIRE

    Veh, Christine; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Claupein, Wilhelm; Zikeli, Sabine; Ziehm, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Close seeding of field beans (Vicia faba) has been regarded for several years as an option in organic agriculture for the short-term introduction of nitrogen into production systems. At the same time faba bean potentially supplies nitrogen (N) to crops and soil by N2 fixation and nitrogen release when crop biomass is finally mulched. The main objective of this project was to investigate and develop a method of N-supply to meet the demand of broccoli using organic N-sources. Based on the resul...

  13. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable

  14. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable.

  15. Formulasi Sediaan Lipstik Dengan Ekstrak Kubis Merah (Brassica oleraceae var capitata L.f. rubra (L) Thell) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Unirah, Uni

    2011-01-01

    Red cabbage has the potential to be used as an alternative to natural dyes because it has an attractive colour. The red colour of the cabbage is caused by anthocyanin pigments which are flavonoid compounds. Anthocyanins have with various benefits, one of them as a natural dye that can replace synthetic dyes, especially for dyes in lipstick preparations. Lipstick formulation comprised of several components such as cera alba, lanolin, petroleum jelly alba, cetyl alcohol, oleum ricini, cetace...

  16. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation.

  17. Yield and Quality Components of Broccoli Cultivars (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L. Alef. var. italica Plenck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Toth

    1998-12-01

    According to total yield in the three investigation years it was not possible to point out any cultivar. The highest yield and average weight of top inflorescences was achieved with cultivars Fiesta, Bolivia, Platini and Viking (6.3, 6.2, 6.2 and 6.0 t×ha -1 , resp. 169, 168, 168 and 162 g. Evaluation of the compactness of these inflorescences suggest an exceptional strength. Cultivars Citation and Cruiser excel as regards the production and yield of side inflorescences (2.2 and 2.4 t×ha -1 . For the broccoli production in north-west Croatia during the summer-autumn period recommended cultivars for fresh consumption are Bolivia, Fiesta, Platini and Viking and for processing industries Citation and Cruser.

  18. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  19. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  20. KAJIAN SAAT PEMBERIAN PUPUK DASAR NITROGEN DAN UMUR BIBIT PADA TANAMAN BROKOLI (Brassica oleraceae var. Italica Planck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research to know the influence of nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seedling after transplanting to growth and harvest of broccoli. The research was done Sumber Brantas Batu. It is a factorial experiment using plot design. There are two factor with three times replications. Factor I (main terrace is nitrogen base fertilizer timing consist of N0, N1 and N2 where nitrogen  fertilizer given at 0, 7th and  14th day after plant. Factor II  is broccoli seed age consist of  B1, B2, B3 and B4 where seed age are 3, 4, 5 and 6 week. The result of this experiment shows that nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seed can increase growth and harvest of broccoli.  Seed age  5 and 6 give plant height, leave quantity and stem diameter higher  than other age observation. Seed age 3 and 4 week give fresh weight of flower plant 414.53 g/plant. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing at 7th day after planting and seed age at 5th  week give leave width, leave width index, total dry weight and harvest higher than other observation. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing and seed age at 5th  week cause plant quick flowering (52th day and harvest (72th day. While  combination treatment  nitrogen base fertilizer timing 14th after flowering  and seed age at 4th week give the highest fresh weight flower that is 2855 g/m2.

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  2. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  3. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on Euterpe oleracea mart. (açaí seedlings Efeitos da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em mudas de Euterpe oleracea mart. (açaí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ying Chu

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of verifying the response of Euterpe oleracea seedlings to seven arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, an experimental trial was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Seeds of E. oleracea were sown in carbonized rice husk. Germinating seeds were initially transferred to plastic cups, containing fumigated Reddish Yellow Quartz Sand and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Two months later, seedlings were transferred to 2 kg black plastic bags, containing the same soil without fumigation. Plant growth and mineral nutrients were evaluated nine months after mycorrhizal inoculation. Differential effects were observed among the species tested, with Scutellispora gilmorei being the most effective ones in promoting growth and nutrient content of E. oleracea seedlings. The increment resulted from inoculation with S. gilmorei were 92% in total plant height, 116% in stem diameter, 361% in dry matter production, 191% in N, 664% in P, 46% in K, 562% in Ca, 363% in Mg and 350% in Zn contents, comparing to uninoculated controls. Infected root length was positively correlated to nutrient content and plant growth. It was concluded that growth and nutrient uptake of E. oleracea seedlings could be significantly improved by inoculation of effective arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.Com objetivo de verificar a resposta das plântulas de Euterpe oleracea Mart. à inoculação de sete espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Sementes de E. oleracea germinadas em casca de arroz carbonizada foram inicialmente transferidas para copos de plástico contendo Areia Quartzosa Vermelho-Amarela fumigada, e nelas inoculados fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Dois meses depois, as plântulas foram repassadas para sacos de plástico preto contendo o mesmo solo, sem fumigação. Foram avaliados o crescimento e a nutrição mineral das plantas nove meses após a inoculação. Efeitos diferenciados

  4. Secondary Metabolism in Brassica Rapa Under Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Darnell, Rebecca; Allen, Joan; Musgrave, Mary; Bisbee, Patricia

