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Sample records for brassica oleracea cultivars

  1. Differential responses of two broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) cultivars to salinity and nutritional quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots-that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration-and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψ(π)), root hydraulic conductance (L(0)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  2. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  3. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien Jean Yves; Torp, Anna Maria; Holme, I.B.;

    2007-01-01

    the remaining eight cultivars were differentiated from the rest in four inseparable pairs. All SSR markers, except one, produced a polymorphic information content (PIC value) of 0.5 or above. The average diversity for all markers within the tested material was 0.64. There was no major difference...

  4. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF A NUMBER OF INTRODUCED BROCCOLI CULTIVARS (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. IN BATUR VILLAGE, KINTAMANI DISTRICT, BANGLI REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family. Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity. Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’, ‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control. Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar. This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level. Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefit...

  7. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  8. Yield and Quality Components of Broccoli Cultivars (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L. Alef. var. italica Plenck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Toth

    1998-12-01

    According to total yield in the three investigation years it was not possible to point out any cultivar. The highest yield and average weight of top inflorescences was achieved with cultivars Fiesta, Bolivia, Platini and Viking (6.3, 6.2, 6.2 and 6.0 t×ha -1 , resp. 169, 168, 168 and 162 g. Evaluation of the compactness of these inflorescences suggest an exceptional strength. Cultivars Citation and Cruiser excel as regards the production and yield of side inflorescences (2.2 and 2.4 t×ha -1 . For the broccoli production in north-west Croatia during the summer-autumn period recommended cultivars for fresh consumption are Bolivia, Fiesta, Platini and Viking and for processing industries Citation and Cruser.

  9. ADAPTABILITY, FERTILIZER EFFECT AND NUTRITION CONTENT OF VARIOUS BROCCOLI CULTIVAR (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUCED IN KOPANG, CENTRAL LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of eight introduced broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design ( RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B - 106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers.

  10. The Genetics of Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. oleracea crops encompass a family of vegetables that are among the most important in the world. The most commonly grown vegetables in this family include common cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Cabbage is the most widely produced of the three, cauliflower is less than cabbage, and broccoli i...

  11. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  12. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  13. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhang; Tongjin Liu; Xixiang Li; Mengmeng Duan; Jinglei Wang; Yang Qiu; Haiping Wang; Jiangping Song; Di Shen

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization...

  14. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  15. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  16. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to ana

  17. Reduction of duplication in a Brassica oleracea germplasm collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Boukema, I.W.; Visser, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the number of accessions in the Brassica oleracea collection of the Centre for Genetic Resources The Netherlands (CGN) groups of accessions were bulked. Accessions in a group were selections from the same landrace or old variety, and were chosen, with the help of crop experts, on the basis

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Broccoli is widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer and also treats other neural disorders. The therapeutic potential of broccoli has been explained under its role in cancer, diabetes and other diseases. In the treatment of cancer, most of the constituents or the phytochemicals of broccoli such as brassinin, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol etc. have been proved to be effectively beneficial. Even selenium plays a very important role in cancer prevention. The antioxidant activity of broccoli is induced by other phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, glucoraphin and sulforaphane. Sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts also has the potential to cure neural disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. It is also used to bring about cure in asthma and diabetic patients. Flavonoids have the effect of reducing the risk of diabetes. Therefore sulforaphane is widely used to treat various diseases and disorders.

  19. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in leafy kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) landraces, cultivars and wild populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, G.;

    2011-01-01

    AFLP markers were used to characterize diversity and asses the genetic structure among 17 accessions of kale landraces, cultivars and wild populations from Europe. The range of average gene diversity in accessions was 0.11–0.27. Several landraces showed higher levels of diversity than the wild...... populations and one cultivar had the lowest diversity measures. The landraces that were most genetically diverse were from areas where kales are known to be extensively grown, suggesting in situ conservation in these areas as a supplement to storage of seeds in gene banks. An analysis of molecular variance...... the relationship among them is due to seed dispersal through human interactions. Our results indicate that a kale population found in a natural habitat in Denmark was probably not truly wild but most likely an escape from a cultivated Danish kale that had subsequently become naturalized....

  20. Bottom-up and top-down herbivore regulation mediated by glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    OpenAIRE

    Santolamazza Carbone, Serena; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Cartea González, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative differences in plant defence metabolites, such as glucosinolates, may directly affect herbivore preference and performance, and indirectly affect natural enemy pressure. By assessing insect abundance and leaf damage rate, we studied the responses of insect herbivores to six genotypes of Brassica oleracea var. acephala, selected from the same cultivar for having high or low foliar content of sinigrin, glucoiberin and glucobrassicin. We also investigated whether the natural parasit...

  1. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia...

  2. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  3. Pengaruh pemupukan terhadap akumulasi timbal pada kubis (Brassica oleracea L.) dan sawi putih (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silviana, Ernita

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals accumulation in growing plant is influenced by the soil composition, water, air and planting sites, fertilization and crop types. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) are plants that is able to absorb toxic metals. This study aimed to determine the effect of dosage of NPK fertilizer and organic fertilizer on metal lead accumulation in cabbage and chinese cabbage. This research was carried out in plastic house in Simpang Tiga Redelong highlands...

  4. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Acephala).

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fernandes; Ferreres, F.; Oliveira, J; Valentão, P.; Pereira, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica group are the most commonly grown and consumed worldwide. Food plants with apparent cancer and cardiovascular di sease-preventing properties include several varieties of Brassica oleraceae. The majority of the herbivorous insect species are specialized feeders, for which the behavioral decision to accept a plant as food or oviposition substrate is mainly related with sensory information. Pieris insects (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores...

  5. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  8. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  9. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  10. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J.; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  11. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  12. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  13. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  15. Neglected Landraces of Collard (Brassica oleracea L.) from the Carolinas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common garden crop grown in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina (United States) is the non-heading, leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. known as collard (B. oleracea Acephala Group). Predominantly a fall and winter vegetable in this region, collard is often the only green pl...

  16. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  17. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea ge...

  18. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage ‘Wintessa’, and the wild B. oleracea accession Winspit was analysed for GSL production and used for biofumigation experiments on the beneficial soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida (springtail) and...

  19. Application of in vitro pollination of opened ovaries to obtain Brassica oleracea L. × B. rapa L. hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of experiments concerning: (1) interspecific hybridization of Brassica oleracea × Brassica rapa via application of in vitro placental pollination and (2) embryological analysis of the process of resynthesis of Brassica napus. In order to overcome certain stigma/style barriers, B. rapa pollen was placed in vitro on an opened B. oleracea ovary (with style removed). Pollinated ovaries were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After 24-d culture, the develo...

  20. Comparative sequence analysis for Brassica oleracea with similar sequences in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Dan; Gao, Muqiang; Li, Genyi; Quiros, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We sequenced five BAC clones of Brassica oleracea doubled haploid ‘Early Big' broccoli containing major genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, and comparatively analyzed them with similar sequences in A. thaliana and B. rapa. Additionally, we included in the analysis published sequences from three other B. oleracea BAC clones and a contig of this species corresponding to segments in A. thaliana chromosomes IV and V. A total of 2,946 kb of B. oleracea, 1,069 kb of B. rapa sequence and 2...

  1. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  2. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  3. Interaction between atmospheric hydrogen sulfide deposition and pedospheric sulfate nutrition in Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, LJ; Westerman, S; Stuiver, CEE; Weidner, W; Stulen, I.; Grill, D

    2002-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is able to utilize H2S as sulfur source for growth and it can replace pedospheric sulfate as sulfur source. The foliage forms an active sink for atmospheric H2S, which is directly metabolized into cysteine and subsequently into other organic sulfur compounds. H2S exposure result

  4. Perennial kales: collection rationalization and genetic relatedness to other Brassica oleracea crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Bas, N.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial kale is a rare leafy vegetable and forage crop that is mainly vegetatively propagated and therefore expensive to conserve ex situ. A genebank collection of 47 perennial kales and 34 reference samples from the main Brassica oleracea crop types were characterized with seven microsatellite ma

  5. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  6. Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Riviere, P.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Cuenca, M.; Kos, M.; Vosman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurren

  7. Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds to induce resistance against Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Michta, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Boer, de W.J.; Davelaar, E.; Stevens, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds having a low risk profile (LRP) were evaluated for their potential to induce resistance in cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) against Peronospora parasitica, causal organism of downy mildew. The selection of 34 LRP compounds comprised micronutrients, o

  8. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329

  9. Living mulch strategy for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. production in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Canali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable agricultural systems, intercropping using living mulches (LM provides many beneficial ecosystem services. The objective of these two-year field experiments was to study the suitability of different LM options of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. var. anglona for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. cultivation in two sites under Mediterranean conditions. In central Italy (Experiment 1 contemporary and delayed (to crop sowings of LM were compared with a no-cover crop treatment, contrasting two local cauliflower cultivars and a F1 Hybrid. In southern Italy (Experiment 2 the sustainability of systems combining LM (anticipated and contemporary sowing compared with no-cover and organic fertilisation strategies was assessed. The aboveground biomasses dry weights of cauliflower crop (heads and residues, burr medic and weeds were separately determined. Results suggested that in Experiment 1 the LM was not able to smother weeds establishment and growth, as a consequence of early sowing, while cauliflower yield was reduced. Moreover, the genotypes behaviour was greatly influenced by the LM sowing times. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the agronomic practices applied, climatic conditions notably influenced cauliflower cultivation and also reduced the mean yield. Therefore, the recorded differences between the two experimental sites highlighted the need to tailor the LM strategies to the different environmental conditions.

  10. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were cr

  11. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  12. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  13. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  14. Functional alleles of the flowering time regulator FRIGIDA in the Brassica oleracea genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Judith A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants adopt different reproductive strategies as an adaptation to growth in a range of climates. In Arabidopsis thaliana FRIGIDA (FRI confers a vernalization requirement and thus winter annual habit by increasing the expression of the MADS box transcriptional repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC. Variation at FRI plays a major role in A. thaliana life history strategy, as independent loss-of-function alleles that result in a rapid-cycling habit in different accessions, appear to have evolved many times. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize orthologues of FRI in Brassica oleracea. Results We describe the characterization of FRI from Brassica oleracea and identify the two B. oleracea FRI orthologues (BolC.FRI.a and BolC.FRI.b. These show extensive amino acid conservation in the central and C-terminal regions to FRI from other Brassicaceae, including A. thaliana, but have a diverged N-terminus. The genes map to two of the three regions of B. oleracea chromosomes syntenic to part of A. thaliana chromosome 5 suggesting that one of the FRI copies has been lost since the ancient triplication event that formed the B. oleracea genome. This genomic position is not syntenic with FRI in A. thaliana and comparative analysis revealed a recombination event within the A. thaliana FRI promoter. This relocated A. thaliana FRI to chromosome 4, very close to the nucleolar organizer region, leaving a fragment of FRI in the syntenic location on A. thaliana chromosome 5. Our data show this rearrangement occurred after the divergence from A. lyrata. We explored the allelic variation at BolC.FRI.a within cultivated B. oleracea germplasm and identified two major alleles, which appear equally functional both to each other and A. thaliana FRI, when expressed as fusions in A. thaliana. Conclusions We identify the two Brassica oleracea FRI genes, one of which we show through A. thaliana complementation experiments is functional, and show

  15. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Kandil; Nadia Gal

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield qu...

  16. Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibition of Pipeline Steel Using Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    N. C. Ngobiri; E.E. Oguzie; Y. Li; L. Liu; Oforka, N. C.; O. Akaranta

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition capacity of Brassica oleracea (BO) extract on the corrosion of pipeline steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 was evaluated using electrochemical techniques. The results showed an excellent inhibition efficiency which increased with initial increase in extract concentration and temperature to a point and decreased with further increase in BO extract concentration and temperature. Mixed inhibition behaviour was proposed for the action of BO. The unique behaviour of BO was attributed to the organ...

  17. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  18. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  19. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  20. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRESH LEAF OF BRASSICA OLERACEAE LINN. VAR. ACEPHALA (D.C ALEF (BRASSICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleraceae (BOL is the common cabbage and a familiar garden plant, widely used as spice all over the world. Cabbage is an excellent source of Vitamin C and has been widely employed locally to treat acute inflammation and peptic ulcers. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti¬ulcer activity of Brassica oleraceae, while identifying the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed effects and exploring some of the possible mechanisms of its anti¬ulcer activity, using standard laboratory procedures. Doses of 100, 300 and 750 mg / kg of Brassica oleraceae were separately administered to groups of overnight fasted rats, with appropriate standard drugs using Ethanol / HCl, Indomethacin and Cysteamine models to explore anti¬ulcer property of BOL on the stomach and duodenum respectively. The extract in a dose¬ dependent fashion, offered better protection against the ulcerogens in the gastric ulcer models, when compared with the positive control groups. However, the smallest dose of 100 mg / kg recorded the highest percentage protection in the cysteamine group. Up to 1200 mg / kg i.p and 10,000 mg / kg oral doses of Brassica oleraceae did not produce any mortality in mice. Phytochemical constituents identified included alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and saponins. The pH was 8.5. The present study has validated the local use of Brassica oleraceae in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the speculated mechanisms of action could be through acid neutralization, cytoprotection and antioxidation by flavonoids.

  1. Transcriptomic comparison between Brassica oleracea and rice (Oryza sativa) reveals diverse modulations on cell death in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jiaqin; Ding, Yijuan; Li, Yuehua; Tong, Chaobo; Du, Hai; Yu, Yang; Wan, Huafan; Xiong, Qing; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Shengyi; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of Brassica crops, but not in rice. The leaves of a rice line, a partial resistant (R) and a susceptible (S) Brassica oleracea pool that bulked from a resistance-segregating F2 population were employed for transcriptome sequencing before and after inoculation by S. sclerotiorum for 6 and 12 h. Distinct transcriptome profiles were revealed between B. oleracea and rice in response to S. sclerotiorum. Enrichment analyses of GO and KEGG indicated an enhancement of antioxidant activity in the R B. oleracea and rice, and histochemical staining exhibited obvious lighter reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death in rice and the R B. oleracea as compared to that in the S B. oleracea. Significant enhancement of Ca2+ signalling, a positive regulator of ROS and cell death, were detected in S B. oleracea after inoculation, while it was significantly repressed in the R B. oleracea group. Obvious difference was detected between two B. oleracea groups for WRKY transcription factors, particularly for those regulating cell death. These findings suggest diverse modulations on cell death in host in response to S. sclerotiorum. Our study provides useful insight into the resistant mechanism to S. sclerotiorum. PMID:27647523

  2. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  3. Atmospheric NH3 as plant nutrient: A case study with Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrient-sufficient and nitrate- or sulfate-deprived plants of Brassica oleracea L. were exposed to 4 μl l-1 NH3 (2.8 mg m-3), and effects on biomass production and allocation, N-compounds and root morphology investigated. Nitrate-deprived plants were able to transfer to atmospheric NH3 as nitrogen source, but biomass allocation in favor of the root was not changed by exposure to NH3. NH3 reduced the difference in total root length between nitrate-sufficient and nitrate-deprived plants, and increased the specific root length in the latter. The internal N status, therefore, might be involved in controlling root length in B. oleracea. Root surface area, volume and diameter were unaffected by both nitrate deprivation and NH3 exposure. In sulfate-deprived plants an inhibitory effect of NH3 on root morphological parameters was observed. These plants, therefore, might be more susceptible to atmospheric NH3 than nitrate-deprived plants. The relevance of the present data under field conditions is discussed. - Atmospheric NH3 can serve as sole N source for Brassica oleracea, but does not change root biomass allocation in nitrate-deprived plants

  4. Regeneration of plants from protoplasts of rapid cycling Brassica oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L N; Earle, E D

    1994-03-01

    Rapid cycling Brassica species have great potential in plant genetic research because of their short life cycles and their minimal space requirements. Rapid cycling B. oleracea can be grown with up to six generations per year. Protoplast culture of this genotype can be applied for gene transfer by direct DNA uptake and by protoplast fusion. We here report on fast regeneration of flowering plants from protoplasts of rapid cycling B. oleracea. Regeneration frequencies of 27-65% were achieved with multiple shoots developing from individual calli. The regenerated plants were grown to maturity, and flowering and other morphological characteristics were monitored. The regenerants flowered within a similar time frame as plants grown from seeds. The ploidy level of regenerated and seed-grown plants was measured by flow cytometry. Many (20-45%) of the regenerants were tetraploid. Although only few seeds could be obtained from the tetraploids, large numbers of seeds with good germination were recovered from the diploid regenerants. PMID:24193832

  5. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  6. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  7. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  8. Effect of Botanical Insecticide of Macleya cordata on Physiology and Biochemistry of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effect of Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata in the Brassica oleracea L. investigated, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were determined. The results showed that under the stress of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata at the same concentration, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly lower than those with Cyhalothrin (p<0.05 except the proline content has not significant differences between Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata with a dosage of 50×. The degree of damage with Cyhalothrin is greater than that of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata.

  9. Plant Male Sterility Induced by Anti-Gene CYP86MFin Brassica oleracea var. Italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An anti-gene CYP86MF was introduced into hypocotyls of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica Plenck) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transgenic plants were obtained by kanamycin selection. The results of PCR, Southern blot and Northern blot indicated that the anti-CYP86MF has been integrated into chromosome of the transgenic plant.And also, plants with hypogenetic stamina or ungerminated pollen were observed. The transgenic male sterility plant could fructify via artificial pollination with normal pollen. Thus it was proved that the pistil of male sterility plant was normally developed, and the sterility originated from anti-CYP86MF.

  10. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  11. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Yi; Arif Hasan Khan Robin; Kiwoung Yang; Jong-In Park; Jong-Goo Kang; Tae-Jin Yang; Ill-Sup Nou

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among t...

  12. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  13. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of Brassica oleracea L.by SSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SSR analysis on genetic diversity of 30 samples was carried out. Five primers selected from 36 primers were used to amplify 30 samples in this experiment, PCR products were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and photographed. The results of SSR were analyzed by UPGMA clustering. The results showed that a total of 21 gene alleles were detected by 5 SSR primers. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 4.2.PIC range was 0.257-0.921, with an average of 0.543. The average coefficient of genetic similarity of SSR markers among materials was 0.432. Some of cabbage cultivars in the experiment were divided into four groups except cultivars which come from Japan.

  15. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dongqin Tang; Hongmei Qian; Lingxia Zhao; Danfeng Huang; Kexuan Tang

    2005-12-01

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transgenic status and transgene expression of the transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern hybridization and semi-quantitative one step RT-PCR analysis respectively. Subsequently, the growth status under water stress, and physiological responses to water stress of transgenic tobacco were studied. The results showed that the transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under water stress condition compared to the untransformed control plants. In physiological assessment of water tolerance, transgenic plants showed more dry matter accumulation and maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content along with increasing levels of water stress than the untransformed control plants. This study shows that BoRS1 is a candidate gene in the engineering of crops for enhanced water stress tolerance.

  16. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. PMID:27543253

  17. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  18. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  19. Characterization and abiotic stress-responsive expression analysis of SGT1 genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Mi Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-04-01

    SGT1 genes are involved in enhancing plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Brassica oleracea is known to contain two types of SGT1 genes, namely suppressor of G2 allele of SKP1 and suppressor of GCR2. In this study, through systematic analysis, four putative SGT1 genes were identified and characterized in B. oleracea. In phylogenetic analysis, the genes clearly formed separate groups, namely BolSGT1a, BolSGT1b (both suppressor of G2 allele of SKP1 types), and BolSGT1 (suppressor of GCR2). Functional domain analysis and organ-specific expression patterns suggested possible roles for BolSGT1 genes during stress conditions. BolSGT1 genes showed significant changes in expression in response to heat, cold, drought, salt, or ABA treatment. Interaction network analysis supported the expression analysis, and showed that the BolSGT1a and BolSGT1b genes are strongly associated with co-regulators during stress conditions. However, the BolSGT1 gene did not show any strong association. Hence, BolSGT1 might be a stress resistance-related gene that functions without a co-regulator. Our results show that BolSGT1 genes are potential target genes to improve B. oleracea resistance to abiotic stresses such as heat, cold, and salt. PMID:26966988

  20. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  1. Meristem identity gene expression during curd proliferation and flower initiation in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Denise V; Björkman, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of reproductive development in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis DC) and broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) is unusual in that most enlargement occurs while development is arrested at a distinct stage. Cauliflower and broccoli curds are composed of inflorescence meristems and flower buds, respectively. To determine whether this arrest is maintained by altered expression of the genes that specify these steps in Arabidopsis, the expression of each copy of their homologues (MADS-box genes BoAP1-a, BoAP1-c, BoCAL, BoFUL-a, BoFUL-b, BoFUL-c, and BoFUL-d; and non-MADS-box genes BoLFY, AP2, UFO, and BoTFL1) and the cauliflower curd-specific genes CCE1 and BoREM1 were measured simultaneously in heads that were arrested at different developmental stages by varying temperature, but had a common genotype. Transcript abundance of BoFUL paralogues and BoLFY was highest at the cauliflower stage of arrest, consistent with these genes initiating inflorescence meristems. The expression of other genes was the same regardless of the developmental stage of arrest. The expected models can therefore be excluded, wherein maintenance of arrest at the inflorescence meristem is a consequence of suppression of BoCAL, BoAP1-a, or BoLFY, or failure to suppress BoTFL1. Floral primordia and floral buds were normal in boap1-a boap1-c bocal triple mutants; therefore, other meristem identity genes can specify floral initiation (A-function) in B. oleracea. BoTFL1, a strong repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis, did not suppress the formation of the floral primordium in B. oleracea. Initiation of floral primordia and enlargement of floral buds in broccoli and cauliflower is not controlled solely by homologues of the genes that do so in Arabidopsis. PMID:18332227

  2. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  3. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

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    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  4. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. PMID:26031705

  5. Variation of five major glucosinolate genes in Brassica rapa in relation to Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Qiu, D.; Quiros, F.

    2010-07-01

    Glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates are important secondary metabolites in the Brassica cea that has biological activity, such as cancer protecting and bio fumigant properties. The putative ortho logs of five major genes in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, Bra.GSELONG.a, Bra.GSALK.a, Bra.CYP83B1, Bra.SUR1.a and Bra.ST5.a, were cloned from both cDNA and genomic DNA from different subspecies of Brassica rapa. Inter species comparative analysis disclosed high conservation of exon number and size for GS-Elong, GS-Alk, GS-CYP83B1 and GS-ST5a among B. rapa, B. oleracea and A. thaliana. Splice site mutations caused the differences observed for exon numbers and sizes in GS-SUR1 among the three species. However, the exonic sequences were highly conserved for this gene. There were not major differences of intronic sizes among the three species for these genes, except for intron 1 for GS-Elong in two subspecies of B. rapa. The cloning of the putative ortho logs of all these major genes involved in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway of B. rapa and sequence analysis provide a useful base for their genetic manipulation and functional analysis. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

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    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  7. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  8. Effect of Deinococcus radiodurans on uptake of 134Cs by Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinococcus radiodurans was inoculated into the soil which was spiked with 134Cs to investigate its effect on chemical speciation of 134Cs. The relationship between chemical speciation of 134Cs and its absorbtion capacity by cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in the presence of D. radiodurans was also investigated. The results showed that an increase of 28.64%-38.17 % in content of 134Cs in residual phase was observed with presence of D. radiodurans in comparison with the aseptic control. The amounts of radiocesium uptaken by cabbage were about 12100Bq/g under aseptic conditions, however, which were about 8500Bq/g with the presence of D. radiodurans. The proportion of 134Cs taken up by cabbage decreased about 29% in comparison with the aseptic control. The chemical speciation could be influenced by D. radiodurans so that its uptake by plants could be reduced. (authors)

  9. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  10. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  11. 甘蓝LFY基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LFYZQ from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤青林; 王志敏; 任雪松; 宋明; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from bolting stem apex of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata L. ) cultivar ZQ and LFYzQ gene fragments were cloned by RT-PCR respectively with 2 pairs of primers. LFYzQ of DNA and cDNA sequence fragments assembly were respectively 2 560 bp and 1 239 bp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by BLAST on line indicated that homology of LFYzQ was up to 91% between Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., up to 87 % between it and Arabidopsis thaliana, up to 86 % between it and Brassicajuncea Coss., and up to 87 % between it and Raphanus sativus L. Analysis of gene structure by DNAstar indicated that LFYzQ including 3 extrons ( 452, 394, 393 bp )which totally coded 412 amino acids and 2 introns ( 514, 807 bp )which were unanimous with nucleotide splicing rules of GT-AG. Analysis of amino acids among LFYzQ and other 12 kinds of Brassicaceae LFY on line were divided into 2 classes: class Ⅰ with 3 plants ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Jonopsidium acaule ) and class Ⅱ with other 10 plants. Molecular relativity quality of LFYzQ was 46 kD. LFYzQ was an unstable and hydrophobic protein with 4 kinds of active sites: N-myristoylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site, Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation site and Amidation site.%以甘蓝ZQ启动抽薹的茎尖为材料,分别提取DNA和RNA,以两对引物扩增并序列拼接得到甘蓝LFYZQ基因DNA序列和cDNA完整编码区,长度分别为2 560、1 239 bp,与花椰菜、拟南芥、芥菜和萝卜同源性分别达到91%、87%、86%、87%.该基因含有3个外显子(452、394、393 bp)和2个内含子(514、807 bp),共编码412个氨基酸,内含子剪接位点均符合经典GT-AG法则.将LFYZQ与网上公布的12种十字花科植物LFY氨基酸序列按分子进化分成两类:甘蓝LFYZQ与花椰菜以及Jonopsidium属植物Jonopsidium acaule这3个分为一类;其余10种植物分

  12. Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci abundance on Brassica oleracea var. acephala Abundância de Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae e Thrips tabaci em Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala is attacked by whitefly Bemisia tabaci, aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci. One of the main reasons for extensive insecticide application is the lack of information about factors that control insect population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, organic compound leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, sunlight and median temperature on the abundance of whitefly, aphid, and thrips in kale genotype "Talo Roxo". The beating tray method, direct counting and magnifying lens were used to estimate the number of these pests, predators and parasitoids. Median temperature, sunlight and relative humidity correlated to the amount of leaf nonacosane, which in turn was associated with aphids population increase. A tendency in the reduction of aphids and thrips populations with increase in total rainfall was observed. The whitefly can be a harmful pest in kale producing regions of higher temperature and smaller rainfall. In regions which present moderate temperature, where there is a high incidence of aphids, genotype with low leaf wax content should be chosen. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp., can control agents of the aphids population in kale.A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, é atacada por mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci, pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae e tripes Thrips tabaci. Uma das principais razões para o uso intensivo de inseticidas é a falta de informação sobre os fatores que controlam a população de insetos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre predadores e parasitóides, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, pluviosidade total, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na abundância da mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em couve genótipo Talo Roxo. Foi usado o método da batida em bandeja

  13. Identification of a novel MLPK homologous gene MLPKn1 and its expression analysis in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiguo; Shi, Songmei; Liu, Yudong; Pu, Quanming; Liu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Liquan

    2016-09-01

    M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A. thaliana SRKb-SCRb plants has remained unknown. Here, in addition to the reported MLPKf1/2, we identified the new MLPKf1 homologous gene MLPKn1 from B. oleracea. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 shared nucleotide sequence identity as high as 84.3 %, and the most striking difference consisted in two fragment insertions in BoMLPKn1. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 had a similar gene structure; both their deduced amino acid sequences contained a typical plant myristoylation consensus sequence and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. BoMLPKn1 was widely expressed in petal, sepal, anther, stigma and leaf. Genome-wide survey revealed that the B. oleracea genome contained three MLPK homologous genes: BoMLPKf1/2, BoMLPKn1 and Bol008343n. The B. rapa genome also contained three MLPK homologous genes, BrMLPKf1/2, BraMLPKn1 and Bra040929. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BoMLPKf1/2 and BrMLPKf1/2 were phylogenetically more distant from AtAPK1A than Bol008343n, Bra040929, BraMLPKn1 and BoMLPKn1, Synteny analysis revealed that the B. oleracea chromosomal region containing BoMLPKn1 displayed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B, whereas the B. rapa chromosomal region containing BraMLPKn1 showed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B. Together, these results revealed that BoMLPKn1/BraMLPKn1, and not the formerly reported BoMLPKf1/2 (BrMLPKf1/2), was the orthologous genes of AtAPK1B, and no ortholog of Bo

  14. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  15. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

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    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  16. Evaluation on physical properties of irradiated cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. var. acephala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brassica family is well known all over the world, and among their species, the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is the most consumed in Brazil, as an ingredient of salads and also usual in preparation of a typical Brazilian dish called feijoada. Food irradiation is a world wide spread technology used to improve the quality of vegetables extending the shelf-life and reducing microorganisms present in leafs. Color is the first sensorial aspect realized by consumers, being an important factor of refuse. The objective of this paper was to analyze the color of irradiated cabbage treated by electron beam from a linear accelerator at different radiation doses. The cabbage samples were irradiated at IPEN-CNEN/SP in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA, 1.5 MeV, 25 mA) at doses of 1.0 - 1.5 kGy and also a control sample. Statistical analysis was done to compare the efficacy of different radiation doses. Slight differences in color measurement were observed in the irradiated samples, although the quality of cabbage was maintained until the 7th day of storage. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of

  18. An enzymatic activity isolated from Brassica oleracea specific for UV-irradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of a breakdown in the ozone layer, an increase in the amount of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation can be expected. Organisms have evolved mechanisms to repair numerous types of DNA damages. While these DNA repair systems have been well characterized in bacteria and to a lesser extent in mammalian cells, surprisingly little is known about repair of potentially harmful DNA lesions in plants. An enzyme that recognizes and incises UV irradiated DNA has been partially purified from the leaf tissue of Brassica oleracea. Glycosylase-produced base loss sites were detected by a nitrocellulose filter-binding assay using UV-irradiated PM2 viral DNA as the substrate. The optimal temperature for maximal enzyme activity is 47C with a pH optimum between 7.0 and 7.5. In addition, the endonuclease is active in both Tris and phosphate buffers, although it is stimulated by phosphate concentrations up to 25 mM. Currently, a number of synthetic polynucleotides as well as DNAs of defined sequence are being employed as substrates to determine the nature of the UV-induced lesion and the precise mechanism of action of the enzyme

  19. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  20. Functional properties of a chitinase promoter from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-region of the chitinase gene cabch29,derived from Brassica oleracea var.capitata,has been sequenced and analyzed for cis-acting elements important in controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants.Different 5'-deletion fragments were linked to reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) as translational fusions,and the expression of these chimeric genes was analyzed in vegetative organs and tissues.Sequences up to-651 showed some basal GUS activity with nearly equal levels in wounded and intact tissues.The addition of further upstream sequences(-651 to-1284) enhanced expression level,and the expression driven by this fragment was inducible by a factor of two to three-fold by wounding.Histochemical analysis of different tissue from transgenic plants that contain cabch29 promoter-gus fusion gene demonstrated woundinducible and tissue-specific cabch29 promoter activity in plants containing the 1308 base pair fragment.The location of GUS activity appears to be cell-specific,being highest in vascular cells and epidermal cells of stem,leaf and roots.Meanwhile,the temporal and spatial expression of cabch29-GUS fusion gene has been investigated.Among the different vegetative organs,a high level of GUS activity was observed in stem and a moderate one in roots;whereas,wounding stress led to a high level of GUS in stem and moderate one in leaf.