    Effect of altered gravity on secondary metabolism is of critical importance not only from the viewpoint of plant evolution, but also of productivity (carbon partition between edible and non-edible parts), plant fitness, as well as culinary and nutraceutical values to human diet. Previous work found that lignin content decreases in microgravity as the need for mechanical support decreases, while the response of other small molecular secondary metabolites to microgravity varies. Our recent ISS experiment showed that 3-butenyl glucosinolate (a predominant glucosinolate in Brassica rapa) increased in stems of B. rapa grown in the microgravity conditions. To further elucidate the role of gravity in plant secondary metabolism, a series of hypergravity (the other end of gravity spectrum) experiments were carried out using the 24-ft centrifuge at Ames Research Center. Thirteen-day-old B. rapa L. (cv. Astroplants) were transferred to the Plant Growth Facility attached to the centrifuge following previous experimental conditions, and subsequently grown for 16 days. Plants were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilized prior to analysis for glucosinolates and lignin. In general, glucosinolate concentration was the highest in stems, followed by leaves, then roots. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly lower in stems of the 2-g and 4-g plants - averaging 4.6 and 2.5 ng/g DW, respectively - compared with the stationary control plants, which averaged 7.9 ng/g DW. Similarly, there was a 2.2-fold and 7.5-fold decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate in roots of the 2-g and 4-g plants, respectively, compared with the control (2.6 ng/g DW). There was a significant decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate concentration in leaves of the 4-g compared to leaves of the control plants (2.6 and 4.5 ng/g DW, respectively); however, there was no effect of 2-g on leaf glucosinolate concentration. Increasing gravity from 1-g to 2-g to 4-g generally resulted in further

  5. Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra; Viswakarma, Navin; Bhattacharya, Ram Charan; Grover, Anita

    2003-09-01

    Chitinase, capable of degrading the cell walls of invading phytopathogenic fungi, plays an important role in plant defense response, particularly when this enzyme is overexpressed through genetic engineering. In the present study, Brassica plant (Brassica juncea L.) was transformed with chitinase gene tagged with an overexpressing promoter 35 S CaMV. The putative transgenics were assayed for their inhibitory activity against Alternaria brassicae, the inducer of Alternaria leaf spot of Brassica both in vitro and under polyhouse conditions. In in vitro fungal growth inhibition assays, chitinase inhibited the fungal colony size by 12-56% over the non-trangenic control. The bioassay under artificial epiphytotic conditions revealed the delay in the onset of disease as well as reduced lesion number and size in 35S-chitinase Brassica as compared to the untransformed control plants. PMID:14570264

  6. Conservation and expression patterns divergence of ascorbic acid D-mannose/L-galactose pathway genes in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weike eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AsA participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome, Brassica oleracea (C genome and Brassica napus (AC genome. However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. i VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. ii Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. iii Under NaCl, Cu2+, MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments.

  7. Portulaca oleracea inhibit vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy: involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ channels

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    L. Mohana Rupa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study reveal the antinociceptive effect of P. oleracea in vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy and involving ATP-sensitive potassium channels pathway. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 474-478

  8. Effects of Portulaca Oleracea on Insulin Resistance in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 陆付耳

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Portulaca oleracea, a Chinese medicinal herb, on insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Experimental model of T2DM was established by injection of streptozotocin (25mg/kg) and feeding with high calorie forage. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on oral glucose tolerance, serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol and free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity index were all observed. Results: Portulaca oleracea could reduce the body weight, improve the impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, decrease serum free fatty acids, attenuate hyperinsulinemia and elevate insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea could improve insulin resistance in rats with T2DM, and the mechanism might be related to its actions in improving lipid metabolism and decreasing free fatty acids.

  9. Responses of Different Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) Cultivars to Cu Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dong-Mei; XUE Yan; LIU Xiao-Hong; HAO Xiu-Zhen; CHEN Huai-Man; SHEN Zhen-Guo; SI You-Bin

    2005-01-01

    Two pot experiments with a completely random design and 4 replications were performed in a greenhouse to examine the response difference of 17 cultivars of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in a Cu-spiked and a clean soil to Cu.relatively tolerant. When the 17 cultivars of pakchoi grew in clean garden soil, the Cu concentrations in the aboveground part were positively correlated (r = 0.6693) with their root Cu concentrations. However, when they grew in the Cu-spiked soil a highly negative correlation coefficient (r = -0.5376) was obtained in the Cu concentration between the aboveground part and the root. This meant that the Cu tolerant cultivars had a weak ability to transfer Cu from their root to their aboveground part, and therefore stored much more Cu in their root than the Cu sensitive cultivars.

  10. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kumar Nayak; Dilipkumar Pal; Dipti Ranjan Pany; Biswaranjan Mohanty

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared w...

  11. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture. PMID:15793823

  12. Effect of Water Extract Originated from Different Part of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate probable allelopathic effect of water extract originated from different parts of russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at greenhouse condition in 2011. Treatments were water extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent obtained from different part of russian knapweed (aerial part, flower and root. Results showed the significant effect of extract type on seedling length, and extract concentration on shoot length, root length and seedling length. Interaction effect between extract type and concentration on the ratio of root/shoot length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight and germination percentage was significant, too. Means comparison indicated that the longest root (3.55 cm, shoot (4.65 cm and seedling (8.20 cm were obtained from control treatment, reducing with higher concentration of extract. The longest shoot (6.95 cm belonged to extract originated from russian knapweed flowers. The highest ratio of root/shoot length (0.73, seedling fresh weight (0.61g and seedling dry weight (0.044 g belonged to control treatment. In general, increasing of extract concentration caused in reduction of germination and seedling traits. Meanwhile, extracts of aerial part had more sever reducing effect than root and flower extracts.

  13. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  14. Photoacoustic Study of Fungal Disease of Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Denise V.; Nunes, O. A. C.; Oliveira, A. C.

    2009-10-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is introduced as a promising experimental technique to investigate fungus infected Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) seeds. Photoacoustic spectra of healthy and infected Acai seeds with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were recorded firstly in the modulation frequency range of 5Hz to 700 Hz, while keeping the wavelength of excitation radiation of a Xe arc-lamp constant, to ascertain the depth of penetration of infection within the seed and secondly, at variable wavelength (wavelength scanning) in the interval 250nm to 1,000 nm, while keeping the modulation frequency constant. In the former, the photoacoustic signal strength from the infected seed was found higher than that of the healthy one, and has been associated with the appearance of new biomolecules associated with the pathogen infection. In the latter, characteristics peaks and bands were observed in the range from 650 nm to 900 nm ascribed to organic compounds with carboxylates and amines (functional groups) forming the typical metabolic structures of the fungus.

  15. The risks of introduction of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea in the Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, F C S; Sampaio-E-Silva, T A; Matos, D M S; Antunes, A Z

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis. PMID:26909625

  16. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantappa B. Nayaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30. The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The Rf value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82. Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18 and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ±  0.01 have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ±  0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  17. Genetics and Molecular Mapping of Black Rot Resistance Locus Xca1bc on Chromosome B-7 in Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Bihari; Kalia, Pritam; Yadava, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2016-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pam.) Dowson is the most destructive disease of cauliflower causing huge loss to the farmers throughout the world. Since there are limited sources of resistance to black rot in B. oleracea (C genome Brassica), exploration of A and B genomes of Brassica was planned as these were thought to be potential reservoirs of black rot resistance gene(s). In our search for new gene(s) for black rot resistance, F2 mapping population was developed in Brassica carinata (BBCC) by crossing NPC-17, a susceptible genotype with NPC-9, a resistant genotype. Out of 364 Intron length polymorphic markers and microsatellite primers used in this study, 41 distinguished the parental lines. However, resistant and susceptible bulks could be distinguished by three markers At1g70610, SSR Na14-G02 and At1g71865 which were used for genotyping of F2 mapping population. These markers were placed along the resistance gene, according to order, covering a distance of 36.30 cM. Intron length polymorphic markers At1g70610 and At1g71865 were found to be linked to black rot resistance locus (Xca1bc) at 6.2 and 12.8 cM distance, respectively. This is the first report of identification of markers linked to Xca1bc locus in Brassica carinata on B-7 linkage group. Intron length polymorphic markers provided a novel and attractive option for marker assisted selection due to high cross transferability and cost effectiveness for marker assisted alien gene introgression into cauliflower. PMID:27023128

  18. Roots Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  19. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  20. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  1. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits. PMID:24204591

  2. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  3. Analysis of cytosine methylation in early generations of resynthesized Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Li-ping; FANG Ting-ting; RONG Hao; JIANG Jin-jin; FANG Yu-jie; WANG You-ping

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modiifcation, serves as a key function in the polyploidization of numerous crops. In this study, early generations of resynthesizedBrassica napus (F1, S1–S3), ancestral parentsB. rapaandB. oleracea were analyzed to characterize their DNA methylation status during polyploidization, applying DNA methylation-sensitive ampliifca-tion polymorphism (MSAP) and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. InF1, 53.4% fragments were inherited from both A- and C-genomes. Besides, 5.04 and 8.87% fragments inF1 were inherited from A- and C- genome, respectively. 5.85 and 0.8% fragments were newly appeared and disappeared in resynthesizedB. napus, respectively. 13.1% of these gene sites were identiifed with methylation changes inF1, namely, hypermethylation (7.86%) and hypomethylation (5.24%). The lowest methylation status was detected inF1 (38.7%) compared with in S1–S3. In S3, 40.32% genes were methylated according to MSAP analysis. Sequencing of methylated fragments indicated that genes involved in multiple biological processes were modiifed, including transcription factors, protein modiifcation, and transporters. Expression ananlysis of DNA methyltransferase 1 andDNA methyltransferase chromomethylase 3 in different materials was consistent to the DNA methylation status. These results can generaly facilitate dissection of how DNA methylation contributes to genetic stability and improvement ofB. napus during polyploidization.

  4. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  5. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  6. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  7. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  8. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Cheng-Zhen; Li Ying; Zhang Shu-Ning; Zheng Jin-Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36) were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary) were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid pl...