  1. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  2. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  4. Identification of Interacting Motifs Between Armadillo Repeat Containing 1 (ARC1) and Exocyst 70 A1 (Exo70A1) Proteins in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Hecui; Lian, Xiaoping; Converse, Richard; Zhu, Liquan

    2016-02-01

    In order to identify the functional domains which regulate the interaction between the self-incompatibility proteins armadillo repeat containing 1 (ARC1) and exocyst 70 A1 (Exo70A1) in Brassica oleracea, fragments containing selected motifs of ARC1 (ARC1210, ARC1246, ARC1279, ARC1354) and site-specific mutants with substitutions at possible interaction sites (ARC1354m, ARC1664m) were PCR amplified and inserted into pGADT7, while coding sequences from Exo70A1 (Exo70A185, Exo70A1) were subcloned into pGBKT7. The interactions between the protein products produced by these constructs were then analyzed utilizing a yeast two-hybrid system. Our data indicate that both ARC1210 and ARC1246 interact strongly with Exo70A185 and Exo70A1, while ARC1279, ARC1354, ARC1354m and ARC1664m exhibited a weak interaction, indicating that the recognition sites are located within the 210 N-terminal amino acids of ARC1 and the 85 N-terminal amino acids of Exo70A1. This was further verified by GST pull-down analysis. This supports a model in which the N-terminal leucine zipper of ARC1 and the first 85 N-terminal amino acids of Exo70A1 mediate the interaction between these two proteins. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these motifs were highly conserved across different species, indicating that the interaction characterized in B. oleracea may operate in a wide array of cultivars. PMID:26696546

  5. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  6. Effect of extracts of the reproductive organs of brassica oleracea L. on morphogenesis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. KIRAKOSJAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cabbage is the most common vegetable. The reason is very tasty and chemical composition. It contains 2,6-5,7% sugar, 1,1-2,3% of the proteins, minerals phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iodine, etc. The most important problem of selection is still reducing the time to development new varieties.Broad prospects in the intensification of the selection process opens the application of modern techniques of applied genetics and applied biotechnology, combined with hybridization and selection. Great theoretical and practical interest, in particular, the use of haploidy. Method dihaploids allows significant acceleration of the process of selection of all cultivated plants.Work carried out on varieties and F1 hybrids of the genus Brassica: cabbage (B. oleracea L.: F1 hybrid Jubilei, line ET1 and AMF 3L. Plants - donors were grown in a greenhouse of the Breeding Timofeev-station of RSAU-MTAA during the year. Objects of our research were isolated anthers, microspores, ovaries and ovules of cabbage.Studied the effects of extracts derived from the reproductive organs of cabbage. As the solvent used: DMSO, acetone, alcohol and water. The extracts were added to a sterile medium. For cabbage we have optimized steps of obtaining regenerated plants by direct embryogenesis from microspores of isolated anthers. Found that the presence of hormones in MS medium at a concentration of NAA 1 mg / l, Dropp - 0.01 mg / l stimulated the process of direct embryogenesis. In these conditions the microspores in anther maintain their viability for a long growing in in vitro. The addition of DMSO-based extracts and acetone resulted in the induction of development of the ovaries and ovules. This was manifested in the growth of the ovaries and the formation of larger ovules. In variants with water and alcohol, this effect was not observed.

  7. Atmospheric H2S as sulphur source for Brassica oleracea : Consequences for the activity of the enzymes of the assimilatory sulphate reduction pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; Stulen, I.; Suter, M; Brunold, C; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    Short-term exposure of Brassica oleracea L. (curly kale) to atmospheric H2S levels (0.2-0.8 muL .L-1), which an sufficient to meet the plants sulphur requirement, resulted in a decrease in the activity of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase (APR) in the shoot. The reduction in APR activity was ma

  8. Impact of atmospheric sulfur deposition on sulfur metabolism in plants : H2S as sulfur source for sulfur deprived Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Rubinigg, M.; Westerman, S.; Grill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. was rather insensitive to atmospheric H2S: growth was only negatively affected at greater than or equal to 0.4 mu l l(-1). Shoots formed a sink for H2S and the uptake rate showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The H2S uptake rate was high in c

  9. Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.; Stuiver, C.Elisabeth E.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.,) to gaseous H2S resulted in a decreased sulfate uptake by the roots. At 0.2 mu l l(-1) H2S, a level sufficient to meet the sulfur need of plants for growth, the sulfate uptake was maximally decreased by 50% after 3 or 4 days of exposure. Higher levels up

  10. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertiliser on Growth and Yield of Brassica Oleraceae var. Acephala D.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale (Brassica oleraceae var. Acephala D.C.) cultivar, collard green was planted in the field between October 1997 and March 1998 in the experimental plots at Maseno University college in Western Kenya. The experiment was set up to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser on growth and yield of kale. The kale seedlings were first raised in a nursery and transplanted 8 weeks after sowing. The treatments included farm yard manure (150 kg N.ha-1, 8kgP.ha-1), Tithonia Diversifolia (Tithonia) Leaf biomass incorporated in combination with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (150kgN.ha-1 and 30kgP.ha-1), TSithonia leaf biomass incorporated, DAP in combination with Urea, DAP in combination with calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) at the rate of 150kgP.ha-1 and the control. Non-destructive measurements on plant height, leaf number and stem thickness were taken regularly commencing 6 weeks after transplanting. Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given area and leaf number per plant. Both organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser significantly increased growth and leaf yield of kale. In all parameters measured farm yard manure gave the best response. Tithonia leaf biomass incorporated in the soil either on its own or in combination with DAP gave leaf yields comparable increasing, organic sources which are locally available to the farmer can be alternative sources of fertiliser without compromising the yields

  11. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  12. Karyotyping of Brassica oleracea L.based on rDNA and Cot-1 DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taixia; WU Chunhong; HUANG Jinyong; WEI Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    To explore an effective and reliable karyotyping method in Brassica crop plants,Cot-1 DNA was isolated from Brassica oleracea genome,labeled as probe with Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,in situ hybridized to mitotic spreads,and where specific fluorescent bands showed on each chromosome pair.25S and 5S rDNA were labeled as probes with DIG-Nick Translation Mix kit and Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,respectively,in situ hybridized to mitotic preparations,where 25S rDNA could be detected on two chromosome pairs and 5S rDNA on only one.Cot-1 DNA contains rDNA and chromosome sites identity between Cot-1 DNA and 25S rDNA was determined by dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization.All these showed that the karyotyping technique based on a combination of rDNA and Cot-1 DNA chromosome landmarks is superior to all but one.A more exact karyotype ofB.oleracea has been analyzed based on a combination of rDNA sites,Cot-1 DNA fluorescent bands,chromosome lengths and arm ratios.

  13. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  14. Carotenoids, polyphenols and micronutrient profiles of Brassica oleraceae and plum varieties and their contribution to measures of total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulmann, Anouk; Jonville, Marie-Caroline; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-15

    The consumption of phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols within whole fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased incidence of various inflammation and oxidative stress related chronic diseases, which may be due to direct antioxidant effects, or indirect mechanisms such as affecting signal transduction/gene expression. Within the present study, we investigated the antioxidant composition of two major groups of vegetables and fruits, Brassica oleraceae and prunus spp., and estimated their contribution to antioxidant capacity. For this purpose, 17 plum and 27 Brassica varieties were collected in Luxembourg, and analysed for their individual polyphenol and carotenoid profile, vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals/trace elements, and their correlation with markers of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu). Total carotenoid and polyphenol content varied considerably between the different Brassica and plum varieties, with highest concentrations in the variety Kale (13.3 ± 0.58 mg/100g wet weight) and Cherry plum (1.96 ± 0.28 mg/100g) for carotenoids; and Kale (27.0 ± 0.91 mg/100g) and Kirks plum (185 ± 14 mg/100g) for polyphenols. In developed multiple linear-regression-models for Brassica, flavonoids, anthocyanins, lutein and vitamin C were found to be the best predictors of antioxidant capacity as assessed by FRAP (R(2)=0.832) and flavonoids, neochlorogenic acid and vitamin C as assessed by ABTS (R(2)=0.831); while for plums these were selenium, total sugars, chlorogenic acid and vitamin C (R(2)=0.853), and selenium, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids for FRAP (R(2)=0.711). When considering Brassica and plum consumption in Luxembourg, it is estimated that both contribute to an antioxidant intake equivalent to 26 and 6 mg per day of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. PMID:24594181

  15. Analysis of F1 hybrid and BC1 monosomic alien addition line plants from Brassica oleracea × Sinapis alba by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenhui; ZHANG Sufeng; LI Jun; WANG Lijun; CHEN Bo; FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LUO Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Sterile and semi-fertile F1 plants were obtained by intergeneric sexual hybridization between paternal Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (genome CC, 2n=18) and maternal Sinapis alba (genome SS, 2n=24), BC1 plants were obtained by backcrossing between paternal B. oleracea and maternal semi-fertile F1 plants. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) combined with dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (dcFISH) showed that sterile F1 plants contained 21 chromosomes consisting of one B. oleracea chromosome set and one S.alba chromosome set, belonging to expected hybrids,and semi-fertile F1 plants contained 30 chromosomes consisting of two B. oleracea chromosome sets and one S. alba chromosome set. It is obvious that the semi-fertile F1 plants belong to unexpected hybrids.1 -3 trivalents were detected at meiotic metaphase I of semi-fertile F1 pollen mother cells (PMCs). Different separation ratios of S chromosomes were detected at anaphase I. A monosomic alien addition line(MAAL) was identified by GISH-dcFISH from BC1plants; it contained 19 chromosomes consisting of 18 C chromosomes and 1 S chromosome. At meiotic metaphase I, 9 divalents from B. oleracea and one univalent from S. alba could be detected. Sometimes,one putative C-S trivalent could also be detected.The achievement of B. oleracea-S, alba monosomic alien addition lines lays a foundation for gene introgression, location and cloning.

  16. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  17. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  18. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli.

  19. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  20. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. PMID:26986237

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of a mutation-type cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anhe CHEN; Jiana LI; Yourong CHAI; Rui WANG; Jun LU

    2008-01-01

    A 2431-bp full-length cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene, BoC4H, was cloned from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. It contains 2 introns. Its mRNA is 1715 bp, encoding a deduced 481-amino-acid polypeptide with wide homologies to C4Hs from other plants. It possesses cytochrome P450 conserved domains and motifs such as the haem-iron binding motif, the E-R-R triad, the T-con-taining binding pocket motif and the hinge motif neces-sary for optimal orientation of the enzyme. It also has most of the canonical C4H/CYP73A5-featured sub-strate-recognition sites (SRSs) and active site residues. However, owing to a single-base deletion at C2242 and subsequent frame shift within the 3' coding region as com-pared with C4H genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants, BoC4H shows a 36-aa deletion/variation at its C-terminus and the SRS6 motif together with active site residues therein are absent. Thus BoC4H may be of no function or low activity. BoC4H is a membrane protein and is probably associated with the endoplasmic reticu-lure. Its secondary structure is dominated by alpha helices and random coils. The Swiss-Model could not predict its tertiary structure. B. oleracea contains a C4H gene family with at least 5 members.

  2. Cloning and analysis of a γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene from Brassica oleracea and the function of its recombinant protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The full-length cDNA (BoTMT) of γ-TMT is obtained from Brassica oleracea by 3′- and 5′-RACE methods. The 1265 bp cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1044 bp, which encodes a protein of 347 amino acids with a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding domains. Sequence analysis shows that the deduced protein shares 41.8%~86.5% similarity to known γ-TMTs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR reveals that BoTMT is expressed preferentially in flowers and leaves of B. oleracea. The recombinant γ-TMT protein is obtained by cloning its encoding region into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a. The protein expressed in E. coli accounts for 22% of total bacterial protein. The enzyme activity assay indicates that the recombinant protein has relatively high activity to convert γ-tocopherol to α-tocopherol in vitro.

  3. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  4. Heterodera schachtii nematodes interfere with aphid-plant relations on Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Boer, de W.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Meyer, K.M.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground herbivore species modify plant defense responses differently. Simultaneous attack can lead to non-additive effects on primary and secondary metabolite composition in roots and shoots. We previously found that aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) population growth on Brassica ole

  5. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. PMID:25442619

  6. Responses of Different Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) Cultivars to Cu Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dong-Mei; XUE Yan; LIU Xiao-Hong; HAO Xiu-Zhen; CHEN Huai-Man; SHEN Zhen-Guo; SI You-Bin

    2005-01-01

    Two pot experiments with a completely random design and 4 replications were performed in a greenhouse to examine the response difference of 17 cultivars of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in a Cu-spiked and a clean soil to Cu.relatively tolerant. When the 17 cultivars of pakchoi grew in clean garden soil, the Cu concentrations in the aboveground part were positively correlated (r = 0.6693) with their root Cu concentrations. However, when they grew in the Cu-spiked soil a highly negative correlation coefficient (r = -0.5376) was obtained in the Cu concentration between the aboveground part and the root. This meant that the Cu tolerant cultivars had a weak ability to transfer Cu from their root to their aboveground part, and therefore stored much more Cu in their root than the Cu sensitive cultivars.

  7. FLUCTUACIÓN POBLACIONAL DE PLAGAS DE LA COL (Brassica oleracea Y OTROS ENEMIGOS NATURALES EN DOS AGROECOSISTEMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonaisy Mujica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La col constituye uno de los principales cultivos hortícolas a nivel mundial. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar las principales plagas insectiles en el cultivo de la col (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata y otros enemigos naturales, mediante un estudio del comportamiento poblacional de los principales insectos y alternativas de control en las áreas agrícolas del CENSA. Para ello se escogieron dos campos: uno con col y maíz intercalados con determinados niveles de malezas y plantas de girasol, y otro donde se incluyó mostaza (Brassica sp. entre las malezas de los bordes. Se siguió un diseño de bloques al azar con plantas fijas. Los ejemplares se contabilizaron e identificaron en el laboratorio, siendo la Lipaphis erysimi y Plutella xylostella los principales organismos causantes de plagas (OCP. Diaeretiella rapae parasitó a Lipaphis erysimi. Las poblaciones de áfidos se incrementaron hasta alcanzar un máximo a mediados del ciclo y después descender, mientras que los parasitoides se detectaron a mediados del ciclo y mantuvieron una tendencia hacia el incremento. Los niveles poblacionales de Plutella xylostella fueron muy bajos y se detectó la presencia de moscas blancas y otros OCP. Los niveles poblacionales de áfidos y otros OCP fueron menores en el campo no. 1, lo que denota el efecto positivo del empleo de áreas de borde y cultivos intercalados sobre dichas poblaciones.

  8. Isolation of a Second S-Locus-Related Cdna from Brassica Oleracea: Genetic Relationships between the S Locus and Two Related Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, D. C.; Chen, C. H.; Tantikanjana, T.; Esch, J. J.; Nasrallah, J B

    1991-01-01

    Self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus. Isolation and subsequent characterization of the S-locus-glycoprotein (SLG) gene, which encodes the S-locus-specific glycoprotein (SLSG), has revealed the presence of a self-incompatibility multigene family. One of these S-locus-related genes, SLR1, has been shown to be expressed. In this study we present the isolation and preliminary characterization of a second expressed S-locus-related sequence, SLR2...

  9. Respon Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Kailan (Brassica oleraceae L.) Pada Pemberian Pupuk Anorganik Dan Berbagai Dosis Pupuk Organik Cair Paitan (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Posma

    2015-01-01

    POSMA SINAGA :The Application of anorganic fertilizer and some dossages of Liquid Organic Fertilizer of paitan (Tithonia diversifolia) on the Growth and Yield of Mustard (Brassica oleraceae L.), supervised by dan MEIRIANI and YAYA HASANAH. Generally, paitan is not used, known as weeds and just used as animal feed and it rest just become waste. Paitan has potential as the nutrition adder for plant. Therefore, the application of liquid organic fertilizer from paitan is hoped can increase t...

  10. Origin,Classification and Evolution of Brassica oleracea L%简述甘蓝类植物的起源及分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 王超

    2006-01-01

    甘蓝起源于地中海沿岸的一种一年生杂草(Brassica oleracea var.oleracea),也有人认为它起源于地中海地区的4种野生近缘种的复合体.甘蓝种可分为6个变种,也有人认为甘蓝种可分为7个变种.野生甘蓝变种(Brassica oleracea var.oleracea)首先进化成4个羽衣甘蓝类型,其中"不分枝类型"又进一步进化成结球甘蓝和孢子甘蓝."分枝类型"又进一步进化成花椰菜和青花菜."髓状茎类型"进化成球茎甘蓝.而"高茎类型"进化成现在栽培的牧草.

  11. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  12. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  14. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  15. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs. PMID:26205053

  16. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  17. Interaction between non-homologous portuguese isolates of Albugo candida and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Lurdes; Dias, João Silva

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of five non-homologous portuguese isolates of A. candida (four isolated from B. rapa – Ac506, Ac508, Ac509 and Ac510, and one from Raphanus sativus) in forty B. oleracea accessions from different geographic origins was evaluated at the cotyledonar stage. Some accessions presented susceptibility to the non-homologous isolates of B. rapa, mainly head cabbage ‘Large Blood Red’ and savoy cabbage ‘Brusselse Winter’. These accessions exhibited mean levels of infection higher than 20...

  18. Effects of Salinity on Yield and Component Characters in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivars �Okapi�, �SLM046�, �Elite�, �Fornax� and �Licord� Brassica napus were tested for yield and component characters under different levels of salinity. The variations due to salinity levels, cultivars and cultivarxsalinity (interaction were significant for different characters. The variable degrees of increase and decrease of regression coefficient estimate mates (curve estimation showed the performance as influenced by different salinity levels. The performance of Brassica napus variety in plant height and days to first flowering was the best for �SLM046�, �Okapi� �SLM046� and �Okapi� cultivars. �SLM046� showed the best performance in days to maturity, followed by �Licord� and �Elite�. �Okapi� performed better than others regarding the increased number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant, followed by �Fornax�. Considering all characters, the most tolerance ability was found in �SLM046� and �Okapi�, against different levels of salinity.

  19. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  20. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  1. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants. PMID:26721234

  2. Molecular cloning and primary sequence analysis of a gene encoding a putative shitinase gene in Brassica oleracea var.capitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Chitinase,which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4-acetyl-D-glucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin,is involved in inducible plants defense system.By construction of cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata) genomic library and screening the library with pRCH8,a probe of rice chitinase gene fragment,a chitinase genomic sequence was isolated.The complete uncleotide sequence of the putative cabbage chitinase gene (cabch29) was determined,with its longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 413 aa.This polypeptide consists of a 21 aa N-terminal signal peptide,two chitin-binding domains different from those of other classes of plant chitinases,and a catalytic domain.Homology analysis illustrated that this cabch29 gene has 58.8% identity at the nucleotide level with the pRCH8 ORF probe and has 50% identity at the amino acid level tiwh the catalytic domains of chitinase from bean,maize and sugar beet.Meanwhile,several kinds of cis-elements,such as TATA box,CAAT box,GATA motif,ASF-1 binding site,wound-response elements and AATAAA,have also been discovered in the flanking region of cabch29 gene.

  3. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  4. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  5. In-depth analysis of internal control genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X G; Zhao, Z Q; Yu, H F; Wang, J S; Zheng, C F; Gu, H H

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a versatile technique for the analysis of gene expression. The selection of stable reference genes is essential for the application of this technique. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is a commonly consumed vegetable that is rich in vitamin, calcium, and iron. Thus far, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on the validation of suitable reference genes for the data normalization of qRT-PCR in cauliflower. In the present study, we analyzed 12 candidate housekeeping genes in cauliflower subjected to different abiotic stresses, hormone treatment conditions, and accessions. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the expression stability of these genes. ACT2 and TIP41 were selected as suitable reference genes across all experimental samples in this study. When different accessions were compared, ACT2 and UNK3 were found to be the most suitable reference genes. In the hormone and abiotic stress treatments, ACT2, TIP41, and UNK2 were the most stably expressed. Our study also provided guidelines for selecting the best reference genes under various experimental conditions. PMID:27525844

  6. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  7. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  8. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  9. Spent mushroom waste as a media replacement for peat moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, H; Mohamed, M T M; Anwar, M P; Saud, H M

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  11. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  12. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  13. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02-12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02-12 genome sequence. PMID:26622061

  14. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02-12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02-12 genome sequence.

  15. Use of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) in the stabilization of bone mass after menopause Uso do suco das folhas da couve (Brassica oleracea var acephala), na estabilização da massa óssea pós-menopausa

    OpenAIRE

    João V. Pereira; Hosana B. Santos; Maria F. Agra; Diego N. Guedes; João Modesto-Filho

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of cabbage leaves, Brassica oleracea var acephala (Cruciferae family) to stabilize bone mass in 13 menopausal women. The mature leaves were used after removal of the midrib and petiole and taken as a juice and given to the patient once a day for 24 months. Densitometric exams were performed every six months. The measurement points were the Trocanter and Ward's triangle. According to the results found, the use of cabbage leaf juice results in bone mass stabilization...

  16. Interacção entre isolamentos portugueses não homólogos de Albugo candida e de Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Lurdes; Dias, João Silva

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se o nível cotiledonar o potencia l de infecção de cinco isolamentos portugueses de A. candida (quatro colhidos em Brassica rapa - Ac50G, Ac508, Ae509 e Ac5 1 O, e um em Raphanus sativus - Ac513) em 40 amostras de B. oleracea de diferentes proveniências geográficas. Algumas amostras mostraram-se susceptíveis aos isolamentos não homólogos de B. rapa, nomeadamente a Couve repolho (Large Blood Red) e a Couve lombarda "Brusselse Winter". Estas amostras apresentaram nívei...

  17. Crossability among Variant Types of Brassica oleracea%不同类型甘蓝的可交配性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一娟; 魏大勇; 刘瑶; 梅家琴; 钱伟

    2013-01-01

    Brassica oleracea includes variant wild type, which is important resources for improving cultivated types of B. oleracea. During the long evolution, reproductive isolations were formed among variant type of B. oleracea at certain degree. In the present study,35 lines from seven wild and eight cultivated types were randomly crossed with others in order to investigate the crossability in B. oleracea. Significant differences for crossability were detected among crosses, and biological type, cross direction, and genetic difference which were found to affect the crossability significance. The results suggested that the crossability of combinations with wild type as female was higher than those with wild type as male in the crosses between wild and cultivated types of B. oleracea.%野生甘蓝是改良栽培甘蓝的重要资源,在漫长进化中,部分野生甘蓝类型间,以及与栽培甘蓝间杂交存在一定的生殖障碍.本研究选用8个栽培变种和7个野生类型品种,共35份甘蓝材料进行随机杂交,不同类型甘蓝的可交配性存在显著差异,甘蓝间的遗传差异、杂交方向以及生活习性等因素对甘蓝类植物可交配性存在显著影响.研究数据表明,以野生甘蓝为母本可以显著提高与栽培甘蓝杂交的效率.

  18. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  19. Modification of Leaf Glucosinolate Contents in Brassica oleracea by Divergent Selection and Effect on Expression of Genes Controlling Glucosinolate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Cartea, María E

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the content of secondary metabolites opens the possibility of obtaining vegetables enriched in these compounds related to plant defense and human health. We report the first results of a divergent selection for glucosinolate (GSL) content of the three major GSL in leaves: sinigrin (SIN), glucoiberin (GIB), and glucobrassicin (GBS) in order to develop six kale genotypes (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with high (HSIN, HIGIB, HGBS) and low (LSIN, LGIB, LGBS) content. The aims were to determine if the three divergent selections were successful in leaves, how each divergent selection affected the content of the same GSLs in flower buds and seeds and to determine which genes would be involved in the modification of the content of the three GSL studied. The content of SIN and GIB after three cycles of divergent selection increased 52.5% and 77.68%, and decreased 51.9% and 45.33%, respectively. The divergent selection for GBS content was only successful and significant for decreasing the concentration, with a reduction of 39.04%. Mass selection is an efficient way of modifying the concentration of individual GSLs. Divergent selections realized in leaves had a side effect in the GSL contents of flower buds and seeds due to the novo synthesis in these organs and/or translocation from leaves. The results obtained suggest that modification in the SIN and GIB concentration by selection is related to the GSL-ALK locus. We suggest that this locus could be related with the indirect response found in the GBS concentration. Meantime, variations in the CYP81F2 gene expression could be the responsible of the variations in GBS content. The genotypes obtained in this study can be used as valuable materials for undertaking basic studies about the biological effects of the major GSLs present in kales. PMID:27471510

  20. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  1. Effect of green manure rotation, biol and cultivar on the production of organic spinach (Spinacea oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Siura, Saray; Davila, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Two cultivars (Open Pollination OP and hybrid) were evaluated in a rotation with green manure (Crotalaria juncea) and four biol concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 100%) on organic spinach crop. A statistical complete randomized block under factorial design was used. The yield was highly statically significant for the rotation with green manure (24.3 t/ha), biol (25.8 t/ha) and the interaction of rotation x cultivar (25.2 t/ha), where the production of the OP was superior to hybrid, when green manu...