  9. Genetic structure and diversity of a collection of Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. revealed by simple sequence repeat markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. includes three different crops: turnips (roots), turnip greens (leaves) and turnip tops (inflorescences). A collection of B. rapa subsp. rapa from north-western Spain is currently kept at 'Mision Biologica de Galicia' (a research centre of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Spain). This collection has been characterized based on morphological and agronomical traits. A better understanding of the genetic diversity present in the collection ...

  10. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Graora; Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Wolfgang Büchs; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić; Tanja Gotlin-Čuljak

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.). It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction....

  11. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  12. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  13. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  14. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  15. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitizing Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1964-01-01

    The nomenclature of the perfect and imperfect stages of Mycosphaerella brassicicola (Duby) Lind. and Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & De Not. is discussed. The imperfect stages of these two parasites of Brassica spp. are often confused. Mycosphaerella brassicicola has a spermagonial stage with

  16. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits. PMID:27353735

  17. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  18. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  19. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  20. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  1. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pingxia; Liu Bo; Sun Silong; Fang Lu; Wu Jian; Liu Shengyi; Cheng Feng; Hua Wei; Wang Xiaowu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. D...

  2. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  3. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  4. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Supply on Spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.) Growth and SoilMineral N Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of conventional and optimized water and nitrogen managements on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)growth and soil mineral N (Nmin) residues were compared in an open field experiment in which water balance method and N recommendation with the KNS-system were included. It was shown that the conventional water treatment (seasonal irrigated amount: 175 mm) reduced spinach growth compared to the water balance treatments (seasonal irrigated amount: 80 and 85 mm) at the same N supply level due to N loss through leaching caused by excessive water supply. Although 309 kg N ha-1 was applied in the conventional N treatment, compared to 82 and 66 kg N ha-1 in the optimum N treatments, no significant difference in crop yield was investigated between the N treatments with the same irrigation practice. N uptake in spinach and soil residual Nmin contents were also significantly affected by the irrigation practices. The conventional water supply not only decreased water use efficiency, but also resulted in excessive NO-3-N being leached below the root zone. In order to meet the same target value of N requirement for the next crop, cauliflower, based on the KNS-system, at least extra 50 kg N ha-1 was needed in the conventional water treatments in comparison to the water balance treatment.

  5. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper. PMID:19035553

  6. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants. PMID:25475618

  7. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

  8. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola, each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12 and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12 and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3 were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides

  9. The evolution of Brassica napus FLOWERING LOCUST paralogues in the context of inverted chromosomal duplication blocks

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    Zhao Jianwei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and its orthologues play a central role in the integration of flowering signals within Arabidopsis and other diverse species. Multiple copies of FT, with different cis-intronic sequence, exist and appear to operate harmoniously within polyploid crop species such as Brassica napus (AACC, a member of the same plant family as Arabidopsis. Results We have identified six BnFT paralogues from the genome of B. napus and mapped them to six distinct regions, each of which is homologous to a common ancestral block (E of Arabidopsis chromosome 1. Four of the six regions were present within inverted duplicated regions of chromosomes A7 and C6. The coding sequences of BnFT paralogues showed 92-99% identities to each other and 85-87% identity with that of Arabidopsis. However, two of the paralogues on chromosomes A2 and C2, BnA2.FT and BnC2.FT, were found to lack the distinctive CArG box that is located within intron 1 that has been shown in Arabidopsis to be the binding site for theFLC protein. Three BnFT paralogues (BnA2.FT, BnC6.FT.a and BnC6.FT.b were associated with two major QTL clusters for flowering time. One of the QTLs encompassing two BnFT paralogues (BnC6.FT.a and BnC6.FT.b on chromosome C6 was resolved further using near isogenic lines, specific alleles of which were both shown to promote flowering. Association analysis of the three BnFT paralogues across 55 cultivars of B. napus showed that the alleles detected in the original parents of the mapping population used to detect QTL (NY7 and Tapidor were ubiquitous amongst spring and winter type cultivars of rapeseed. It was inferred that the ancestral FT homologues in Brassica evolved from two distinct copies, one of which was duplicated along with inversion of the associated chromosomal segment prior to the divergence of B. rapa (AA and B. oleracea (CC. At least ten such inverted duplicated blocks (IDBs were identified covering a quarter of the

  10. High Resolution Imaging of in situ Root Hair Development to Assess Oilseed Species Responses to Water Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hammac, Warren Ashley; Pan, William; Bolton, Ronald; Koenig, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Understanding crop root morphology will enable better understanding of nutrient uptake efficiency and ultimately improve crop management. The ability to observe the rhizosphere with high resolution scanners will allow characterization of root-soil interactions in real-time. High resolution (4800 dpi) desktop scanners were buried in containers filled with soil to characterize root hair development under two water availability levels (-63 and -188 kPa) for canola (Brassica napus), camelina (C...

  11. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded...

  12. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  13. Root damage and aboveground herbivory change concentration and composition of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio jacobaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Macel, M.; Van Veen, J.A.; van der Meijden, E.

    2004-01-01

    Thus far not many studies focussed on how herbivory in one plant part affects plant defence in the other. The effects of root damage and a leaf-feeding herbivore (Mamestra brassicae) on pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) levels of Senecio jacobaea were investigated in a controlled environment. Three cloned

  14. Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ning; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Shuning; Liang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoid compounds. As a group of important secondary metabolites, they perform several key biological functions in plants. Anthocyanins also play beneficial health roles as potentially protective factors against cancer and heart disease. To elucidate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa on a genome-wide level. Results In total, we identified 73 genes in...

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days. The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST, alanine transaminases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P, total bilirubin (TB, total protein (TP and total cholesterol (TC], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST and histopathological studies of liver. Results : Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions : The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl 4 hepatotoxicity in rats.

  16. Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan Navarrete, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within

  17. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  18. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  19. Antioxidant capacities of seven flavonoid compounds isolated from pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pulp of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), ...

  20. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  1. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

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    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  2. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  3. The influence of phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium in Panicum miliaceum and Brassica alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Ute Susanne; Székely, Balázs; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium (Ge) in biomass two species, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) and white mustard (Brassica alba) were grown and sampled in a greenhouse experiment. The cultivation took place on two different substrates. The plants were fertilized with different nutrient solutions which differed in their phosphate content, and artificial addition of Ge was held via the casting solution. During the test period, measurements of the pH value, electric conductivity, and phosphate content of the soil solution were conducted. To transfer germanium from soil and plant material in solution, melting and microwave digestion processes were done. The experiment showed that in both species the additional Ge supply also leads to an increasing germanium content in the aboveground plant material. The two species, however, behave differently in response to this Ge supply. Panicum miliaceum accumulates Ge in the above-ground parts of plants stem, leaf and fruit to a much greater extent than Brassica alba. On the other hand the Ge accumulation in the roots of both B. alba and P. miliaceum was very high. In case of B. alba the root content was found by far higher as compared to the other parts of the plant. The addition of phosphate in the system changes the behavior. Without additional Ge its natural uptake from soil decreases in both species but in B. alba it is more characteristic. Increasing Ge supply (for both species) leads to an increased Ge uptake, until it reaches a maximum, regardless of the presence of phosphate addition. Phosphate, on the other hand, has positive effects on Ge uptake only in the case of B. alba roots, and to a limited extent in roots of P. miliaceum. In addition, for Panicum miliaceum an increase of germanium mainly in the underground parts was achieved. A further addition of phosphate did not have a positive effect on a greater enrichment of germanium. Whereas in Brassica

  4. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

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    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  5. Present state and prospects of breeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) with a maximum erucic acid content for industrial applications. Stand und Perspektiven der Zuechtung von Raps (Brassica napus L. ) mit hohem Erucasaeure-Gehalt im Oel fuer industrielle Nutzungszwecke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhs, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany)); Friedt, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Rapeseed oil with proportions of erucic acid (C22:1) substantially higher than the level found in traditional cultivars (ca. 50% C22:1) are sought by breeders and chemists for use in wellknown industrial processes and products. In a first step available rapeseed and Brassica germplasm was screened for high erucic acid content. Following conventional breeding procedures (e.g. pedigree selection) promising rapeseed genotypes were crossed and the progeny were selected due to genetic variation of oil content and quality. Since rapeseed (B. napus L.) is amenable to improvement through biotechnology as well, further breeding progress was achieved by application of cell and tissue culture techniques, e.g., microspore culture for the production of doubled-haploid lines. Furthermore, an impressive strategy to increase genetic variation is the resynthesis of rapeseed, i.e., by crossing the original ancestors, B. rapa and B. oleracea, accomplished by embryo rescue technique circumventing existing incompatibility barriers. Following this way we have carried out crosses between b. rapa ssp. trilocularis ('Yellow sarson') and several selected cauliflowers in order to create new oilseed rape germplasm with high erucic acid content. The offspring display desirable variation in the content of major fatty acids. Through introgression of resynthesized germplasm into conventional high-erucic acid rapeseed material it should be possible to produce recombinant breeding lines with an erucic acid content of 60% or even more. (orig.)

  6. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  7. Genetic variation in glucosinolate content within Brassica rapa vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    He, H.; Ping, L; Bonnema, G.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) were analyzed in 56 accessions of Brassica rapa grown in the greenhouse. Eight different glucosinolates were identified in the Brassica rapa group. They are the aliphatic glucosinolates progoitrin (PRO), gluconapin (NAP), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), the indolyl glucosinolates 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (4OH), glucobrassicin (GBC), 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (4ME), neoglucobrassicin (NEO) and the aromatic glucosinolate gluconasturtiin (NAS). Gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, progoit...