  2. The role of BoFLC2 in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Stephen; Brown, Philip H; Hecht, Valérie; Driessen, Ronald G; Weller, James L

    2015-01-01

    In agricultural species that are sexually propagated or whose marketable organ is a reproductive structure, management of the flowering process is critical. Inflorescence development in cauliflower is particularly complex, presenting unique challenges for those seeking to predict and manage flowering time. In this study, an integrated physiological and molecular approach was used to clarify the environmental control of cauliflower reproductive development at the molecular level. A functional allele of BoFLC2 was identified for the first time in an annual brassica, along with an allele disrupted by a frameshift mutation (boflc2). In a segregating F₂ population derived from a cross between late-flowering (BoFLC2) and early-flowering (boflc2) lines, this gene behaved in a dosage-dependent manner and accounted for up to 65% of flowering time variation. Transcription of BoFLC genes was reduced by vernalization, with the floral integrator BoFT responding inversely. Overall expression of BoFT was significantly higher in early-flowering boflc2 lines, supporting the idea that BoFLC2 plays a key role in maintaining the vegetative state. A homologue of Arabidopsis VIN3 was isolated for the first time in a brassica crop species and was up-regulated by two days of vernalization, in contrast to findings in Arabidopsis where prolonged exposure to cold was required to elicit up-regulation. The correlations observed between gene expression and flowering time in controlled-environment experiments were validated with gene expression analyses of cauliflowers grown outdoors under 'natural' vernalizing conditions, indicating potential for transcript levels of flowering genes to form the basis of predictive assays for curd initiation and flowering time. PMID:25355864

  3. Atmospheric H2S as sulfur source for Brassica oleracea : kinetics of H2S uptake and activity of O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase as affected by sulfur nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, CEE; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea) showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The kinetics are largely determined by the rate of metabolism of the absorbed H,S into cysteine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase, and ca

  4. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lloyd eLoza-Muller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillarin is a well conserved methyltransferase involved in several if not all of the more than 100 methylations sites in rRNA which are essential for proper ribosome function. It is mainly localized in the nucleoli and Cajal bodies inside the cell nucleus where it exerts most of its functions. In plants, fibrillarin binds directly the guide RNA together with Nop56, Nop58 and 15.5ka proteins to form a snoRNP complex that selects the sites to be methylated in pre-processing of ribosomal RNA. Recently, the yeast counterpart NOP1 was found to methylate histone H2A in the nucleolar regions. Here we show that plant fibrillarin can also methylate histone H2A. In Brassica floral meristem cells the methylated histone H2A is mainly localized in the nucleolus but unlike yeast or human cells it also localize in the periphery of the nucleus. In specialized transport cells the pattern is altered and it exhibits a more diffuse staining in the nucleus for methylated histone H2A as well as for fibrillarin. Here we also show that plant fibrillarin is capable of interacting with H2A and carry out its methylation in the rDNA promoter.

  5. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and salicylic acid (SA treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200, CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914 and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286, ST5b, ST5c, AOP2, FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350 and GSL-OH (Bol033373 was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  6. Comparison of glycerolipid biosynthesis in non-green plastids from sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, C; Joyard, J; Douce, R

    1989-05-01

    The availability of methods to fractionate non-green plastids and to prepare their limiting envelope membranes [Alban, Joyard & Douce (1988) Plant Physiol. 88, 709-717] allowed a detailed analysis of the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol (MGDG) in two different types of non-green starch-containing plastids: plastids isolated from cauliflower buds and amyloplasts isolated from sycamore cells. An enzyme [acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein):sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase) recovered in the soluble fraction of non-green plastids transfers oleic acid from oleoyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form lysophosphatidic acid. Then a membrane-bound enzyme (acyl-ACP:monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase), localized in the envelope membrane, catalyses the acylation of the available sn-2 position of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by palmitic acid from palmitoyl-ACP. Therefore both the soluble phase and the envelope membranes are necessary for acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The major difference between cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) membranes is the very low level of phosphatidate phosphatase activity in sycamore envelope membrane. Therefore, very little diacylglycerol is available for MGDG synthesis in sycamore, compared with cauliflower. These findings are consistent with the similarities and differences described in lipid metabolism of mature chloroplasts from 'C18:3' and 'C16:3' plants (those with MGDG containing C18:3 and C16:3 fatty acids). Sycamore contains only C18 fatty acids in MGDG, and the envelope membranes from sycamore amyloplasts have a low phosphatidate phosphatase activity and therefore the enzymes of the Kornberg-Pricer pathway have a low efficiency of incorporation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate into MGDG. By contrast, cauliflower contains MGDG with C16:3 fatty acid, and the incorporation of sn-glycerol 3

  7. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY LED LIGHT ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF BROCCOLI SEEDLINGS (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paniagua-Pardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dado su alto valor nutricional y los beneficios a la salud por los compuestos anticancerígenos que posee, el brócoli (Brassica oleraceaL. se ha convertido en un cultivo de importancia dentro de las hortalizas, por lo que es necesario incrementar su consumo y producción por la sociedad mexicana. Esta investigación planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la luz LED de alta intensidad de distinta longitud de onda (rojo, azul y verde, en germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli, evaluando las variables velocidad de germinación (VG, porcentaje de germinación (PGF, longitud media de hipocótilo (LMH, peso fresco (PF y seco (PS de las plántulas, en busca de alternativas de iluminación para la producción en ambiente controlado. Los tiempos de exposición con luz roja, azul y verde, proveniente de LEDs de alta intensidad fueron de 12, seis y tres horas, con un complemento de tiempo para los últimos dos tratamientos con luz LED blanca. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones de 30 semillas por unidad experimental. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los tratamientos de las variables evaluadas. Los tratamientos con luz roja presentaron los mayores valores de VG, donde el rojo por 12 horas fue el mejor con incrementos del 25% contra el control. La variable LMH en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas tuvo incremento del 39% respecto al control, convirtiéndose en el mejor. Por otro lado, en la variable PF, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 16%. Finalmente en la variable PS, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento rojo por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 6%. Estos resultados mostraron que las respuestas fisiológicas producidas por la exposición a distintas longitudes de onda de luz LED de alta intensidad en semilla de brócoli variaron de acuerdo con el tiempo de exposición y

  8. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  9. Effects of phosphorus on chemical forms of Cd in plants of four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars differing in Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aiguo; Yang, Zhongyi; Ebbs, Stephen; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbin; Yang, Junzhi

    2016-03-01

    In order to clarify how cadmium (Cd) chemical forms in planta relate to the genotype difference in Cd accumulation of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), two low-Cd and two high-Cd cultivars were compared under a hydroponic experiment with two concentrations of Cd (8.98 or 44.71 μmol Cd L(-1)). The concentrations of phosphorus in the hydroponic system were also adjusted to two levels (0.5 and 1.0 mmol L(-1)) to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the forms and accumulation of Cd in the tested cultivars. Average Cd concentrations in shoots were 8.50-10.06 mg kg(-1) for high-Cd cultivars and 6.11-6.64 mg kg(-1) for low-Cd cultivars a under lower Cd treatment and were as high as 24.41-31.35 mg kg(-1) and 19.65-25.76 mg kg(-1), respectively, under a higher treatment. Phosphorus significantly decreased Cd accumulation in the tested cultivars, and the effect had superiority over the cultivar alternation under higher Cd stress. Cadmium in the NaCl-extractable fraction of the plant tissues showed the greatest relationship to genotype difference of Cd accumulation. The difference in the capacity to binding Cd into F HAc, F HCl, or F Residue was another important mechanism involving in the genotype difference in Cd accumulation of spinach. Among them, average proportion of Cd in F HAc in low-Cd cultivars was higher than that in high-Cd cultivars in association with the effect of phosphorus.

  10. Effects of phosphorus on chemical forms of Cd in plants of four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars differing in Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aiguo; Yang, Zhongyi; Ebbs, Stephen; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbin; Yang, Junzhi

    2016-03-01

    In order to clarify how cadmium (Cd) chemical forms in planta relate to the genotype difference in Cd accumulation of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), two low-Cd and two high-Cd cultivars were compared under a hydroponic experiment with two concentrations of Cd (8.98 or 44.71 μmol Cd L(-1)). The concentrations of phosphorus in the hydroponic system were also adjusted to two levels (0.5 and 1.0 mmol L(-1)) to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the forms and accumulation of Cd in the tested cultivars. Average Cd concentrations in shoots were 8.50-10.06 mg kg(-1) for high-Cd cultivars and 6.11-6.64 mg kg(-1) for low-Cd cultivars a under lower Cd treatment and were as high as 24.41-31.35 mg kg(-1) and 19.65-25.76 mg kg(-1), respectively, under a higher treatment. Phosphorus significantly decreased Cd accumulation in the tested cultivars, and the effect had superiority over the cultivar alternation under higher Cd stress. Cadmium in the NaCl-extractable fraction of the plant tissues showed the greatest relationship to genotype difference of Cd accumulation. The difference in the capacity to binding Cd into F HAc, F HCl, or F Residue was another important mechanism involving in the genotype difference in Cd accumulation of spinach. Among them, average proportion of Cd in F HAc in low-Cd cultivars was higher than that in high-Cd cultivars in association with the effect of phosphorus. PMID:26585453

  11. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Sulfur Use Efficiency Is a Significant Determinant of Drought Stress Tolerance in Relation to Photosynthetic Activity in Brassica napus Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bok-Rye; ZAMAN, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the varietal difference in sulfur use efficiency (SUE) and drought stress tolerance, Brassica napus 'Mosa' and 'Saturnin' were exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress for 72 h. Direct quantification of S uptake, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was performed by tracing S-34. The responses of photosynthetic activity in relation to SUE were also examined. The total amount of newly absorbed S decreased with drought stress in both cultivars but the ...

  13. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  14. Ascorbic acid accumulates as a defense response to Turnip mosaic virus in resistant Brassica rapa cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ayaka; Togawa, Satoko; Hikawa, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Masuta, Chikara; Inukai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We initially observed that Brassica rapa cultivars containing the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance gene, Rnt1-1, accumulated a high level of endogenous ascorbic acid (AS) and dehydroascobic acid (DHA) when infected with TuMV. We here hypothesized a possible contribution of an elevated level of AS+DHA (TAA) to the Rnt1-1-mediated resistance, and conducted a series of experiments using B. rapa and Arabidopsis plants. The application of l-galactose (the key substrate in AS synthesis) to a susceptible cultivar could increase the TAA level ~2-fold, and simultaneously lead to some degree of enhanced viral resistance. To confirm some positive correlation between TAA levels and viral resistance, we analyzed two Arabidopsis knockout mutants (ao and vtc1) in the AS pathways; the TAA levels were significantly increased and decreased in ao and vtc1 plants, respectively. While the ao plants showed enhanced resistance to TuMV, vtc1 plants were more susceptible than the control, supporting our hypothesis. When we analyzed the expression profiles of the genes involved in the AS pathways upon TuMV infection, we found that the observed TAA increase was mainly brought about by the reduction of AS oxidation and activation of AS recycling. We then investigated the secondary signals that regulate endogenous TAA levels in response to viral infection, and found that jasmonic acid (JA) might play an important role in TAA accumulation. In conclusion, we reason that the elevated TAA accumulation in B. rapa plants would be at least partly mediated by the JA-dependent signaling pathway and may significantly contribute to viral resistance. PMID:27255930

  15. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and conce...

  16. Is foliar spray of proline sufficient for mitigation of salt stress in Brassica juncea cultivars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, A S; Ahmad, A; Hayat, S; Tahir, I

    2016-07-01

    The effects of foliar application of proline (20 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical, and yield parameters were assessed in two Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss cultivars, namely, Varuna and RH-30, at different levels (2.8, 4.2, or 5.6 dsm(-1)) of NaCl in soil. At 29 days after sowing (DAS), plants were sprayed with either 20 mM proline or water in the presence or absence of NaCl stress. The NaCl negatively affected parameters related to growth, photosynthesis, and yield in both varieties but more in RH-30 than in Varuna. Exogenous application of proline counteracted the effects of salt stress in Varuna only, by increasing the antioxidative capacity of the plants. Moreover, proline was not effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of higher salt concentrations on the studied parameters. Proline application to unstressed plants increased growth, photosynthesis, and yield parameters in both varieties; however, the effects were more prominent in Varuna than in RH-30. PMID:27026543

  17. Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase genes and analysis of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, B L; Labbé, H; Hattori, J; Ouellet, T; Gabard, J; Sunohara, G; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N

    1990-10-01

    A survey of selected crop species and weeds was conducted to evaluate the inhibition of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and seedling growth in vitro by the sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, DPX A7881, DPX L5300, DPX M6316 and the imidazolinone herbicides AC243,997, AC263,499, AC252,214. Particular attention was given to the Brassica species including canola cultivars and cruciferous weeds such as B. kaber (wild mustard) and Thlaspi arvense (stinkweed). Transgenic lines of B. napus cultivars Westar and Profit, which express the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type AHAS gene or the mutant gene csr1-1 at levels similar to the resident AHAS genes, were generated and compared. The mutant gene was essential for resistance to the sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron but not to DPX A7881, which appeared to be tolerated by certain Brassica species. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones did not occur. The level of resistance to chlorsulfuron in transgenic canola greatly exceeded the levels that were toxic to the Brassica species or cruciferous weeds. Direct selection of transgenic lines with chlorsulfuron sprayed at field levels under greenhouse conditions was achieved. PMID:24221001

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert;

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  19. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are associated with eutrophication of rivers and lakes [2], soil erosion [3], among others. The organic agriculture is an alternative for the use of additives, which aims to enhance the efficient use of nonrenewable natural resources, and utilization of renewable natural resources and biological processes aligned to biodiversity, the environment, economic development and quality of human life [4]. The use of homeopathy for the cultivation of plants is into the organic agriculture. Homeopathic medicines can lead to greater plant growth, the elimination of pests and soil enrichment, without presenting environmental impacts, or damage to the consumer or for the handler. Aim: The objective of this study is to find on the homeopathic medicine an alternative method for the use of fertilizers in order to increase the germination of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica. Methodology: Seeds of broccoli will be treated with homeopathic medicines for phosphorus and gibberelic acid in the following method and scale 6cH, 30cH and 200cH, according with the 3rd edition of the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. These seeds will be cultured on Petri dishes in a MS medium. The dilution and the agitation water on the same high dilutions above, are used as a growth control, in the same way, gibberelic acid, a hormone, widely used commercially as a fertilizer, is also used as control. The applications will be made six days a week. It will be conducted a seedlings count

  20. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  1. Culture and fusion of pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica with haploid mesophyll protoplasts of B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Ryschka, U; Marthe, F; Klocke, E; Schumann, G; Zhao, H

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid callus was formed from the successful protoplast fusion between pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea var. italica and haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Brassica rapa. The pollen protoplast isolation frequency in broccoli was highly related to the ratio of trinucleate pollens in the male gametophyte population. Large quantities of pollen protoplasts with high vigor could be isolated, and the isolation frequency reached up to 90% in 6.0-7.0 mm long flower buds with about 94.7% trinucleate-stage pollens. Pollen protoplasts could be collected and purified by discontinuous gradient centrifugation. In 1% Na-alginate embedding culture, cell divisions were observed but no further development was found. The haploid mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from in vitro haploid plants of B. rapa. Results strongly showed the variability in culturability of mesophyll protoplasts from different haploid lines. Both pollen protoplasts and haploid mesophyll protoplasts retained a stable round shape in the designed prefusion solution with an osmotic pressure of 0.74 osmol/kg. Polyethylene glycol was used for the protoplast fusion, and 40% polyethylene glycol 4000 enabled the highest fusion frequency of about 20%. Some postfusion protoplasts showed cell divisions up to callus proliferation. Calli were screened by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis for their hybrid character. Results revealed the existence of the hybrid calli. Some of the hybrid calli grew well with green color and shoot primordia. According to our knowledge, this is the first report about a hybrid formation between two haploid protoplasts. Potential comprehensive applications, as well as problems of this technique, are discussed.

  2. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these c

  3. Analysis of limitations to CO2 assimilation on exposure of leaves of two Brassica napus cultivars to UV-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apex and Bristol cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were irradiated with 0.63 W m−2 of UV-B over 5 d. Analyses of the response of net leaf carbon assimilation to intercellular CO2 concentration were used to examine the potential limitations imposed by stomata, carboxylation velocity and capacity for regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bis-phosphate on leaf photosynthesis. Simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence were used to estimate the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, the quantum efficiency of linear electron transport at steady-state photosynthesis, and the light and CO2-saturated rate of linear electron transport. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content and activities were assayed in vitro. In both cultivars the UV-B treatment resulted in decreases in the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation, which were accompanied by decreases in carboxylation velocity and Rubisco content and activity. No major effects of UV-B were observed on end-product inhibition and stomatal limitation of photosynthesis or the rate of photorespiration relative to CO2 assimilation. In the Bristol cultivar, photoinhibition of PSII and loss of linear electron transport activity were observed when CO2 assimilation was severely inhibited. However, the Apex cultivar exhibited no major inhibition of PSII photochemistry or linear electron transport as the rate of CO2 assimilation decreased. It is concluded that loss of Rubisco is a primary factor in UV-B inhibition of CO2 assimilation. (author)

  4. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  5. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  7. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  8. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  9. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and concentration. Furthermore, the higher concentration had a stronger inhibitory effect on seed germination whereas in some cases the lower concentration showed a stimulatory effect. Hence, it is suggested that Portulaca oleracea seeds has strong allelopathic potential and might be use for biological control of weeds.

  10. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli)

    OpenAIRE

    Berenice García Reyes; María del Carmen Montes Horcasitas; Emma Gloria Ramos Ramírez; Armando Ariza Castolo; Josefina Pérez Vargas; Octavio Gómez Guzmán; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli) para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del corresp...

  11. Scope and problems of cultivar group formation as exemplified in Brassica rapa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Oost, E.H.; Toxopeus, H.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the taxonomic treatment of infraspecific classification of cultivated plants. The inadequacy of hierarchical classification for polymorphous cultivated plant species is outlined. The rapid change in the range of cultivars as a result of breeding to adapt to changing cultivation practices, and the creation of new cultivars and crops, complicates such classification. Attention is focused on the use of cultivar groups for infraspecific classification. The sc...

  12. Intracellular biosynthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea L. and studies on their physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Ichwan, Solachuddin J A; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2015-03-01

    In this present study, we reported broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) as a potential candidate for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in green chemistry method. The synthesized metal nanoparticles are evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy against different human pathogenic organisms. The physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles were analyzed using different analytical techniques such as a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer. In addition, gold and silver NP antimicrobial efficacy was checked by disc diffusion assay. UV-Vis color intensity of the nanoparticles was shown at 540 and 450 nm for gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. Higher magnification of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy image shows the variable morphology of the gold nanoparticles such as spherical, rod and triangular shapes and silver nanoparticles were seen in spherical shapes. The average spherical size of the particles was observed in 24-38 nm for gold and 30-45 nm for silver NPs. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles which were crystalline in nature. Additionally, the functional metabolites were identified by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. IR spectra revealed phenols, alcohols, aldehydes (sugar moieties), vitamins and proteins are present in the broccoli extract which are accountable to synthesize the nanoparticles. The synthesized gold and silver NPs inhibited the growth of the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens at the concentration of 50 μg/mL respectively. In addition, broccoli mediated gold and silver nanoparticles have shown potent antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.

  13. Immobilization of Brassica oleracea Chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1 and Candida rugosa Lipase (CRL in Magnetic Alginate Beads: An Enzymatic Evaluation in the Corresponding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes have a wide variety of applications in diverse biotechnological fields, and the immobilization of enzymes plays a key role in academic research or industrialization due to the stabilization and recyclability it confers. In this study, we immobilized the Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1 or Candida rugosa lipase (CRL in magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-loaded alginate composite beads. The catalytic activity and specific activity of the BoCLH1 and CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads were evaluated. Results show that the activity of immobilized BoCLH1 in magnetic alginate composite beads (3.36 ± 0.469 U/g gel was higher than that of immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (2.96 ± 0.264 U/g gel. In addition, the specific activity of BoCLH1 beads (10.90 ± 1.521 U/mg protein was higher than that immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (8.52 ± 0.758 U/mg protein. In contrast, the immobilized CRL in magnetic alginate composite beads exhibited a lower enzyme activity (11.81 ± 0.618 than CRL immobilized in alginate beads (94.83 ± 7.929, and the specific activity of immobilized CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads (1.99 ± 0.104 was lower than immobilized lipase in alginate beads (15.01 ± 1.255. A study of the degradation of magnetic alginate composite beads immersed in acidic solution (pH 3 shows that the magnetic alginate composite beads remain intact in acidic solution for at least 6 h, indicating the maintenance of the enzyme catalytic effect in low-pH environment. Finally, the enzyme immobilized magnetic alginate composite beads could be collected by an external magnet and reused for at least six cycles.

  14. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response.

  15. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response. PMID:27450252

  16. Xylem transport and gene expression play decisive roles in cadmium accumulation in shoots of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal which harms human health through food chains. The mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and genetic processes involved in Cd uptake and transport of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus). L351 accumulates more Cd in shoots but less in roots than L338. A scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and uptake kinetics of Cd showed that roots were not responsible for the different Cd accumulation in shoots since L351 showed a lower Cd uptake ability. However, concentration-dependent and time-dependent dynamics of Cd transport by xylem showed L351 exhibited a superordinate capacity of Cd translocation to shoots. Additionally, the Cd concentrations of shoots and xylem sap showed a great correlation in both cultivars. Furthermore, gene expression levels related to Cd uptake by roots (IRT1) and Cd transport by xylem (HMA2 and HMA4) were consistent with the tendencies of Cd absorption and transport at the physiological level respectively. In other words, L351 had stronger gene expression for Cd transport but lower for Cd uptake. Overall, results revealed that the process of Cd translocation to shoots is a determinative factor for Cd accumulation in shoots, both at physiological and genetic levels. PMID:25460764

  17. Phyllopshere Bacterial Community Structure of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea as Affected by Cultivar and Environmental Conditions at Time of Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham III

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern molecular ecology techniques were used to demonstrate the effects of plant genotype and environmental conditions prior to harvest on the spinach epiphytic bacterial community. Three cultivars of spinach with different leaf topographies were collected at three different periods during the fall growing season. Leaf surface topography had an effect on diversity and number of culturable bacteria on the phylloepiphtyic community of spinach. Savoy cultivars, which had larger surface area and more stomata and glandular trichomes, where bacterial aggregates were observed, featured more diverse communities with increased richness and larger bacterial populations compared to flat-leaved cultivars. Bacterial community richness was compared using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, while abundance was quantified using 16s rRNA primers for major phyla. The most diverse communities, both in richness and abundance, were observed during the first sampling period, immediately following a period of rapid spinach growth. Exposure to lower air and soil temperatures and decreased precipitation resulted in significantly reduced bacterial population size and bacterial community richness in November and December. This study describes the effect of the plant characteristics and environmental conditions that affect spinach microbiota population size and diversity, which might have implications in the survival of food and plant bacterial pathogens.

  18. Differential expression of BnSRK2D gene in two Brassica napus cultivars under water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahlanes Bakhtari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 family members are plant unique serine/threonine kinases which play a key role in cellular signaling in response to abiotic stresses. The three SnRK2 members including SRK2D, SRK2I and SRK2E are known to phosphorylate major abscisic acid (ABA responsive transcription factors, ABF2 and ABF4, involved in an ABA-dependent stress signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This study aimed to clone and sequence an ortholog of the Arabidopsis SRK2D gene from Brassica napus, designated as BnSRK2D. An 833bp cDNA fragment of BnSRK2D, which shared high amino acid sequence identity with its Arabidopsis counterpart, was obtained suggesting a possible conserved function for these genes. The expression pattern of BnSRK2D and its potential target gene B. napus ABF2 (BnABF2 were then analyzed in the two cultivars with contrasting reaction to water deficit stress. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR showed that BnSRK2D and BnABF2 were water-deficit stress responsive genes with similar expression profiles. The accumulation of the BnSRK2D and BnABF2 transcripts in the two cultivars was linked with their level of drought tolerance, as the drought tolerant cultivar had significantly higher expression levels of both genes under normal and water deficit stress conditions. These findings suggest that BnSRK2D and BnABF2 genes may be involved in conferring drought tolerance in B. napus.

  19. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed vigor on field performance of two oilseed rape cultivars (Licord and Okapi was investigated in 2008 at the Research Farm of the University Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design with three replications. A sub-sample of seeds of each cultivar was kept as control. The other two sub-samples of each cultivar with about 15% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 9 and 12 days (Licord and 7 and 10 days (Okapi. Consequently, three seed lots for each cultivar with different levels of vigor were provided. The results showed that the mean emergence time increased with decreasing seed vigor. However, the highest percentage of seedling emergence was obtained for the high quality seed lot and decreased with decreasing seed lot vigor. Decreasing seed vigor led to significant reduction in ground cover of both cultivars; mainly due to poor stand establishment. Ground cover of Licord was higher than that of Okapi. Plants from high vigor seed lots of both cultivars had higher leaf chlorophyll content index at early stages of growth, compared with those from low quality seed lots. Grains per plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant for plants from deteriorated seed lots were higher than those from high-vigor seed lot. However, these advantages in individual plant performance were not sufficient to compensate for low stand establishment. Consequently, grain yield per unit area significantly improved with increasing seed vigor of oilseed rape cultivars, even within the range of acceptable germination.

  20. 西兰花CYP83A1基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of CYP83A1 Gene from Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳理惠; 李勇; 孔稳稳; 李晶

    2015-01-01

    To further research the related genes involved in 4-methylsulfinybutyl-glucosinolate biosynthesis in Brassica oleracea var. italica, the key synthetase CYP83A1gene was cloned and analyzed by bioinformatics. The sequence of CYP83A1 from the previous data of broccoli transcriptome sequencing and the sequences of CYP83A1 in seven other plants(Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica napus and the Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinesis et.al)which obtained from GenBank were alignmented with each other using NCBI blaster, and we confirmed that the homologically conserved region of CYP83A1 gene in Brassica oleracea var. italica(BoCYP83A1). Using RT-PCR method, the CDS region of BoCYP83A1 was obtained. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the CDS region of BoCYP83A1 was 1 509 bp long which encoded a predicated a protein contains 502 amino acids. Protein analysis showed that BoCYP83A1 molecular weight was 57.47 kD, theoretical pI was 7.1 and contained two span membrane structures, and the BoCYP83A1 does not have signal peptide sequences, while possessed a P450 functional domains. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acids indicated that BoCYP83A1 had 98%similarity with Brassica napus and the Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinesis. The gene registration number of Brassica oleracea var. italica CYP83A1 gene is KM111290.%为深入研究西兰花4-甲基亚磺酰丁基芥子油苷的合成代谢途径,对关键合成酶基因CYP83A1进行了克隆与生物信息学分析。根据前期西兰花转录组测序工作中获得的序列数据,同时参照GenBank数据库中拟南芥、小白菜和油菜等7种植物的CYP83A1基因CDS序列与西兰花进行比对,确定西兰花CYP83A1基因(BoCYP83A1)的CDS序列。采用RT-PCR技术对其进行了克隆,获得BoCYP83A1基因的CDS区序列,其全长为1509 bp,编码502个氨基酸。预测该蛋白质的分子量为57.47 kD,理论等电点为7.1,包含2个跨膜结构域,且整个序列中不含信号

  1. Reactions to cadmium stress in a cadmium-tolerant variety of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.): is cadmium tolerance necessarily desirable in food crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, Neel; Collins, Damian; Holford, Paul; Milham, Paul J; Conroy, Jann P

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative, chronic toxicant in humans for which the main exposure pathway is via plant foods. Cadmium-tolerant plants may be used to create healthier food products, provided that the tolerance is associated with the exclusion of Cd from the edible portion of the plant. An earlier study identified the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) variety, Pluto, as relatively Cd tolerant. We exposed the roots of intact, 4-week-old seedlings of Pluto to Cd (control ∼1 mg L(-1) treatment 500 μg L(-1)) for 4 weeks in flowing nutrient solutions and observed plant responses. Exposure began when leaf 3 started to emerge, plants were harvested after 4 weeks of Cd exposure and the high Cd treatment affected all measured parameters. The elongation rate of leaves 4-8, but not the duration of elongation was reduced; consequently, individual leaf area was also reduced (P  0.1). Phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) were present in the roots even at the lowest Cd concentration in the nutrient medium, i.e. ∼1 μg Cd L(-1), which would not be considered contaminated if it were a soil solution. The Cd concentration in these roots was unexpectedly high (5 mg kg(-1) DW) and the molar ratio of -SH (in PCs plus GSH) to Cd was large (>100:1). In these control plants, the Cd concentration in the leaves was 1.1 mg kg(-1) DW, and PCs were undetectable. For the high Cd treatment, the concentration of Cd in roots exceeded 680 mg kg(-1) DW and the molar -SH to Cd ratio fell to ∼1.5:1. For these plants, Cd flooded into the leaves (107 mg kg(-1) DW) where it probably induced synthesis of PCs, and the molar -SH to Cd ratio was ∼3:1. Nonetheless, this was insufficient to sequester all the Cd, as evidenced by the toxic effects on photosynthesis and growth noted above. Lastly, Cd accumulation in the leaves was associated with lowered concentrations of some trace elements, such as Zn, a combination of traits that is highly undesirable in food plants. PMID:26564184

  2. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  3. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  4. Cultivar Selection and Pest Control Techniques on Organic White Cabbage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile V. STOLERU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, as in many other countries, white cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crop species. The experiment was performed in the NE of the country during 2008-2009 in order to measure the impact of cultivar choice and pest control techniques on organic white cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L. var. capitata f. alba (D.C.]. This experiment included early, summer and autumn crops. The early crop compared four cultivars, the summer crop two cultivars, and the autumn crop three cultivars. The effect of various common organic pest control techniques was also measured. These techniques included: treatments with extract from neem (Azadirachta indica, potassium soap, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxins, application of a parasitic wasp (Trichogramma evanescens and covering the crop with an agrotextile. Data were collected regarding the effect of cultivar selection and pest control technique on common local cabbage pests: cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta atra, cabbage fly (Delia brassicae, cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae and cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. The highest yields for each respective growing season were obtained using the following combinations: Flavius agrotextile (early crop, Copenhagen Market agrotextile + 4 lha-1 azadirachtin + 12104 wasps/ha (summer crop and Buzau 4 lha-1 azadirachtin (autumn crop.