  8. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  9. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  10. Development of synthetic Brassica amphidiploids by reciprocal hybridization and comparison to natural amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K; Tang, K; Osborn, T C

    1993-08-01

    In a previous study we proposed that cytoplasmic genomes have played an important role in the evolution of Brassica amphidiploid species. Based on this and other studies, we hypothesized that interactions between the maternal cytoplasmic genomes and the paternal nuclear genome may cause alterations in genome structure and/or gene expression of a newly synthesized amphidiploid, which may play an important role in the evolution of natural amphidiploid species. To test this hypothesis, a series of synthetic amphidiploids, including all three analogs of the natural amphidiploids B. napus, B. juncea, and B. Carinata and their reciprocal forms, were developed. These synthetic amphidiploids were characterized for morphological traits, chromosome number, and RFLPs revealed by chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA clones. The maternal transmission of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes was observed in all of the F1 hybrids examined except one hybrid plant derived from the B. rapa x B. oleracea combination, which showed a biparental transmission of organelles. However, the paternal chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were not observed in the F2 progeny. Nuclear genomes of synthetic amphidiploids had combined RFLP patterns of their parental species for all of the nuclear DNA clones examined. A variation in fertility was observed among self-pollinated progenies of single amphidiploids that had completely homozygous genome constitutions. Comparisons between natural and synthetic amphidiploids based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns indicated that natural amphidiploids are considerably more distant from the progenitor diploid species than the synthetic amphidiploids. The utility of these synthetic amphidiploids for investigating the evolution of amphidiploidy is discussed. PMID:24193875

  11. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L. PMID:24840879

  12. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of copper by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Ihsan Elahi; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Gill, Rafaqa Ali; Najeeb, Ullah; Iqbal, Naeem; Ahmad, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Use of organic acids for promoting heavy metals phytoextraction is gaining worldwide attention. The present study investigated the influence of citric acid (CA) in enhancing copper (Cu) uptake by Brassica napus L. seedlings. 6 Weeks old B. napus seedlings were exposed to different levels of copper (Cu, 0, 50 and 100µM) alone or with CA (2.5mM) in a nutrient medium for 40 days. Exposure to elevated Cu levels (50 and 100µM) significantly reduced the growth, biomass production, chlorophyll content, gas exchange attributes and soluble proteins of B. napus seedlings. In addition, Cu toxicity increased the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaf and root tissues of B. napus. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in root and shoot tissues of B. napus were increased in response to lower Cu concentration (50µM) but increased under higher Cu concentration (100µM). Addition of CA into nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu toxicity effects on B. napus seedlings by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CA-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing of stress-induced reactive oxygen species as was evident from lower level of H2O2, MDA and EL in CA-treated plants. Increasing Cu concentration in the nutrient medium significantly increased Cu concentration in in B. napus tissues. Cu uptake was further increased by CA application. These results suggested that CA might be a useful strategy for increasing phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils. PMID:26099461

  13. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  14. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  15. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  16. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  17. Conservation and Expression Patterns Divergence of Ascorbic Acid d-mannose/l-galactose Pathway Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weike; Ren, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Tongkun; Song, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhongwen; Huang, Zhinan; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-Mannose/L-Galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome), B. oleracea (C genome) and B. napus (AC genome). However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. (i) VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. (ii) Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. (iii) Under NaCl, Cu(2+), MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments. PMID:27313597

  18. Conservation and Expression Patterns Divergence of Ascorbic Acid d-mannose/l-galactose Pathway Genes in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weike; Ren, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Tongkun; Song, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhongwen; Huang, Zhinan; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-Mannose/L-Galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome), B. oleracea (C genome) and B. napus (AC genome). However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. (i) VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. (ii) Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. (iii) Under NaCl, Cu2+, MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments. PMID:27313597

  19. 芸薹属基本种45S rDNA重复序列的染色体定位%Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA in Brassica dipioids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永泰; 孔芳; 李爱民; 王幼平

    2011-01-01

    The position and number of 45S rDNA on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the three basic diploid species (Brassica rapa, B.oleracea and B.nigra) were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 45S rDNA as probe.Ten out of 20 chromosomes can be easily identified in B.rapa, six out of 16 in B.nigra, and four out of 18 in B.oleracea.Among them, meiotic FISH analysis of 45S rDNA of B.rapa and B.nigra was reported for the first time.These investigations are useful for identifying the chromosomes of genome A, B and C and studying the evolution and phylogeny of the Brassica genomes.%用45S rDNA作探针,对芸薹属3个二倍体种(白菜型油菜、甘蓝和黑芥)进行有丝分裂和减数分裂的原位杂交分析,发现在白菜型油菜的20条染色体中有10条、黑芥16条染色体中有6条、甘蓝18条染色体中有4条染色体上存在杂交信号.其中白菜型油菜和黑芥的减数分裂为首次报道,研究结果对研究芸薹属二倍体基因组A、B或C的亲缘关系以及基因组间的相互进化关系有一定的意义.

  20. Bacterial communities associated with Brassica napus L. grown on trace element-contaminated and non-contaminated fields: a genotypic and phenotypic comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Croes, S.; Weyens, N; Janssen, J.; Vercampt, H.; Colpaert, JV; CARLEER R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cultivable bacterial strains associated with field-grown Brassica napus L. (soil, rhizosphere and roots) from a trace elements (Cd, Zn and Pb) contaminated field and a non-contaminated control field were characterized genotypically and phenotypically. Correspondence analysis of the genotypic data revealed a correlation between soil and rhizosphere communities isolated from the same field, indicating that local conditions play a more important role in influencing the composition of (rh...