  5. Scope and problems of cultivar group formation as exemplified in Brassica rapa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, E.H.; Toxopeus, H.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the taxonomic treatment of infraspecific classification of cultivated plants. The inadequacy of hierarchical classification for polymorphous cultivated plant species is outlined. The rapid change in the range of cultivars as a result of breeding to adapt to chan

  6. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-01-01

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features. PMID:26681030

  7. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-12-14

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features.

  8. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 μmol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  9. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  10. 榨菜和紫甘蓝种间周缘嵌合体有性生殖特性研究%Reproductive Characteristics of Periclinal Chimera of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪云; 王海燕; 韩晓红; 陈利萍

    2011-01-01

    对榨菜(Brassica juncea)和紫甘蓝(Brassica oleracea)种间周缘嵌合体TCC(LⅠ -LⅡ-LⅢ=T-C-C,LⅠ为茎尖分生组织层最外层;LⅡ为中间层;LⅢ为最内层.T表示榨菜,C表示紫甘蓝)的有性发育、生殖器官和生殖特性等进行研究.结果发现,TCC嵌合体的花蕾和花瓣的大小介于榨菜和紫甘蓝之间,而花序形态,雄蕊、雌蕊的长度以及花粉粒的大小等性状在很大程度上与紫甘蓝接近,花瓣的颜色和香气则与榨菜相同.这些研究结果说明花器官的有些性状由茎尖分生组织的LⅠ决定(花色、香气),而有些性状很大程度上决定于内部细胞层LⅡ和/或LⅢ(雌雄蕊大小、花粉粒),还有些性状则是由LⅠ和LⅡ共同决定(花瓣大小).此外,对TCC嵌合体进行蕾期自交、杂交的结果显示TCC嵌合体可以产生果实且坐果率正常,但角果发育到一定大小即停止生长且不能产生种子.产生这一结果的原因可能是TCC嵌合体的花粉粒(来自LⅡ)与雌蕊的的柱头表皮(来自LⅠ)相互识别有障碍,亦或是受精卵发育受阻导致.%The characteristics of TCC (LⅠ-LⅡ-LⅢ , LⅠ -the outmost layer of shoot apical meristem; LⅡ-the middle layer; LⅢ -the innermost layer. T=Tuber mustard, C=Red cabbage) chimera reproductive organs and crossing were determined. It was noted that the length and width of flower buds and petals of TCC chimeras were intermediate between those of red cabbage and tuber mustard, and that the inflorescence and the size of pistils, stamens and pollens were more similar with red cabbage, while the pedal color and flavor were same with tuber mustard. This result indicated that some characters were determined by both LⅠ and L Ⅱ layers, while other characters were determined by LⅠ or LⅡ layer. In addition, TCC chimeras were artificially pollinated with the pollens of TCC chimera, red cabbage and tuber mustard. The capsule setting frequency of TCC chimera was close

  11. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  12. Brassica napus L. cultivars show a broad variability in their morphology, physiology and metabolite levels in response to sulfur limitations and to pathogen attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeese

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack induce changes in the sulfate pool and the levels of sulfur-containing metabolites, which often depend on the ecotypes or cultivars. We are interested in investigating the influence of the genetic background of canola (Brassica napus cultivars in sulfur-limiting conditions on the resistance against Verticillium longisporum. Therefore, four commercially available B. napus cultivars were analyzed. These high-performing cultivars differ in some characteristics described in their cultivar pass, such as several agronomic traits, differences in the size of the root system, and resistance to certain pathogens, such as Phoma and Verticillium. The objectives of the study were to examine and explore the patterns of morphological, physiological and metabolic diversity in these B. napus cultivars at different sulfur concentrations and in the context of plant defense. Results indicate that the root systems are influenced differently by sulfur deficiency in the cultivars. Total root dry mass and length of root hairs differ not only among the cultivars but also vary in their reaction to sulfur limitation and pathogen attack. As a sensitive indicator of stress, several parameters of photosynthetic activity determined by PAM imaging showed a broad variability among the treatments. These results were supported by thermographic analysis. Levels of sulfur-containing metabolites also showed large variations. The data were interrelated to predict the specific behavior during sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack. Advice for farming are discussed.

  13. Matromorfie in Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    INLEIDINGDe ontwikkeling van een diploid embryo uit een onbevruchte eicel van een diploide plant, mede ten gevolge van de stimulerende invloed van soort- of geslachtsvreemd pollen, wordt matromorfie of pseudogame diploide parthenogenese genoemd (EENINK, 1974a).Afwijkingen in kern- of celdelingen, di

  14. Efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae sobre o controle de Brevicoryne brassicae em couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala Extracts effect of wild plants of the Solanaceae family on Brevicoryne brassicae control in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae disponíveis na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, sobre o pulgão-da-couve (Brevicoryne brassicae, praga agrícola de significativa importância. Nove espécies tóxicas de Solanaceae estão disponíveis na região de estudo: seis pertencem ao gênero Solanum, uma ao gênero Brugmansia e duas são cultivadas e pertencem ao gênero Nicotiana e Capsicum. A fim de determinar a capacidade de repelência e o efeito inseticida, foram testadas as seguintes espécies: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba e S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. Para obtenção dos extratos foram utilizadas folhas, flores e frutos aplicando-se duas técnicas distintas de elaboração: decocção do material fresco e extração a frio do material seco. Quanto à capacidade de repelência dos extratos, os tratamentos utilizando material fresco de S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração e S. diflorum (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração demonstraram maior eficácia. Nos testes sobre a biologia do inseto os tratamentos mais eficazes como inseticida foram S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum e var. acicularium (folhas a 10% de concentração.The objective of this study was to test the effect of plant extracts from Solanaceae available in Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, on the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, agricultural pest of significant importance. Nine toxic Solanaceae species are available in the area of study: six are wild belonging to the genus Solanum, one to the genus Brugmansia, and two are cultivated and belong to the genus Nicotiana and Capsicum. To determine the

  15. Pengaruh Waktu Aplikasi Dan Pemberian Berbagai Dosis Kompos Azolla (Azolla spp.) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Kailan (Brassica oleraceae Var. Acephala DC.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Andi Pasaribu

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh waktu aplikasi dan pemberian berbagai dosis kompos Azolla (Azolla spp.) terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman kailan (Brasisca oleraceae Var. Acephala DC.). Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan/areal percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, dari bulan Juli 2008 sampai September 2008. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Fa...

  16. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

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    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of ascorbate peroxidase gene BoAPX from Brassica oleracea var.italica%青花菜抗坏血酸过氧化物酶基因BoAPX的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 苗立祥; 钱宝英

    2012-01-01

    根据NCBI基因数据库提供的抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(Ascorbate Peroxidase,APX)基因序列设计简并引物,以青花菜(Brassica oleracea var.italica)叶片cDNA和DNA为材料进行PCR扩增,基因定名为BoAPX (GenBank登录号:HQ871864).BoAPX的基因组全长为1 394 bp,具7个内含子,编码区全长为753 bp,编码250个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果表明,BoAPX的N端中没有信号肽序列,为胞质型APX,BoAPX与已知APX具有较高的同源性.RT PCR结果表明,BoAPX的表达受霜霉菌(Hyaloperonospora parasitica)诱导,在96 h时达最大值,说明BoAPX与霜霉菌抗性相关.以pBI121为植物表达载体,BoAPX为目的基因,成功构建了重组表达载体pBI121-BoAPX.%Degenerate primer pairs were designed according to ascorbate peroxidase gene sequences published in NC-BI GenBank database. A gene, designated BoAPX (GenBank accession No. HQ871864) was isolated successfully from leaf cDNA and DNA of Brassica oleracea var. Italica, respectively. The full length genomic DNA of BoAPX was 1 394 bp with 7 introns and an open reading frame of 753 bp encoding 250 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis results indicated that BoAPX was a cytosolic one for lacking of signal peptides in N-terminal, and had high ho-mology to known APXs. RT-PCR results revealed that the expression of BoAPX was induced by Hyaioperonospora parasilica, and reached the highest level after 96 h incublation, implying a relationship between BoAPX and broccoli downy mildew. Recombinant vector, named pBI121-BoAPX, was correctly constructed using pBI121 as the expression vector and BoAPX as targe gene.

  18. Intraspecific Variations of Phosphorus Absorption and Remobilization, P Forms, and Their Internal Buffering in Brassica Cultivars Exposed to a P-Stressed Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

    2008-01-01

    Translocation of absorbed phosphorus (P) from metabolically inactive sites to active sites in plants growing under P deprivation may increase its P utilization efficiency (PUE). Acclimation to phosphate (Pi) starvation may be caused by a differential storage pool of vacuolar P, its release, and the intensity of re-translocation of absorbed P as P starvation inducible environmental cues (PSIEC) from ambient environment. Biomass assay and three P forms, namely inorganic (Pi),organic (Po), and acid-soluble total (Ptas) were estimated in Brassica cultivars exposed to 10 d P deprivation in the culture media. Considering that -δPi/δt denotes the rate of Pi release, Pi release velocity (RSPi) was determined as the tangent to the equations obtained for Pi f(t) at the mean point in the period of greatest Pi decrease, whereas the inverse of the RSPi was art estimate of the internal Pi buffering capacity (IBCPi). Inter cultivar variations in size of the non-metabolic Pi pool,RSPi, re-translocation of Pi from less to more active metabolic sites, and preferential Pi source and sink compartments were evaluated under P starvation. The cultivar 'Brown Raya' showed the highest Pi storage ability under adequate external P supply, and a more intensive release than 'Rain Bow' and 'Dunkled' under P stress. Cultivar 'B.S.A' was inferior to 'Con-1'in its ability to store and use Pi. Roots and upper leaves were the main sink of Pi stored in the lower and middle leaves of all cultivars and showed lower IBCPi and larger RSPi values than lower and middle leaves. In another trial, six cultivars were exposed to P-free nutrition for 29 d after initial feeding on optimum nutrition for 15 d. With variable magnitude, all of the cultivars re-translocated P from the above ground parts to their roots under P starvation, and [P] at 44 d after transplanting was higher in developing leaves compared with developed leaves. Under P deprivation, translocation of absorbed P from metabolically inactive to

  19. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice García Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del correspondiente gen humano fue transfectado a Brocoli via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 con el vector pCAMBIA1105.1. La transformación del tejido de raíces fue confirmada por PCR, reacciones de restricción y ensayos de B-glucuronidasa. Resultados y Discusión: La presencia del cDNA correspondiente a preproinsulina y proinsulina fue B-glucuronidasa positiva para varias de las líneas. Aunque el rendimiento fue variable, cinco líneas mostraron valores apropiados con potencial para ser usadas como modelo de estudio en la producción en biorreactores.

  20. 抗辐射球菌对结球甘蓝吸收134Cs的影响%EFFECT OF Deinococcus radiodurans ON UPTAKE OF 134Cs BY Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱聪; 郭江峰

    2008-01-01

    在土壤中引入134Cs后接种抗辐射球菌(Deinococcus radiodttrarts),研究其对放射性铯在土壤中化学形态的影响.在抗辐射球菌存在的情况下,利用结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea)吸收134Cs,初步研究了134Cs化学形态与结球甘蓝对其吸收能力的关系.结果表明:134Cs在土壤中主要以残留态形式存在,且接种抗辐射球菌的土壤残留态134Cs比在无菌土壤中的比例高28.64%~38.17%.结球甘蓝对134Cs的吸收量约为12100Bq/g,但在接种抗辐射球菌后,结球甘蓝对134Cs的吸收量约为8500Bq/g,比未接种细菌时的吸收量下降了约29%.抗辐射球茵可以改变134Cs在土壤中的化学形态,从而降低植物对134Cs的吸收.

  1. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

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    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  2. EFFECTS OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT AND METALAXYL TREATMENT ON THE YIELD OF SOME FORAGE BRASSICA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Aziz; KOCH, D.W.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Three forage Brassica species were evaluated for their growth and adaptability to the Rocky Mountain region. Brassicas were grown in fields infested with a Phytophthora disease previoıısly observed on kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) Metalaxyl treatmıent did not affect Brassica yields signifıcantly. Although pest problems were detected, Brassica crops tolerated low temperatures and produced excellent yields ( up to 9.90 Mg/ha). The Phytophthora isolates from Brassica, which were identif...

  3. Construction of eSRK Chimeras and Interaction between eSRK Chimeras and SCRs from Brassica oleracea L.%甘蓝eSRK重组体的构建及其与SCR的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦静宜; 高启国; 任雪松; 王小佳; 李成琼; 宋明

    2012-01-01

    SRK与SCR是甘蓝自交不亲和雌雄性决定因子,两者间相互作具有单倍型特异性.为了探讨HVⅠ/Ⅱ区域在SRK单倍型特异性及其与SCR互作中的作用,采用重组技术构建甘蓝不同单倍型eSRK (SRKE与SRKF)间的重组体eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2和eSRKE-3,用酵母双杂交系统3检测各eSRK重组体与SCR之间的相互作用.结果表明:SCRE能与eSRKE作用,而不能与eSRKF作用,说明eSRKE、eSRKF属于不同单倍型;SCRE与重组体eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2、eSRKE-3均不发生作用,HVⅠ和HVⅡ区域内差异的氨基酸位点共同参与了与SCR的作用;SCRF不能与eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2、eSRKE-3作用,替换HVⅠ/Ⅱ区域后并不能改变SRK的单倍型.%Self-incompatibility in Brassica is mediated by allele-specific interactions between stigma-expressed 5-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and pollen coat-localized 5-locus cysteinerich (SCR) ligands encoded by the 5-locus haplotype. To identify amino acid fragments within the SRK extracellular domain (eSRK) that are required for ligand-selective activation, we constructed chi-meric eSRK between two 5-locus haplotypes in Brassica oleracea, and identified the interaction between eSRK chimeras and SCRs by yeast two-hybrid system. The results showed that SRKE (not chimera) could interact with SCRE, and SRKF could interact with SCRF. All of eSRK chimeras could not interact with SCRs. The hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, were essential for specificity in the SRK-SCR interaction. However, eSRK chimeras could not interact with SCRp, although they contained hypervariable regions come from eSRKp, which should be related with the overall sequence or 3D conformation of the segments determining SI specificity.

  4. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on yield and quality of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea, L. Efeito da adubagem com o nitrogénio e enxofre ao rédito e à qualidade das couves-rábanos (Brassica oleracea, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Losák

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse pot experiment with kohlrabi, variety Luna, we explored the joint effect of N (0.6 g N per pot = 6 kg of soil and S in the soil (25-35-45 mg kg-1 of S on yields, on N, S and NO3- content in tubers and leaves, and on alterations in the amino acids concentration in the tubers. S fertilisation had no effect on tuber yields. The ranges of N content in tubers and leaves were narrow (between 1.42-1.48 % N and 1.21-1.35 % N, respectively and the effect of S fertilisation was insignificant. S concentration in the tubers ranged between 0.59 and 0.64 % S. S fertilisation had a more pronounced effect on the S concentration in leaf tissues where it increased from 0.50 to 0.58 or to 0.76 % S under the applied dose. The NO3- content was higher in tubers than in leaves. Increasing the S level in the soil significantly reduced NO3- concentrations in the tubers by 42.2-53.6 % and in the leaves by 8.8-21.7 %. Increasing the S content in the soil reduced the concentration of cysteine + methionine by 16-28 %. The values of valine, tyrosine, aspartic acid and serine were constant. In the S0, S1, and S2 treatments the levels of threonine, isoleucine, leucine, arginine, the sum of essential amino acids and alanine decreased from 37 to 9 %. The histidine concentration increased with increasing S fertilisation. S fertilisation of kohlrabi can be recommended to stabilize the yield and reduce the undesirable NO3- contained in the parts used for consumption.Deficiência aguda de S no solo tem sido observada na Europa desde os anos 1980. O couve-rábano é uma das plantas com maior exigência nesse nutriente e sua interação com o N é frequentemente relatada na literatura. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação visando testar o efeito da aplicação de S, na presença de N, na produção e qualidade de couve-rábano (Brassica oleracea, L., variedade Lua. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos contendo 6 kg de solo, aos quais foram aplicados 0

  5. 基于SRK和SCR序列的甘蓝自交不亲和系单倍型分析%Haplotype Analysis of Brassica oleracea Self-Incompatible Lines Based on SRK and SCR Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高启国; 韦静宜; 朱利泉; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和其他分子生物学方法,以甘蓝自交不亲和系E1和F1柱头cDNA为模板扩增SRKE1和SRKF1基因,以花药cDNA为模板扩增SCRE1和SCRF1基因.经序列比对首次证明E1和F1材料分别为S28和S7单倍型.经三维结构分析,预测SCRE1上C5-C6和C7-C8之间氨基酸序列决定SCRE1的单倍型特异性,SRKE1上TNNSFYSRLKVS序列决定了SRKE1的单倍型特异性,并对两者相对作用的关键氨基酸住点进行了分析.%The cDNA fragment of SRK was amplified from the stigma cDNA of the self-incompatible lines of Brassica oleracea E1 and Fl, and that of SCR was amplified from theor anther cDNA by RT-PCR and other methods of molecular biology. Based on sequence alignment, E1 and F1 were firstly proved to be S28 and S7 haplotype, respectively. Analysis of the threedimensional structures of SCRE1 and SRKEI suggested that the amino acid sequence between C5-C6 and C7-C8 of SCRE1 decides its haplotype specificity and the peptide of TNNSFYSRLKVS decides the haplotype specificity of SRKE1. The amino acids important for SCRE, and SRKE1 self-recognition and interaction were discussed. The above results provided a theoretical foundation for further analysis of the mechanism of interaction between SCR and SRK.

  6. Epidermal transmittance and phenolic composition in leaves of atrazine-tolerant and atrazine-sensitive cultivars of Brassica napus grown under enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted on the atrazine-tolerant mutant Stallion and the atrazine-sensitive cv. Paroll of Brassica napus L., which were grown under either visible light or with the addition of UV-B radiation (280–320 nm) for 15 days. The mutant has been shown to be sensitive to high levels of visible light as compared to the atrazine-sensitive cultivar and therefore we wished to determine plant response to UV-B radiation with respect to potential pigment changes, certain anatomical features, radiation penetration and partial photosynthesis. With regard to pigment changes, we were particularly interested in whether the compositional shift in flavonol pigments under enhanced UV-B radiation, previously suggested to favour increased antioxidant activity, is confined to the adaxial epidermis, which generally receives most UV-B radiation or whether the pigment shift is also inducible in the abaxial epidermis.As was to be expected, the penetration of UV-B radiation (310 nm) was lower in the UV-B-exposed plants, which was correlated with an increased amount of UV-screening pigments in the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers. The main flavonoid glycosides showed the largest shift from kaempferol to quercetin as aglycone moiety in the adaxial epidermal layer. However, in the abaxial epidermal layer the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives and kaempferol glycosides were predominant. Penetration of 430 nm light was higher after UV-B exposure, and probably contributed to the fact that photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II was unchanged or higher after UV-B exposure. UV-B radiation decreased leaf area in the atrazine-tolerant mutant only. Both cultivars showed an increased leaf thickness after UV-B exposure due to cell elongation mainly of the palisade tissue. This was especially evident in the mutant

  7. Free radical scavenging, antiproliferative activities and profiling of variations in the level of phytochemicals in different parts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ashun; Sharma, Upendra; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the seeds of Broccoli (cultivar Palam samridhi) at different stages of development were being analysed for their antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Among the antioxidant assays performed, a remarkable inhibition of superoxide radicals i.e. 94.25% observed with extracts of five days old sprout (PS5) at 2 mg/ml concentration. Although, all the extracts showed high cytotoxicity but the floret extract (PSF) found to be most effective with IC₅₀ value of 25.94 μg/ml while leaves extract (PSL) was least effective. The cell cycle analysis showed increased G₀/G₁ phase population as compare to positive control camptothecin. Profiling of various phytochemicals executed by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in order to correlate the bioactivities of the extracts. A wide variation observed in the profile of GLS hydrolytic products of different extracts obtained from the seeds, sprouts (three, five and seven days), leaves and florets.

  8. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of the...

  9. Breeding of Gaoyuanqing No.1, a New Brassica campestris Linn. Cultivar%油白菜新品种高原青1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹英泰; 白露佼; 曹成海

    2012-01-01

      高原青1号是由不育系8566A作母本、8580R作父本配制成的油白菜杂交种.其子叶肾形,茎淡绿色,叶片全缘、深绿色且厚,心叶椭圆形,叶丛半直立,叶面光滑,叶脉稀而较粗,无刺毛;叶柄扁平,微凹;幼苗半直立生长,莲座形.中早熟,抗寒性强、品质优、商品性极好;含干物质6.18%、粗纤维0.39%、叶绿素239.10 mg/100 g、VC 35.90 mg/100 g.适宜青海省中低位水地夏、秋季露地种植和早春、晚秋、冬季保护地种植.%  Gaoyuanqing No.1 is a new Brassica campestris Linn. cultivar by taking the sterile line 8566A as female parent and 8580R as male parent. It is a mid-early maturing cultivar with kidney-shaped cotyledon, palegreen stem, entire, dark green, glossy and thick leaf, oval spear leaf, half-upright leafage, and the leaf veins are sparse, thick and without stinging hairs. Its petioles are flattened and slightly impressed. The seedlings are half-upright and rosette form. The cultivar possesses excellent shelf quality and strong cold resistance, with the dry matter content of 6.18%, crude fiber content of about 0.39%, chlorophyll content of 239.10 mg/100 g, vitamin C content of 35.90 mg/100 g, and it is suitable for growing on open fields in summer and autumn and on protected fields in early spring, late autumn and winter in the low and middle irrigated lands of Qinghai province.

  10. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980

  11. Tolerance of broccoli cultivars to pre-transplanting clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone has been used for weed management in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., capitata group) production in the U.S. for over 20 years; however, the herbicide is not currently registered for other crop groups within B. oleracea. The U.S. specialty crop pesticide registration program (The IR-4 Proje...

  12. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  13. Pod area index, crop growth rate and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation as influenced by sowing dates in cultivars of Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassica napus cv. B.O.54, B. juncea cv. Pusa Bold, and B. campestris cv. Toria-T9 were sown on 3 dates [date not given] at 14 day intervals in a field experiment conducted in New Delhi, India, during 2 rabi seasons of 1993-94 and 1994-95. The highest pod area index (PAI) was attained in the first sown crop of Pusa Bold (3.0) during 1993-94 and the lowest value (1.5) was observed in the third sown crop of Toria-T9 during the same season. Due to profuse pod habit, Pusa Bold recorded the highest crop growth rate, with values of 29.4, 25.3 and 23.3 g m-2 day-1 for the first, second and third sowings, respectively, of the first season and 34.8, 30.2 and 25.8 g m-2 day-1 for the respective sowings of the second season. B.O.54 and Pusa Bold, with relatively broader leaves, intercepted 90 to 96% photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, by whole canopy) during the siliqua seed filling stage, whereas in narrow-leaved Toria-T9 the respective value was 74 to 81%. The canopy height measured in the first sown crop was 180, 200 and 120 cm in B.O.54, Pusa Bold and Toria-T9, respectively, at the maximum interception period. The maximum PAR interception decreased from the first to third sowing, and ranged from 47 to 44, 56 to 49, and 44 to 37% at 50% canopy height in B.O.54, Pusa Bold and Toria-T9, respectively. (author)

  14. Effect of the nitrogen of biogas slurry and composted pig manure on yield of Brassica oleracea and soil quality%猪粪厌氧、有氧发酵物氮源对甘蓝生长及土壤养分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飞龙; 叶美锋; 林代炎

    2015-01-01

    探讨了在等氮量供应下,猪粪厌氧发酵物(沼液)及有氧发酵物(堆肥)氮源对甘蓝生长及土壤养分的影响,结果表明:在等氮量供应的情况下,施用猪粪沼液不仅可以替代化肥为作物提供生长所必需的氮素,而且提高了养分的利用效率,对甘蓝的增产效果显著;而施用猪粪堆肥处理的甘蓝产量较低,但是施用猪粪堆肥可以提高土壤有机质和土壤pH值,减少施用化肥带来的土壤酸化危害;在等氮量供应的情况下,单施猪粪堆肥处理的土壤有效磷、速效钾含量最高。%The effects of different nitrogen sources from the anaerobic fermented product ( Biogas slurry) and the aerobic fermen-ted product ( Compost) of pig manure on Brassica oleracea growth and soil quality were discussed in this paper. The results indi-cated that at the same dosages of nitrogen fertilizr, yield of Brassica oleracea was higher when biogas slurry was applied than that of when compost was used. Biogas slurry could improve nutrient use efficiency. Meanwhile, the compost could increase soil or-ganic matter and improve soil the value of pH, reducing soil acidification due to fertilizer application. Also, at the same dosages of nitrogen fertilizer, the soil available phosphorus and available potassium with only compost application was the highest.

  15. Mobilization and Acquisition of Sparingly Soluble P-Sources by Brassica Cultivars under P-Starved Environment Ⅱ. Rhizospheric pH changes, Redesigned Root Architecture and Pi-Uptake Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

    2009-01-01

    Non-mycorrhizal Brassica does not produce specialized root structures such as cluster or dauciform roots but is an effective user of P compared with other crops. In addition to P-uptake, utilization and remobilization activity, acquisition of orthophosphate (Pi) from extracellular sparingly P-sources or unavailable bound P-forms can be enhanced by biochemical rescue mechanisms such copious H~+-efflux and/or carboxylates exudation into rhizosphere by roots via plasmalemma H~+ ATPase and anion channels triggered by P-starvation. To visualize the dissolution of sparingly soluble Ca-phosphate (Ca-P), newly formed Ca-P was suspended in agar containing other essential nutrients. With NH_4~+ applied as the N source, the precipitate dissolved in the root vicinity can be ascribed to rhizosphere acidification, whereas no dissolution occurred with nitrate nutrition. To observe in situ rhizospheric pH changes, images were recorded after embedding the roots in agar containing bromocresol purple as a pH indicator. P-tolerant cultivar showed a greater decrease in pH than the sensitive cultivar in the culture media (the appearance of typical patterns of various colors of pH indicator in the root vicinity), and at stress P-level this acidification was more prominent. In experiment 2, low P-tolerant class-Ⅰ cultivars (Oscar and Con-Ⅱ) showed a greater decrease in solution media pH than low P-sensitive class-Ⅱ (Gold Rush and RL-18) cultivars, and P-contents of the cultivars was inversely related to decrease in culture media pH. To elucidate P-stressinduced remodeling and redesigning in a root architectural system, cultivars were grown in rhizoboxes in experiment 3.The elongation rates of primary roots increased as P-supply increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of primary roots decreased. The length of the lateral roots and topological index values increased when cultivars were exposed to a P-stress environment. To elucidate Pi-uptake kinetics, parameters

  16. Identification and evolutionary genomics of novel LTR retrotransposons in Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROZ, FAISAL; NOREEN, SHUMAILA; HESLOP-HARRISON, JOHN SEYMOUR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining. The Copia superfamily was dominant (206 elements) over Gypsy (56), with estimated intact copies of ~1596 Copia and 540 Gypsy and ~7540 Copia and 780 Gypsy from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea whole genomes, respectively. Canonical...

  17. Effect of Magnetic Field on Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. Seed Germination and Studies on Its Mechanism%磁场对结球甘蓝种子萌发的影响及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔路路; 于海霞; 李景富; 姜景彬; 许向阳

    2014-01-01

    以结球甘蓝种子为试材,采用正交试验和均匀试验方法,研究了磁场强度、作用时间及处理前种子浸泡时间对各发芽指标的影响以及各影响因素的主次顺序,并对磁场参数中磁场强度和作用时间进行大范围筛选,更进一步从可溶性蛋白含量、丙二醛含量、抗氧化酶活性等方面探讨磁场处理提高种子活力的作用机理。结果表明:适宜的磁场处理可以促进种子萌发,提高种子活力,以20℃蒸馏水浸泡8 h 后1000~3500 GS 磁场处理1~6 min 为宜,但长时间、大强度磁场处理反而抑制种子萌发;磁场强度为种子萌发的主要影响因子,作用时间和浸泡时间的主次顺序因发芽指标的不同而不同;与对照相比,磁场处理的种子萌发期间可溶性蛋白含量降低或升高的速率、MDA 含量下降的幅度和速率、3种抗氧化酶活性上升的速率均加快,从而提高种子活力。%Taking Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. seed as experimental material,the effect of magnetic field intensity,and magnetic acting time and seed soaking time before treatment on seed germination index and primary and secondary relations between all factors were studied by orthogonal test and uniform test method.Then the large scale screening of magnetic field intensity and magnetic acting time were carried out to further investigate the mechanism of using magnetic field treatment to improve seed vigor from the view points of soluble protein content,malondialdehyde content,and antioxidant enzyme activity.The results indicated that suitable magnetic field treatment could promote seed germination and improve seed vigor.Magnetic field intensity was the main factor affecting seed germination.The primary and secondary order of action time and soaking time were varied with different germination indexes. Seed germination was inhibited by too high magnetic field intensity for a long time. Soaking seed in 20

  18. 羽衣甘蓝DH群体遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Doubled Haploid Population in Ornamental Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴希刚; 包满珠

    2013-01-01

    46 DH lines and 41 DH lines from two DH (doubled haploid) populations derived from micro-spore culture of ' Red Nagoya' and P3 genotype (F1 of Q2704 × Q4606) in Brassica oleracea var. acephala were selected for genetic diversity analysis by ISSR with nine polymorphic primers. The 81. 73% and 79. 31% of total amplified loci, for 104 and 87 polymorphic loci whose length ranged from 100 to 2 000 bp, were detected among two DH populations respectively. The effective numbers of alleles per amplified locus of the two DH populations were 1.225 3 and 1.468 9, respectively. The average values of the allelic polymorphism information content of the two DH populations were 0.258 9 and 0.409 4, respectively. Cluster analysis based on the ISSR showed that the ranges of the similar coefficients among 46 DH lines derived from ' Red Nagoya' and 41 DH lines derived from P3 were 0. 61 -0. 97 and 0. 56 -0. 91 respectively. The former population could be classified into five groups at 0. 78 , and the latter population could be classified into five groups at 0. 75. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of the DH populations derived from microspore culture was very diverse , the genetic diversity of the DH populations from different genotypes showed distinct difference.%由羽衣甘蓝基因型“名古屋-红”和基因型P3(Q2704×Q4606的F1代)通过小孢子培养获得的2个DH群体中分别抽取46个DH系和41个DH系作为试验材料,利用ISSR标记分别对2个DH群体进行遗传多样性分析.9个ISSR引物分别扩增出104和87个多态性位点,其中多态性位点各占总扩增位点的81.73%和79.31%,大小在100 ~2 000 bp;每个位点的有效等位基因数分别为1.225 3和1.468 9;平均多样性指数PIC分别为0.258 9和0.4094.对ISSR结果进行聚类分析,2个DH群体各DH系间相似系数范围分别为0.61 ~0.97和0.56 ~0.91,在相似性系数为0.78处可将46个“名古屋-红”的DH系分成5组,在相似性系数0.75

  19. 羽衣甘蓝种子主要品质性状的表现及其相关性%Performance and Correlation of Main Quality Traits in Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐章林; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    148 lines of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) from germplasm resource and advanced generation were selected randomly to analyze the characteristics and correlation of oil, protein, glucosinolates and seven fatty acid compositions in mature seed. The results showed that the average contents of oil and protein were 29.48% and 45.13% respectively, with a total content of oil plus protein was 74.61%. Maximum variation was observed on glucosinolates with a coefficient of variation reached 31.72% . Among .seven fatty acid compositions, the contents of oleic and erucic acids were the highest, followed by linoleic, palmitic d stearic acids were the lowest in mature seed. Except glucosinolates and stearic acid, the rest 9 traits presented a jingle-peak normal distribution. Correlation analysis indicated that significant or very significant correlations were ex stent among the quality traits and this was similar to that of three types of rapeseed ( B. napus L. , B. campestris L. i nd B. juncea Coss. ) . There were some excellent germplasm resources in kale which could be utilized directly in bleeding of high quality rapeseed.%随机挑选148份羽衣甘蓝种质资源和高世代材料,分析了成熟种子的含油量、蛋白质、硫苷和7种主要脂肪酸成分的表现特征及其相关性.结果表明:羽表甘蓝成熟种子平均含油量为29.48%,平均蛋白质含量为45.13%,含油量和蛋白质总量为74.61%.硫苷含量的变幅最大,变异系数为31.72%.7种主要脂肪酸成分中,油酸和芥酸的含量较高,其次为亚油酸,棕榈酸和硬脂酸的含量较低.除硫苷含量和硬脂酸含量外,其余9个性状的表现均呈单峰正态分布.相关性分析表明,大多数性状间都具有显著或极显著的相关性,这与对甘蓝型、白菜型和芥菜型3种类型油菜的研究结果相一致.在羽衣甘蓝中存在一些优异的种质资源,通过筛选可以在油菜优质育种中加以利用.

  20. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  1. Identification, evolution, and expression partitioning of miRNAs in allopolyploid Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Enhui; Zou, Jun; Hubertus Behrens, Falk; Chen, Li; Ye, Chuyu; Dai, Shutao; Li, Ruiyan; Ni, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Qiu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weidi; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Chalhoub, Boulos; Bancroft, Ian; Meng, Jinling; Cai, Daguang; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-12-01

    The recently published genome of Brassica napus offers for the first time the opportunity to gain insights into the genomic organization and the evolution of miRNAs in oilseed rape. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries from two B. napus cultivars (Tapidor and Ningyou7) and their four double-haploid lines were sequenced, employing the newly sequenced B. napus genome, together with genomes of its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. A total of 645 miRNAs including 280 conserved and 365 novel miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis revealed a high level of genomic conservation of MIRNAs (75.9%) between the subgenomes of B. napus and its two progenitors' genomes, and MIRNA lost/gain events (133) occurred in B. napus after its speciation. Furthermore, significant partitioning of miRNA expressions between the two subgenomes in B. napus was detected. The data of degradome sequencing, miRNA-mediated cleavage, and expression analyses support specific interactions between miRNAs and their targets in the modulation of diverse physiological processes in roots and leaves, as well as in biosynthesis of, for example, glucosinolates and lipids in oilseed rape. These data provide a first genome-wide view on the origin, evolution, and genomic organization of B. napus MIRNAs. PMID:26357884

  2. Mobilization and Acquisition of Sparingly Soluble P-Sources by Brassica Cultivars under P-Starved Environment I. Differential Growth Response,P-Efficiency Characteristics and P-Remobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) starvation is highly notorious for limiting plant growth around the globe. To combat P-starvation, plants constantly sense the changes in their environment, and elicit an elegant myriad of plastic responses and rescue strategies to enhance P-solublization and acquisition from bound soil P-forms. Relative growth responses, P-solublization and P-acquisition ability of 14 diverse Brassica cultivars grown with sparingly soluble P-sources (Rock-P (RP) and Ca_3(PO_4)_2 (TCP)) were evaluated in a solution culture experiment. Cultivars showed considerable genetic diversity in terms of biomass accumulation, concentration and contents of P and Ca in shoots and roots, P-stress factor (PSF) and P use efficiency.Cultivars showed variable P-stress tolerance, and cultivars depicting low PSF and high P-efficiency values were better adaptable to P-starvation. In experiment 2, after initial feeding on optimum nutrition for 12 d after transplanting (DAT),clasa-Ⅰ (low P-tolerant (Oscar and Con-Ⅱ)) and class-Ⅱ (low P-sensitive (Gold Rush and RL-18)) cultivars were exposed to P-free environment for 25 d. All of the cultivars remobilized P from above ground parts to their roots during growth in P-free environment, the magnitude of which was variable in tested cultivars. P-concentrations ([P]s) at 37 DAT were higher in developing compared with developed leaves. Translocation of absorbed P from metabolically inactive to active sites in P-stressed plants may have helped claaa-Ⅰ cultivars to establish a better rooting system, which provided a basis for enhanced P-utilization efficiency (PUE) and tolerance against P-stress. By supplying TCP and RP spatially separated from other nutrients in split root study, class-Ⅰ cultivars were still able to mobilize RP and TCP more efficiently compared with class-Ⅱ cultivars. To compare the growth behavior under P-stress, cultivate were grown in pots for 41 d after sowing, using a soil low in P (NaHCO_3-extractabie P=3.97 mg

  3. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    .The Portuguese are one of the greatest brassica consumers in the entire world. Tall cabbage is grown in Portugal over an area greater than 1000 ha. Tall cabbage consumption is very popular at Christmas time. In this work, results from nitrogen and boron application, as conventional fertilisers, and from the use of Dix10, an organic amendment (˜ 10 % total N permitted in organic farming, are reported. Young cabbage plants were prepared in a greenhouse in micro-pots and transplanted with protected roots on August 29, 2005, spaced at 0.8x0.5 m between and within rows. The soil was loamy textured with 0.83 % organic matter, pH(H2O 5.2, and with median P and high K content levels. Six treatments were established: SAd treatment, without any fertilization; Dix10, applied in a rate equivalent to 80 kg N/ha; NB and N+, with 80 and 160 kg N/ha as urea, respectively; and B-and B+ treatments, without B and with 4.4 kg B/ha as borax. Boron treatments were fertilised with 80 kg N/ha and N treatments with 2.2 kg B/ha. Thus, NB is a median treatment with 80 kg N/ha and 2.2 kg B/ha. SAd plants yielded 13.7 Mg biomass/ha and took up 33.9 kg N/ha and 40.9 g B/ha, which are values significantly lower than that obtained on fertilised plots. In Dix10 treatment, cabbage yielded 18 Mg biomass/ha and took up 45.1 and 51.3 g B/ha. NB treatment produced higher biomass (38.6 Mg/ha and N uptake (107.9 kg/ha than SAd and Dix10 treatments. N+ treatment did not increase the yield, neither N uptake if compared with NB. B+ treatment has not any influence in biomass yield but increased tissue B content and B uptake. In N+ treatment there was a significant decrease in tissue B concentration and B uptake, which suggests antagonism of N over the uptake of B. The biomass yields and the apparent N and B recoveries showed that the lower biomass yielded in SAd and Dix10 treatments were due to a shortage of soil N availability in these treatments during the growing season.

  4. Construction of Brassica A and C genome-based ordered pan-transcriptomes for use in rapeseed genomic research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhesi He; Feng Cheng; Yi Li,; Xiaowu Wang; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Boulos Chalhoub; Shengyi Liu; Ian Bancroft

    2015-01-01

    This data article reports the establishment of the first pan-transcriptome resources for the Brassica A and C genomes. These were developed using existing coding DNA sequence (CDS) gene models from the now-published Brassica oleracea TO1000 and Brassica napus Darmor-bzh genome sequence assemblies representing the chromosomes of these species, along with preliminary CDS models from an updated Brassica rapa Chiifu genome sequence assembly. The B. rapa genome sequence scaffolds required splittin...

  5. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YuHua; XIAO Ling; WU Gang; LU ChangMing

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhongshuan No. 9 with Iow erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at position 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An Avrll cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with Avrll confirmed that the FAE1genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by Avrll cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and between the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  6. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhong- shuan No. 9 with low erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1 genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1 sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at po- sition 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An AvrII cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with AvrII confirmed that the FAE1 genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by AvrII cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and be- tween the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  7. Isolation of Brassica napus MYC2 gene and analysis of its expression in response to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massumeh Aliakbari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of stress related transcription factors to improve plant stress tolerance is a major goal of current biotechnology researches. MYC2 gene encodes a key stress-related transcription factor involved in Jasmonate (JA and abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Brassica napus, as a globally important oilseed crop, is a close relative of Arabidopsis. In the present study, a 960bp cDNA fragment of B. napus MYC2 (BnMYC2 was isolated, cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the BnMYC2 cDNA fragment showed high homology with Arabidopsis thaliana MYC2 and the putative Brassica oleracea MYC2, implying the conserved functions among these orthologous genes. The expression analysis by a semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR revealed that BnMYC2 is a drought inducible gene. A different expression profile of BnMYC2 was observed between drought tolerant and sensitive B. napus cultivars. The drought tolerant cultivar showed a higher accumulation of BnMYC2 transcript in response to water deficit stress during the studied time course. This result indicates that BnMYC2 may contribute to drought tolerance in B. napus.

  8. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  9. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Amoah Stephen; Perez Amandine; Girin Thomas; Baker David; Stephenson Pauline; King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa) and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea). Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for c...

  10. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fat...

  11. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Eduardo A.S.; Saavedra, Maria J; Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho; Conceição Fernandes; Bennett, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total fla...

  12. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  13. Classificação de cultivares de brássicas com relação à resistência à traça-das-crucíferas e à presença de glucosinolatos Brassicas cultivars classification in relation to resistance to diamondback moth and to the presence of glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Thomaz Thuler

    2007-04-01

    : viability and the length of the larval and pupal period, sex ratio, female fertility, adult longevity and the length and viability of the egg phase; also it was calculated the corrected reproductive potential index (CRP. Pearson correlation was obtained, and the grouping and main components of multivariate analysis were applied. Sinigrin and other glucosinolates were evaluated by liquid chromatography. 'Georgia', 'Roxo' and HS20 hybrids were classified as highly susceptible; 'Roxo precoce' and Midori hybrid, as susceptible, and 'Chato-de-quintal' as moderately resistant to diamondback moth. Multivariate analyses provided a better way to classify cultivars in relation to different resistance degrees. Brassica genetic materials evaluated do not present sinigrin.

  14. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  15. 不同类型油菜品种(系)光合生理指标与产量之间关系的研究%Study of Different Types of Rape ( Brassica L.) Cultivars (Lines) Relationship between Photosynthetic Physiological Indices and Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨霞; 李宗仁

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose was to study different types of rape cultivars (lines) relationship between photosynthetic physiological indices and yield, and reveal different rape cultivars' photosynthetic characteristics. [Method] Main cultivars (lines) of Qinghai Province were used as materials, thereinto, Brassica napus L. hybrids were Qingza No. 7, Qingza No. 5, Qingza No. 3 and Qingza No. 2, Brassica campes-tris L. was Qingyou 241, Brassica napus L. were Qingyou 14 and No. 46, Brassica juncea L. was Qinghai mustard. [Result] Net photosynthetic rate of different types of rape cultivars (lines) had a very significant or notable positive corelation with yield per plant during all growth period. At seedling period, transpiration rate of Qingyou 14, Qingyou 241 and Qinghai mustard had a very significant corelation with yield per plant; At full-bloom period, only Qingyou 241 s transpiration rate had a very significant corelation with yield per plant; While at pod period, all rape cultivars( lines) 'transpiration rate had no correlation with yield per plant. Net photosynthetic rate of unit area leaf had a greater effects on yield than transpiration rate. [Conclusion] Net photosynthetic rate should be used as an important indicators during rape cultivar breeding.%[目的]对不同类型油菜(Brassica L.)品种(系)的光合生理指标与产量的关系进行研究,揭示不同油菜品种的光合特性.[方法]选择青海省主栽油菜品种(系),甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)杂交种为青杂7号、青杂5号、青杂3号、青杂2号,白菜型油菜(Brassica campestris L.)为青油241,甘蓝型油菜为青油14和No.46,芥菜型油菜(Brassica juncea L.)为青海芥菜.[结果]不同类型油菜品种(系)各生育期净光合速率均与单株产量呈极显著或显著正相关.苗期时甘蓝型常规种青油14、白菜型油菜青油241和芥菜型油菜青海芥菜蒸腾速率与单株产量之间呈现极显著相关;盛花期

  16. Substitution of Vermicompost for Peat as Brassica oleracea L. and Cu-curbita pepo L. Seedling Substrates%蚯蚓堆肥替代草炭作为甘蓝和西葫芦育苗基质研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 孙向阳; 龚小强; 魏乐

    2015-01-01

    为减少无土栽培对草炭资源的依赖和提高有机废弃物的再利用率,以草炭、绿化废弃物、蘑菇渣为原材料,通过使用品氏草炭( ck)、绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥( T1)、蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥( T2)、草炭+绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥(T3)、草炭+蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥(T4)、草炭+绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥+蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥(T5)6种基质来培育甘蓝和西葫芦幼苗,探讨有机废弃物蚯蚓堆肥替代草炭作为甘蓝和西葫芦育苗基质的可行性。通过对甘蓝和西葫芦株高、根长、叶片数、鲜重、干重、茎直径6项生长指标进行测定与分析,得出结论:处理T1、T3、T4、T5均可替代草炭作为甘蓝育苗基质,处理T1和T3可替代草炭作为西葫芦育苗基质。%In order to reduce dependence of soilless culture of flowers on peat and increase recycling rate of organic waste, we made a study to assess the feasibility of replacing peat with organic waste vermicompost as seedling growing media. By using peat, green waste and mushroom residue as raw materials, we utilized six kinds of seedling growing media, including peat (ck), vermicompost of green waste (T1), vermicompost of mushroom residue (T2), peat + vermicompost of green waste ( T3) , peat +vermicompost of mushroom residue ( T4) , peat +vermicompost of green waste +ver⁃micompost of mushroom residue ( T5 ) to cultivate Brassica oleracea L. and Cucurbita pepo L.. Through measuring and analyzing six growth indexes including plant height, root length, leaf num⁃ber, total fresh weight, total dry weight and stem diameter, we conclude that T1, T3, T4 and T5 can replace peat as seedling growing substrates for Brassica oleracea L., and that T1 and T3 can re⁃place peat as seedling growing substrates for Cucurbita pepo L.

  17. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  18. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus.

  19. 植物原生质体全能性表达及其在甘蓝类蔬菜育种上的应用%Totipotency Expression of Plant Protoplast and Its Application in Brassica oleracea L.Vegetable Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛小光; 顾宏辉; 赵振卿; 虞慧芳; 王建升; 张晓辉

    2011-01-01

    The isolated protoplasts, exposed cells without coated cell wall, own the totipotency to regenerate a whole plant under appropriate culture conditions. Separation, culture and reproduction technology of plant protoplast is a platform for plant breeding, gene engineering and cell physiology study. Therefore it is of important significance. This paper expounds the obtain, culture and regeneration etc key technology in the process of protoplast totipotency expression, and their application in Brassica oleracea vegetables breeding. Existing problems in protoplast technology were discussed. Suggestions were proposed for improving plant protoplast culture system and for this work in the near future.%植物原生质体指植物除去细胞壁后被质膜包被的裸露细胞,在适当培养条件下具有再生成完整植株的全能性.植物原生质体分离、培养及植株再生技术是进行植物育种、基因工程、遗传理论及细胞生理特性研究的平台,具有重要的研究意义.本文概述了植物原生质体全能性表达过程中原生质体的获得、培养和再生等关键技术环节及其在甘蓝类蔬菜育种上的应用,同时讨论了原生质体培养技术中存在的问题,并且对完善植物原生质体培养体系及今后的工作方向提出了建议.

  20. Brassica napus L. cultivars show a broad variability in their morphology, physiology and metabolite levels in response to sulfur limitations and to pathogen attack

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, Annekathrin; Pallmann, Philip; Papenbrock, Jutta; Riemenschneider, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack induce changes in the sulfate pool and the levels of sulfur-containing metabolites, which often depend on the ecotypes or cultivars. We are int...

  1. Contribution of Nitrogen Uptake and Retranslocation during Reproductive Growth to the Nitrogen Efficiency of Winter Oilseed-Rape Cultivars (Brassica napus L. Differing in Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grown in a field experiment without mineral N (N0 and with 160 kg N·ha−1 (N160. Through frequent harvests from full flowering until maturity N uptake, N utilization and apparent N remobilization from vegetative plant parts to the pods could be calculated. NUPT proved being more important than N utilization efficiency (NUE for grain yield formation under N-limiting (N0 conditions. For cultivar differences in N efficiency, particularly N uptake during flowering (NUPT and biomass allocation efficiency (HI to the grains, were decisive. Both crop traits were related to delayed senescence of the older leaves. Remobilization of N particularly from stems and leaves was more important for pod N accumulation than N uptake after full flowering. Pod walls (high N concentrations and stems (high biomass mainly contributed to the crop-residue N at maturity. Decreasing the crop-inherent high N budget surplus of winter oilseed-rape requires increasing the low N remobilization efficiency particularly of pod-wall N to the grains. Addressing this conclusion, multi-year and -location field experiments with an extended range of cultivars including hybrids are desirable.

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Partial cDNA of Male Determinant Factor of Self-incompatibility from Six Brassica oleracea L.%六种甘蓝自交不亲和雄性决定因子部分cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兵; 朱利泉; 薛丽琰; 孙海燕; 张贺翠; 余浩; 杨昆; 王小佳

    2012-01-01

    Many flowering plants possess a self-incompatibility system to prevent inbreeding. In Brassica oleracea, self-incompatibility is genetically controlled by S-locus cysteine rich protein (SCR) and S-locus receptor kinase (SRK). The SCR is the determinant of pollen S-haplotype specificity. In order to compare the structure of the gene and molecular characterization of the protein among the allelic SCRs, the nested PCR primers were designed on the basis of the conserved amino acids in the signal peptide's cleavage site and the ploy A of mRNA. Here we cloned partial cDNA sequence of SCR from six Brassica oleracea L. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of SCR in D3, El, 240, Al, Nl and Gl were 319, 311, 290, 288, 385 and 377 bp, respectively, which all encompassed 3'UTR. Their coding regions predicted a protein of 58, 58, 58, 58, 58 and 55 amino acids, respectively. The protein sequences were identical between SCR-D3 and SCR3. SCR-El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El also had the same sequences, and they were all identical to the SCR7. The SCR of Gl was a new S haplotype gene. Although SCR -El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El were the same S haplotype, their 3'UTR were different. For example, the length, the polyadenylation signal and the adenine nucleotide's content were different among them. Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis indicated that there were some differences in the secondary structure and the 3-dimentional structure of the six SCRs, suggesting that the interactions of SCR with SRK required strict complementary space. All SCRs had potential phosphorylation sites, but no glycosylation sites. It showed that the phosphorylation of SCR might play roles in signal transduction of self-incompatibility. Furthermore, the amino acid residues interacting with SRK were situated on the surface of the SCR molecule, and most of these amino acid residues were basic amino acid. So, we suggested that the process of SCR interacting with SRK required the participation of the

  3. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  4. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  5. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species

    OpenAIRE

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea,...

  6. Quality and Productivity of the Mass of the New Fooder Kale Progenies (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC and Seed Production of the Cultivar "Maksimirski visoki" at Different Dates of Transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Štafa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available By applying diallel crossings of 10 parental lines of fodder kale in 1977, 1978 and 1979, and then by selfing until the F-6 generation, new progenies of giant fodder kale with very good agronomic properties were developed and were tested in comparison with the check, Grüner Angeliter. The progeny named Maksimirski visoki was registered in 1987 as the first Croatian variety of giant fodder kale. It is characterized by higher percentage of leaves in the mass, dry matter, energy (starch value and proteins as compared to check. Therefore, higher yield of dry matter, energy (starch value and protein can be achived in comparison with the check. Seed yields of Maksimirski visoki produced in Istria varied depending on the date of transplanting, quality of transplants, soil type and fertilizers applied. From the first date of transplanting (in LiŽnjan, on September 15, 1992 on heavy, deep soil 2.722 kg/ha was produced. From the second date of transplanting (September 22 2.494 kg/ha, and from the third date (on September 29 1344 kg/ha was produced. The lowest seed yield was produced from the fourth date of transplanting (October 6, only 1.175 kg/ha. On the shallow, porous soil with lots of skeleton (Vodnjan yield of 925 kg/ha was obtained from plants transplanted on September 25, while 468 kg/ha was obtained from those transplanted on September 30. On the deep, heavier and more fertile soil (LiŽnjan average yield of 1934 kg/ha of seed was produced with 99.48 % purity, 94 % germination and 92.0 % germination energy. However, on the shallower, porous and dry soil (Vodnjan average of 696 kg/ha of seed was produced with 98.88 % purity, 90.5 % germination and 89 % germination energy.

  7. The Molecular Characteristics of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Related Gene orf138 in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)%甘蓝细胞质雄性不育相关基因orf138的分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 康宗利; 简元才; 丁云花; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育系为材料,找出能够有效鉴定由orf138导致的甘蓝CMS的标记,并明确此基因在甘蓝Ogu CMS基因组中的位置.根据萝卜CMS相关基因orf138的序列信息,设计特异引物,并在甘蓝不同类型不育系和保持系中鉴定PCR产物的稳定性.随后利用Tail-PCR技术,扩增获得此基因的侧翼序列并进行了生物信息学分析.根据orf138的全长序列设计引物B0138300BF/R,在甘蓝不育型材料中,能够稳定扩增出300 bp左右的单一条带,而在其他细胞质不育类型和可育材料中均未扩出条带,经多次验证结果稳定可靠.甘蓝中orf138的上下游侧翼序列有效碱基1789 bp,通过生物信息学分析,获得包括起始密码和终止密码的orf138的完整序列共417 bp.同源性比对结果显示:与甘蓝型油菜、白菜和萝卜的or38片段具有高度保守性.分析侧翼序列表明甘蓝orf138的3’端是由ORF83、trnfM、ORF125等基因片段构成的一个复杂序列.获得了甘蓝OguCMS特异的分子鉴定标记,明确了orf138在甘蓝线粒体中的位置,以上结果为甘蓝雄性不育的进一步研究奠定良好的基础.%The objective was to develop effective specific markers of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu CMS) line in Brassica oleracea and illustrate the upstream and downstream genome sequence arrangement of the CMS gene orf!38. The orfl38 gene fragment in cabbage CMS line was amplified based on specific primers designed according to radish orfl38 gene sequence information. The upstream and downstream mitochondrion sequences of orfl38 sterile line were identified by use of Tail-PCR technology. Ogu CMS specific primer B0I38300 BF/R was designed according to the full-length sequence of orf138. It could stably amplify a single PCR product of about 300 bp in OguCMS cabbage line, while never in fertile maintainer lines and other types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines. Upstream and downstream flanking sequence of

  8. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  9. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  10. Comportamento agronômico de cultivares e híbridos de repolho na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul Agronomic behavior of cabbage cultivars and hybrids in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fracaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata é uma das plantas hortícolas mais importantes na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Assim sendo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os melhores cultivares e híbridos de repolho para esta região. Quinze materiais comerciais de repolho, de distintos distribuidores e origens, foram avaliados quanto ao seu comportamento agronômico em Veranópolis, RS, de julho a novembro de 1997, adotando a tecnologia usualmente recomendada para esta região. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas com os híbridos Shinsei (54,8t/ha, Japonês (53,6t/ha, Astrus (48,6t/ha e Kenzan (44,8t/ha, e o cultivar Brunswick (43,5t/ha. Entretanto, considerando a preferência do mercado por repolhos de 1 a 1,5kg, os melhores materiais foram Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, com produtividades da ordem de 32 a 40t/ha.Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata is one of the most important horticultural plants in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The objective of the present study was to identify the best cultivar and hybrid of cabbage for this region. Fifteen commercial materials of cabbage, from different distributors and origins, were evaluated for their agronomic behavior in Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, from July to November, 1997, adopting the technology usually recommended for this region. The best productivities were obtained with the hybrids Shinsei (54.8t/ha, Japonês (53.6t/ha, Astrus (48.6t/ha and Kenzan (44.8t/ha, and the cultivar Brunswick (43.5t/ha. However, considering the preference of the market for cabbages of 1 to 1.5kg, the best materials were Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, with productivities of the order of 32 to 40t/ha.

  11. Cloning and Expression of an Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (OguCMS)-related MYB Transcription Factor in Brassica oleracea var.capitata%甘蓝胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)相关的MYB转录因子BoMYB1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 康宗利; 刘海霞; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) is the most widely used male sterile type in cabbage breeding. MYB transcription factors play a key role in regulation of plant defense response and multiple development processes. In present experiment, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor which down regulated 10.3 times in cabbage (Brasska okracea var. capitata) OguCMS lines was cloned by SMART RACE strategy.The full-length cDNA of B0MYB1 was 1 141 bp, which contained a 196 bp long 5' untranslated region, a 246 bp long 3' untranslated region and a 699 bp long open reading frame (GenBank accession number: JN703995). It was localized in the nucleus by subcellular localization prediction. It was an anther preferentially expressed gene in cabbage, which reached its expression peak in the late development. It was induced by the regulation of plant hormones salicylic acid(SA) and jasmonate methyl (JA-ME), and consequently regulated the expression of anther development genes. The experimental results suggests that B0MYB1 may be one of the important genes which involved in OguCMS anther development.%萝卜胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)是目前甘蓝中应用较广的雄性不育类型,MYB转录因子具有调控植物防御应答反应和多个发育过程的作用.本实验以在甘蓝(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)OguCMS花药中下调10.3倍的EST序列为信息探针,结合电子克隆及RACE技术,得到一个与甘蓝OguCMS雄性不育相关的MYB转录因子全长cDNA,命名为BoMYB1(GenBank登录号:JN703995).经亚细胞定位预测,该基因定位于细胞核,全长1 141 bp,包含一个长度为196 bp的5’非翻译区、246 bp的3’非翻译区和一个699 bp的开放阅读框.该基因在花药中具表达优势,并在花药发育晚期出现表达高峰,受植物激素水杨酸(SA)和茉莉酸甲酯(JA-ME)的调控,诱导花药发育基因的表达.实验结果提示,BoMY B1可能是参与OguCMS花药发育的重要基因之一.