  1. Oilseed brassica improvement through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement in processing and refining technologies of oil seed brassica have now made possible the use of rape seed mustard oil as cooking medium shortening, salad ingredients and in margarine in many countries. Different promising rape seed mutants were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in eight preliminary yields trails and results of these trails are presented in this report. Three varieties of rape seeds were subjected to 80, 100, 120 krads and two varieties of mustard were treated 60, 80, 100 krads dose of gamma rays. (A.B.)

  2. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  3. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost......-an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium), a middle layer-composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory...

  4. Brassica napus Genome Possesses Extraordinary High Number of CAMTA Genes and CAMTA3 Contributes to PAMP Triggered Immunity and Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafizur; Xu, You-Ping; Zhang, Xuan-Rui; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) play important roles in various plant biological processes including disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops worldwide. To date, compositon of CAMTAs in genomes of Brassica species and role of CAMTAs in resistance to the devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are still unknown. In this study, 18 CAMTA genes were identified in oilseed rape genome through bioinformatics analyses, which were inherited from the nine copies each in its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea and represented the highest number of CAMTAs in a given plant species identified so far. Gene structure, protein domain organization and phylogentic analyses showed that the oilseed rape CAMTAs were structurally similar and clustered into three major groups as other plant CAMTAs, but had expanded subgroups CAMTA3 and CAMTA4 genes uniquely in rosids species occurring before formation of oilseed rape. A large number of stress response-related cis-elements existed in the 1.5 kb promoter regions of the BnCAMTA genes. BnCAMTA genes were expressed differentially in various organs and in response to treatments with plant hormones and the toxin oxalic acid (OA) secreted by S. sclerotiorum as well as the pathogen inoculation. Remarkably, the expression of BnCAMTA3A1 and BnCAMTA3C1 was drastically induced in early phase of S. sclerotiorum infection, indicating their potential role in the interactions between oilseed rape and S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, inoculation analyses using Arabidopsis camta mutants demonstrated that Atcamta3 mutant plants exhibited significantly smaller disease lesions than wild-type and other Atcamta mutant plants. In addition, compared with wild-type plants, Atcamta3 plants accumulated obviously more hydrogen peroxide in response to the PAMP chitin and exhibited much higher expression of the CGCG

  5. Brassica napus Genome Possesses Extraordinary High Number of CAMTA Genes and CAMTA3 Contributes to PAMP Triggered Immunity and Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafizur; Xu, You-Ping; Zhang, Xuan-Rui; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) play important roles in various plant biological processes including disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops worldwide. To date, compositon of CAMTAs in genomes of Brassica species and role of CAMTAs in resistance to the devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are still unknown. In this study, 18 CAMTA genes were identified in oilseed rape genome through bioinformatics analyses, which were inherited from the nine copies each in its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea and represented the highest number of CAMTAs in a given plant species identified so far. Gene structure, protein domain organization and phylogentic analyses showed that the oilseed rape CAMTAs were structurally similar and clustered into three major groups as other plant CAMTAs, but had expanded subgroups CAMTA3 and CAMTA4 genes uniquely in rosids species occurring before formation of oilseed rape. A large number of stress response-related cis-elements existed in the 1.5 kb promoter regions of the BnCAMTA genes. BnCAMTA genes were expressed differentially in various organs and in response to treatments with plant hormones and the toxin oxalic acid (OA) secreted by S. sclerotiorum as well as the pathogen inoculation. Remarkably, the expression of BnCAMTA3A1 and BnCAMTA3C1 was drastically induced in early phase of S. sclerotiorum infection, indicating their potential role in the interactions between oilseed rape and S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, inoculation analyses using Arabidopsis camta mutants demonstrated that Atcamta3 mutant plants exhibited significantly smaller disease lesions than wild-type and other Atcamta mutant plants. In addition, compared with wild-type plants, Atcamta3 plants accumulated obviously more hydrogen peroxide in response to the PAMP chitin and exhibited much higher expression of the CGCG

  6. Influence of Europium speciation on its accumulation in Brassica napus and over-expressing BnTR1 lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at influence of europium speciation on its accumulation in Brassica napus (CK) and over-expressing BnTR1 lines (OE), and the kinetics of Eu uptake were investigated. These results indicated that the uptake in the roots of OE was higher than that of CK at high concentrations of europium and even the enrichment in the roots of OE was as high as 20,000 mg/kg at 328.9 μΜ Eu, this suggested that OE might have better resistance to uranium than CK. The time kinetics in plants showed that there had the similar trend between CK and OE. The formation of Eu3+at pH 5 in deionized water was beneficial to plants enrichment Eu and carbonate could reduce the adsorption of Eu in two group and phosphate almost completely impress the adsorption of Eu in two group, but citric acid could enhance europium root-to-shoot translocation in two group. These results would help understanding the mechanism of Eu uptake in Brassica napus (CK) and over-expressing BnTR1 lines (OE), therefore properly developing efficient europium/americium phytoremediation. (author)

  7. Field evaluation of leaf blight-resistant plant introductions of Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa and elucidation of inheritance of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf blight disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. One ...