  12. Effect of foliar application of a protein hydrolysate in the productivity of broccoli cultivars. = Efeito da aplicação foliar de hidrolisado protéico sob a produtividade de cultivares de brócolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Michelotti Bettoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available - The broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica is a Brassica vegetable grown in various regions of the world and is characteristic of small properties with potential for organic crops. However, surveys that provide products that meet organic legislation, biofertilizers as the basis of protein hydrolysates are necessary for legal purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein hydrolysate containing amino acids on the production of two cultivars of broccoli grown in organic cropping system. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized factorial 2 x 4 with four replicates, two cultivars (Belstar and Fiesta and four treatments: control and foliar application of solutions with the following concentrations of protein hydrolysate: 2 mL L -1, 4 mL L-1, 8 mL L-1. The applications were made weekly beginning and ending at 7 to 63 days after transplant (DAT and evaluated the following characteristics at harvest (75 DAT: fresh mass per head (FMH, dry mass per head (DMH, head diameter (HD and estimated average production (EAP. The use of hydrolyzed in 8 mL L-1dose resulted in higher fresh and dry mass, head diameter and yield of broccoli in organic cropping system. = - O brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica é uma hortaliça da família das Brássicas cultivado em diversas regiões do mundo, característico de pequenas propriedades, com potencial para cultivos orgânicos, porém é necessário que sejam realizadas pesquisas que disponibilizem produtos que atendam a legislação orgânica, como biofertilizantes a base de hidrolisados protéicos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da aplicação de hidrolisado protéico contendo aminoácidos na produção de duas cultivares de brócolis, em sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com quatro repetições, sendo duas cultivares (Belstar e Fiesta e quatro tratamentos

  13. Desenvolvimento do açaizeiro de terra firme, cultivar pará, sob atenuação da radiação solar em fase de viveiro Nursery development of non-flooded açai palm (Euterpe Oleraceae, Mart, Pará cultivar Under attenuation of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice de Cássia Conforto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar, na Região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, o desenvolvimento em fase de viveiro do açaizeiro da cultivar de terra firme Pará, foram monitoradas as respostas do crescimento e da taxa fotossintética, quando submetido a tratamentos de atenuação de 16% e 50% da radiação solar global, até a idade de 8 meses. A altura da planta e o diâmetro do caule, assim como a acumulação de matéria seca, não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (pIn the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil was investigated the outcomes of the plant growth and photosynthetic rate of a açai palm cultivar Para (PA, under attenuation of total radiation in 16% and 50% until the age of 8 months. The plant height, the stem diameter and the dry matter accumulation were not influenced by the treatments (p<0.05. However, plants growing under lower attenuation of irradiance started to show significant lower values of leaf area in 5 months; and rate of net photosynthesis and irradiance saturation after 6 months (p<0.05. These results indicated that the seedlings has a potential to adapt in this region, since maintained under attenuation of 50% of irradiance.

  14. Chemical diversity in Brassica oleracea affects biodiversity of insect herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants plays a major role in the composition and diversity of the associated insect community. Resistance traits of plants are likely candidates mediating community composition. However, it is debated whether total concentrations of chemical compounds or specific compounds

  15. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica head initiation under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two–year study on the influence of temperature on broccoli head initiation was carried out at the ''Marcelin'' experimental station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences. In each year of the study, plants were planted in the field at four dates. The evaluation of the developmental phase of the broccoli shoot apex was based on the analysis of microscope slides. The date of head initiation was assumed as the day on which the first of the examined apices were found to be at the early generative phase. The plant characteristics (number of leaves, leaf area and stem diameter on the date of initiation were also determined. Variation in length of the period from planting to head initiation was found both between dates of planting and between experimental years. The shortest period from planting to initiation was when the plants were planted in April and June (17-18 days in the first year and the longest one for planting in April in the first year of the study (29 days. The length of the period from planting to head initiation depended on mean daily air temperature. The higher the temperature was, the shorter was the period.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA AFTER INFECTION OF PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeplata Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassicaceae family include worldwide commercially grown crops. Experiments on this crop were conducted during the year 2011 in Vidhania and Jaisinghpura of Jaipur district Rajasthan, India. The aim of this study is to find out primary metabolites like chlorophyll, sugar starch protein total phenol of cauliflower. Levels of plant metabolites are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Growth factors such as light, temperature, humidity, type of soil, application of fertilizers, damage caused by microorganisms and insects, stress induced by UV radiation, heavy metals and pesticides all alter metabolite composition of plants. Different types of pests’ cause changes in plant metabolite production. The results revealed the evidence of different infestation of cabbage by common herbivores. In this review we report primary metabolites of the cabbage along with the quantification after the pests’ effect.

  17. The evolution of Brassica napus FLOWERING LOCUST paralogues in the context of inverted chromosomal duplication blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianwei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and its orthologues play a central role in the integration of flowering signals within Arabidopsis and other diverse species. Multiple copies of FT, with different cis-intronic sequence, exist and appear to operate harmoniously within polyploid crop species such as Brassica napus (AACC, a member of the same plant family as Arabidopsis. Results We have identified six BnFT paralogues from the genome of B. napus and mapped them to six distinct regions, each of which is homologous to a common ancestral block (E of Arabidopsis chromosome 1. Four of the six regions were present within inverted duplicated regions of chromosomes A7 and C6. The coding sequences of BnFT paralogues showed 92-99% identities to each other and 85-87% identity with that of Arabidopsis. However, two of the paralogues on chromosomes A2 and C2, BnA2.FT and BnC2.FT, were found to lack the distinctive CArG box that is located within intron 1 that has been shown in Arabidopsis to be the binding site for theFLC protein. Three BnFT paralogues (BnA2.FT, BnC6.FT.a and BnC6.FT.b were associated with two major QTL clusters for flowering time. One of the QTLs encompassing two BnFT paralogues (BnC6.FT.a and BnC6.FT.b on chromosome C6 was resolved further using near isogenic lines, specific alleles of which were both shown to promote flowering. Association analysis of the three BnFT paralogues across 55 cultivars of B. napus showed that the alleles detected in the original parents of the mapping population used to detect QTL (NY7 and Tapidor were ubiquitous amongst spring and winter type cultivars of rapeseed. It was inferred that the ancestral FT homologues in Brassica evolved from two distinct copies, one of which was duplicated along with inversion of the associated chromosomal segment prior to the divergence of B. rapa (AA and B. oleracea (CC. At least ten such inverted duplicated blocks (IDBs were identified covering a quarter of the

  18. Present state and prospects of breeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) with a maximum erucic acid content for industrial applications. Stand und Perspektiven der Zuechtung von Raps (Brassica napus L. ) mit hohem Erucasaeure-Gehalt im Oel fuer industrielle Nutzungszwecke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhs, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany)); Friedt, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Rapeseed oil with proportions of erucic acid (C22:1) substantially higher than the level found in traditional cultivars (ca. 50% C22:1) are sought by breeders and chemists for use in wellknown industrial processes and products. In a first step available rapeseed and Brassica germplasm was screened for high erucic acid content. Following conventional breeding procedures (e.g. pedigree selection) promising rapeseed genotypes were crossed and the progeny were selected due to genetic variation of oil content and quality. Since rapeseed (B. napus L.) is amenable to improvement through biotechnology as well, further breeding progress was achieved by application of cell and tissue culture techniques, e.g., microspore culture for the production of doubled-haploid lines. Furthermore, an impressive strategy to increase genetic variation is the resynthesis of rapeseed, i.e., by crossing the original ancestors, B. rapa and B. oleracea, accomplished by embryo rescue technique circumventing existing incompatibility barriers. Following this way we have carried out crosses between b. rapa ssp. trilocularis ('Yellow sarson') and several selected cauliflowers in order to create new oilseed rape germplasm with high erucic acid content. The offspring display desirable variation in the content of major fatty acids. Through introgression of resynthesized germplasm into conventional high-erucic acid rapeseed material it should be possible to produce recombinant breeding lines with an erucic acid content of 60% or even more. (orig.)

  19. Incidence of the major Brassica pests in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartea, M E; Padilla, G; Vilar, M; Velasco, P

    2009-04-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. acephala group) crops are common in northwestern Spain, where they are severely damaged by different insect pests. The damage notably affects the value of this crop because it is freshly consumed and fresh processed. The objective of this work was to determine the abundance and relative importance of the main Lepidoptera pests of Brassica crops for 6 yr at five localities in northwestern Spain and to relate the seasonal changes of larval populations and environmental conditions. Pheromone traps were used as a method of monitoring adults. Larval populations were monitored on kales by counting the larvae for several years and locations at different sample dates. Five species were found: Mamestra brassicae (L.); imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.); Pieris brassicae (L.); diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella (L.); and Autographa gamma L. Proportions of each insect fluctuated over the years and in the different locations. M. brassicae was the most abundant (48.5% of the total of Lepidoptera species) followed by P. xyllostella (25%) and P. rapae (15%). The use of pheromone traps combined with plant sampling permitted the detection of two generations of M. brassicae. However, adult counts were not correlated to the number of larvae on plants. PMID:19449659

  20. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. PMID:27181942

  1. Switchgrass cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanqi; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2012-10-02

    A new cultivar of switchgrass `Cimarron` (SL93 2001-1) having increased biomass yield is provided. The switchgrass comprises all the morphological and physiological properties of the cultivar grown from a seed deposited under American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) No. PTA-10116. The invention also provides seeds, progeny, parts and methods of use of Cimarron, such as for the production of biofuels.

  2. Conservation of the microstructure of genome segments in Brassica napus and its diploid relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Debashis; van den Boogaart, Tom; O'Neill, Carmel M; Hynes, Llewelyn; Bent, Elisabeth; Macpherson, Lee; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Bancroft, Ian

    2004-12-01

    The cultivated Brassica species are the group of crops most closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). They represent models for the application in crops of genomic information gained in Arabidopsis and provide an opportunity for the investigation of polyploid genome formation and evolution. The scientific literature contains contradictory evidence for the dynamics of the evolution of polyploid genomes. We aimed at overcoming the inherent complexity of Brassica genomes and clarify the effects of polyploidy on the evolution of genome microstructure in specific segments of the genome. To do this, we have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from genomic DNA of B. rapa subspecies trilocularis (JBr) and B. napus var Tapidor (JBnB) to supplement an existing BAC library from B. oleracea. These allowed us to analyse both recent polyploidization (under 10,000 years in B. napus) and more ancient polyploidization events (ca. 20 Myr for B. rapa and B. oleracea relative to Arabidopsis), with an analysis of the events occurring on an intermediate time scale (over the ca. 4 Myr since the divergence of the B. rapa and B. oleracea lineages). Using the Arabidopsis genome sequence and clones from the JBr library, we have analysed aspects of gene conservation and microsynteny between six regions of the genome of B. rapa with the homoeologous regions of the genomes of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis. Extensive divergence of gene content was observed between the B. rapa paralogous segments and their homoeologous segments within the genome of Arabidopsis. A pattern of interspersed gene loss was identified that is similar, but not identical, to that observed in B. oleracea. The conserved genes show highly conserved collinearity with their orthologues across genomes, but a small number of species-specific rearrangements were identified. Thus the evolution of genome microstructure is an ongoing process. Brassica napus is a recently formed polyploid resulting

  3. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  4. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  5. Selection for pathogen resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid in vitro systems of Brassica napus, i.e. mesophyll protoplast and microspores, were cultivated on media containing culture filtrates or concentrated toxins (Sirodesmins) of the pathogenic fungus Phoma lingam. Several toxin tolerant clones were selected. After colchicine treatment, seeds were obtained from about 50% of the regenerants. Stem infection tests carried out on seed born plantlets in the greenhouse with pycnidiospores of Phoma indicated reduced susceptibility towards the pathogen in protoplast derived clones of the rapeseed cultivar ''Andor''. Microspore derived clones of the rapeseed cultivar ''JL344'', containing the natural Phoma resistance of the cultivar ''Jet Neuf'', showed no significant improvement in the degree of resistance in the selection procedure. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  6. Especificidade de hospedeiro nas interações Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brássicas Host specificity in interaction Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel-Wruck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Face às escassas informações acerca da variabilidade patogênica de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar a especificidade patogênica de trinta e três isolados do patógeno, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do exterior, a oito espécies de brássicas, através de inoculação por meio de injeção da suspensão bacteriana nas folhas. Desse total, 12 isolados foram obtidos de couve-comum (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nove de repolho (B. oleracea var. capitata, cinco de couve-flor (B. oleracea var. botrytis, dois de canola (B. napus, um de brócolos (B. oleracea var. italica, um de couve-chinesa (B. chinensis, um de couve-rábano (B. oleracea var. gongylodes e dois de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. A avaliação da patogenicidade dos isolados da bactéria, frente aos hospedeiros em estudo, demonstrou que 14 deles não apresentaram especificidade, originando sintomas em todas as diferentes plantas inoculadas. Os 19 isolados restantes, entretanto, apresentaram relativo grau de especificidade, não causando doença em uma ou mais das plantas inoculadas.Considering the lack of information in literature about the pathogenic variability of Brazilian isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a study was carried out to determine the pathogenic specificity of 33 isolates of this bacterium originated from several regions of Brazil and overseas to eight different Brassica species, through inoculation by means of injection of the bacterial suspension in leaves. From these isolates, 12 were obtained from collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nine from cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata, five from cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis, two from canola (B. napus, one from broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica, one from Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis, one from kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes and two from radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogenicity of the bacterium

  7. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis reveals the evolutionary rearrangement mechanism in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Liu, G; Zhao, N; Chen, S; Liu, D; Ma, W; Hu, Z; Zhang, M

    2016-05-01

    The genus Brassica has many species that are important for oil, vegetable and other food products. Three mitochondrial genome types (mitotype) originated from its common ancestor. In this paper, a B. nigra mitochondrial main circle genome with 232,407 bp was generated through de novo assembly. Synteny analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea had a better syntenic relationship than B. nigra. Principal components analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree indicated maternal ancestors of three allotetraploid species in Us triangle of Brassica. Diversified mitotypes were found in allotetraploid B. napus, in which napus-type B. napus was derived from B. oleracea, while polima-type B. napus was inherited from B. rapa. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of napus-type B. napus was closer to botrytis-type than capitata-type B. oleracea. The sub-stoichiometric shifting of several mitochondrial genes suggested that mitochondrial genome rearrangement underwent evolutionary selection during domestication and/or plant breeding. Our findings clarify the role of diploid species in the maternal origin of allotetraploid species in Brassica and suggest the possibility of breeding selection of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27079962

  8. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  9. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L.), Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.), Kereviz (Apium graveolens L.) ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altıniğne, Nejat; Gönül, Meral

    1988-01-01

    Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum), enginar (C. scolymus), kereviz (A. graveolens) ve lahana (B. oleraceae) sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.   ...

  10. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  11. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Edward KUNICKI; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    B rassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased conte...

  12. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  13. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CHEN; Ting-qiang LI; Xuan HAN; Zhe-li DING; Xiao-e YANG; Ye-fei JIN

    2012-01-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain.In this study,both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) cultivars for food safety.When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd,most of the pakchoi cultlvars (>70%)showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control.This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress.Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars:in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg),the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW),respectively.Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW.In pot-culture experiments,both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0.The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger,Aijiaoheiye 333,and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs,and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  14. Cloning and Molecular Identification of A Fatty Acid Desaturase 2 Gene in a and C Genome of Brassica Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei CHEN; Sang SHUANG; Song CHEN; Feng CHEN; Qi PENG

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase 2 (fad2) gene was proven to be a major locus for high oleic acid (C18:1). Brassica napus is an amphidiploid species originating from a spontaneous hybridization of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. B. napus contains multiple copies in genome for most of the genes, including fad2 genes. The research cloned nine fad2 genes from 3 varieties of B. rapa and 3 varieties of B. oleracea, respectively. Alignment of the nine fad2 sequences from B. rapa and B. oleracea detect-ed 6 single nucleotide polymorphic sites, which resulted in 6 amino-acid substitutions. The nucleotide substitutions at position 743 bp in the fad2-A gene and position 947 bp in the fad2-C gene were used as 3’ end of al ele-specific primers. In use of the al-lele-specific primers to amplify fad2 gene, we could identify if the fad2 gene originated from A genome or C genome. Besides, the research found that fad2 genes in C genome are more conserved in evolutionary process than those in A genome. The fad2 expression data reported in this study revealed that fad2-A from B. rapa was not only expressed in siliques same as fad2-C from B. oleracea, but also expressed in a high level in stems. Not even the less, fad2 gene from B. napus was expressed higher in roots and flowers. Al these results provided evidences that fad2, though it was expressed differently in B. rapa and B. oleracea, but it was regulated by the same approach in B. napus.

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica

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    Yan Jiyong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa, ole (B. oleracea, jun (B. juncea, and car (B. carinata and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap. The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation.

  16. A complex recombination pattern in the genome of allotetraploid Brassica napus as revealed by a high-density genetic map.

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    Guangqin Cai

    Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a crucial role in plant evolution. Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC, the most important oil crop in the Brassica genus, is an allotetraploid that originated through natural doubling of chromosomes after the hybridization of its progenitor species, B. rapa (2n = 20, AA and B. oleracea (2n = 18, CC. A better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between B. napus and B. rapa, B. oleracea, as well as Arabidopsis, which has a common ancestor with these three species, will provide valuable information about the generation and evolution of allopolyploidy. Based on a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of B. napus with Arabidopsis and its progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea. Based on the collinear relationship of B. rapa and B. oleracea in the B. napus genetic map, the B. napus genome was found to consist of 70.1% of the skeleton components of the chromosomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea, with 17.7% of sequences derived from reciprocal translocation between homoeologous chromosomes between the A- and C-genome and 3.6% of sequences derived from reciprocal translocation between non-homologous chromosomes at both intra- and inter-genomic levels. The current study thus provides insights into the formation and evolution of the allotetraploid B. napus genome, which will allow for more accurate transfer of genomic information from B. rapa, B. oleracea and Arabidopsis to B. napus.

  17. Seleção e produção de sementes em hortaliças: com referência especial ao gênero Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Brieger

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary work with vegetables was described and special reference was-made to the group Brassica oleracea. a Plants flowering easily in Piracicaba and probably in the whole State of São Paulo. To this group belongs the lettuce, endive, chichory, carrot, radish, kale, brocoli and cauliflower. b Plants where special treatment is necessary for flowering, as cabbage. c Plants that did not flower up to this moment, as Svisschard beet and beet. Three main factors contribute for the seedless condition in the group cabbage : lack of flowering, anormalities of the flowers and self-sterility. The preliminary experiments in controling these factors seem to indicate the possibility of seed production in this group. The systematics of the two species Brassica oleracea (Europe and Brassica juncea (Oriental Asia was discussed. The economical differences in the group Brassica oleracea are controled by Mendelian factors with complicate types of interaction. It is not necessary to look for special places in the State of São Paulo for vegetable experiments but the possibility of better results in the future, with appropriate conditions, is emphasized.

  18. The application of AFLP fingerprinting in breeding of Brassica napus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuřínová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    AFLP markers are widely used in breeding in some other crops, but their utilization in breeding of Brassica crops is not so frequent. AFLP markers are used for molecular characterization of particular varieties or genotypes and for evaluation of genetic diversity. The aim of this thesis was the application of this method in breeding of rapeseed and in comparative study of genetic variability of different oil seed rape cultivars of Czech, Czechoslovak and German origin. AFLP is based on select...

  19. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  20. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  1. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  2. The Role of Nitrogen-Efficient Cultivars in Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Weisler; Torsten Behrens; Horst, Walter J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve nitrogen (N) efficiency in agriculture, integrated N management strategies that take into consideration improved fertilizer, soil, and crop management practices are necessary. This paper reports results of field experiments in which maize (Zea mays L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars were compared with respect to their agronomic N efficiency (yield at a given N supply), N uptake efficiency (N accumulation at a given N supply), and N utilization efficiency (dry matter...

  3. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  4. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  5. Boro, nitrogenio concentraçao de inóculo de pH na expressao da doença causada por Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Schuta, Lucimeris Ruaro

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A hérnia das cruciferas (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron.) é a mais importante doença que incide sobre as variedades de Brassica oleracea L. representadas pelo repolho, couve-flor, brócolis, mostarda, couve-chinesa e rúcula. A calagem para elevar o pH dos solos é a medida recomendada mais aceita pelos produtores, contudo, nem sempre esta medida, é suficiente para impedir ou reduzir o ataque do patógeno nos solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba. O que sugere, que outros fatores poss...

  6. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  7. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  8. Brassicas limited in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Mr P

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.

  9. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷酸和翻译成蛋白质序列比对分析,发现序列的覆盖度与相似度均达到较高的水平。%This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica

  10. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, etc. It found that the similarity of sequence coverage have reached a higher level.%采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷

  11. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: villavic@ipen.br; thaisecfnunes@hotmail.com; Alencar, Severino M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  12. 不同贮藏性青花菜花球的抗氧化特性%Antioxidative Properties of Broccoli Florets of Cultivars with Different Storability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进才; 赵习姮

    2011-01-01

    为研究青花菜(Brassica oleracea L.Var.italica)花球的抗氧化特性与贮藏性的关系,选取贮藏性不同的春季2个品种(“绿颜”和“城堡”)和秋季2个品种(“爱国者”和“高地”),将采后花球贮藏于20℃条件下,在贮藏开始时和4d后,测定了花球呼吸速率、衰老生理指标(叶绿素、蛋白质和丙二醛(MDA)含量)和抗氧化特性指标(活性氧超氧阴离子和过氧化氢含量,抗氧化酶超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)和抗坏血酸过氧化氢酶(APX)活性,抗氧化物质抗坏血酸(AsA)和β-胡萝卜素(β-Car)含量).“绿颜”和“爱国者”贮藏开始时,呼吸速率低,活性氧含量少,抗氧化酶活性低;贮藏4d后,叶绿素和蛋白质含量高,MDA含量少,SOD、CAT和POD活性上升幅度大,APX活性和AsA、β-Car含量下降幅度小.结果表明:“绿颜”比“城堡”、“爱国者”比“高地”衰老慢,耐贮藏;耐贮藏青花菜品种的花球具有采收时抗氧化酶活性低,贮藏期间SOD、CAT和POD活性上升幅度大,APX活性和抗氧化物质含量下降幅度小的抗氧化特性.%In this work, relationship between the storability of broccoli {Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italica) florets and their antioxidative properties was investigated. Broccoli florets of four cultivars from the spring "Green face" and "Castle" and autumn "Patriot" and "Heights" with different storage properties were harvested and stored at 20 ℃ until use. Respiratory rate of broccoli florets and senescence physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents) and antioxidative properties indicators (reactive oxygen species contents of super-oxide and hydrogen peroxide, antioxidative enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), anti-oxidative substances contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and β-carotene (β-Car)) of broccoli flower buds

  13. 甘蓝转TA29-Barnase基因植株的花器特征及育性分离的初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON FLOWER CHARACTERISTICS AND SEGREGATION OF MALE STERILITY OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS WITH TA29-Barnase IN CABBAGE(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉英; 龚静; 吴晓光; 杨红娟; 沈革志; 王新其; 殷丽青; 陆桂华; 王江; 宛新杉

    2001-01-01

    Male sterile cabbage plants were got by transferring TA29-Barnasegene to common cabbage plants. These male sterile transgenic plants with TA29-Barnase gene have the same horticultural characters which can be also inherited steadily by plants in next generation as non-transgenic ones. But their flowers bear fully catagenetic stamen lacking pollens, normal fragrant nectaries and strong pistils able to receive pollens from other plants or different cultivars and set seeds. At the meantime, the sterility in transgenic plants can segregate in their posterior generations at sterility rates of 12.5%~85.7%.%利用分子生物学方法,将控制作物育性的基因(TA29-Barnase)转化甘蓝生物体,培育出了甘蓝雄性不育植株。带有TA29-Barnase基因的雄性不育植株的园艺学性状与未转化植株相同,并且其性状在后代中稳定不变;不育植株的花朵表现雄蕊完全退化,但蜜腺和雌蕊健全,能接受外来花粉,杂交结实率较高;同时,雄性不育植株的不育性在后代中出现分离,不育株率占12.5%~85.7%;此外,不育性状具有镶嵌性。

  14. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  16. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  17. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  18. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  19. Microarray expression analysis of the main inflorescence in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    Full Text Available The effect of the number of pods on the main inflorescence (NPMI on seed yield in Brassica napus plants grown at high density is a topic of great economic and scientific interest. Here, we sought to identify patterns of gene expression that determine the NPMI during inflorescence differentiation. We monitored gene expression profiles in the main inflorescence of two B. napus F6 RIL pools, each composed of nine lines with a low or high NPMI, and their parental lines, Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11 and 73290, using a Brassica 90K elements oligonucleotide array. We identified 4,805 genes that were differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold-change between the low- and high-NPMI samples. Of these, 82.8% had been annotated and 17.2% shared no significant homology with any known genes. About 31 enriched GO clusters were identified amongst the differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including those involved in hormone responses, development regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Furthermore, 92.8% of the DEGs mapped to chromosomes that originated from B. rapa and B. oleracea, and 1.6% of the DEGs co-localized with two QTL intervals (PMI10 and PMI11 known to be associated with the NPMI. Overexpression of BnTPI, which co-localized with PMI10, in Arabidopsis suggested that this gene increases the NPMI. This study provides insight into the molecular factors underlying inflorescence architecture, NPMI determination and, consequently, seed yield in B. napus.

  20. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  1. Novel flowering and fatty acid characters in rapid cycling Brassica napus L. resynthesized by protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L N; Earle, E D

    1994-12-01

    Novel rapid cycling Brassica napus lines have been produced by protoplast fusion between rapid cycling B. oleracea and rapid cycling B. rapa. Fusion products were selected based on iodoacetate inactivation and regeneration ability. A total of 36 plants was recovered from 3 regenerating calli. All were confirmed as somatic hybrids by morphological features, flow cytometric estimation of nuclear DNA content, RAPD analysis and/or DNA hybridization. Plants from two of the calli contained chloroplasts from B. rapa, and plants from the third contained B. oleracea chloroplasts. Some plants flowered in vitro, but on average flowering was initiated 22 days after transfer to soil. Although seed set was fairly low after self pollination, more seeds were obtained from pollination of open flowers than from pollination of buds. Seeds of the somatic hybrid B. napus showed novel fatty acid compositions, different from the mean of the two parental lines. Flowering was monitored in plants grown from seeds of the somatic hybrids, rapid cycling B. napus (CrGC 5-1) and the two diploid parental genotypes. Progeny of the somatic hybrids flowered faster and were more vigorous than rapid cycling B. napus (CrGC 5-1). The improved lines contain chloroplasts from B. rapa, unlike rapid cycling B. napus (CrGC 5-1), which has B. oleracea chloroplasts. The somatic hybrid lines produced may be useful for genetic studies or further in vitro manipulations. PMID:24192884

  2. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  3. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  4. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  5. A newly-developed community microarray resource for transcriptome profiling in Brassica species enables the confirmation of Brassica-specific expressed sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurban Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassica species include an important group of crops and provide opportunities for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. They are related to Arabidopsis thaliana, for which the first complete plant genome sequence was obtained and their genomes show extensive, although imperfect, conserved synteny with that of A. thaliana. A large number of EST sequences, derived from a range of different Brassica species, are available in the public database, but no public microarray resource has so far been developed for these species. Results We assembled unigenes using ~800,000 EST sequences, mainly from three species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The assembly was conducted with the aim of co-assembling ESTs of orthologous genes (including homoeologous pairs of genes in B. napus from each of the A and C genomes, but resolving assemblies of paralogous, or paleo-homoeologous, genes (i.e. the genes related by the ancestral genome triplication observed in diploid Brassica species. 90,864 unique sequence assemblies were developed. These were incorporated into the BAC sequence annotation for the Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project, enabling the identification of cognate genomic sequences for a proportion of them. A 60-mer oligo microarray comprising 94,558 probes was developed using the unigene sequences. Gene expression was analysed in reciprocal resynthesised B. napus lines and the B. oleracea and B. rapa lines used to produce them. The analysis showed that significant expression could consistently be detected in leaf tissue for 35,386 unigenes. Expression was detected across all four genotypes for 27,355 unigenes, genome-specific expression patterns were observed for 7,851 unigenes and 180 unigenes displayed other classes of expression pattern. Principal component analysis (PCA clearly resolved the individual microarray datasets for B. rapa, B. oleracea and resynthesised B. napus. Quantitative differences in

  6. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  7. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  8. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  9. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification. PMID:26276216

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  11. Studies on the use of gamma irradiation and tissue culture in improving brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to:1- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on some growth and yield component traits of three Brassica napus cultivars (Serow6, Serow4 and Pactol) during four consecutive generations aiming to create new genotypes characterized with high yielding traits. 2- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on in vitro biotechnology technique (tissue culture) used in improving Brassica napus. Seeds of three Brassica napus cultivars were irradiated with different gamma ray doses then sown for four consecutive seasons. Data were collected and recorded to clarify the effect gamma irradiation on some yield component traits which were days to flowering , plant height, number of main branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 1000-seed, weight of grain yield/plant and oil content of seeds). Results showed that high doses of gamma radiation had enhanced all of the studied traits for each of the three tested cultivars (except the plant height trait for Serow6 and Pactol cultivars). Seven new mutant lines were selected for their superiority in one or more of the studied yield component traits. Regarding the effect of gamma rays on tissue culture techniques, the applied gamma radiation doses did not affect the percentage of seed germination of the three studied cultivars, whereas the percentage of callus induction decreased by increasing the dose of gamma rays for each of the three cultivars and in both types of explants (hypocotyl and cotyledons) used in this experiment.