  8. Influence of different substrates on the germination of jambu (Spilanthes oleracea L. – Asteracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina Gomes Honório

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of different substrates on the germination of Spilanthes oleracea L. (Asteraceae seeds, a native species of northern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications, with 25 seeds each. The treatments consisted of the following substrates: commercial substrate Plantmax®, soil + manure (2:1, soil, washed sand, partially carbonized rice peel and germitest paper. We evaluated the germination (%, the germination rate index (GRI, and the radicle length. The results presented significant differences for the parameter radicle length, and lower values were shown when substrate soil or sand was utilized. With the exception of soil, that had lower averages for all analyzed parameters, the other substrates were found to be suitable for the germination of S. oleracea.

  9. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Haishi Ji; Yuanjun Ding; Xiaoyu Liu; Lianqing Li; Dengxiao Zhang; Zichuan Li; Jingling Sun; Muhammad Siddique Lashari; Stephen Joseph; Yuanduo Meng; Yakov Kuzyakov; Genxing Pan

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar comb...

  10. Optimization of phytoremediation in Cd- contaminated soil by using Taguchi method in Spinacia oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Jahanbakhshi; Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Mohammad Hassan Sayyari-Zahan

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly technique to the cleanup of polluted soils, which combines the disciplines of plant, soil and microbiology. In this study, four factors including: cow manure, compost, urea fertilizer and Cd-resistant bacteria with three different levels in soils contaminated with cadmium using 50 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O) were used to optimize of phytoremediation by Spinacia oleracea. Taguchi method has been used for experimental design. Results showed...

  11. Attività chemioprotettiva di estratti di spinacio (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milano, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) has a variety of biological functions, such as antitumor and chemoprotective activity, but little is known about the modulation of secondary metabolites induction by abiotic stress (i.e. hypoxia) and it’s correlation to human health. In this study I demonstrate that 24 h hypoxia alter the production of secondary metabolites in spinach. In vitro studies on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line of different spinach aqueous extracts,show ...

  12. Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Navarrete, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within a reasonable harvest window. In commercial production of spinach the recovery of N is poor, which may result in environmental pollution. To increase sustainability of both organic and conventional...

  13. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  14. The effects of seeds irradiation with 60Co γ-ray on seed germination and shoot growth of Brassica campetris L. ssp. Chinensis var. utilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Brassica campetris L. ssp. Chinensis var. utilis pre-soaked with water for 1h were irradiated with 60Co γ-ray. Irradiation delayed the germination of seeds but did not affect the germination rate. The height, root length, fresh weight and survival rate of seedlings decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. There were significant negative correlation between death rate and the height, root length and fresh weight. The dose of 200 - 300 Gy were recommended as suitable irradiation doses for pre-soaked seeds

  15. EVALUATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINACIA OLERACEA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVARAJAN NATARAJAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world the percentage of people using chemical drugs increases with their side effects. “THE BOON GIVEN TO OUR EARTH IS THE HERBS”. Spinach is gaining importance world wide over as a potential source of new drugs to combat a variety of ailments as this species contains molecules credited with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihepatic as well as anticancerous. One such plant is Spinacia oleracea L. medicinal plant belonging to the family Amaranthaceae. The aim of present study was to screen the antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical activities of leaves and stem of Spinacia oleracea L. The results highlighted that aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves showed better antioxidant activity followed by the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The antimicrobial activity of various extracts of S. oleracea expressed moderate to better inhibitory effect against Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extracts showed maximum effect than stem extracts. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of this plant, showed the presence of major phytochemicals. This study supports the leaf extracts may be used as an effective antioxidant and antimicrobial agents to combat various ailments caused by the free radicals and the microbial species.

  16. Yield performance of brassica varieties under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate crop growth and seed yield performance of Brassica varieties under Rainfed conditions. The varieties, included in the study, were BSA, Zafar-2000, Pakola, Con.1, Con.2, Abaseen, Rainbow, SPS-5, Bard-1, and KJ-119. KJ-119 (2500.0 KG/HA) among Brassica juncea L. varieties and Abaseen (2425.9 kg/ha) among Brassica napusL. Varieties produced with maximum seed yield as compared to rest of varieties. Significantly, minimum seed yield was observed in check variety BSA. The significant difference in seed yield of Brassica varieties, Abaseen and KJ 119, was attributed to improve yield components over other varieties. Maximum pods per plant and seeds per pod led these varieties to attain maximum yield. Inspite of weather variations existence during years 2007-09,the same varieties produced with maximum seed yield. (author)

  17. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10 were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR, unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  18. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Daniel J Kliebenstein

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse gro...

  19. The effect of organic amendments on clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae)

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Jones, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) is an important disease of organic brassica crops. Organic soil amendments were added at realistic rates and times to infested organic soil in pot trials in order to evaluate their effect on the disease. Both chitin and straw amendments reduced disease incidence compared to other amendments but straw also reduced plant vigour.

  20. Seed extracts impede germination in Brassica rapa plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Barnum; Franks, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important mechanism of interference competition in some plants, but little is known about whether compounds exuded from seeds influence the germination of neighbors. We treated seeds of multiple lines of Brassica rapa (field mustard) with aqueous extracts of Brassica rapa Fast Plant seeds and extracts of seeds of the invasive, allelopathic plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard). Germination patterns differed significantly among populations, with Fast Plants germinating ea...