  12. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  13. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (gst) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed gst variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed gst variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O3 flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  14. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Op de Beeck, M., E-mail: maarten.opdebeeck@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk (Belgium); De Bock, M., E-mail: maarten.debock@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Molecular Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Campus Groenenborger, Department of Biology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vandermeiren, K., E-mail: kavan@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Temmerman, L. de, E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Ceulemans, R., E-mail: reinhart.ceulemans@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (g{sub st}) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed g{sub st} variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed g{sub st} variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O{sub 3} flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  15. Comparison of Flowering Time Genes in Brassica Rapa, B. Napus and Arabidopsis Thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, T C; Kole, C; Parkin, IAP.; Sharpe, A. G.; Kuiper, M.; Lydiate, D J; Trick, M.

    1997-01-01

    The major difference between annual and biennial cultivars of oilseed Brassica napus and B. rapa is conferred by genes controlling vernalization-responsive flowering time. These genes were compared between the species by aligning the map positions of flowering time quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected in a segregating population of each species. The results suggest that two major QTLs identified in B. rapa correspond to two major QTLs identified in B. napus. Since B. rapa is one of the hyp...

  16. TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 genes from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, evolution, and differential involvement in yellow seed trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, You-Rong; Lei, Bo; Huang, Hua-Lei; Li, Jia-Na; Yin, Jia-Ming; Tang, Zhang-Lin; Wang, Rui; Chen, Li

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dissection of the Brassica yellow seed trait has been the subject of intense investigation. Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 (AtTT12) encodes a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter involved in seed coat pigmentation. Two, one, and one full-length TT12 genes were isolated from B. napus, B. oleracea, and B. rapa, respectively, and Southern hybridization confirmed these gene numbers, implying loss of some of the triplicated TT12 genes in Brassica. BnTT12-1, BnTT12-2, BoTT12, and BrTT12 are 2,714, 3,062, 4,760, and 2,716 bp, with the longest mRNAs of 1,749, 1,711, 1,739, and 1,752 bp, respectively. All genes contained alternative transcriptional start and polyadenylation sites. BrTT12 and BoTT12 are the progenitors of BnTT12-1 and BnTT12-2, respectively, validating B. napus as an amphidiploid. All Brassica TT12 proteins displayed high levels of identity (>99%) to each other and to AtTT12 (>92%). Brassica TT12 genes resembled AtTT12 in such basic features as MatE/NorM CDs, subcellular localization, transmembrane helices, and phosphorylation sites. Plant TT12 orthologs differ from other MATE proteins by two specific motifs. Like AtTT12, all Brassica TT12 genes are most highly expressed in developing seeds. However, a range of organ specificity was observed with BnTT12 genes being less organ-specific. TT12 expression is absent in B. rapa yellow-seeded line 06K124, but not downregulated in B. oleracea yellow-seeded line 06K165. In B. napus yellow-seeded line L2, BnTT12-2 expression is absent, whereas BnTT12-1 is expressed normally. Among Brassica species, TT12 genes are differentially related to the yellow seed trait. The molecular basis for the yellow seed trait, in Brassica, and the theoretical and practical implications of the highly variable intron 1 of these TT12 genes are discussed. PMID:19018571

  17. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R. E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with these differences, in field experiments with natural infestation in 2005 and 2006. One factor affecting the amount of thrips damage was the timing of the development of the head. In an experiment wit...

  18. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  19. Histopathology of Brassica oleracea var. capitata subvar. alba infected with Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because anatomical changes induced by the cabbage cyst nematode (Heterodera cruciferae) have been insufficiently characterized, here we describe these changes in the root tissues of white head cabbage varieties commonly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, where cabbage-growing areas are heavily...

  20. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  1. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Pang

    Full Text Available Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

  2. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  3. Acondicionamiento osmótico en semilla de Brassica oleracea L.

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Rodríguez-Pérez; J. Martínez-Solís; R. Mora-Aguilar; M. F. Ireta-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Las brassicaceas, como brócoli, coliflor y col, son cultivos importantes en México por su calidad nutricional, propiedades anticancerígenas y generación de divisas por la exportación de su producción. Para determinar el tratamiento óptimo de acondicionamiento osmótico y su efecto en la calidad fisiológica, se sometió semilla de brócoli, coliflor y col a soluciones de Polietilenglicol 6000 con potencial osmótico de 0, -5, -10, -15 y -20 atm durante 8, 16 y 24 h, además de un testigo absoluto (...

  4. Comportamiento al impacto de gotas sobre hojas de repollo morado (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Pizarro, Ricardo; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio Lira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Debido a su importancia en varias aplicaciones industriales, el impacto de gotas sobre superficies sólidas ha sido bastante estudiado. Sin embargo, las investigaciones en impactos de gotas sobre superficies de vegetales son muy escasas. En este trabajo se determina el comportamiento del impacto de gotas en superficies de repollo morado y se evalúa la influencia de la viscosidad y la tensión superficial. El comportamiento frente al impacto de los fluidos evaluados sobre la superficie de repoll...

  5. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  6. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and ...

  8. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  9. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3kGy). Even though irradiation affected microbial load, it showed no significant differences (p≤0.05) in phytochemical content such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity in the irradiated cut cabbage. Panelists' scores for colour, texture and aroma from sensory evaluation showed significant differences (p>0.05) in irradiated cut cabbage samples. (au)

  10. High-throughput polymorphism detection and genotyping in Brassica napus using next-generation RAD sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bus Anja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping. Results More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category. Conclusions Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus.

  11. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  12. The role of nitrogen-efficient cultivars in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisler, F; Behrens, T; Horst, W J

    2001-11-01

    To improve nitrogen (N) efficiency in agriculture, integrated N management strategies that take into consideration improved fertilizer, soil, and crop management practices are necessary. This paper reports results of field experiments in which maize (Zea mays L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars were compared with respect to their agronomic N efficiency (yield at a given N supply), N uptake efficiency (N accumulation at a given N supply), and N utilization efficiency (dry matter yield per unit N taken up by the plant). Under conditions of high N supply, significant differences among maize cultivars were found in shoot N uptake, soil nitrate depletion during the growing season, and the related losses of nitrate through leaching after the growing season. Experiments under conditions of reduced N supply indicated a considerable genotypic variation in reproductive yield formation of both maize and oilseed rape. High agronomic efficiency was achieved by a combination of high uptake and utilization efficiency (maize), or exclusively by high uptake efficiency (rape). N-efficient cultivars of both crops were characterized by maintenance of a relatively high N-uptake activity during the reproductive growth phase. In rape this trait was linked with leaf area and photosynthetic activity of leaves. We conclude that growing of N-efficient cultivars may serve as an important element of integrated nutrient management strategies in both low- and high-input agriculture. PMID:12805782

  13. The Role of Nitrogen-Efficient Cultivars in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Weisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve nitrogen (N efficiency in agriculture, integrated N management strategies that take into consideration improved fertilizer, soil, and crop management practices are necessary. This paper reports results of field experiments in which maize (Zea mays L. and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars were compared with respect to their agronomic N efficiency (yield at a given N supply, N uptake efficiency (N accumulation at a given N supply, and N utilization efficiency (dry matter yield per unit N taken up by the plant. Under conditions of high N supply, significant differences among maize cultivars were found in shoot N uptake, soil nitrate depletion during the growing season, and the related losses of nitrate through leaching after the growing season. Experiments under conditions of reduced N supply indicated a considerable genotypic variation in reproductive yield formation of both maize and oilseed rape. High agronomic efficiency was achieved by a combination of high uptake and utilization efficiency (maize, or exclusively by high uptake efficiency (rape. N-efficient cultivars of both crops were characterized by maintenance of a relatively high N-uptake activity during the reproductive growth phase. In rape this trait was linked with leaf area and photosynthetic activity of leaves. We conclude that growing of N-efficient cultivars may serve as an important element of integrated nutrient management strategies in both low- and high-input agriculture.

  14. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Mithila, J.; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A h...

  15. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  16. Identification, duplication, evolution and expression analyses of caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Mingzhe; Wang, Lili; Li, Zhuowei; Taylor, David C; Li, Zhixi; Zhang, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Caleosins are a class of Ca(2+) binding proteins that appear to be ubiquitous in plants. Some of the main proteins embedded in the lipid monolayer of lipid droplets, caleosins, play critical roles in the degradation of storage lipids during germination and in lipid trafficking. Some of them have been shown to have histidine-dependent peroxygenase activity, which is believed to participate in stress responses in Arabidopsis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, caleosins have been examined extensively. However, little is known on a genome-wide scale about these proteins in other members of the Brassicaceae. In this study, 51 caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis lyrata were investigated and analyzed in silico. Among them, 31 caleosins, including 7 in A. lyrata, 11 in Brassica oleracea and 13 in Brassica napus, are herein identified for the first time. Segmental duplication was the main form of gene expansion. Alignment, motif and phylogenetic analyses showed that Brassica caleosins belong to either the H-family or the L-family with different motif structures and physicochemical properties. Our findings strongly suggest that L-caleosins are evolved from H-caleosins. Predicted phosphorylation sites were differentially conserved in H-caleosin and L-caleosins, respectively. 'RY-repeat' elements and phytohormone-related cis-elements were identified in different caleosins, which suggest diverse physiological functions. Gene structure analysis indicated that most caleosins (38 out of 44) contained six exons and five introns and their intron phases were highly conserved. Structurally integrated caleosins, such as BrCLO3-3 and BrCLO4-2, showed high expression levels and may have important roles. Some caleosins, such as BrCLO2 and BoCLO8-2, lost motifs of the calcium binding domain, proline knot, potential phosphorylation sites and haem-binding sites. Combined with their low expression, it is suggested that these caleosins may have lost function. PMID:26786939

  17. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  18. Multiple evolutionary events involved in maintaining homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  19. 白菜型、芥菜型和甘蓝型油菜对低氮低磷胁迫反应的差异%Different adaptability of Brassica rapa,Brassica juncea and Brassica napus in response to low nitrogen or low phosphorus stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田飞; 徐芳森; 石桃雄; 赵尊康; 石磊; 蔡红梅; 马朝芝; 孟金陵

    2012-01-01

    94 samples of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus were grown in fields under normal nutrition (CK),low nitrogen (LN) and low phosphorus (LP) conditions. Several agronomic traits such as seed yield, plant height, primary branch number, seed number per pod, thousand-seed weight,pod number and relative seed yield on LN or LP condition were studied in the mature period, to evaluate the difference of adaptability and yield potential of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus in the response to low nitrogen or low phosphorus stress. Results showed that Brassica napus had higher seed yield under three different nutrient treatments and larger potential for agriculture production than that of the other two types. Brassica rapa , which might have more genes involved in nitrogen or phosphorus utilization, showed the highest nitrogen and phosphorus efficiency. Whereas the nitrogen or phosphorus efficiency of Brassica juncea was in the middle between Brassica rapa and Brassica napus ,and Brassica juncea had some other good traits such as yellow seed, large pod number and strong resistance to insects and diseases. These results suggested that both Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea could help to improve Brassica napus. Under different nutrition conditions,different correlations between seed yield and other traits were found in different types of rapeseeds. The great genetic variations among different cultivars or genotypes suggest that it is possible to select high nitrogen or phosphorus efficient rapeseed in intraspecific or interspecific if the number of samples collected is large enough.%以收集的94份白菜型油菜(Brassica rapa)、芥菜型油菜(Brassica juncea)、甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)为材料,利用大田小区试验,设正常施肥(CK)、低氮(LN)、低磷(LP)3种处理,在成熟期考察籽粒产量、株高、一次分枝数、每角果粒数、千粒重和角果数以及低氮或低磷与正常施肥间的籽粒产量比值(氮

  20. Survival of embryo irradiated with gamma rays by embryo culture in Brassica pekinensis Rupr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on the survival rates and embryonic development of Brassica pekinensis RUPR. (Varieties; Kashin, Kohai 65 nichi and kairyochitose) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to seek ways of increasing the survival rates of embryos such as B.oleracea obtained through embryo culture techniques after irradiation doses affecting seed fertility and germination, for the purpose of increasing mutation rates. Embryos at different developmental stages ranging from the globular to the early heart stages were irradiated with 20 KR of gamma rays at the daily rate 0L 20 KR or 10 KR (Fig.1 and Table 1). The embryos were excised from ovules 4 to 10 days after irradiation and cultured on White's medium. The shooting and rooting rates on the 34th day of culture were higher at the dose of 10 KR/day than 20 KR/day and were lower when the materials were irradiated at the young embryonic stage (Table 3). Varietal differences in the shooting and rooting rates were also observed. The irradiated embryos survived mainly in the state of callus. It was concluded that the embryo culture technique was successful when applied to irradiated embryos excised at the young embryonic stage and that the technique affected B.pekinensis less than B.oleracea

  1. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  3. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  4. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinacia oleracea (spinach of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Spinacia oleracea powder at 200mg and 400 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  5. Effect of Salinity and Low Osmotic Potential on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Rapeseed Cultivars with Different Stress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Pace; Paolo Benincasa

    2010-01-01

    In mediterranean environments, rapeseed is grown in fall-winter with late-summer sowing and this implies that germination and initial seedling growth may occur in soils with low water content and/or high salinity. Lab experiments were carried out to study the effect of the level and timing of salt and osmotic stress application on the germination and seedling growth of rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera Del.) cultivars with different stress tolerance. After a preliminary screening on eigh...

  6. Assessment of FAE1 polymorphisms in three Brassica species using EcoTILLING and their association with differences in seed erucic acid contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaoming

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FAE1 (fatty acid elongase1 is the key gene in the control of erucic acid synthesis in seeds of Brassica species. Due to oil with low erucic acid (LEA content is essential for human health and not enough LEA resource could be available, thus new LEA genetic resources are being sought for Brassica breeding. EcoTILLING, a powerful genotyping method, can readily be used to identify polymorphisms in Brassica. Results Seven B. rapa, nine B. oleracea and 101 B. napus accessions were collected for identification of FAE1 polymorphisms. Three polymorphisms were detected in the two FAE1 paralogues of B. napus using EcoTILLING and were found to be strongly associated with differences in the erucic acid contents of seeds. In genomic FAE1 sequences obtained from seven B. rapa accessions, one SNP in the coding region was deduced to cause loss of gene function. Molecular evolution analysis of FAE1 homologues showed that the relationship between the Brassica A and C genomes is closer than that between the A/C genomes and Arabidopsis genome. Alignment of the coding sequences of these FAE1 homologues indicated that 18 SNPs differed between the A and C genomes and could be used as genome-specific markers in Brassica. Conclusion This study showed the applicability of EcoTILLING for detecting gene polymorphisms in Brassica. The association between B. napus FAE1 polymorphisms and the erucic acid contents of seeds may provide useful guidance for LEA breeding. The discovery of the LEA resource in B. rapa can be exploited in Brasscia cultivation.

  7. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Jian Wu; Xiaowu Wang

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica olera...

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  9. Sample (S): SE25_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Satsuki Jouou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. ...capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  10. Sample (S): SE25_S06 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S06 Brassica oleracea var. capitata K7-705 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  11. Sample (S): SE25_S07 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S07 Brassica oleracea var. capitata T-767 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brass...ica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  12. Sample (S): SE25_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S03 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Satsukiou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  13. Sample (S): SE27_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field under normal film. ...

  14. Sample (S): SE25_S05 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S05 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  15. Sample (S): SE25_S10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S10 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanpachi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capit...ata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  16. Sample (S): SE25_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanroku Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field. ...

  17. Sample (S): SE27_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field. ...

  18. Sample (S): SE25_S09 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S09 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Teruyoshi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  19. Sample (S): SE27_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S03 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field under UV film. ...

  20. Sample (S): SE25_S08 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S08 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  1. Sample (S): SE26_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Seisyun Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions with 0t compost treatment. ...

  2. Sample (S): SE25_S04 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S04 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kinkei201gou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. c...apitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  3. Sample (S): SE26_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Seisyun Leaf Brassica oleracea var. cap...itata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions with 6t compost treatment. ...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PORTULACA OLERACEA

    OpenAIRE

    DHAVAL PATEL; N R Sheth; S.D.SANJA; BIRAJU PATEL

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea. The methanolic extract was evaluated by TLC and HPTLC fingerprint method. Anti-oxidant activity of methanolic extract was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power by FeCl3, nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity, super oxide scavenging activity by alkaline DMSO method.

  5. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  6. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops. PMID:26519408

  7. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation ...

  8. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  9. A STUDY ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ACMELLA OLERACEAE AGAINST DENTAL CARIES BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shafi Thompson et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discover the antibacterial effect of Acmella oleraceae against dental caries bacteria and aware the populace about the importance of using phytomedicines. According to this study, the antibacterial effects of Acmella oleraceae was checked against the dental caries bacteria using well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of Acmella oleracea checked with chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water and acetone extracts. Screening tests revealed that this plant is a big source of phytochemical compounds. The phytochemical analysis of Acmella oleracea is conducted using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC.Acetone solvent system of Acmella oleracea showed two spots with highest Rf value 0.922. Three compounds were obtained in the chloroform solvent system with highest Rf value of 0.744.

  10. 青花菜主要农艺性状的相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Main Agronomic Characters of Broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆信娟; 杨峰; 樊继德

    2011-01-01

    The 21 agronomic characters of 29 cultivars of broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Planch. ) were evaluated, and the correlations among these agronomic characters were analyzed. The correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations (P < 0. 05 ) between 23 pairs of characters and very significant correlations (P < 0. 01 ) between 14 pairs of characters.%对29个青花菜品种的21个农艺性状进行了评价和相关分析.相关分析结果表明: 23对性状之间相关性达到显著水平,14对性状之间相关性达到极显著水平.

  11. Agronomic performance of rape seed (brassica napus L.) mutant lines under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil seed forms of Brassica napus are not well adapted to drought and the warner environments of Pakistan. Induced mutations were, therefore, utilized for improving drought tolerance efficiency of two napus cultivars. Induction of genetic variability, selection of desirable mutants and stabilization of mutants in acceptable agronomic background were carried out during 1988-1991. Fourteen promising mutants each of cv. Pak-cheen and Tower were evaluated for different agronomic characters in separate yield trials, under extremely drought conditions. The results demonstrated that yield potential of some mutants was very high and 9 mutants of cv. Pak-cheen and 8 mutants of cv. Tower significantly (P<0.05) out yield the local commercial cultivar. Eleven mutants in both the trials matured significantly earlier than the check. Nevertheless, more extensive testing of the drought tolerant lines under diversified environs of the country will help confirm these findings. (author)

  12. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  13. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dulcelena Ferreira; Vidal, Flávia Castello Branco; Santos, Debora; Costa, Maria Célia Pires; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, Maria; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malig...

  14. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  15. Photosynthesis and antioxidant response to winter rapeseed (brassica napus l.) as affected by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of boron on photosynthesis and antioxidant response to rapeseed yield was studied by the field experimentation along with plant analysis during the winter season of 2010 and 2011. The field experimentation was conducted by split plot design with three replications consisting of two factors such as i) two rapeseed cultivars (viz. Xiangzayou 1613 and 09-13581613), assigned in main plots and ii) five boron levels (viz. 0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5 and 18.0 kgha-1) imposed in the sub-plots. The rate of photosynthesis increased with increasing boron level upto 9.0 kgha-1 with simultaneous increase in photosynthetically active radiation, rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance and decrease in intercellular CO/sun 2/ concentration in both cultivars, while reverse trend was shown with further increase of B concentration. B @ 9.0 kgha- improved the activities of antioxidant protective enzyme of SOD and POD and decreased the accumulation of MDA content in the both cultivars. Dry matter translocation increased with increasing B level upto 9.0 kgha-1 that resulted the highest seed yield and harvest index of rapeseed in both cultivars. Thus, B @ 9 kgha-1 is sufficient for rapeseed cultivation under the subtropical environmental condition of the Southern China. Brassica napus. (author)

  16. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg; Terkelsen, Thilde; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013).

  17. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana dos frutos de Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus oleracea and Mauritia vinifera fruits

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. SILVEIRA; C.M. Pessanha; M.C.S. Lourenço; I. Neves Junior; F.S. Menezes; M.A.C. Kaplan

    2005-01-01

    As espécies pertencentes à família Palmae são muito interessantes do ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Neste trabalho, foram estudados os frutos de duas espécies da família Palmae, Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera. Essas palmeiras foram escolhidas por serem espécies brasileiras, abundantes em nosso país, utilizadas popularmente no tratamento de algumas doenças e ainda pouco estudadas. Foram realizados ensaios farmacológicos para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos...

  19. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  20. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Haishi Ji; Yuanjun Ding; Xiaoyu Liu; Lianqing Li; Dengxiao Zhang; Zichuan Li; Jingling Sun; Muhammad Siddique Lashari; Stephen Joseph; Yuanduo Meng; Yakov Kuzyakov; Genxing Pan

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar comb...

  1. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  2. Soil pH and nutrient uptake in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in Northern Sweden. Multielement studies by means of plant and soil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Margareta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-07-01

    To reveal nutrient element deficiencies or imbalances limiting vegetable production in northern Sweden, multielement soil and plant analyses were performed in cauliflower and broccoli during the period 1989 to 1996. The pH range of the soils was 4.4-8. 1. The results were evaluated with the multivariate statistical methods PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Partial Least Squares Projection to Latent Structures). The major yield-limiting elements were Mg, B, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu. This was a result of high soil pH and large content of Ca in the soil. The reason for B deficiency was also low B content in the soil. Applications of green mulch increased yield on soils with a pH below 6.0. It also increased the uptake and concentration in the plants of B, Ba, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Se and Zn, and decreased the uptake and concentration of Al, Cs and Tl. The mineral fertilizer applied, NPK 11-5-18 micro, decreased soil pH. This has resulted in larger uptake and higher concentrations in the plants of Co and Mn, in comparison to where cattle manure was applied. This fertilizer strongly decreased uptake of Mo, as a result of both the acidifying effect and the large S content. Repeated applications of nitrate of lime in combination with the NPK 11-5-18 strongly increased the uptake of Cs by the plants. The results in this investigation, together with the literature reviews, strongly indicate that a relatively low soil pH (5.0-5.5) is favourable when organic fertilizers are used and that harmful effects of very low soil pH (<5.0), are ameliorated by organic materials but aggravated by mineral fertilizers. The main purpose of lime is to counteract the acidity and increased leaching created by mineral fertilizers. Because of the historical context in which the lime requirements were established, the dangers of acid soils appear to have been strongly overestimated.

  3. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  4. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.

  5. Effects of Portulaca Oleracea on Insulin Resistance in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 陆付耳

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Portulaca oleracea, a Chinese medicinal herb, on insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Experimental model of T2DM was established by injection of streptozotocin (25mg/kg) and feeding with high calorie forage. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on oral glucose tolerance, serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol and free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity index were all observed. Results: Portulaca oleracea could reduce the body weight, improve the impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, decrease serum free fatty acids, attenuate hyperinsulinemia and elevate insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea could improve insulin resistance in rats with T2DM, and the mechanism might be related to its actions in improving lipid metabolism and decreasing free fatty acids.

  6. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation.

  7. Radiation processing for enhancing shelf life and quality characteristics of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower samples were irradiated, stored at 4℃ for 21 days. The samples were analyzed for nutritional, physiochemical and sensory quality periodically at intervals of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. An irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy enhanced the microbial quality and extended shelf life by 7 days without significant losses in quality attributes. Non irradiated control samples showed the highest total bacterial counts (TBC) and yeast - mold count (YMC), around 5 log cfu g-1 respectively over the period of 21 days of storage, while in all irradiated samples TBC and YMC were maintained in the range of 1-2 log cfu g-1 till 21st days. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were significantly increased on irradiation (0.5 kGy) while no significant effect was noted in texture, total ascorbate content and flavonoid content. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Image Analysis to Determine the N-Fertilizer Demand of Broccoli Plants (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Graeff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous models have been developed for calculating optimum decision rules for nitrogen fertilization based on remote sensing techniques. New technologies related to digital image analysis may provide an alternative method to estimate nutrient status faster and more efficiently than current techniques. A series of field studies was conducted to determine the applicability of digital image analysis for nitrogen demand estimates in broccoli plants. Digital images were taken under constant light conditions in various wavelength ranges (380–1300 nm using a digital imager. Images were processed for the parameters ∗ and ∗ in the ∗∗∗ color system. The image analysis showed a close correlation between the nitrogen status of broccoli plants and the parameter ∗ of the ∗∗∗ color system especially in the wavelength ranges 510780 and 516780 nm. The relationship between nutrient concentration in leaf dry matter and the parameters ∗ was used to determine the N fertilizer demand within the cultivation period. Estimated N amounts were applied as top dressing four weeks after setting and were 100 kg ha−1 lower than the standard fertilizer rate. Calculated N balances indicated a total uptake of applied N amounts in the image-based N treatments without considerable yield loss. Thus, digital image analysis proved to be an effective means of determining nitrogen status and adjusting fertilizer applications to preserve or enhance crop quality and yield considering sustainability.

  9. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yi, Go-Eun; Laila, Rawnak; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye Ran; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA). The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062) and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation. PMID:27322230

  10. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  11. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29-6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  12. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable

  13. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable.

  14. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  15. Glucosinolates and Myrosinase Activity in Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after Various Microwave Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Total and individual levels of glucosinolates (GSs) were measured in red cabbage after various microwave treatments varying in time and intensity of the treatments. Furthermore, the myrosinase enzyme activity of the microwave-heated vegetables was determined. The retention of GSs in the cabbage and

  16. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  17. KAJIAN SAAT PEMBERIAN PUPUK DASAR NITROGEN DAN UMUR BIBIT PADA TANAMAN BROKOLI (Brassica oleraceae var. Italica Planck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research to know the influence of nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seedling after transplanting to growth and harvest of broccoli. The research was done Sumber Brantas Batu. It is a factorial experiment using plot design. There are two factor with three times replications. Factor I (main terrace is nitrogen base fertilizer timing consist of N0, N1 and N2 where nitrogen  fertilizer given at 0, 7th and  14th day after plant. Factor II  is broccoli seed age consist of  B1, B2, B3 and B4 where seed age are 3, 4, 5 and 6 week. The result of this experiment shows that nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seed can increase growth and harvest of broccoli.  Seed age  5 and 6 give plant height, leave quantity and stem diameter higher  than other age observation. Seed age 3 and 4 week give fresh weight of flower plant 414.53 g/plant. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing at 7th day after planting and seed age at 5th  week give leave width, leave width index, total dry weight and harvest higher than other observation. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing and seed age at 5th  week cause plant quick flowering (52th day and harvest (72th day. While  combination treatment  nitrogen base fertilizer timing 14th after flowering  and seed age at 4th week give the highest fresh weight flower that is 2855 g/m2.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  19. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  20. Glucosinolate content of blanched cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) fermented by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMG-P22043

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, I.; Valerio, F.; Lonigro, S.L.; Candia, de S.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Lavermicocca, P.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fermentation of cabbage like in sauerkraut production leads to a complete elimination of glucosinolates (GSs). In order to retain GSs in fermented cabbage, the effect of a thermal treatment (blanching) followed by fermentation (4% brine at 25 °C) by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus pa

  1. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira; Adriana Menezes Salgueiro; Tayná Sequeira Valério; Marina das Neves Gomes; Isadora Simões Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are...

  2. anteiso-Fatty Acids in Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera L.): Quantities, Enantioselectivities, and Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibler, Dorothee; Seyfried, Carolin; Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Vetter, Walter

    2015-10-14

    anteiso-Fatty acids (aFAs) are a class of branched-chain fatty acids that are characterized by one methyl branch on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. aFAs are mainly produced by bacteria, and sources in vegetables are scarce. This study reports the concentrations of odd-numbered aFAs (a15:0-a21:0) in Brussels sprout buds. Selective enrichment followed by enantioselective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode revealed that both a15:0 and a17:0 were (S)-enantiopure in Brussels sprout samples. δ(13)C values (‰) of a17:0 in Brussels sprouts were comparable with those of palmitic acid, indicating no different source for both fatty acids. PMID:26390192

  3. Bedeutung von Ackerbohnendichtsaat und Horngries für den Ertrag bei Brokkoli (Brassica oleracea convar. Botrytis var. italica)

    OpenAIRE

    Veh, Christine; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Claupein, Wilhelm; Zikeli, Sabine; Ziehm, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Close seeding of field beans (Vicia faba) has been regarded for several years as an option in organic agriculture for the short-term introduction of nitrogen into production systems. At the same time faba bean potentially supplies nitrogen (N) to crops and soil by N2 fixation and nitrogen release when crop biomass is finally mulched. The main objective of this project was to investigate and develop a method of N-supply to meet the demand of broccoli using organic N-sources. Based on the resul...

  4. Colonization of cauliflower blossom (Brassica oleracea) by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, via flies (Calliphora vomitoria) can result in seed infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation of cauliflower blossom with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), by brush or pollination with blue bottle flies (Calliphora vomitoria) as a vector, can result in seed infestation. Two years of poly-tunnel experiments with fly inoculation of cauliflower has shown that in approxima

  5. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  6. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  7. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1, la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilización  química,  y  la  totalidad  de  la fertilización  química.  Se  utilizó  un  diseño completamente al azar. La cachaza fue aplicada 20 días antes del  trasplante y en  la cosecha se evaluó el rendimiento, área foliar, masa fresca y masa seca. Con diferencias estadísticas, el mejor tratamiento fue la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1 cachaza y 50% del requerimiento de fertilización química, el cual  fue  responsable del mayor  rendimiento del cultivo, área  foliar, masa  fresca de cabeza, raíz y total, masa seca de cabeza, hojas y total. Con 0 ý 20 t·ha-1 de cachaza no hubo formación de  cabeza  en  las  plantas,  por  deficiencias  y excesos nutricionales,  respectivamente. Así,  la cachaza  fresca  en mezcla  con  el  fertilizante químico se convierte en una buena alternativa de fertilización del cultivo de repollo, lo cual, a la  vez,  permite darle  un  uso  adecuado  a  este material orgánico.

  8. Analysis of efficiency and factors affecting the production of cabbage farming (Brassica oleracea L. in Belung village, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficiency and the factors that affect the production of cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. Samples taken by census the number of respondents 36 farmers. The analysis used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative analysis include analysis of costs, revenues, income, efficiency and Cobb-Douglas. Based on the analysis, known that farmer acceptance is Rp. 43,767,361 and generated revenues of Rp. 30,124,372/ ha. Result relevaled that the Cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang was highly efficient and profitable with an efficiency of 3.2. Factors that effect significantly on cabbage farming production are labors, lands, pesticides and seeds. Input combinations are already efficient and optimal pesticides and seeds.

  9. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  10. Formulasi Sediaan Lipstik Dengan Ekstrak Kubis Merah (Brassica oleraceae var capitata L.f. rubra (L) Thell) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Unirah, Uni

    2011-01-01

    Red cabbage has the potential to be used as an alternative to natural dyes because it has an attractive colour. The red colour of the cabbage is caused by anthocyanin pigments which are flavonoid compounds. Anthocyanins have with various benefits, one of them as a natural dye that can replace synthetic dyes, especially for dyes in lipstick preparations. Lipstick formulation comprised of several components such as cera alba, lanolin, petroleum jelly alba, cetyl alcohol, oleum ricini, cetace...

  11. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

  12. Photoacoustic Study of Fungal Disease of Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Denise V.; Nunes, O. A. C.; Oliveira, A. C.

    2009-10-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is introduced as a promising experimental technique to investigate fungus infected Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) seeds. Photoacoustic spectra of healthy and infected Acai seeds with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were recorded firstly in the modulation frequency range of 5Hz to 700 Hz, while keeping the wavelength of excitation radiation of a Xe arc-lamp constant, to ascertain the depth of penetration of infection within the seed and secondly, at variable wavelength (wavelength scanning) in the interval 250nm to 1,000 nm, while keeping the modulation frequency constant. In the former, the photoacoustic signal strength from the infected seed was found higher than that of the healthy one, and has been associated with the appearance of new biomolecules associated with the pathogen infection. In the latter, characteristics peaks and bands were observed in the range from 650 nm to 900 nm ascribed to organic compounds with carboxylates and amines (functional groups) forming the typical metabolic structures of the fungus.

  13. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantappa B. Nayaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30. The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The Rf value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82. Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18 and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ±  0.01 have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ±  0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  14. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...

  15. Conservation and expression patterns divergence of ascorbic acid D-mannose/L-galactose pathway genes in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weike eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AsA participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome, Brassica oleracea (C genome and Brassica napus (AC genome. However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. i VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. ii Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. iii Under NaCl, Cu2+, MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments.

  16. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations of Brassica nigra Introgression Lines from Somatic Hybridization: A Resource for Cauliflower Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Yun; Wang, You-Ping; Liu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard "G1/1" (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso." Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of "G1/1" DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers. PMID:27625659

  17. Differences in biochemical responses to cold stress in two contrasting varieties of rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Wang-hao; Chen Yu-zhen; Lu Cun-fu

    2007-01-01

    Changes in isozymes of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase and activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in two annual Brassica varieties (AS-3 and CON, cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive, respectively) after 4℃ treatment were assayed. After the low temperature treatment, PAGE patterns of isozymes of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase showed that the expressions and activities of these enzymes in the AS-3 variety were higher than the CON variety. Under normal and cold conditions, peroxidase and esterase activities of AS-3 were higher than those of CON. The relative freezing tolerance of these two cultivars was discussed.

  18. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  19. Increased [CO2] does not compensate for negative effects on yield caused by higher temperature and [O3] in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2011-01-01

    biomass and yield parameters were found to be significantly cultivar dependent. However, in all cultivars elevated temperature caused a significant reduction in yield parameters, while biomass was not affected significantly. Elevated [CO2] increased the vegetative biomass significantly, but seed yield was...... existing genotypes is vital. In this study, the responses in yield and biomass production of four different cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were tested under five different combinations of increased [CO2] (700 ppm), temperature (+5 °C) and [O3] (+40 ppb). Especially the multifactor treatments...... are relevant for predictions of the future production, as they mimic the multidimensional environmental changes that are expected within this century. All treatments were given the same amount of water, which mimicked future limited water availability e.g. in treatments with elevated temperature. The...

  20. Summer (subarctic) versus winter (subtropic) production affects spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf bionutrients: vitamins (C, E, Folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Gene E; Makus, Donald J; Hodges, D Mark; Jifon, John L

    2013-07-24

    Comparison of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars Lazio and Samish grown during the summer solstice in the subarctic versus the winter solstice in the subtropics provided insight into interactions between production environment (light intensity), cultivar, and leaf age/maturity/position affecting bionutrient concentrations of vitamins (C, E, folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants. Growing spinach during the winter solstice in the subtropics resulted in increased leaf dry matter %, oxidized (dehydro) ascorbic acid (AsA), α- and γ-tocopherol, and total phenols but lower reduced (free) AsA, α-carotene, folate, and antioxidant capacity compared to summer solstice-grown spinach in the subarctic. Both cultivars had similar bionutrients, except for higher dehydroAsA, and lower α- and γ-tocopherol in 'Samish' compared to 'Lazio'. For most bionutrients measured, there was a linear, and sometimes quadratic, increase in concentrations from bottom to top canopy leaves. However, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity increased basipetally. The current study has thus demonstrated that dehydroAsA, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were substantially lower in subarctic compared to subtropical-grown spinach, whereas the opposite relationship was found for antioxidant capacity, α-carotene, and folates (vitamin B9). The observations are consistent with previously reported isolated effects of growth environment on bionutrient status of crops. The current results clearly highlight the effect of production environment (predominantly radiation capture), interacting with genetics and plant phenology to alter the bionutrient status of crops. While reflecting the effects of changing growing conditions, these results also indicate potential alterations in the nutritive value of foods with anticipated shifts in global climatic conditions. PMID:23834651

  1. Summer (subarctic) versus winter (subtropic) production affects spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf bionutrients: vitamins (C, E, Folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Gene E; Makus, Donald J; Hodges, D Mark; Jifon, John L

    2013-07-24

    Comparison of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars Lazio and Samish grown during the summer solstice in the subarctic versus the winter solstice in the subtropics provided insight into interactions between production environment (light intensity), cultivar, and leaf age/maturity/position affecting bionutrient concentrations of vitamins (C, E, folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants. Growing spinach during the winter solstice in the subtropics resulted in increased leaf dry matter %, oxidized (dehydro) ascorbic acid (AsA), α- and γ-tocopherol, and total phenols but lower reduced (free) AsA, α-carotene, folate, and antioxidant capacity compared to summer solstice-grown spinach in the subarctic. Both cultivars had similar bionutrients, except for higher dehydroAsA, and lower α- and γ-tocopherol in 'Samish' compared to 'Lazio'. For most bionutrients measured, there was a linear, and sometimes quadratic, increase in concentrations from bottom to top canopy leaves. However, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity increased basipetally. The current study has thus demonstrated that dehydroAsA, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were substantially lower in subarctic compared to subtropical-grown spinach, whereas the opposite relationship was found for antioxidant capacity, α-carotene, and folates (vitamin B9). The observations are consistent with previously reported isolated effects of growth environment on bionutrient status of crops. The current results clearly highlight the effect of production environment (predominantly radiation capture), interacting with genetics and plant phenology to alter the bionutrient status of crops. While reflecting the effects of changing growing conditions, these results also indicate potential alterations in the nutritive value of foods with anticipated shifts in global climatic conditions.

  2. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  3. The biological effects of gamma irradiation on secondary embryoids of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk., winter oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on secondary embryoids of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk., winter oilseed rape, are reported. A kill curve was established, and the secondary embryoids were found to be more tolerant of high doses of irradiation than tissues of many other plant species. Secondary embryoids which had received less than 320 Gy retained their secondary embryogenic potential at subsequent subcultures, although their potential to develop into plantlets was greatly reduced. A haploid line from the cultivar Rapora was found to be more sensitive to gamma irradiation than a diploid line from the cultivar Primor. A number of regenerant plants have been established from irradiated embryoids and grown on to flowering. (author)

  4. Arsenic and lead uptake by Brassicas grown on an old orchard site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Maya P; McBride, Murray B

    2015-12-15

    Arugula (Eruca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), were grown at a former orchard where soils had been variably contaminated by lead arsenate pesticides. To test for the effect of compost on As and Pb transfer into plants, compost was added (0, 5, and 10% DW) to five plots representing a wide range of soil Pb and As. Arugula accumulated about 5 times higher As concentrations in above-ground tissues than collards, with high variability in individual plant concentrations. Soil to arugula transfer (uptake) coefficients were higher for As than for Pb, and increased with soil As. Crop concentrations of Pb varied widely within replicate samples of both arugula and collards. Arugula contamination by Pb was significantly correlated to soil total Pb, but collard contamination was not. Evidence was found using Al as an indicator of soil particle contamination of plant tissues that Pb in arugula was primarily due to soil particle deposition on foliar surfaces. Compost amendments reduced 0.01 M CaCl2 -extractable Pb but increased extractable As in the orchard soils. However, compost had the beneficial effect of reducing both As and Pb concentrations in harvested arugula grown on most of the plots.

  5. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  6. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  7. Analysis of cytosine methylation in early generations of resynthesized Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Li-ping; FANG Ting-ting; RONG Hao; JIANG Jin-jin; FANG Yu-jie; WANG You-ping

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modiifcation, serves as a key function in the polyploidization of numerous crops. In this study, early generations of resynthesizedBrassica napus (F1, S1–S3), ancestral parentsB. rapaandB. oleracea were analyzed to characterize their DNA methylation status during polyploidization, applying DNA methylation-sensitive ampliifca-tion polymorphism (MSAP) and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. InF1, 53.4% fragments were inherited from both A- and C-genomes. Besides, 5.04 and 8.87% fragments inF1 were inherited from A- and C- genome, respectively. 5.85 and 0.8% fragments were newly appeared and disappeared in resynthesizedB. napus, respectively. 13.1% of these gene sites were identiifed with methylation changes inF1, namely, hypermethylation (7.86%) and hypomethylation (5.24%). The lowest methylation status was detected inF1 (38.7%) compared with in S1–S3. In S3, 40.32% genes were methylated according to MSAP analysis. Sequencing of methylated fragments indicated that genes involved in multiple biological processes were modiifed, including transcription factors, protein modiifcation, and transporters. Expression ananlysis of DNA methyltransferase 1 andDNA methyltransferase chromomethylase 3 in different materials was consistent to the DNA methylation status. These results can generaly facilitate dissection of how DNA methylation contributes to genetic stability and improvement ofB. napus during polyploidization.

  8. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  9. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  10. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  11. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  12. Cultivar de soja BRS 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Emídio Rizzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A BRS 205, cultivar de soja de ciclo semiprecoce, obtida do cruzamento [BR-16(2 x Ocepar 8] x Tracy-M, é indicada para o Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras de novembro. Possui crescimento determinado, plantas de flor branca, pubescência marrom, porte baixo e grãos de hilo preto. Tem resistência ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e à pústula bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. É moderadamente resistente ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. O rendimento médio de grãos foi 6% e 11% superior ao das cultivares RS 7-Jacuí e BR-16, respectivamente.

  13. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasit

  14. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  15. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits. PMID:27353735

  16. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  17. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method. PMID:18724699

  18. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method.

  19. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  20. Effects of Boron Nutrition on 45Ca Retranslocation and Distribution in Rape (Brassica napus L. ) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huo-yan; WANG Yun-hua; WU Li-shu; DU Chang-wen; XU Fang-sun

    2003-01-01

    Using tracer techniques with the radioisotope 45Ca, the effects of boron supply from soil andnutrient solution on the retranslocation of 45 Ca from leaves to other parts of rape plants were studied. Resultsindicated that only a small portion of foliar-applied 45Ca could be retranslocated to other parts of the rapeplant. There was no pronounced effect of boron level in the soil on 45 Ca retranslocation. Increasing boron con-centrations in the nutrient solution significantly reduced 45 Ca radioactivity in root and stem, but increased 45 Cauptake and 45 Ca translocation to the upper leaves of rape plants. It was suggested that 45 Ca absorbed by newlydeveloped roots was easily distributed to upper leaves of rape plants. Boron may alter distribution of calciumvia its effect on root development or growth of newly developed roots.

  1. Spectral data based vegetation indices to characterise crop growth parameters and radiation interception in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra-red/red (IR/R) ratio, normalized difference (N.D.), greenness index (GNI) and brightness index (BNI) were derived to characterise leaf area index, above ground biomass production and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in Brassica oilseed crop. It was found from correlation study among different spectral indices, plant growth parameters and radiation interception that there was strong relationship between infrared/red and normalized difference with green area index for all the three Brassica cultivars whereas these spectral were not significantly correlated with above ground biomass. On the other hand, the brightness and greenness indices were closely correlated with above groundry biomass as compared to infrared/red ratio and normalized difference. All the four spectral indices were correlated with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IP AR). The best fit equations relating them were derived, which can be incorporated in the algorithms of crop growth simulation model to estimate plant growth parameters and radiation interception using spectral indices

  2. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Graora; Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Wolfgang Büchs; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić; Tanja Gotlin-Čuljak

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.). It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction....

  3. Microenxertia em cultivares de manga Micrografting in mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Posella Zaccaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se testar a viabilidade do método de microenxertia para produzir mudas de mangueira livres do fungo Fusarium subglutinans, agente causal da malformação, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se do ápice meristemático da cultivar Tommy Atkins. Retirou-se o ápice meristemático do porta-enxerto e colocou-se o ápice meristemático da cultivar-copa, denominando-se essa metodologia de "microenxertia por substituição de ápice meristemático", na qual foram utilizadas as cultivares Coquinho, Espada, Ouro e Ubá como porta-enxertos. O material de propagação utilizado foi retirado de uma planta-matriz da cultivar Tommy Atkins sem sintomas de malformação. Primeiramente, a parte apical dos ramos foi cortada com aproximadamente 3 cm de comprimento. Os meristemas foram colocados em uma solução antioxidante composta de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e L-cisteína, para evitar a oxidação dos compostos fenólicos existentes na manga. Os meristemas apicais foram cortados com comprimento de 2 mm. Em seguida, efetuou-se o corte do meristema apical e de folhas do porta-enxerto, colocando-se o meristema apical sobre o corte do porta-enxerto, recobrindo-se com Parafilm®. Demonstrou-se com a técnica de microenxertia a possibilidade de formação de plantas-matrizes, para implantação de jardim clonal em condições de viveiro protegido.This research was carried out with the purpose to produce mangoes trees free of fungus Fusarium subglutinans, causal agent of mango malformation by using the apex meristem to substitute it for the meristem of the commercial cultivar Tommy Atkins. This micrografting methodology was denominated "meristem substitution" through which the cultivars Coquinho, Espada, Ouro and Ubá were used as rootstocks. The micrografts were collected from 'Tommy Atkins' mother plant without malformation symptoms. Firstly, branch apexes were cut off having length of 3 cm. Each apex meristem was placed in an

  4. Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, D. M.; Ingham, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chi...

  5. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hajnal, Veronika; Zarif OMID; Márta LADÁNYI; Magdolna TÓTH; Szalay, László

    2013-01-01

    Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their...

  6. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH, we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2,031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  7. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  8. Turnip mosaic potyvirus probably first spread to Eurasian brassica crops from wild orchids about 1000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy D Nguyen

    Full Text Available Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs, and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro, protein 3(P3, nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb, and coat protein (CP]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world.

  9. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  10. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitizing Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1964-01-01

    The nomenclature of the perfect and imperfect stages of Mycosphaerella brassicicola (Duby) Lind. and Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & De Not. is discussed. The imperfect stages of these two parasites of Brassica spp. are often confused. Mycosphaerella brassicicola has a spermagonial stage with

  11. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  12. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  13. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for gene expression normalization in Brassica juncea using real time quantitative RT-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Chandna

    Full Text Available The real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is becoming increasingly important to gain insight into function of genes. Given the increased sensitivity, ease and reproducibility of qRT-PCR, the requirement of suitable reference genes for normalization has become important and stringent. It is now known that the expression of internal control genes in living organism vary considerably during developmental stages and under different experimental conditions. For economically important Brassica crops, only a couple of reference genes are reported till date. In this study, expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes including ACT2, ELFA, GAPDH, TUA, UBQ9 (traditional housekeeping genes, ACP, CAC, SNF, TIPS-41, TMD, TSB and ZNF (new candidate reference genes, in a diverse set of 49 tissue samples representing different developmental stages, stress and hormone treated conditions and cultivars of Brassica juncea has been validated. For the normalization of vegetative stages the ELFA, ACT2, CAC and TIPS-41 combination would be appropriate whereas TIPS-41 along with CAC would be suitable for normalization of reproductive stages. A combination of GAPDH, TUA, TIPS-41 and CAC were identified as the most suitable reference genes for total developmental stages. In various stress and hormone treated samples, UBQ9 and TIPS-41 had the most stable expression. Across five cultivars of B. juncea, the expression of CAC and TIPS-41 did not vary significantly and were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. This study provides comprehensive information that the new reference genes selected herein performed better than the traditional housekeeping genes. The selection of most suitable reference genes depends on the experimental conditions, and is tissue and cultivar-specific. Further, to attain accuracy in the results more than one reference genes are necessary for normalization.

  14. Agrobiologocal and Technological Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Danlas White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Fazinić

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture has always been primarity directed towards growing wine cultivars white table grape cultivar growing was limited to very few highly valued cultivars which found their position in the big market.\

  15. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M1 and M2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  16. Colonization of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by GFP-tagged verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soilborne fungus, Verticillium dahliae, causes wilt in a wide range of hosts, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The interaction between a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged V. dahliae strain and spinach was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The roots of spinach seedlings...

  17. Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan Navarrete, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within

  18. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pingxia; Liu Bo; Sun Silong; Fang Lu; Wu Jian; Liu Shengyi; Cheng Feng; Hua Wei; Wang Xiaowu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. D...

  19. UENF 14: a new popcorn cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the features of the popcorn cultivar UENF 14, developed from five cycles of recurrentselection of the population UNB-2U, to the scientific community. The cultivar produces yields of 3047.58 kg ha-1 and has poppingexpansion of 35.69 mL g-1.

  20. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  1. Everbearing strawberry cultivars - susceptibility to crown rot

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Päivi; Karhu, Saila; Hietaranta, Tarja

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the production of everbearing strawberry cultivars were started at MTT Plant Production Research in 2007. MTT Horticulture makes trials in tunnel and open fields to study the growth, yield and overwintering of cultivars in northern conditions. Resistance to crown rot is also being tested.

  2. UENF 14: a new popcorn cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves; Silvério de Paiva Freitas Júnior; Liliam Silvia Candido; Cassio Vittorazzi; Guilherme Ferreira Pena; Rodrigo Moreira Ribeiro; Thiago Rodrigues da Conceição Silva; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Alexandre Pio Viana; Geraldo Francisco de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the features of the popcorn cultivar UENF 14, developed from five cycles of recurrentselection of the population UNB-2U, to the scientific community. The cultivar produces yields of 3047.58 kg ha-1 and has poppingexpansion of 35.69 mL g-1.

  3. Competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho Competitiveness of flooded rice cultivars with a red rice simulating cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas e fisiológicas de plantas cultivadas podem afetar sua habilidade competitiva com plantas daninhas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L. com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Investigou-se na safra 2000/2001 o comportamento de oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência da cultivar de arroz EEA 406, que simulou infestação de arroz-vermelho. Aos 45 e aos 60 dias após a semeadura, avaliou-se a resposta da simuladora em relação às cultivares de arroz. Na colheita, foram determinados estatura de planta, componentes do rendimento e produtividade das plantas. A cultivar tardia IR 841 suprimiu o crescimento da simuladora, apresentando com a cultivar superprecoce Ligeirinho as menores reduções de produtividade quando em competição. Por sua vez, as cultivares IAS 12-9 Formosa e Bluebelle permitiram maior crescimento e produção de sementes pela concorrente, também sofrendo as maiores reduções de produtividade de grãos na condição de competição.Morphologic and physiologic characteristics of crop plants can affect their competitive ability with weeds. This research aimed to investigate competitiveness of flooded rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars with a red rice simulating genotype. It was investigated, during the 2000/2001 warm season, the behavior of eight rice genotypes, grown in presence or absence of the rice cultivar EEA 406, simulating a red rice infestation. At 45 and 60 days after rice seeding, it was evaluated the response of red rice mimicker genotype in relation to rice cultivars. At harvest, it was determined plant height, yield components, and grain yield of the cultivars. The late season genotype IR 841 suppressed growth of the simulative cultivar, presenting, together with the veryearly cultivar Ligeirinho, the lowest reductions in grain yield under competition. In opposite, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Bluebelle

  4. Growth and yield of different brassica genotypes under saline sodic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted at farmer's salt-affected field (ECe=12.3 dS m/sup -1/; pH=9.7; SAR=46.2) in Hafizabad to test growth and yield response of six Brassica cultivars (BARD-I, Dunkled, Rainbow, BRS-II, Sultan Raya and cv. 95102-5) under saline sodic conditions. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically at par. However, BRS-II and Rainbow showed significantly more percent oil contents in their seeds but genotype Dunkled showed minimum Na+ and K+ concentration in their tissues. (author)

  5. Differential flavonoid response to enhanced UV-B radiation in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the qualitative and quantitative differences in methanol-soluble flavonoids of leaves of two cultivars of Brassica napus, which were grown with or without (control) supplemental UV-B radiation. The flavonoids were identified using HPLC-diode array spectroscopy (-DAS), -electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (-ESI-MS) and 1H and 13C NMR, and quantitatively analysed by HPLC-DAS. After exposure to supplementary UV-B radiation, the overall amount of soluble flavonoids, kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, increased by ca 150% in cv. Paroll, compared to control plants. Cultivar Stallion showed a 70% increase, and also a lower overall content of soluble flavonoids compared to Paroll. The supplementary UV-B radiation resulted in a marked, specific increase in the amount of quercetin glycosides relative to the kaempferol glycosides with a 36- and 23-fold increase in cvs Paroll and Stallion, respectively. Four of the flavonol glycosides appearing after supplemental UV-B exposure were identified as quercetin- and kaempferol 3-sophoroside-7-glucoside and 3-(2″′-E-sinapoylsophoroside)-7-glucoside. (author)

  6. Response of Nitrate Metabolism in Seedlings of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) to Low Oxygen Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-bing; XIE Yu-yun; HOU Jia-jia; FU You-qiang; SHEN Hong; LIAO Xing

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the response of nitrate metabolism in seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to low oxygen stress (LOS), two cultivars were studied at different light, LOS time and exogenous nitrate concentrations under hydroponic stress. Results show that N-uptake and dry matter of rape seedlings were decreased after LOS stress while nitrate accumulation (NA) under LOS was induced by darkness. Nitrate accumulation peaked at 3 d while root activity (RA, deifned as dehydrogenase activity) decreased with prolonged waterlogging exposure. Exogenous nitrate signiifcantly elevated NA and RA. Tungstate (TS) and LOS inhibited nitrate reductase (NR) activity while NR transcription and activity were enhanced by exogenous nitrate. Low oxygen stress stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) slightly, but inhibited that of catalase (CAT). B. napus L. Zhongshuang 10 (ZS10), a LOS tolerant cultivar, displayed smaller decrease upon dry matter under LOS, higher NA in darkness and lower NA in light than B. napus L. Ganlan CC (GAC), a LOS sensitive variety. ZS10 had lower NA and higher RA after waterlogging and exogenous nitrate treatment, and higher NR activity under TS inhibition than GAC, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes did not change under LOS. The results indicate that nitrate metabolism involved tolerance of rape seedlings to LOS, with lower accumulation and higher reduction of nitrate being related to higher LOS tolerance of rape seedlings exposed to waterlogging.

  7. Comparison of five endogenous reference genes for specific PCR detection and quantification of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Li; Wu, Yuhua; Cao, Yinglong; Lu, Changming

    2010-03-10

    Five previously reported Brassica napus endogenous reference genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (BnACCg8), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP), oleoyl hydrolase gene (FatA), high-mobility-group protein I/Y gene (HMG-I/Y) and cruciferin A gene (CruA), were analyzed for their PCR specificity between B. napus and other species and the quantification stability among different B. napus cultivars. PCR and sequencing results indicated that none of these systems was species-specific as required by the genetically modified organism labeling policy. When these genes were employed in real-time PCR, BnACCg8 and HMG-I/Y systems showed relatively greater heterogeneity among 10 different cultivars. The sequencing results showed that the single nucleotide polymorphism in the primer binding sites was the potential source of the instability in the HMG-I/Y system. The bias of BnACCg8 was thought to be associated with the inconsistent copy number of this gene. PMID:20143854

  8. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Roberts, Warren

    2006-04-01

    The lycopene content of 50 commercial cultivars of seeded and seedless red-fleshed watermelons was determined. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (90 mg/kg fw). Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, ranging from 33 to 100 mg/kg. Most of the seeded hybrid cultivars had average lycopene contents. Sixteen of the 33 seedless types had lycopene contents in the high and very high ranges. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant carotenoid (84-97%) in all watermelon cultivars measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, but the germplasm differed in the relative amounts of cis-lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytofluene. Red-fleshed watermelon genotypes vary extensively in carotenoid content and offer opportunities for developing watermelons with specifically enhanced carotenoids. PMID:16569049

  9. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola, each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12 and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12 and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3 were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides

  10. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

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    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  11. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  12. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  13. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  14. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  15. Methyl jasmonate regulates antioxidant defense and suppresses arsenic uptake in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Farooq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MJ is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type. The As treatment at 200 µM was more phytotoxic, however its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis (H2O2 and OH- in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD, secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622 as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758. The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars.

  16. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  17. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  18. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  19. Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ning; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Shuning; Liang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoid compounds. As a group of important secondary metabolites, they perform several key biological functions in plants. Anthocyanins also play beneficial health roles as potentially protective factors against cancer and heart disease. To elucidate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa on a genome-wide level. Results In total, we identified 73 genes in...

  20. 芸薹属基本种45S rDNA重复序列的染色体定位%Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA in Brassica dipioids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永泰; 孔芳; 李爱民; 王幼平

    2011-01-01

    The position and number of 45S rDNA on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the three basic diploid species (Brassica rapa, B.oleracea and B.nigra) were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 45S rDNA as probe.Ten out of 20 chromosomes can be easily identified in B.rapa, six out of 16 in B.nigra, and four out of 18 in B.oleracea.Among them, meiotic FISH analysis of 45S rDNA of B.rapa and B.nigra was reported for the first time.These investigations are useful for identifying the chromosomes of genome A, B and C and studying the evolution and phylogeny of the Brassica genomes.%用45S rDNA作探针,对芸薹属3个二倍体种(白菜型油菜、甘蓝和黑芥)进行有丝分裂和减数分裂的原位杂交分析,发现在白菜型油菜的20条染色体中有10条、黑芥16条染色体中有6条、甘蓝18条染色体中有4条染色体上存在杂交信号.其中白菜型油菜和黑芥的减数分裂为首次报道,研究结果对研究芸薹属二倍体基因组A、B或C的亲缘关系以及基因组间的相互进化关系有一定的意义.